She renounced once for all the asceticism and isolation of the De imitatione for the more genial and sympathetic Christianity of Chateaubriand.
She has all the abandon of an Italian improvisatore, the simplicity of a Bernardin de St Pierre without his mawkishness, the sentimentality of a Rousseau without his egotism, the rhythmic eloquence of a Chateaubriand without his grandiloquence.
The work was completed in August 1843, the five years' labour having been broken by the composition of reviews of Lockhart's Life of Scott (1838), Kenyon's Poems (1839), Chateaubriand (1839), Bancroft's United States (1841), Mariotti's Italy (1842), and Madame Calderon's Life in Mexico (1843), and by the preparation of an abridgment of his Ferdinand and Isabella in anticipation of its threatened abridgment by another hand.
The promulgation of the Concordat (18th of April 1802) and the institution of what was in all but name a state religion tended strongly in the same direction, the authority of the priests being generally used in support of the man to whom Chateaubriand applied the epithet "restorer of the altars."
As Chateaubriand remarked, in reference to Louis XVIII.'s constitutional charter, the new constitution - La Benjamine, it was dubbed - was merely a slightly improved charter.
Chateaubriand visited and described the ruins; the Dane Falbe, the Englishman Nathan Davis, Beule, P. de Sainte-Marie and others also have carried out researches; for more than twenty years Pere Delattre has explored the ruins of Carthage (q.v.) with extraordinary success.
Unfortunately, however, the brilliant epoch of the alliance of Liberalism and Catholicism, represented on its literary side by Chateaubriand and by Lamartine, to whose poetic school Herculano had belonged, was past, and fanatical attacks and the progress of events drove this former champion of the Church into conflict with the ecclesiastical authorities.
As the reign of Louis Philippe went on, Lamartine, who had previously been a liberal royalist, something after the fashion of Chateaubriand, became more and more democratic in his opinions.
Two years afterwards, following the example of Chateaubriand, he supervised an elaborate edition of his own works in forty-one volumes.
Madame de Stael was dead; Chateaubriand, though alive, was something of a classic, and had not effected a full revolution.
He availed himself of the reviving interest in legitimism and Catholicism which was represented by Bonald and Joseph de Maistre, of the nature worship of Rousseau and Bernardin de Saint Pierre, of the sentimentalism of Madame de Stael, of the medievalism and the romance of Chateaubriand and Scott, of the maladie du siecle of Chateaubriand and Byron.
Chateaubriand quoted three or four passages in his Genie du christianisme.
He was assisted by Chateaubriand, but soon sharply differed with him on many questions.
His style was taken up by Bernardin de Saint Pierre and by Chateaubriand.
These sonnets were more personal and less imitative than the Olive sequence, and struck a note which was revived in later French literature by Volney and Chateaubriand.
The Romantic movement helped, with its idealization of a past but vaguely realized and imperfectly understood, and Chateaubriand heralded in the Catholic reaction with his Genie du Christianisme (1801) a brilliant if superficial attack on the encyclopaedists and their neo-Paganism, and a glorification of the Christian Church as supreme not only in the regions of faith and morals, but also in those of intellect and art.
In the most important of his writings, De la religion consideree dans sa source, ses formes, et ses developpements (5 vols., 1825-1831), he traces the successive transformations of the religious sentiment imperishable under its varying forms. Besides Adolphe, in its way as important as Chateaubriand's Rene, he left two other sketches of novels in MS., which are apparently lost.
P. de Florian's Gonsalve de Cordoue and Chateaubriand's Le dernier des Abencerrages are imitations of Perez de Hita's work.
In the following year he pleaded for the liberation of the duchess, made a memorable speech in defence of Chateaubriand, who was prosecuted for his violent attacks on the government of Louis Philippe, and undertook the defence of several Legitimist journalists.
But in 1802 Chateaubriand had published his epoch-making Genie du Christianisme, in which he declared that of all religions Christianity was " the most poetical, the most human, the most favourable to freedom, art and letters."
On his return to France he studied at the ecole centrale des travaux publics, and his social education was accomplished in the salon of Pauline de Beaumont, the friend of Chateaubriand and Joubert.
He devoted himself to an examination of the nature of society and his work brought him into connexion with the literary circle of Chateaubriand and Madame Recamier.
In the following year he was sent to study law at Paris, where he fell in with the Ampere family, and through them with Chateaubriand, Lacordaire, Montalembert, and other leaders of the neo-Catholic movement.
He was more learned, more sincere, and more logical than Chateaubriand; less of a political partisan and less of a literary sentimentalist than Montalembert.
On his return to Paris in 1799 he met Chateaubriand and his sister Lucile (Mme de Caud), to whom he became deeply attached.
The works of Chenedolle were edited in 1864 by Sainte-Beuve, who drew portraits of him in his Chateaubriand et son groupe and in an article contributed to the Revue des deux mondes (June 1849).
Both Chateaubriand and Carrel had praised the prince's first writings.
(Paris, 1900); see also the chief memoirs of the period, such as those of Talleyrand, Chateaubriand, Guizot, due de Broglie, Villele, Vitrolles, Pa.squier, the comtesse de Boigne (ed.
Sosthene de la Rochefoucauld (15 vols., Paris, 1861-1864); and the writings of Benjamin Constant, Chateaubriand, &c.
chateaubriand rack of.
The Chateaubriand won the main course round closely followed by the seared tuna with octopus.
" Tenderness " she had abundantly, and it revealed itself not only in effusive sentimentality, as with Rousseau and Chateaubriand, but in active benevolence; " justice " too she had in so far as she sincerely wished that all men should share alike her happiness; but of " holiness," that sense of awe and reverence that was felt in divers kinds and degrees by Isaiah, Sophocles, Virgil and St Paul, she had not a rudimenatry conception.
The men of her own time exalted her to the skies, and the most extravagant estimates of her (as "the greatest woman in literary history," as the "foundress of the romantic movement," as representing "ideas," while her contemporary Chateaubriand only represented words, colours, and images, and so forth) are to be found in minor histories of literature.
He could only carry the picturesque sentimentalism of Rousseau, Bernardin de Saint Pierre and Chateaubriand a little farther, and clothe it in language and verse a little less antiquated than that of Chenedolle and Millevoye.
After the death of Francis I., his successor, Henry II., set himself even more strenuously to .extirpate heresy; a special branch of the parlement of Paris - the so-called Chambre ardente - for the trial of heresy cases party was established, and the fierce edict of Chateaubriand (June 1551) explicitly adopted many of the expedients of the papal inquisition.
But the universal historian Gervinus, refuting this opinion of the specialist historian, tries to prove that the campaign of 1813 and the restoration of the Bourbons were due to other things beside Alexander's will--such as the activity of Stein, Metternich, Madame de Stael, Talleyrand, Fichte, Chateaubriand, and others.
The historian evidently decomposes Alexander's power into the components: Talleyrand, Chateaubriand, and the rest--but the sum of the components, that is, the interactions of Chateaubriand, Talleyrand, Madame de Stael, and the others, evidently does not equal the resultant, namely the phenomenon of millions of Frenchmen submitting to the Bourbons.
That Chateaubriand, Madame de Stael, and others spoke certain words to one another only affected their mutual relations but does not account for the submission of millions.
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