The advances were not merely mechanical but chemical as well.
The chemical smell suggested they were going in the right direction.
In both these doctrines of a priori science Descartes has not been subverted, but, if anything, corroborated by the results of experimental physics; for the so-called atoms of chemical theory already presuppose, from the Cartesian point of view, certain aggregations of the primitive particles of matter.
But on account of experimental errors in weighing and measuring, and through loss of material in the transfer of substances from one vessel to another, such analyses are rarely trustworthy to more than one part in about Soo; so that small changes in weight consequent on the chemical change could not with certainty be proved or disproved.
Photosynthesis is what converts light energy from the sun into chemical energy for plants.
This was the principle of the chemical telegraph proposed by Edward Davy in 1838 and of that proposed by Bain in 1846.
This system is of much service in following out mathematical, physical and chemical problems in which it is necessary to represent four variables.
Properties.--All attempts to make helium enter into stable chemical union have hitherto proved unsuccessful.
In 1781 he followed this up with an introductory manual of Chemical Essays.
The chemical characters of the well-waters, the irregular distribution of the water-pressure, the distribution of the underground thermal gradients, and the occurrence in some of the wells of a tidal rise and fall of a varying period, are facts which are not explained on the simple hydrostatic theory.
If chemical compounds can be proved by experiment to obey these laws, then the atomic theory acquires a high degree of probability; if they are contradicted by experiment then the atomic theory must be abandoned, or very much modified.
There are well-known chemical works at Dombasle (close to Nancy) and Chauny (Aisne) and in Rhhne.
Materia, matter), in philosophy, the theory which regards all the facts of the universe as explainable in terms of matter and motion, and in particular explains all psychical processes by physical and chemical changes in the nervous system.
The fundamental conception that underlay all Berthelot's chemical work was that all chemical phenomena depend on the action of physical forces which can be determined and measured.
The investigations of Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay had shown that indifference to chemical reagents did not sufficiently characterize an unknown gas as nitrogen, and it became necessary to reinvestigate other cases of the occurrence of "nitrogen" in nature.
And as the undefinable essence of the force moving the heavenly bodies, the undefinable essence of the forces of heat and electricity, or of chemical affinity, or of the vital force, forms the content of astronomy, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, and so on, just in the same way does the force of free will form the content of history.
Landolt and others, made it at first appear that the change in weight, if there is any, consequent on a chemical change can rarely exceed one-millionth of the weight of the reacting substances, and that it must often be much less.
The law of reciprocal proportion, of which some examples have been already given, is part of a larger law of equivalence that underlies most of our chemical methods and calculations.
Cotton spinning and printing works, cotton-mill machinery works, dye-works and chemical manufactures, and neighbouring collieries maintain the industrial population.
Its most important industrial establishments are the mirror manufactory of St Gobain and the chemical works at Chauny, and the workshops and foundries of Guise, the property of an association of workpeople organized on socialistic lines and producing iron goods of various kinds.
Chemical industries: total - - - 110,000 49,000
The resulting compound, nickel carbonyl, which was described to the Chemical Society in 1890, is both formed and decomposed within a very moderate range of temperature, and on this fact he based a successful process for the extraction of nickel from its ores.
In the future, we'll not only know if that is so, but why: Perhaps mental agility is a result of their extensive exposure to a chemical in pencil lead and newsprint that they got by doing all those puzzles.
We cannot determine the chemical composition of soil simply by touching it.
He drew simple diagrams, three of which, taken from Dalton's New System of Chemical Philosophy, part ii.
It is evident that if our experiments are solely directed to the verification of this law, they should, if possible; be carried out in a hermetically closed vessel, the vessel and its contents being weighed before and after the chemical change.
He held that every fermentation consisted of molecular motion which is transmitted from a substance in a state of chemical motion - that is, of decomposition - to other substances, the elements of which are loosely held together.
The principal classes of products affected are foods, wearing apparel, building materials, furniture, &c., chemical products, printing and allied trades, and sundry others, such as cigars, matches, tanning, paints, &c. In some manufactures the raw material is imported partly manufactured, such as thread for weaving.
He carried out a number of magnetic investigations which resulted in the discovery of many interesting phenomena, some of which have been rediscovered by others; they related among other things to the effect of mechanical strain on the magnetic properties of the magnetic metals, to the relation between the chemical composition of compound bodies and their magnetic properties, and to a curious parallelism between the laws of torsion and of magnetism.
1842 -),whom he had met when he was at Widnes, and thus founded the great chemical manufacturing firm of Brunner, Mond & Co.
ACID-AMIDES, chemical compounds which may be considered as derived from ammonia by replacement of its hydrogen with acidyl residues, the substances produced being known as, primary, secondary or tertiary amides, according to the number of hydrogen atoms replaced.
"I buried myself," he says, "in my laboratory, and in fourteen months read a course of chemical lectures to a very full audience."
Over the surface of the plate and between it and the indicator there was passed, at a regularly uniform speed, in a direction perpendicular to the line of motion of the indicator, a material capable of being acted on physically by the sparks, through either their chemical action, their heat, or their perforating force.
Simultaneously Hermann, a German chemical manufacturer, discovered the new metal in a specimen of zinc oxide which had been thought to contain arsenic, since it gave a yellow precipitate, in acid solution, on the addition of sulphuretted hydrogen.
Some unions annually purchase large quantities ~cono of merchandise for their members, especially chemical mica.
But it seems pretty clear that if there is any change in weight consequent on chemical change, it is too minute to be of im- portance to the chemist, though the methods of modern physics may settle the question.
The above gives some idea of the evidence that has been accumulated in favour of the laws of chemical combination, laws which can be deduced from the atomic theory.
The following branches have especially felt his influence: - chemical physics, capillarity and viscosity, theory of gases, flow of liquids, photography, optics, colour vision, wave theory, electric and magnetic problems, electrical measurements, elasticity, sound and hydrodynamics.
Or consider a well-marked case of what we are in the habit of calling chemical combination.
It is the principal seat of the linen trade in the county, and has extensive cloth and thread factories, bleachfields and chemical works.
Oil-works jo,ooo Other chemical 1 industries 58,000 - -
It should know what the food on my fork weighs, run a chemical analysis of every bite I take, and log it in my Digital Echo file for my future reference.