Under Charlemagne and his successors it was not used.
He sent an embassy to Charlemagne in 768 and was deposed in 774, whereupon he fled to Bamburgh and afterwards to the Picts.
After the death of Charlemagne the Moravian princes took advantage of the dissensions of his successors to enlarge their territories and assert their independence, and Rastislaus (c. 850) even formed an alliance with the Bulgarians and the Byzantine emperor.
When Charles the Great (Charlemagne) deposed his father-in- lin~as.
It has an Evangelical church with painted windows representing scenes in the life of Charlemagne, a Roman Catholic church and a synagogue.
In 803 and 810 he made a treaty with Charlemagne, by which the limits of the two empires were amicably fixed.
Under Charlemagne, the Jews, who had begun to settle in Gaul in the time of Caesar, were more than tolerated.
The cycle of Guillaume has more unity than the other great cycles of Charlemagne or of Doon de Mayence, the various poems which compose it forming branches of the main story rather than independent epic poems. There exist numerous cyclic MSS.
Towards the end of the century, Charlemagne, himself a Netherlander by descent and ancestral possessions, after a severe struggle, thoroughly subdued the Frisians and Saxons, and compelled them to embrace Christianity.
After the death of Charlemagne, Alsace, like the rest of the empire, was divided into countships.
The adoption of the Roman liturgical dress had, however, at most an indirect connexion with these claims. Charlemagne was active in prescribing the adoption of the Roman use; but this was only as part of his general policy in the organization of his em pire.
Already under Charlemagne this development is noticeable; in his generous treatment of the Jews this Christian emperor stood in marked contrast to his contemporary the caliph Harun al-Rashid, who persecuted Jews and Christians with equal vigour.
He became one of the best soldiers and trusted counsellors of Charlemagne, and in 790 was made count of Toulouse, when Charles's son Louis the Pious was put under his charge.
Their remains were buried at Soissons, but were afterwards removed, partly by Charlemagne to Osnabruck (where a festival is observed annually on the 10th of June) and partly to the chapel of St Lawrence in Rome.
That Charlemagne and Richard I.
In 808 Charlemagne took the abbey of St-Gilles under his protection, and it is mentioned among the monasteries from which only prayers for the prince and the state were due.
This change synchronized with the revival of the Western Empire under Charlemagne, a revival which necessarily gave an impulse to the claims of the see of Rome.
He taught at the lycee Charlemagne in 1853, and in the school of architecture 1865-1871, but his energies were mainly devoted to various scientific missions entrusted to him.
When feudal possessions, instead of being purely personal, were vested in the families of the holder after the death of Charlemagne, Tournai was specially assigned to Baldwin of the Iron Arm by [[Charles (disambiguation)|Charles Knights Jousting With Cronells On Tt-Tfir Lances]].
There are many fine streets and squares and some handsome public monuments, notably among the last the fountain on the market square surmounted by a statue of Charlemagne, the bronze equestrian statue of the emperor William I.
He accompanied Charlemagne to Rome in Boo and was one of the witnesses to his will in 814.
Manuel Comnenus demanded that all conquests made by the crusaders should be his fiefs; and the question was debated whether the crusaders should follow the land route through Hungary, along the old road of Charlemagne, or should go by sea to the Holy Land.
71), of the 28th of October 797, in which Charlemagne shows less brutality and pronounces simple compositions for misdeeds which formerly entailed death.
He and his followers plotted the murder of the doge, were discovered, and sought safety at the court of Charlemagne, where Fortunatus strongly urged the Franks to attack the lagoons.
Towards the end of the 8th century they aided Charlemagne in putting an end to the Avar kingdom, and were rewarded by receiving part of it, corresponding to North Hungary, as a fief of the German emperor, whose supremacy they also acknowledged more or less for their other possessions.
Soon Hessegau is mentioned, and this district was the headquarters of Charlemagne during his campaigns against the Saxons.
The rout of Charlemagne in 77 8, which has been associated with Fontarabia, by Milton (Paradise Lost, i.
By these alliances the new Charlemagne seemed to have founded his supremacy in South Germany on sure foundations.
Napoleon determined that he, like all the Bonapartist rulers, should act merely as a Napoleonic satrap. They were to be to him what the counts of the marches were to Charlemagne, warlike feudatories defending the empire or overawing its prospective foes.
was arrested at Rome for presuming to excommunicate the successor of Charlemagne, and was deported to Grenoble and later on to Savona.
A treaty between Charlemagne and Nicephorus (81o) recognized the Venetians as subjects of the Eastern empire, while preserving to them the trading rights on the mainland of Italy which they had acquired under Liutprand.
Under Charlemagne it constituted a margravate, which in 843 passed into the hands of Louis the German, whose grandson Arnulf was the first to bear the title of duke of Carinthia.
Gladbach existed before the time of Charlemagne, and a Benedictine monastery was founded near it in 793.
In 811 Charlemagne founded a church here, perhaps on the site of a Saxon place of sacrifice, and this became a great centre for the evangelization of the north of Europe, missionaries from Hamburg introducing Christianity into Jutland and the Danish islands and even into Sweden and Norway.
In the Norse version of the Carolingian epic Guillaume appears in his proper historical environment, as a chief under Charlemagne; but he plays a leading part in the Couronnement Looys, describing the formal associations of Louis the Pious in the empire at Aix (813, the year after Guillaume's death), and after the battle of Aliscans it is from the emperor Louis that he seeks reinforcements.
' The poem of Aymeri de Narbonne contains the account of the young Aymeri's brilliant capture of Narbonne, which he then receives as a fief from Charlemagne, of his marriage with Ermenjart, sister of Boniface, king of the Lombards, and of their children.
Your Holiness (he wrote) is sovereign of Rome, but I am its emperor; and he threatened to annul the presumed donation of Rome by Charlemagne, unless the pope yielded implicit obedience to him in all temporal affairs.
are the codex aureus, a copy of the gospels presented to the abbey of St Maximin by Ada, a reputed sister of Charlemagne, and the codex Egberti of the 10th century.
On the revival of the Western Empire, however, Charlemagne, in the beginning of the 9th century, under the mistaken belief that he was following the authority of Constantine I.
The name of Pomore, or Pommern, meaning "on the sea," was given to the district by the latter of the tribes about the time of Charlemagne, and it has often changed its political and geographical significance.
It is surrounded on the first story by a sixteensided gallery (the Hochmiinster) adorned by antique marble and granite columns, of various sizes, brought by Charlemagne's orders from Rome, Ravenna and Trier.
Charlemagne's bones are preserved in an ornate shrine in the Hungarian Chapel, lying to the north of the octagon.
In 606 it fell to the Lombards, and was recovered by Charlemagne.
Power such as this was never wielded by his prototype, Charlemagne.
At Dresden he held court for a few days in May 1812 with Marie Louise: the emperor Francis, the king of Prussia and a host of lesser dignitaries were present - a sign of the power of the modern Charlemagne.
Although he was the father of two children by Charlemagne's daughter, Bertha, one of them named Nithard, we have no authentic account of his marriage, and from 790 he was abbot of St Riquier, where his brilliant rule gained for him later the renown of a saint.
- the greatest politician of his day, and in many ways the greatest emperor since Charlemagne.
The Crusades afforded new details which might be inserted into old matters, and a new spirit which might be infused into old subjects; and a crusading complexion thus came to be put upon old tales like those of Arthur and Charlemagne.
The law contains ancient customary enactments of Saxony, and, in the form in which it has reached us, is later than the conquest of Saxony by Charlemagne.
These materials were apparently brought together at the beginning of the 9th century, at a time of intense legislative activity at the court of Charlemagne.
Detmold (Thiatmelli) was in 783 the scene of a conflict between the Saxons and the troops of Charlemagne.
On the site of the hunting lodge he founded an imperial palace, in which were preserved the jewelled imperial crown, sceptre, imperial globe, and sword of Charlemagne.
Charlemagne's activity in this respect was, in effect, but the completion of a process that had been going on since the 6th century.
Towards the end of the 8th century it was taken by the Franks of Charlemagne.
At the time of Charlemagne, the word Austrasia underwent a change of meaning and became synonymous with Francia orientalis, and was applied to the Frankish dominions beyond the Rhine (Franconia).
It was captured by Euric the Goth in 466 and by the Franks under Childebert in 542; it was dismantled by Charlemagne in 778, but repulsed the emir of Saragossa in 907.
After the centuries of intellectual darkness which followed upon the closing of the philosophical schools in Athens (529),(529), and the death of Boetius, the last of the ancient philosophers, the first symptoms of renewed intellectual activity appear contemporaneously with the consolidation of the empire of the West in the hands of Charlemagne.
Less fortunate than his great exemplar, Charlemagne, Stephen had to depend entirely upon foreigners - men like the Saxon Asztrik 1 (c. 976-1010), the first Hungarian primate; the Lombard St Gellert (c. 977-1046); the Bosomanns, a German family, better known under the Magyarized form of their name Pazmany, and many others who came to Hungary in the suite of his enlightened consort Gisela of Bavaria.
Under Charlemagne, whose principal residence was in Aix-la-Chapelle, the culture of the Rhine valley again began to flourish, its results being still to be traced in the important architectural remains of this period.
At the partition of the domains of Charlemagne in A.D.
That in this portion of their ritual, however, the Christians of that period were not universally conscious of its direct descent from Mosaic institutions may be inferred perhaps from the "benediction of the incense" used in the days of Charlemagne, which runs as follows: "May the Lord bless this incense to the extinction of every noxious smell, and kindle it to the odour of its sweetness."
" Bouvet," " Suffren," " Charlemagne," " Gaulois."
Charlemagne made it the capital of a marquisate.
He was a staunch supporter of Charlemagne's principles of government and educational reforms; he established schools, and by his own literary achievements showed himself a worthy member of the learned circle which graced the Carolingian court.
After the death of Alcuin he became the foremost councillor to the king on theological matters: it was he who made, on Charlemagne's request, a collection of the opinions of the fathers on the much-disputed point of the procession of the Holy Ghost.
Theodulf maintained his influence a short time after the death of Charlemagne, being sent as escort to Pope Stephen V.
Theodulf was called Pindar in the palace school of Charlemagne.
In subsequent history there is a good deal of resemblance between the capitularies' legislation of Charlemagne and his successors on one hand, the acts of Alfred, Edward the Elder, ZEthelstan and Edgar on the other, a resemblance called forth less by direct borrowing of Frankish institutions than by the similarity of political problems and condition.
fourth version, as emended by Charlemagne, consists of 70 chapters with the Latinity corrected and without the glosses.
Though he added some new provisions, Charlemagne respected the ancient ones, even those which had long fallen into disuse.
Finally, Charlemagne, who took a keen interest in the ancient documents, had the law emended, the operation consisting in eliminating the Malberg glosses, which were no longer intelligible, correcting the Latinity of the ancient:text, omitting a certain number of interpolated chapters, and adding others which had obtained general sanction.
The king, moreover, had the right to add provisions to the law; and we find capitularies of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious in the form of additamenta to the Salic Law.
we possess, as well as those now lost which served as the basis of the old editions, do not go back beyond the time of Charlemagne (end of 8th century and 9th century).
It was compiled by the itinerant Frankish officials known as the missi Dominici, and the text undoubtedly goes back to the time of Charlemagne, perhaps to the years 802 and 803, when the activity of the missi was at its height.
Charlemagne was in Florence in 786 and conferred many favours on the city, which continued to grow in importance owing to its situation on the road from northern Italy to Rome.
In the period that followed, the reign of Charlemagne and the later Carolingian age, continued necessities, military and civil, forced the kings to recognize these new institutions more fully, even when standing in a position between the government and the subject, intercepting the public duties of the latter.
For his degree as doctor he presented a thesis on the Histoire poetique de Charlemagne (1865).
Attila and his Huns were among the temporary occupants of the place (5th century), and in the following century it came into the possession of the Avars, after which its name disappears from history until towards the close of the 8th century, when Charlemagne expelled the Avars and made the district between the Enns and the Wiener Wald the boundary of his empire.
Seven more books bring us to the rise of Mahomet (xxiii.) and the days of Charlemagne (xxiv.).
Vincent's Charlemagne is a curious medley of the great emperor of history and the champion of romance.
Of these the most important are Alexander of Macedon and Charlemagne, while alongside of them Priam and other heroes of the Trojan war appear during the middle ages in strangely altered guise.
More important in the West, however, was the cycle of legends gathering round the figure of Charlemagne, forming what was known as " the matter of France."
Just as Arthur was eclipsed by his companions, so Charlemagne's vassal nobles, except in the Chanson de Roland, are exalted at the expense of the emperor, probably the result of the changed relations between the later emperors and their barons.
The character of Charlemagne himself undergoes a change; in the Chanson de Roland he is a venerable figure, mild and dignified, while later he appears as a cruel and typical tyrant (as is also the case with Ermanaric).
Charlemagne is chiefly venerated as the champion of Christianity against the heathen and the Saracens.
(See Charlemagne, ad fin.
The late Charlemagne romances originated the legends, in English form, of Sowdone of Babylone, Sir Otnel, Sir Fieumbras and Huon of Bordeaux (in which Oberon, the king of the fairies, the son of Julius Caesar and Morgan the Fay, was first made known to England).
The legend of Charlemagne as told in the CrOnica general of Alfonso X.
Bertini, officially compiled in order to preserve the memory of the more interesting acts of Charlemagne, his ancestors and his successors.
Charlemagne, who had a palace in the neighbourhood, gave privileges to Mainz, which rose rapidly in wealth and importance, becoming a free city in 118.
The Roman empire of the German nation was indeed less universal and less theocratic under Otto, its restorer, than under Charlemagne, but what it lacked in splendour it gained in stability.
The Leonhardskirche (restored in 1882) was begun in 1219, it is said on the site of the palace of Charlemagne.
The Kaisersaal retained its antique appearance until 1843, when, as also again in 1904, it was restored and redecorated; it is now furnished with a series of modern paintings representing the German kings and Roman emperors from Charlemagne to Francis II., in all fifty-two, and a statue of the first German emperor, William I.
On it are a mill, a statue of Charlemagne and an iron crucifix surmounted by a gilded cock.
Disregarding popular tradition, which connects the origin of the town with a legend that Charlemagne, when retreating before the Saxons, was safely conducted across the river by a doe, it may be asserted that the first genuine historical notice of the town occurs in 793, when Einhard, Charlemagne's biographer, tells us that he spent the winter in the villa Frankonovurd.
The name Frankfort is also found in several official documents of Charlemagne's reign; and from the notices that occur in the early chronicles and charters it would appear that the place was the most populous at least of the numerous villages of the Main district.
Louis the Pious dwelt more frequently at Frankfort than his father Charlemagne had done, and about 82 3 he built himself a new palace, the basis Of the later Saalhof.
Styria was included in the conquests of Charlemagne, and was henceforth comprised in the German marks erected against the Avar and the Sla y.
The national kingdoms founded by the Northern races, after the fall of the Roman Empire, under the influence of the classical tradition, are the beginnings of the modern European system; Philip of Macedon foreshadows Theodoric, Charlemagne and William the Conqueror.
It was included in Charlemagne's empire and was divided by him into counties, which evolved there as elsewhere into hereditary fiefs; but after the break-up of Charlemagne's empire, the Burgundian kingdom revived and Savoy was again absorbed in it.
At the end of the 8th century Charlemagne inquired of the bishops of his empire as to current forms. The reply of Amalarius of Trier is important because it shows that he not only used the received text, but also connected it with the Roman order of Baptism.
From the time of Charlemagne it was under the rule of its bishops, who had the title of prince and the right to coin money, until 1185, when it became a free republic. It had many struggles with Fermo, and in the 15th century came more directly under the papal sway.
The history of Halberstadt begins with the transfer to it, by Bishop Hildegrim I., in 820 of the see founded by Charlemagne at Seligenstadt.
CHARLEMAGNE [CHARLES THE GREAT] (C. 742-814), Roman emperor, and king of the Franks, was the elder son of Pippin the Short, king of the Franks, and Bertha, or Bertrada, daughter of Charibert, count of Laon.
referred frequently to the empire of Charlemagne; and Napoleon regarded him as his prototype and predecessor.
- The chief authorities for the life and times of Charlemagne are Einhard's Vita Karoli Magni, the Annales Laurissenses majores, the Annales Fuldenses, and other annals, which are published in the Monumenta Germaniae historica.
H.*) THE Charlemagne Legends Innumerable legends soon gathered round the memory of the great emperor.
We know from Einhard (Vita Karoli, cap. xxix.) that the Frankish heroic ballads were drawn up in writing by Charlemagne's order, and it may be accepted as certain that he was himself the subject of many such during his lifetime.
The author relates a conversation between Otkar the Frank (Ogier the Dane) and the Lombard king Desiderius (Didier) on the walls of Pavia in view of Charlemagne's advancing army.
This episode, which bears the marks of popular heroic poetry, may well be the substance of a lost Carolingian cantilena.1 The legendary Charlemagne and his warriors were endowed with the great deeds of earlier kings and heroes of the Frankish kingdom, for the romancers were not troubled by considerations of chronology.
National traditions extending over centuries were grouped round Charlemagne, his father Pippin, and his son Louis.
The history of Charles Martel especially was absorbed in the Charlemagne legend.
Charlemagne's wars in Italy, Spain and Saxony formed part of the common epic material, and there are references to his wars against the Sla y s; but especially he remained in the popular mind as the great champion of Christianity against the creed of Mahomet, and even his Norman and Saxon enemies became Saracens in current legend.
Charlemagne was endowed with the good and bad qualities of the epic king, and as in the case of Agamemnon and Arthur, his exploits paled beside those of his chief warriors.
The lists of them are very various, but all include the names of Roland and 1 A remnant of the popular poetry contemporary with Charlemagne and written in the vernacular has been thought to be discernible under its Latin translation in the description of a siege during Charlemagne's war against the Saracens, known as the " Fragment from the Hague " (Pertz, Script.
Gradually most of the chansons de geste were attached to the name of Charlemagne, whose poetical history falls into three cycles: - the geste du roi, relating his wars and the personal history of himself and his family; the southern cycle, of which Guillaume de Toulouse is the central figure; and the feudal epic, dealing with the revolts of the barons against the emperor, the rebels being invariably connected by the trouveres with the family of Doon de Mayence.
But it chanced to find as its exponent a poet whose genius established a model for his successors, and definitely fixed the type of later heroic poems. The other early chansons to which reference is made in Roland - Aspremont, Enfances Ogier, Guiteclin, Balan, relating to Charlemagne's wars in Italy and Saxony - are not preserved in their original form, and only the first in an early recension.
Basin or Carl et Elegast (preserved in Dutch and Icelandic), the Voyage de Charlemagne a Jerusalem and Le Couronnement Looys also belong to the heroic period.
The purely fictitious and romantic tales added to the personal history of Charlemagne and his warriors in the 13th century are inferior in manner, and belong to the decadence of romance.
According to Berte aus grans pies, in the 13th-century remaniement of the Brabantine trouvere Adenes le Rois, Charlemagne was the son of Pippin and of Berte, the daughter of Flore and Blanchefleur, king and queen of Hungary.
Charlemagne then made an expedition to Italy (Enfances Ogier in the Venetian Charlemagne, and the first part of the Chevalerie Ogier de Dannemarche by Raimbert of Paris, 12th century) to raise the siege of Rome, which was besieged by the Saracen emir Corsuble.
The wars of Charlemagne with his vassals are described in Girart de Roussillon, Renaus de Montauban, recounting the deeds of the four sons of Aymon, Huon de Bordeaux, and in the latter part of the Chevalerie Ogier, which belong properly to the cycle connected with Doon of Mayence.
The account of the pilgrimage of Charlemagne and his twelve paladins to the Holy Sepulchre must in its first form have been earlier than the Crusades, as the patriarch asks the emperor to free Spain, not the Holy Land, from the Saracens.
The legend probably originated in a desire to authenticate the relics in the abbey of Saint Denis, supposed to have been brought to Aix by Charlemagne, and is preserved in a 12th-century romance, Le Voyage de Charlemagne a Jerusalem et a Constantinople.'
The traditions of Charlemagne's fights with the Norsemen (Norois, Noreins) are preserved in Aiquin (12th century), which describes the emperor's reconquest of Armorica from the " Saracen " king Aiquin, and a disaster at Cezembre as terrible in its way as those of Roncesvalles and Aliscans.
The defenders were overpowered and the city destroyed before the advent of Charlemagne, who, however, avenged the disaster by a great battle in Spain.
The romance of Fierabras (13th century) was one of the most popular in the 15th century, and by later additions came to have pretensions to be a complete history of Charlemagne.
Charlemagne's march on Saragossa, and the capture of Huesca, Barcelona and Girone, gave rise to La Prise de Pampelune (14th century, based on a lost chanson); and Gui de Bourgogne (12th century) tells how the children of the barons, after appointing Guy as king of France, set out to find and rescue their fathers, who are represented as having been fighting in Spain for twenty-seven years.
Charlemagne was recalled from Spain by the news of the outbreak of the Saxons.
The contest between Charlemagne and Widukind (Guiteclin) offered abundant epic material.
The adventures of Blanchefleur, wife of Charlemagne, form a variation of the common tale of the innocent wife falsely accused, and are told in Macaire and in the extant fragments of La Reine Sibille (14th century).
Stephani Frisingenses (15th century), which formerly belonged to the abbey of Weihenstephan, and is now at Munich, the childhood of Charlemagne is practically the same as that of many mythic heroes.
The story of Roland's birth from the union of Charles with his sister Gilles, also found in German and Scandinavian versions, has abundant parallels in mythology, and was probably transferred from mythology to Charlemagne.
A large section of the Chronique rimee (c. 1243) of Philippe Mousket is devoted to Charlemagne's exploits.
At the beginning of the r4th century Girard of Amiens made a dull compilation known as Charlemagne from the chansons de gests, authentic history and the pseudoTurpin.
The Charlemagne legend was fully developed in Italy, where it was to have later a great poetic development at the hands of Boiardo, Ariosto and Tasso.
This forms a consecutive legendary history of Charles, and is apparently based on earlier versions of the French Charlemagne poems than those which we possess.
The 2000 lines of the German Kaiserchronik on the history of Charlemagne belong to the first half of the 12th century, and were perhaps the work of Conrad, the poet of the Ruolantes Liet.
The English metrical romances of Charlemagne are: Rowlandes Song (15th century); The Taill of Rauf Coilyear (c. 1475, pr.
The most important works on the Charlemagne cycle of romance are: - G.
poetique de Charlemagne (Paris, 1865; reprint, with additional notes by Paris and P. Meyer, 1905); L.
The third volume of the Epopees francaises contains an analysis and full particulars of the chansons de geste immediately connected with the history of Charlemagne.
Muntz, La Legende de Charlemagne dans l'art du moyen age (Paris, 1885); and for the German legend, vol.
The English Charlemagne Romances were edited (extra series) for the Early Eng.
Scheler (Brussels, 1874); Charlemagne, by Girard d'Amiens, detailed analysis in Paris, Hist.
Jean Armand Charlemagne >>
In 1813 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Lycee Charlemagne, and subsequently undertook the directorship of the Gobelins tapestry works, where he carried out his researches on colour contrasts (De la loi du contraste simultane des couleurs, 1839).
Under the Romans the district was included in the province of Belgica prima, afterwards forming part of the Frankish kingdom of Austrasia and of the empire of Charlemagne.
Another historical crown is that of Charlemagne, preserved at Vienna.
The crowns suspended in churches suggested doubtless the sumptuous pensile luminaries, frequently designated from a very early period as coronae, in which the form of the royal circlet was preserved in much larger proportions, as exemplified by the remarkable corona still to be seen suspended in the cathedral at Aix-laChapelle over the crypt in which the body of Charlemagne was deposited."
In many parts the Benedictine Rule met the much stricter Irish Rule of Columbanus, introduced by the Irish missionaries on the continent, and after brief periods, first of conflict and then of fusion, it gradually absorbed and supplanted it; thus during the 8th century it became, out of Ireland and other purely Celtic lands, the only rule and form of monastic life throughout western Europe, - so completely that Charlemagne once asked if there ever had been any other monastic rule.
Under the auspices of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious he initiated a scheme for federating into one great order, with himself as abbot general, all the monasteries of Charles's empire, and for enforcing throughout a rigid uniformity in observance.
Little is known of his early life, which was probably passed at the court of his grandfather Charlemagne, until 815 when he became ruler of Bavaria.
Lothair was entirely untrustworthy and quite unable to maintain either the unity or the dignity of the empire of Charlemagne.
Prior to Charlemagne .it is probable that several other collections of homilies had obtained considerable popularity, but in the time of that emperor these had suffered so many mutilations and corruptions that an authoritative revision was felt to be imperatively necessary.
Hildesheim owes its rise and prosperity to the fact that in 822 it was made the seat of the bishopric which Charlemagne had founded at Elze a few years before.
EINHARD (c. 770-840), the friend and biographer of Charlemagne; he is also called Einhartus, Ainhardus or Heinhardus, in some of the early manuscripts.
Owing to his intelligence and ability he was transferred, not later than 796, from Fulda to the palace of Charlemagne by abbot Baugulf; and he soon became very intimate with the king and his family, and undertook various important duties, one writer calling him domesticus palatii regalis.
In 806 Charlemagne sent him to Rome to obtain the signature of Pope Leo III.
Einhard married Emma, or Imma, a sister of Bernharius, bishop of Worms, and a tradition of the 12th century represented this lady as a daughter of Charlemagne, and invented a romantic story with regard to the courtship which deserves to be noticed as it frequently appears in literature.
This risk, however, was obviated by the foresight of Emma, who carried her lover across the courtyard of the palace; a scene which was witnessed by Charlemagne, who next morning narrated the occurrence to his counsellors, and asked for their advice.
This story is, of course, improbable, and is further discredited by the fact that Einhard does not mention Emma among the number of Charlemagne's children.
Reaping the benefits of the revival of learning brought about by Charlemagne, he was on intimate terms with Alcuin, was well versed in Latin literature, and knew some Greek.
Written in imitation of the De vitis Caesarum of Suetonius, this is the best contemporary account of the life of Charlemagne, and could only have been written by one who was very intimate with the emperor and his court.
The literature on Einhard is very extensive, as nearly all those who deal with Charlemagne, early German and early French literature, treat of him.
The various inquiries instituted during the middle ages, such as the Domesday Book and the Breviary of Charlemagne, were so far on the Roman model that they took little or no account of the population, the feudal system probably rendering information regarding it unnecessary for the purposes of taxation or military service.
This struggle was renewed by Charlemagne in 772, and a warfare of thirty-two years' duration was marked by the readiness of the Saxons to take advantage of the difficulties of Charles in other parts of Europe, and by the missionary character which the Frankish king imparted to the war.
About 804 Charlemagne, in order to defend the line of the Saale against the Sla y s, founded the Thuringian mark, which soon became practically coextensive with the former duchy.
He wrote an epic, Charlemagne, ou l'Eglise delivree (2 vols., 1814), also La Verite sur les Cent _Tours and Memoirs, which were not completed.
At the division of the empire of Charlemagne between the three sons of Louis the Debonnaire, effected by the pact of Verdun in 843, the forest had become a district and is called therein pagus Arduensis.
768) and Charlemagne (d.
For the importance of Charlemagne's work, from the point of view of the Church, consists also, not so much in the fact that, by his conversion of the Saxons, the Avars and the Wends in the eastern Alps, he substantially extended the Church's dominions, as in his having led back the Frankish Church to the fulfilment of her functions as a religious and civilizing agent.
For the purpose of carrying out his ideas Charlemagne gathered round him the best intellects of Europe.
Charlemagne followed his father's policy in carrying out his ecclesiastical measures in close association with the bishops of Rome.
On the contrary, Rome itself was now for the first time affected by the predominance of the new empire; for Charlemagne converted the patriciate into effective sovereignty, and the successor of St Peter became the chief metropolitan of the Frankish empire.
For, while the power of Charlemagne's successors was decaying, the papacy itself became involved in the confusion of the party strife of Italy and of the city of Rome, and was plunged in consequence into such an abyss of degradation (the so-called Pornocracy), that it was in danger of forfeiting every shred of its moral authority over Christendom.
At Rome canonical election was alone regarded as lawful; in Germany, on the other hand, developments since the time of Charlemagne had led to the actual appointment of bishops being in the hands of the king, although the form of ecclesiastical election was preserved.
It has been pointed out how Charlemagne pressed the monks into the service of his civilizing aims. We admire this; but it is certain that he thereby alienated monasticism from its original ideals.
Since the time of Charlemagne Germanic influence had preponderated in the West, as is shown in the expansion of the Church no less than in matters of ecclesiastical law.
The church of St Servatius is said to have been founded by Bishop Monulphus in the 6th century, thus being the oldest church in Holland; according to one account it was rebuilt and enlarged as early as the time of Charlemagne.
Over the porch is the fine emperor's hall, and the church has a marble statue of Charlemagne.
The characters of Charles Martel and his grandson Charlemagne offer many striking points of resemblance.
In 785 he was made bishop of Salzburg and, in 787 was employed by Tassilo III., duke of the Bavarians, as an envoy to Charlemagne at Rome.
The area of his authority was extended to the east by the conquests of Charlemagne over the Avars, and he began to take a prominent part in the government of Bavaria.
He acted as one of the missi dominici, and spent some time at the court of Charlemagne, where he was known by the assembled scholars as Aquila, and his name appears as one of the signatories to the emperor's will.
Soon after the death of Charlemagne in 814, Arno appears to have withdrawn from active life, although he retained his archbishopric until his death on the 24th of January 821.
His early years were partly spent at the court of his grandfather Charlemagne, whose special affection he is said to have won.
Louis was in war and peace alike, the most competent of the descendants of Charlemagne.
At Cividale were born Paulus Diaconus, the historian of the Lombards in the time of Charlemagne, and the actress Adelaide Ristori (1822-1906).
In 797 Charlemagne commissioned Alcuin to prepare an emended text of the Vulgate; copies of this text were multiplied, not always accurately, in the famous writingschools at Tours.
It was conquered by the Moors in 712, but these invaders were in turn dispossessed by the Spaniards and the troops of Charlemagne in 788.
It is believed that this mina divided by 12 unciae by the Romans is the origin of the Arabic ratl of 12 ukiyas, or 5500 grains (33), which is said to have been sent by Harun al-Rashid to Charlemagne, and so to have originated the French monetary pound of 5666 grains.
The conclusion, then, which seems warranted by the evidence, is that the acolyte was an office only at Rome, and, becoming an order in the Gallican Church, found its way as such into the Roman books at some period before the fusion of the two rites under Charlemagne.
Thus Cardinal HergenrOther holds that it was written by a Frank in the 9th century, in order to prove that the Greeks had been rightfully expelled from Italy and that Charlemagne was legitimate emperor.
to Charlemagne (778), is now indeed largely rejected; there is nothing in the letter to make such an assumption safe, and the same must be said of Friedrich's attempt to find such reference in the letter addressed in 785 by the same pope to Constantine VI., emperor of the East, and his mother Irene.
The donations of Pippin and Charlemagne established him as sovereign de facto; the donation of Constantine was to proclaim him as sovereign de jure.
at the time when Charlemagne was beginning to reverse the policy by which in 774 he had confirmed the possession of the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento to the pope.
It is now generally admitted that the representation of Arthur as world conqueror, Welt-Kaiser, is due to the influence of the Charlemagne cycle.
The imitation of the Charlemagne romances is here evident; the Saxons bear names of Saracen origin, and camels and elephants appear on the scene.
Meanwhile Otto I., the German king, whose English wife Edgitha had died in 946, had formed the design of marrying her and claiming the Italian kingdom in her right, as a step towards the revival of the empire of Charlemagne.
The Pelerinage de Charlemagne (Koschwitz, Altfranzosische Bibliothek, 1883) was, for instance, only preserved in an Anglo-Norman manuscript of the British Museum (now lost), although the author was certainly a Parisian.
It possesses a parish church, occupying the site of one reputed to have been built by Charlemagne about 805, an interesting town hall and several schools.
The town was founded by Charlemagne, and received its charter as a town in 1298.
Tradition assigns the foundation of the castle of Rolandseck to Charlemagne's paladin, Roland.
It is possible that he took refuge at Benevento when Pavia was taken by Charlemagne in 774, but it is much more likely that his residence there was anterior to this event by several years.
Soon he entered a monastery on the lake of Como, and before 782 he had become an inmate of the great Benedictine house of Monte Cassino, where he made the acquaintance of Charlemagne.
His literary attainments attracted the notice of Charlemagne, and Paulus became a potent factor in the Carolingian renaissance.
While in France Paulus was requested by Charlemagne to compile a collection of homilies.
The Frankish Church was directed, in fact, by the government of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.
To it were added the exarchate of Ravenna and a few other districts of central Italy, which had been recently conquered by the Lombards and retaken by the Frankish kings Pippin and Charlemagne.
Andresen (Heilbronn, 1879), that Taillefer went before the Norman army singing of Charlemagne and of Roland and the vassals who died at Roncevaux, has been considered important in demonstrating the existence of a comparatively early tradition and song of Roland.
Dismantled by order of Charlemagne, it became in the 9th century the capital of an independent principality, the rival of that of Benevento, and was surrounded by strong fortifications.
It was by means of their horsemen that the Austrasian Franks established their superiority over their neighbours, and in time created the Western Empire anew, while from the word caballarius, which occurs in the Capitularies in the reign of Charlemagne, came the words for knight in all the Romance languages.
medieval knights had nothing to do in the way of derivation with the " equites " of Rome, the knights of King Arthur's Round Table, or the Paladins of Charlemagne.
Again, among the Franks we find Charlemagne girding his son Louis the Pious, and Louis the Pious girding his son Charles the Bald with the sword, when they arrived at manhood.
Since then we discover in the Capitularies of Charlemagne actual mention of "caballarii " as a class of warriors, it may reasonably be concluded that formal investiture with arms applied to the " caballarii " if it was a usage extending beyond the sovereign and his heir-apparent.
" But," as Hallam says, " he who fought on horseback and had been invested with peculiar arms in a solemn manner wanted nothing more to render him a knight; " and so he concludes, in view of the verbal identity of " chevalier " and " caballarius," that " we may refer chivalry in a general sense to the age of Charlemagne."
The war was brought to an end by the treaty of Verdun (August 843),which gave to Charles the Bald the kingdom of the western Franks, which practically corresponded with what 1 For Charles I., Roman emperor, see Charlemagne; cf.
Paderborn owes its early development to Charlemagne, who held a diet here in 777 and made it the seat of a bishop a few years later.
It was richly endowed by Charlemagne and became an ecclesiastical principality in the 12th century, passing under the protection of the landgraves of Hesse in 1423.
Devoted, however, as were the labours of Boniface and his disciples, all that he and they and the emperor Charlemagne after them achieved for the fierce untutored world of the 8th century seemed to have been done in vain when, in the 9th " on the north and north-west the pagan Scandinavians were hanging about every coast, and pouring in at every inlet; when on the east the pagan Hungarians were swarming like locusts and devastating Europe from the Baltic to the Alps; when on the south and south-east the Saracens were pressing on and on with their victorious hosts.
When the Lombard kingdom fell before the Franks under Charlemagne in 774, the archbishops of Milan were still further strengthened by the close alliance between Charles and the Church, which gave a sort of confirmation to their temporal authority, and also by Charles's policy of breaking up the great Lombard fiefs and dukedoms, for which he substituted the smaller counties.
Moreover, during the early years of the reign of Charlemagne, Tassilo gave decisions in ecclesiastical and civil causes in his own name, refused to appear in the assemblies of the Franks, and in general acted as an independent ruler.
His position as possessor of the Alpine passes, as an ally of the Avars, and as son-in-law of the Lombard king Desiderius, was so serious a menace to the Frankish kingdom that Charlemagne determined to crush him.
The country was ruled by Gerold, a brother-in-law of Charlemagne, till his death in a battle with the Avars in 799, when its administration was entrusted to Frankish counts and assimilated with that of the rest of the Carolingian empire, while its condition was improved by the measures taken by Charlemagne for the intellectual progress and material welfare of his realm.
The Bavarians offered no resistance to the change which thus abolished their dukedom; and their incorporation with the Frankish dominions, due mainly to the unifying influence of the church, was already so complete that Charlemagne did not find it necessary to issue more than two capitularies dealing especially with Bavarian affairs.
Among other ancient buildings, situated chiefly in the old town, are the following: - the cathedral of St Peter (formerly the archiepiscopal and now the Lutheran parish church), erected in the 12th century on the site of Charlemagne's wooden church, and famous for its Bleikeller, or lead vault, in which bodies can be preserved for a long time without suffering decomposition; the church of St Ansgarius, built about 1243, with a spire 400 ft.
In 787 Bremen was chosen by St Willehad, whom Charlemagne had established as bishop in the pagi of the lower Weser, as his see.
The chief seat of his worship was Irminsal, or Ermensul, in Westphalia, destroyed in 772 by Charlemagne.
The town is of Slavonian origin and of considerable antiquity, and was a place of importance in the time of Charlemagne.
King Olaf is one of the same company as Charlemagne, King Arthur and Sebastian of Portugal - the legendary heroic figures in whose death the people would not believe, and whose return was looked for.
The Benedictine rule supplanted the Irish so inevitably that the personnel ceased to be Irish, that even in St Columban's own monastery of Luxeuil his rule was no longer observed, and by Charlemagne's time all remembrance of any other monastic rule than the Benedictine had died out.
It was made the metropolitan see for the bishoprics of the Lower Rhine and part of Westphalia by Charlemagne, the first archbishop being Hildebold, who occupied the see from 785 to his death in 819.
It was almost entirely destroyed in the war of Charlemagne against Tassilo III., duke of Bavaria; and after the dissolution and division of that empire, it fell into the hands of the dukes of Swabia.
4 Long before the 8th century payment of tithes was enjoined by ecclesiastical writers and by councils of the Church; but the earliest authentic example of anything like a law of the state enforcing payment appears to occur in the Capitularies of Charlemagne at the end of the 8th or the beginning of the 9th century.
Wesel, formerly known as Lippemiinde, was one of the points from which Charlemagne directed his operations against the heathen Saxons.
"If a man's fame," says KOppen, "can be measured by the number of hearts who revere his memory, by the number of lips who have mentioned, and still mention him with honour, Asoka is more famous than Charlemagne or Caesar."
During the 6th and 7th centuries the Saxons were intermittently under Frankish supremacy, but their conquest was not complete until the time of Charlemagne.
The conquest of the Frisians by the Franks was begun by Pippin (Pepin) of Heristal in 689 and practically completed by Charles Martel, though they were not entirely brought into subjection until the time of Charlemagne.
The great overthrow of the Saxons took place about 772773, and by the end of the century Charlemagne had extended his conquests to the border of the Danes.
The reign of Charlemagne is a period of great importance in the history of Germany.
The armies of Charlemagne contained warriors from all parts of Germany; and although tribal law was respected and codified, legislation common to the whole empire was also introduced.
Some of the results of the government of Charlemagne were, however, less beneficial.
When Louis died in 87~ his kingdom was divided among his three sons, but as the two elder of these soon died without heirs, Germany was again united in 882 under his remaining son Charles, called the Fat, who soon became ruler of almost the whole of the extensive domains of Charlemagne.
In the southern and western German lands towns and fortified places had long existed; but in the north, where Roman influence had only been feeble, and where even the Franks had not exercised much authority until the time of Charlemagne, the people still lived as in ancient times, OI~ either on solitary farms or in exposed villages.
Charlemagne had established a~ march between the Eider and the Schlei; but in course of time the Danes had not only seized this territory, but had driven the German population beyond the Elbe.
There were still traditions of the hardships inflicted upon the common folk by the expeditions of Charlemagne, and it is supposed that they anticipated similar evils in the event of his empire being restored.
Thus grew with the up the Holy Roman Empire, that strange state which, mp directly descending through the empire of Charlemagne from the empire of the Caesars, contained so many elements foreign to ancient life.
In 1046 he entered Italy at the head of an army which secured for him greater respect than had been given tc any German ruler since Charlemagne, and at Sutri and in Romc he deposed the three rival popes.
In the dark and disordered centuries which followed there are only a few scanty notices of the Germans, mainly in the works of foreign writers like Gregory of Tours and Jordanes; and then the 8th and 9th centuries, the time of the revival of learning which is associated with the name of Charlemagne, is reached.
The town was founded by the Countess Waudru in the 8th century, whereupon Charlemagne recognized it as the capital of Hainaut, and it has retained the position ever since.
to a position inferior to the parvenus Bonapartes, in the event of the final collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, or of the possible election of Napoleon as his own successor on the throne of Charlemagne.
It is this fact which gives it a unique interest and importance in the history of Europe, and which unites the ideas of the Germans to-day with those of Charlemagne and Otto the Great.
In 791 Charlemagne, after he had established his authority over the Bajuvarii or Bavarians, crossed the river Enns, and moved against the Avars.
This step brought the later Austria definitely under the rule of the Franks, and during the struggle Establish- Charlemagne erected a mark, called the East Mark, ment of to defend the eastern border of his empire.
A new era dawned after Otto the Great was elected German king in 936, and it is Otto rather than Charlemagne who must be regarded as the real founder of Austria.
Charlemagne himself was believed (Theoph.
The Benedictine abbey of Kempten, said to have been founded in 773 by Hildegarde, the wife of Charlemagne, was an important house.
He came into conflict with Charlemagne, and was preparing a great expedition against him when he was killed by one of his own followers (c. 810).
He edited and published, at Paris in 1514, the Latin text of the old chronicler, Saxo Grammaticus; he worked up in their present form the beautiful halfmythical stories of Karl Magnus (Charlemagne) and Holger Danske (Ogier the Dane).
By the French, Charles the Great, Roman emperor and king of the Franks, is reckoned the first of the series of French kings named Charles (see Charlemagne).
of France, Charlemagne not being included in the list, and Charles the Bald being styled Charles I.
et Francois I eT (2 vols., 1777); Histoire de Charlemagne (2 vols., 1782); Histoire de la rivalite de la France et de l'Espagne (8 vols., 1801); Dictionnaire historique (6 vols., 1789-1804), making part of the Encyclopedie methodique; and Melanges litteraires, containing eloges on Charles V., Henry IV., Descartes, Corneille, La Fontaine, Malesherbes and others.
When Pippin became king in 754 he sent out missi in a desultory fashion; but Charlemagne made them a regular part of his administration, and a capitulary issued about 802 gives a detailed account of their duties.
They were not permanent officials, but were generally selected from among persons at the court, and during the reign of Charlemagne personages of high standing undertook this work.
Even under the strong rule of Charlemagne it was difficult to find men to discharge these duties impartially, and after his death in 814 it became almost impossible.
In the cantar de gesta of the Cid he plays the part attributed by medieval poets to the greatest kings, to Charlemagne himself.
The office of burgrave dates from the time of Charlemagne, although its holder was not at first called by this name, and it soon became one of great importance.
Malcolm's brother, William the Lion (1165-1214), initiated the French alliance, fondly ascribed to the time of Charlemagne.
To receive the pilgrim and supply him with alms was always considered the duty of every Christian: Charlemagne, indeed, made it a legal obligation to withhold neither roof, hearth, nor fire from them (Admon.
The theologians who surrounded Charlemagne held similar views.
In the first volume, Le Regime seigneurial (1886), he depicts the triumph of individualism and anarchy, showing how, after Charlemagne's great but sterile efforts to restore the Roman principle of sovereignty, the great landowners gradually monopolized the various functions in the state; how society modelled on.
After the partition of the territory of Charlemagne's empire among the sons of Louis the Pious, Walcheren and the Scheldt-mouth fell within the possessions of the emperor Lothair, and in the region subsequently distinguished as Lotharingia.
But it is certain that even Charlemagne possessed no adequate navy, though a late chronicler tells us how he thought of building one.
subsequently conferred on Charlemagne at his coronation, and borne, as we gather from medieval documents, indiscriminately, not only by subsequent emperors, but also by a long line of Burgundian rulers and minor princes of the middle ages generally.'
" Patricius"; and histories of Charlemagne (q.v.; and his successors.
In 805 the place received certain market rights from the emperor Charlemagne.
Minden (Mindun, Mindo), apparently a trading place of some importance in the time of Charlemagne, was made the seat of a bishop by that monarch, and subsequently became a flourishing member of the Hanseatic League.
There was a royal palace from the 8th century, in which the Frankish kings, including Charlemagne, occasionally resided.
The scene of the graceful though unhistorical romance of Einhard and Emma, the daughter of Charlemagne, is laid here.
Luneburg existed in the days of Charlemagne, but it did not gain importance until after the erection of a convent and a castle on the Kalkberg in the 10th century.
Among other legends which have at various timesbeen attached to Erigena are that he was invited to France by Charlemagne, and that he was one of the founders of the university of Paris.
1111), by the terms of which the Church should surrender all the possessions and royalties it had received of the empire and kingdom of Italy since the days of Charlemagne, while Henry on his side should renounce lay investiture.
Under the new Carolingian dynasty, Pippin and Charlemagne restored the unity of the Frankish realm, and then the word Neustria was restricted to the district between the Loire and the Seine, together with part of the diocese of Rouen north of the Seine; while Austrasia comprised only the Frankish dominions beyond the Rhine, perhaps with the addition of the three cities of Mainz, Worms and Spires on the left bank.
At the time of Charlemagne, Lombardy was divided into five provinces: Neustria, Austrasia, Aemilia, Littoraria marls and Tuscia.
By the conquest of Pavia and the capture of Desiderius in 774 Charlemagne completely destroyed the Lombard supremacy; but the city continued to be the centre of the Carolingian power in Italy, and a royal residence was built in the neighbourhood (Corteolona on the Olona).
The Germanic tribes were still adjusting themselves and slowly learning to combine their primitive institutions with the remains of those of Rome; the premature union under Charlemagne gave way before new invasions, and anarchy became crystallized in feudalism.
The defeat of Roncevaux was really suffered by a part of Charlemagne's army.
In Scandinavia, in Lithuania, in Russia, according to Gaston Paris (Histoire poetique de Charlemagne, p. 9), the national songs have been arrested in a form which may be called intermediate between contemporary poetry and the epic. The true epics are those of India, Persia, Greece, Germany, Britain and France.
The new king was anxious to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto the Great, and saw clearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy.
A temporary alliance with Henry II., king of England, the magnificent celebration of the canonization of Charlemagne at Aix-la-Chapelle, and the restoration of peace in the Rhineland, occupied Frederick's attention until October 1166, when he made his fourth journey to Italy.
is said to have taken Charlemagne as his model; but the contest in which he engaged was entirely different both in character and results from that in which his great predecessor achieved such a wonderful temporary success.
Charles the Great (Charlemagne) lent his forces to the plan of resuscitating the Roman empire at a moment when his own power made him the arbiter of western Europe, when the papacy needed his alliance, and when the Eastern Empire had passed under the usurped regency of a female.
Bardowiek was founded in the 8th century by Charlemagne, who established a bishopric in it, and until its destruction by Henry the Lion in 1189, it was the most prosperous commercial city of north Germany.
Orange was included in the kingdom of Austrasia, fell into the hands of the Saracens and was recovered by Charlemagne.
The first sign of revival from the catastrophe of the invasions is the reorganization of the Imperial household under Charlemagne with the intention of establishing a more exact collection of revenue.
Its nucleus was a castle, built in 809 by Egbert, one of Charlemagne's counts, against the Danes.
He studied at the Lycee Charlemagne, in 1850 became a teacher in New Orleans, Louisiana, and there became acquainted with John Lloyd Stephens's books of travel in Yucatan.
Cannstatt (Condistat) is mentioned early in the 8th century as the place where a great court was held by Charlemagne for the trial of the rebellious dukes of the Alamanni and the Bavarians.
A place was offered him in the imperial printing office, but his father was able to send him to the famous College or Lycee Charlemagne, where he distinguished himself.
The first of these deals with the early history up to the death of Charlemagne, the second with the flourishing time of feudal France, the third with the 13th century, the fourth, fifth, and sixth with the Hundred Years' War, the seventh and eighth with the establishment of the rural power under Charles VII.
He was educated at the lycee Louis-le-Grand, and became assistant master at the lycee Charlemagne, and subsequently at the Ecole Normale.
to the north is the village of Metten, with a Benedictine monastery founded by Charlemagne in 801, restored as an abbey in 1840 by Louis I.
732-766, and referred to as a canonical rule in a capitulary of Charlemagne, and it was finally established as a law of the church in the pontificate of Gregory VII., c. 1085.
ORANGE The small principality of Orange, a district now included in the French department of Vaucluse, traces back its history as an independent sovereignty to the time of Charlemagne.
Other noteworthy objects in the castle are the fountain in the courtyard, decorated with four granite columns from Charlemagne's palace at Ingelheim; the Elisabethentor, a beautiful gateway named after the English princess; the beautiful octagonal bell-tower at the N.E.
CAROLINGIANS, the name of a family (so called from Charlemagne, its most illustrious member) which gained the throne of France A.D.
At length, invited by Pope Adrian I., Pippin's son Charlemagne once more descended into Italy.
The old castle, perhaps founded by Charlemagne, was purchased in 1864 by the king of Prussia.
After Charlemagne had taken possession of Bavaria in the 8th century, Bishop Arno of Salzburg was made an archbishop and papal legate.
He made public profession of his republican principles as a schoolboy at the Lycee Charlemagne by refusing in 1867 to receive a prize at the Sorbonne from the hand of the prince imperial.
Soon after his accession the territory that had been bestowed on the popes by Pippin was invaded by Desiderius, king of the Lombards, and Adrian found it necessary to invoke the aid of Charlemagne, who entered Italy with a large army, besieged Desiderius in his capital of Pavia, took that town, banished the Lombard king to Corbie in France and united the Lombard kingdom with the other Frankish possessions.
In his contest with the Greek empire and the Lombard princes of Benevento, Adrian remained faithful to the Frankish alliance, and the friendly relations between pope and emperor were not disturbed by the difference which arose between them on the question of the worship of images, to which Charlemagne and the Gallican Church were strongly opposed, while Adrian favoured the views of the Eastern Church, and approved the decree of the council of Nicaea (787), confirming the practice and excommunicating the iconoclasts.
It was in connexion with this controversy that Charlemagne wrote the so-called Libri Carolini, to which Adrian replied by letter, anathematizing all who refused to worship the images of Christ, or the Virgin, or saints.
An epitaph written by Charlemagne in verse, in which he styles Adrian "father," is still to be seen at the door of the Vatican basilica.
Gotha (in old chronicles called Gotegewe and later Gotaha existed as a village in the time of Charlemagne.
Ratramnus's views failed to find acceptance; their author was soon forgotten, and, when the book was condemned at the synod of Vercelli in 1050, it was described as having been written by Johannes Scotus Erigena at the command of Charlemagne.
Furth was founded, according to tradition, by Charlemagne, who erected a chapel there.
On the revival of the Roman empire in the West by Charlemagne in Soo, the title (at first in the form imperator, or imperator Augustus, afterwards Romanorum imperator Augustus) was taken by him and by his Frankish, Italian and German successors, heads of the Holy Roman Empire, down to the abdication of the emperor Francis II.
In 1804 Napoleon took the title of "Emperor of the French," and posed as the reviver of the Empire of Charlemagne.
Herbert I., the earliest of its hereditary counts, was descended in direct male line from the emperor Charlemagne, and was killed in 902 by an assassin in the pay of Baldwin II., count of Flanders.
The same writer represents Milo as discharging a mission among the Vascones, or Basques, the very people to whom authentic history has ascribed the great disaster which befell the army of Charlemagne at Roncesvalles.
Hincmar, who composed his epitaph, makes him bishop for over forty years, and from this it is evident that he was elected about 753, and Flodoard says that he died in the forty-seventh year of his archbishopric. Tilpin was present at the Council of Rome in 769, and at the request of Charlemagne Pope Adrian I.
Paris, De pseudo-Turpino (Paris, 1865), and Histoire poetique de Charlemagne, new ed.
The claims of the bishopric dated from Carolingian times, and the independence of Andorra, like most other Pyrenean anomalies, has been traditionally ascribed to Charlemagne (742-814).
Casale Monferrato was given by Charlemagne to the church of Vercelli, but obtained its liberty from Frederick I.
gave the twofold collection of the Scythian monk to the future emperor Charlemagne as the canonical book of the Roman Church; this is what is called the Dionysio-Hadriana.
So despotic did the tyranny become in the West, that in the time of Charlemagne it was necessary to restrain abbots by legal enactments from mutilating their monks and putting out their eyes; while the rule of St Columban ordained loo lashes as the punishment for very slight offences.
At the age of ten he was sent to the grammar school of the Quartier St Antoine, the Lycee Charlemagne.
The tendency to increased rigour may be discerned in the 2nd canon of the synod of Orleans (541), which declares that every Christian is bound to observe the fast of Lent, and, in case of failure to do so, is to be punished according to the laws of the church by his spiritual superior; in the 9th canon of the synod of Toledo (653), which declares the eating of flesh during Lent to be a mortal sin; in Charlemagne's law for the newly conquered Saxony, which attaches the penalty of death to wanton disregard of the holy season.'
of Jerusalem) he led a German contingent, some strong, along "Charlemagne's road," through Hungary to Constantinople, starting in August 1096, and arriving at Constantinople, after some difficulties in Hungary, in November.
He pursued the same vigorous policy as his predecessor, who had been one of Charlemagne's most active agents in the reformation of the Church.
About the close of the 5th century this territory was conquered by Clovis, king of the Salian Franks, was afterwards incorporated with the kingdom of Austrasia, and at a later period came under the rule of Charlemagne.
He again went to Rome in 780, to fetch the pallium for Archbishop Eanbald, and at Parma met Charlemagne, who persuaded him to come to his court, and gave him the possession of the great abbeys of Ferrieres and of Saint-Loup at Troyes.
He had as pupils the king of the Franks, the members of his family and the young clerics attached to the palace chapel; he was the life and soul of the Academy of the palace, and we have still, in the Dialogue of Pepin (son of Charlemagne) and Alcuin, a sample of the intellectual exercises in which they indulged.
In 790 Alcuin returned to his own country, to which he had always been greatly attached, and st syed there some time; but Charlemagne needed him to combat the Adoptianist heresy, which was at that time making great progress in the marches of Spain.
Charlemagne had just given him the great abbey of St Martin at Tours, and there, far from the disturbed life of the court, he passed his last years.
He wrote numerous letters to his friends in England, to Arno, bishop of Salzburg, and above all to Charlemagne.
Monnier, Alcuin et Charlemagne (Paris, 1863); K.
Lecky, History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne (1869, many editions); works of Ed.
(c. 1305), employed Icelanders at their courts in translating the French romances of the Alexander, Arthur and Charlemagne cycles.
It may be mentioned that the geographer Dicuil who lived at the court of Charlemagne gives a description of Iceland which must have been obtained from some one who had been there.
He owed his election to the support of the German bishops, especially that of Aribo, archbishop of Mainz, who crowned him in his cathedral on the 8th of September 1024; and the king's biographer, Wipo, remarks that Charlemagne himself could not have been welcomed more gladly by the people.
But since Roman days the central Danube has never formed the boundary of a state; on the contrary it became the route followed from east to west by successive hordes of barbarians - the Huns, Avars, Slays, Magyars and Turks; while the Franks under Charlemagne, the Bavarians and the Crusaders all marched in the opposite direction towards the east.
This ecclesiastical investiture by lay princes dates at least from the time of Charlemagne.
at Sutri and declared that the pope was ready to surrender all the temporalities that had been bestowed on the clergy since the days of Charlemagne in return for freedom of election and the abolition of lay investiture.
Myths of unknown antiquity, for example, have been attracted into the legend of Charlemagne, just as the bons mots of old wits are transferred to living humorists.
It was destroyed by Charlemagne in 799, from which time it probably long remained under the dominion of the Franks.
Pippin left two sons, and before he died he had, with the consent of the dignitaries of the realm, divided his kingdom between them, making the elder, Charles(Charlemagne), ~ king of Austrasia, and giving the younger, Carloman, Burgundy, Provence, Septimania, Alsace and Alamannia, and half of Aquitaine to each.
After the departure of the imperious conqueror, a fresh revolt of the Lombards of Beneventum under Arichis, Desideriuss son-in-law, supported by a Greek fleet, obliged Pope Adrian to write fresh entreaties to Charlemagne; and in two campaigns (776777) the latter conquered the whole Lombard kingdom.
After endless intrigues, however, the duke, hemmed in by three different armies, had in his turn to submit (788), and all Italy was now subject to Charlemagne.
Charlemagne approached it with a moderation equal to the vigour which he had shown in the war.
All were pagans; all enemies of Charlemagne, defender of Christs Church, and hence the appointed conqueror of the world.
Various causesthe weakening of the Arabs by the struggle between the Omayyads and the Abbasids just after the battle of Tours; the alliance of the petty Christian kings of Wars with the Spanish peninsula; an appeal from the northern the Arabs, amirs who had revolted against the new caliphate of Slays and Cordova (755)made Charlemagne resolve to cross ~h1es.
Charlemagne had created the kingdom ofAquitaine especially to defend Septimania, and William, duke of Toulouse, from 790 to 806, succeeded in restoring Frankish authority down to the Ebro, thus founding the Spanish March with Barcelona as its capital.
They had overrun Bavaria in the very year of its subjugation by Charlemagne (788), and it took an eight-years struggle to destroy the robber stronghold.
Permanent armies and walls across isthmuses were alike useless; Charlemagne had to build fleets to repulse his elusive foes (808810), and even after forty years of war the danger was only postponed.
Then Charlemagne raised the papacy on the ruins of Lombardy to the position of first political power in Italy; and the universal Church, headed by the pope, made common cause with the Empire, which all the thinkers of that day regarded as the ideal state.
The system was kept in full vigour by the missi dominici, who regularly reported or reformed any abuses of adniinistration, and by the courts, military, judicial or political, which brought to Charlemagne the strength of the wealth of his subjects, carrying his commands and his ideas to the farthest, limits of the Empire.
Thanks to Charlemagne, and through the restoration of order and of the schools, a common civilization was prepared for the varied elements of the Empire.
Charlemagne apparently wished, like Theodoric, to use German blood and Christian unity to bring back life to the great body of the Empire.
Charlemagne had for the moment succeeded in uniting western Europe under his sway, but he had not been able to arrest its evolution towards feudal dismemberment.
The practice of giving land as a beneficium to a grantee who swore personal allegiance to the grantor had persisted, and by his capitularies Charlemagne had made these personal engagements, these contracts of immunityhitherto not transferable, nor even for life, but quite conditionalregular, legal, even obligatory and almost indissoluble.
The monarchical principle no longer sufficed to ensure social discipline; the fear of lorfeiting the grant became the only powerful guarantee of obedience, and as this only applied to his personal vassals, Charlemagne gave up his claim to direct obedience from the test of the people, accepting the mediation of the counts, lords and bishops, who levied taxes, adjudicated and administered in virtue of the privileges of patronage, not of the right of the state.
Thus Charlemagne, far from opposing, systematized feudalism, in order that obedience and discipline might~ pass from one man to another down to thelowest grades of society, and he succeeded for his own lifetime.
Charlemagne had assigned their portions to his three sons in 781 and again in 806; like Charles Martel and Pippin the Short before him, however, what he had divided was not the imperial authority, nor yet countries, but the whole system of fiefs, offices and adherents which had been his own patrimony.
Charles The Norse pirates who had troubled Charlemagne (843-877).
Hence the sixty years of terror and confusion which came between Charlemagne and the death of Charles the Bald suppressed the direct authority of the king in favor of the nobles, and prepared the way for a second destruction of the monarchy at the hands of a stronger power (see FEUDALISM).
Like linglan Charlemagne, Louis the Pious and Charles the Bald power.
He united once more the dominions of Charlemagne; but he disgraced the imperial throne by his feebleness, and was incapable of using his (884-888.) immense army to defend Paris when it was besieged by the Normans.
Feudalism had gained ground in the 8th century; feudalism it was which had raised the first Carohingian to the throne as being the richest and most powerful person in Austrasia; and Charlemagne with all his power had been as utterly unable as the Merovingians to revive the idea of an abstract and impersonal state.
Hugh Capet needed more than three years and the betrayal of his enemy into his hands before he could parry the attack of a quite second-rate adversary, Charles of Lorraine (990), the last descendant of Charlemagne.
In 1258, by renouncing his rights over Roussillon and the countship of Barcelona, conquered The d ~ by Charlemagne, he made an advantageous bargain ta5e ~ because he kept Montpellier; but he committed a grave fault in consenting to accept the offers regarding Sicily made by Pope Urban IV.
The latter wished not only to take possession of the Netherlands, which were to be given up to him with half of the United Provinces and their colonial empire; he wanted to play the Charlemagne, to re-establish Catholicism in that country as Philip II.
When he recognized his error in having raised the papacy from decadence by restoring its power over all the churches, he tried in vain to correct it by the Articles Organiques wanting, like Charlemagne, to be the legal protector of the pope, and eventually master of the Church.
Germany, to stem which Pitt, back in power, appealed once more to an Anglo-Austro-Russian coalition against this new Charlemagne, who was trying to renew the old Empire, who was mastering France, Italy and Germany; who finally on the 2nd of December 1804 placed the imperial crown upon his head, after receiving the iron crown of the Lombard kings, and made Pius VII.
The memories of imperial Rome were for a third time, after Caesar and Charlemagne, to modify the historical evolution, of France.
Under Charlemagne the name of Tuscia or Toscana became restricted to the latter only.
Mansur, the second of the Abbasids, encouraged the appropriation of Greek science; but it was al-Ma ` mun, the son of Harun al-Rashid, who deserves in the Mahommedan empire the same position of royal founder and benefactor which is held by Charlemagne in the history of the Latin schools.
Charlemagne gave it to the abbey of Tre Fontane at Rome.
Charlemagne had divided up the Breton dioceses and established in them Frankish bishops.
Fortified by Charlemagne, it was captured and pillaged by the Normans in 870, and unsuccessfully besieged by the Hungarians in 953.
It was at their hands that Charlemagne (q.v), while returning from his expedition to Saragossa, suffered that disaster to his rearguard at Roncesvalles which is more famous in poetry than important in history.
In the last years of the 8th and begiiining of the 9th century, Charlemagne and Louis the Pius began conquering the north-east of Spain, which the Arabs had occupied as early as 713.
Such was Gregory the Great's teaching, and such also is the purport of the Caroline books, which embody the conclusions arrived at by the bishops of Germany, Gaul arid Aquitaine, presided over by papal legates at the council of Frankfort in 794, and incidentally also reveal the hatred and contempt of Charlemagne for the Byzantine empire as an institution, and for Irene, its ruler, as a person.
Henceforth Rome was linked with the Carolingian house in an alliance which culminated in the coronation of Charlemagne by the pope on the 25th of December Soo.
After the time of Charlemagne a marquisate of Susa was established; and the town became in the 11th century the capital of Adelaide countess of Savoy, who was mistress of the whole of Piedmont.
The code of laws which he gave to Sicily in 1231 bears the impress of his personality, and has been described as "the fullest and most adequate body of legislation promulgated by any western ruler since Charlemagne."
During the early years Of the Christian era, the district was inhabited by the Semnones, and afterwards by various Slavonic tribes, who were partially subdued by Charlemagne, but soon regained their independence.
Charlemagne hastened to Rome to support Leo, and on Christmas Day, 800, was crowned emperor by the pope.
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The fragmentation of Charlemagne's realm continued, destroying any semblance of unity.
In French literature, in addition to the Pleiad of Charlemagne, there were two famous groups of the kind.
These and other disputes led the emperor, as successor of Charlemagne, to treat the pope in a very highhanded way.
He further exploited the Charlemagne tradition for the benefit of the continental system, that great engine of commercial war by which he hoped to assure the ruin of England.
656, was by Charlemagne changed into a nunnery; it was afterwards famous for its connexion with Heloise (see Abelard), and on her expulsion in 1129 was again turned into a monastery.
Leaving Italy in the summer preceding the year 1000, when it was popularly believed that the end of the world was to come, Otto made a pilgrimage to the tomb of his old friend Adalbert, bishop of Prague, at Gnesen, and raised the city to the dignity of an archbishopric. He then went to Aix, and opened the tomb of Charlemagne, where, according to a legendary tale, he found the body of the great emperor sitting upright upon a throne, wearing the crown and holding the sceptre.
Perhaps his edition of the Leges Visigothorum (1579) was his most valuable contribution to historical science; in the same line he edited the Capitula of Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, and Charles the Bald in 1588, and he also assisted his brother Francois in preparing an edition of the Corpus juris canonici (1687).
Charlemagne in particular was closely connected with Jerusalem: the patriarch sent him the keys of the city and a standard in Boo; and in 807 Harun al-Rashid recognized this symbolical cession, and acknowledged Charlemagne as protector of Jerusalem and owner of the church of the Sepulchre.
It is preceded by two capitularies of Charlemagne for Saxony - the Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae (A.
(778-840), surnamed the "Pious," Roman emperor, third son of the emperor Charlemagne and his wife Hildegarde, was born at Chasseneuil in central France, and crowned king of Aquitaine in 781.
The Anglo-Saxons of the time were of course well acquainted with Island (first thus named in 870) Slesvic and Norweci (Norway), and there is no need to have recourse to Adam of Bremen (1076) to account for their presence upon this map. The broad features of the map were derived no doubt from an older document which may likewise have served as the basis for the map of the world engraved on silver for Charlemagne, and was also consulted by the compilers of the Hereford and Ebstorf maps (see fig.
A renovation of the Gallican Church was not the least crying need; and, in view of the confusion of rites (Gallican, Gothic, Roman, Ambrosian) in the Frankish empire, Charlemagne recognized that this innovation could only be effectually carried out by a closer connexion with Rome in ritual as in other matters.
Felix introduced adoptian views into that part of Spain which belonged to the Franks, and Charlemagne thought it necessary to assemble a synod at Regensburg (Ratisbon), in 792, before which the bishop was summoned to explain and justify the new doctrine.
After its reconstruction with the help of Narses (see IGUvIUM) the town remained subject to the exarchs of Ravenna, and, after the destruction of the Lombard kingdom in 774, formed part of the donation of Charlemagne to the pope.
Charlemagne legislated with vigour against this tendency, trying to make it easier for the poor freeman to fulfil his military duties directly to the state, and to forbid the misuse of power by the rich, but he was not more successful than the Roman government had been in a like attempt.
As government weakened after the strong days of Charlemagne, and disorder, invasion, and the difficulty of intercommunication tended to throw the locality more and more upon its own resources, the officer who had once been the means of centralization, the count, found success in the effort for independence which even Charlemagne had scarcely overcome.
The curious poem De Imagine Tetrici takes the form of a dialogue; it was inspired by an equestrian statue of Theodoric the Great which stood in front of Charlemagne's palace at Aix-la-Chapelle.
" The Charlemagne Legends.") The most famous heroes who are associated with him are Roland, praefect of the marches of Brittany, the Orlando of Ariosto, slain at Roncevaux (Roncevalles) in the Pyrenees, and his friend and rival Oliver (Olivier); Ogier the Dane, the Holger Danske of Hans Andersen, and Huon of Bordeaux, probably both introduced from the Arthurian cycle; Renaud (Rinaldo) of Montauban, one of the four sons of Aymon, to whom the wonderful horse Bayard was presented by Charlemagne; the traitor Doon of Mayence; Ganelon, responsible for the treachery that led to the death of Roland; Archbishop Turpin, a typical specimen of muscular Christianity; William Fierabras, William au court nez, William of Toulouse, and William of Orange (all probably identical), and Vivien, the nephew of the latter and the hero of Aliscans.
In the 8th century Charlemagne, through the Capitularies, tried in vain to galvanize preaching; such specimens as we have show the sermons of the times to be marked by superstition, ignorance, formality and plagiarism.
Charlemagne was unable to persuade Pope Leo III.
Before the end of the 9th century a monk of St Gall drew up a chronicle De gestis Karoli Magni, which was based partly on oral tradition, received from an old soldier named Adalbert, who had served in Charlemagne's army.
The chief heroes who fought Charlemagne's battles were Roland; Ganelon, afterwards the traitor; Turpin, the fighting archbishop of Reims; Duke Naimes of Bavaria, the wise counsellor who is always on the side of justice; Ogier the Dane, the hero of a whole series of romances; and Guillaume of Toulouse, the defender of Narbonne.
Much light is thrown upon the Christian origins, especially those of France, by his Origines du cultÃ‚° chretien, etude sur la liturgie latine avant Charlemagne (1889; Eng.
He was a member of the group of scholars who gathered around Charlemagne, and was entrusted with the charge of the public buildings, receiving, according to a fashion then prevalent, the scriptural name of Bezaleel (Exodus xxxi.
Thu magnificent so-called dalmatic of Charlemagne, preserved at Rome (see Embroidery), is really a Greek sakkos.
Embassies passed between Charlemagne and Harun in the years 180 (A.D.
Charlemagne, with the title of king of the Franks and Lombards, became master of Italy, and in 800 the pope, who had crowned Pippin king of the Franks; claimed to bestow the Roman empire, and crowned his greater son emperor of the Romans (800).
It was the weakness of princes, the discouragement of freemen and landholders confronted by an inexorable system of financial and military tyranny, and the incompatibility of a vast empire with a too primitive governmental system, that wrecked the work of Charlemagne.
A definite agreement was made between them at Joinville (December 31, 1584), the religious and popular pretext being the danger of leaving the kingdom to the king of Navarre, and the ostensible end to secure the succession to a Catholic prince, the old Cardinal de Bourbon, an ambitious and violent man of mean intelligence; while the secret aim was to secure the crown for the Guises, - who had already attempted to fabricate for themselves a genealogy tracing their descent from Charlemagne.
The fragmentation of Charlemagne 's realm continued, destroying any semblance of unity.
Emperor and king Charlemagne originally planted white wine grapes on the Corton hillside sometime in the 8th century.
Following her suggestion, Charlemagne planted white wine grapes, and the resultant wines provided a colorless alternative that kept his facial hair pristine.
It is said that this relic was given to Charlemagne before he departed for the holy land during the crusades.
It was originally the battle flag of Charlemagne and it was often at the head of French armies led by the King.
In fact, she was the youngest child of Adhemar Dion and Therese Tanguay in Charlemagne, Quebec in Canada.
The former, standing on the south side of the market square, is a Gothic structure, erected in 1353-1370 on the ruins of Charlemagne's palace.
The older portion, the capella in palatio, an octagonal building surmounted by a dome, was designed on the model of San Vitale at Ravenna by Udo of Metz, was begun under Charlemagne's auspices in 796 and consecrated by Pope Leo III.
814), Frankish Latin poet, and minister of Charlemagne, was of noble Frankish parentage, and educated at the palace school under Alcuin.
Angilbert was the Homer of the emperor's literary circle, and was the probable author of an epic, of which the fragment which has been preserved describes the life at the palace and the meeting between Charlemagne and Leo III.
Of the shorter poems, besides the greeting to Pippin on his return from the campaign against the Avars (796), an epistle to David (Charlemagne) incidentally reveals a delightful picture of the poet living with his children in a house surrounded by pleasant gardens near the emperor's palace.
Charlemagne, Pippin's son, descended upon Italy, broke up the Lombard kingdom (774), confirmed his father's donation to the pope, and in reprisals for Venetian assistance to the exarch, ordered the pope to expel the Venetians from the Pentapolis.
Charlemagne founded a hospital and a library in the Holy City; and later legend, when it made him the first of crusaders and the conqueror of the Holy Land, was not without some basis of fact.
Pippin died on the 24th of September 768 at St Denis, leaving two sons, Charles (Charlemagne) and Carloman.
Hamburg probably had its origin in a fortress erected in 808 by Charlemagne, on an elevation between the Elbe and Alster, as a defence against the Sla y s, and called Hammaburg because of the surrounding forest (Hamme).
Here again he cited the action of Charlemagne, his august predecessor, who had merely given certain domains to the bishops of Rome as fiefs, though Rome did not thereby cease to be part of his empire.