Changes sentence example

changes
  • It was obvious some changes were necessary.
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  • The three of us packed for three days only, as if so limiting our clothing changes would force our return more quickly.
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  • She's breaking Immortal Code to let you go.  We have to leave, before she changes her mind.
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  • There is one set of numbers he changes for the time and he can set the location somehow by longitude and latitude.
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  • In 1896 McCormick Theological Seminary (which in 1858 as New Albany Theological Seminary had come under the control of the assembly) and Auburn Seminary refused to make the changes desired by the General Assembly; a satisfactory arrangement with McCormick was made.
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  • A'Ran submitted changes, and she reviewed the images.
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  • Of all the changes he faced, that was by far the most intimidating.
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  • These changes occurred in a single lifetime, which meant people changed their minds.
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  • And because human nature changes either not at all or very slowly, people make the same choices over and over again.
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  • Economic changes that have long-term positive benefits for society often have short-term negative ones.
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  • Since then, the changes have become more about intellectual property and technique.
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  • To the three of them, the drastic changes that occurred over such a short time span after thousands of years of no change were a warning sign.
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  • Deidre swallowed hard, wanting to chase after him but unsettled by his anger and the changes in him.
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  • You're always testing because surface changes, by the season, the time of day, how many climbers hack away at it, sometimes by the hour.
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  • After a call to Fred at Bird Song and the necessary schedule changes, they once again boarded the Jeep for the one-hour ride.
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  • Her bizarre changes of subject made him understand why Andre hadn't liked dealing with her.  Was there hidden meaning in her words?
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  • All the essential parts of the micrometer, including the slides, micrometer box, tube, etc., are of steel or cast-iron, so that changes of temperature do not affect the adjustments.
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  • The changes in his mate were new enough to startle him sometimes, but she was without a doubt his mate.
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  • A blue basic salt is precipitated first, which, on boiling, rapidly changes to the rose-coloured hydroxide.
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  • The metabolic changes in the cells, however, concern other decompositions side by side with those which involve the building up of protoplasm from the products of which it feeds.
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  • The largest pond is as sensitive to atmospheric changes as the globule of mercury in its tube.
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  • Changes in the height or construction of buildings, and a greater readiness to make claims on insurance offices, may be contributory causes.
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  • On being cut or broken the flesh of a true mushroom remains white or nearly so, the flesh of the coarser horse mushroom changes to buff or sometimes to dark brown.
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  • The Regulating Act, passed by Lord North's ministry in 1773, effected considerable changes in the constitution of the Bengal government.
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  • In the ensuing party struggles the city passed under a tyrant, Theagenes (about 640), whose rule was too brief to produce great changes.
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  • In pure algebra Descartes expounded and illustrated the general methods of solving equations up to those of the fourth degree (and believed that his method could go beyond), stated the law which connects the positive and negative roots of an equation with the changes of sign in the consecutive terms, and introduced the method of indeterminate coefficients for the solution of equations.'
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  • The changes, however, were too numerous and complex to be dealt with here.
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  • Regist?ation (enregistrement) duties are charged on the transfer of property in the way of business (fi titre onreux); on changes in ownership effected in the way of donation or succession (a litre gratuit), and 011 a variety of other transactions which must be registered according to law.
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  • Important changes were also made in the provisions and administration of military law.
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  • He became by a singular arrangement, only repeated in the case of Lord Ellenborough, a member of the cabinet, and remained in that position through various changes of administration for nearly fifteen years, and, although he persistently refused the chancellorship, he acted as Speaker of the House of Lords while the Great Seal was in commission.
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  • A curious property is to be observed when a crystal of pharmacosiderite is placed in a solution of ammonia - in a few minutes the green colour changes throughout the whole crystal to red; on placing the red crystal in dilute hydrochloric acid the green colour is restored.
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  • Since 1870 there have been five radical changes made in New South Wales.
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  • Almost the only changes which can be called events are his successful establishment of a school at Lincoln.
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  • On his arrival he reinstated Hyrcanus in the high-priesthood at Jerusalem, suppressed revolts, introduced important changes in the government of Judaea, and rebuilt several towns.
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  • By the time the third stage, which placed the seat of soul-life in the brain, was reached through the further advance of anatomical knowledge, the religious rites of Greece and Rome were too deeply incrusted to admit of further radical changes, and faith in the gods had already declined too far to bring new elements into the religion.
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  • The state usually has long and severe winters and cool summers, but sudden changes of temperature are common at all seasons.
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  • He depicts her quick changes of colour, her dishevelled hair, her panting breast, her apparent increase of stature as the god draws nigh and fills her with his divine afflatus.
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  • Although several species belonging to the second class occasionally enter the bodies of water snails and other animals before reaching their definitive host, they undergo no alteration of form in this intermediate host; the case is different, however, in Filaria medinensis and other forms, in which a free larval is followed by a parasitic existence in two distinct hosts, all the changes being accompanied by a metamorphosis.
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  • The finished core changes rapidly in its electric qualities at first, and is generally kept for a stated interval of time before being subjected to the specified tests.
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  • The evidence of date derived from changes in the language is more difficult to formulate, and the inquiry calls for the most diligent use of scientific method and critical judgment.
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  • The relations between owners and tillers of the soil are still regulated by the ancient forms of agrarian contract, which have remained almost untouched by social and political changes.
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  • These changes threw a considerable strain on the finances, but the imminence of the danger caused their acceptance.
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  • It should also here be noticed that the changes introduced into the holding of the fiefs, whether by altering their boundaries or substituting Frankish for Lombard vassals, were chief among the causes why the feudal system took no permanent hold in Italy.
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  • Among the many miseries .nflicted upon Italy by the frequent changes of her northern rulers, this at least may be reckoned a blessing.
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  • Their annals are filled with records of dynastic changes and redistributions of territory, consequent upon treaties signed by foreign powers, in the settlement of quarrels which no wise concerned the people.
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  • Paul III.s pontificate was further marked by important changes in the church, all of which confirmed the spiritual autocracy of Rome.
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  • Other changes took place in that year, all of them in favor of France.
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  • But Edward's title had been expressly sanctioned by act of parliament, so that there was no more room for election in his case than in that of George I., and the real motive of the changes was to shorten the weary ceremony for the frail child.
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  • The term has had several changes of meaning.
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  • It is the following out of an inherent tendency or impulse to a series of changes, all of which were virtually pre-existent, and this process cannot be interfered with from without.
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  • Nevertheless, though the conceptions originally denoted by " evolution " and " development " were shown to be untenable, the words retained their application to the process by which the embryos of living beings gradually make their appearance; and the terms" development," " Entwickelung,"and " evolutio " are now indiscriminately used for the series of genetic changes exhibited by living beings, by writers who would emphatically deny that " development " or " Entwickelung " or " evolutio," in the sense in which these words were usually employed by Bonnet or Haller, ever occurs.
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  • It is necessary to determine if the modification be a simple change that might have occurred in independent cases, in fact if it be a multiradial apocentricity, or if it involved intricate and precisely combined anatomical changes that we could not expect to occur twice independently; that is to say, if it be a uniradial apocentricity.
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  • Other changes were introduced by 23 Hen.
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  • His political changes are difficult to follow, or to explain, and they have been unsparingly censured.
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  • At the nodes the relation of the endodermis to the bundles undergoes rather complex but definite changes.
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  • The older wood of a large tree forming a cylinder in the centre of the trunk frequently undergoes marked changes in character.
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  • In addition, certain inorganic salts, particularly certain compounds of potassium, are apparently necessary, but they seem to take no part in the chemical changes which take place.
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  • The outcome of the whole round of changes, however, is the fixation of a certain part of the radiant energy absorbed by the chlorophyll.
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  • If the access of oxygen to a protoplast is interfered with its normal respiration soon ceases, but frequently other changes supervene.
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  • The time during which these regular changes in the rate can be observed is generally spoken of as the grand period of growth.
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  • The most constantly occurring changes that beset a plant are connected with illumination, temperature, moisture, and contact with foreign bodies.
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  • Many instances might be given of appreciation of and response to other changes in the environment by the growing parts of plants; among them we may mention the opening and closing of flowers during the days of their expansion.
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  • The purposeful character of all these movements or changes of position indicates that they are of nervous origin.
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  • The small pulvini of the leaflets, by similar changes of the distribution of turgidity, take up their respective position.s after receiving the stimulus.
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  • Similar turgescence changes, taking place with similar rapidity in the midrib of the leaf of Dionaea, explainthe closing of the lobes upon their hinge.
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  • Equally disastrous are those climatic or seasonal changes which involve temperatures in themselves not excessive but in wrong sequence; how many more useful plants could be grown in the open in the United Kingdom if the deceptively mild springs were not so often followed by frosts in May and June!
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  • Plcotrachelus causes the invaded Pilobolus to swell up, and changes the whole course of its cell metabolism, and similarly with Plasmodiophora in the roots of turnips, and many other cases.
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  • For instance, suppose the effect of a falling temperature is to so modify the metabolism of the cells that they fill up more and more with watery sap; as the freezing-point is reached this may result in destructive changes, and death from cold may result.
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  • Numerous wild hypotheses as to changes in the constitution of the host-plant, leading to supposed vulnerability previously non-existent, would probably never have seen the light had the full significance of the truth been grasped that an epidemic results when the external laciors favor a parasite somewhat more than they do the host.
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  • Exudations and Rotting.The outward symptoms of many diseases consist in excessive discharges of moisture, often accompanied by bursting of over-turgid cells, and eventually by putrefactive changes.
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  • Moreover, we have good reasons for inferring that different constellations of external causes may determine whether the internal physiological disturbances induced by a given agent shall lead to pathological and dangerous variations, or to changes which may be harmless or even advantageous to the plant concerned.
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  • It is probable that most, if not all, the metabolic changes which take place in a cell, such as the transformation of starch, proteids, sugar, cellulose; and the decomposition -of numerous other organic substances which would otherwise require a high temperature or powerful reagents is also due to their activity.
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  • Coincident with these changes the nuclear membrane disappears and a spindle-shaped or barrelshaped group of threads makes its appearance in.
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  • The significance of this complex series of changes is very largely hypothetical.
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  • If this is correct it is easy to see that the changes which take place may be initiated by the original delicate protoplasmic strands which pass through the cellwall.
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  • It may be inquired what meaning is to be attached to these expressions, and what are the conditions and the nature of the changes assumed by them.
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  • But this phylogenetic differentiation of the organs was not what Wolff and Goethe had in mind; what they contemplated was an ontogenetic change, and there is abundant evidence that such changes actually occur.
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  • The most varied changes of this kind have been described, and are generally familiar as monstrosities; the study of them constitutes, under the name of teratology, a distinct department of biology.
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  • These changes may be brought about by external causes, such as the attacks of insects or of fungi, alterations in external conditions, &c., or by some unexplained internal disturbance of the morphological equilibrium.
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  • In other words, the plant must be irritable to the stimulus exerted from without, and be capable of responding to it by changes of form and structure.
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  • Our regions will not be natural unless they mark out real discontinuities both of origin and affinity, and these we can only seek to explain by reference to past changes in the earths history.
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  • Such profound changes must necessarily have been accompanied by enormous elimination; the migrating hosts were perpetually thinned by falling out on the way.
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  • The study of the evolution of faunas and the comparison of the faunas of distant regions have furnished a trustworthy instrument of pre-historic geographical research, which enables earlier geographical relations of land and sea to be traced out, and the approximate period, or at least the chronological order of the larger changes, to be estimated.
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  • In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
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  • C. Geographical Distribution The study of the extinct organisms of any country leads to a proper appreciation of its existing flora and fauna; while, on the other hand, a due consideration of the plants and animals which may predominate within its bounds cannot fail to throw more or less light on the changes it has in the course of ages undergone.
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  • These colour changes are connected with a dissociation of the molecules.
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  • The hereditary oligarchy of Venice was established by a series of changes which took place between the years 1297 and 1319.
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  • And, as modern changes have commonly attacked the power both of kings and of nobles, the common notion has come that kingship and nobility have some necessary connexion.
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  • A broad depression - the Aral-Caspian desert - has arisen where the plateau formation reaches its greatest altitude, and at the same time suddenly changes its direction from N.W.
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  • The colouring of the steppe changes as if by magic, and only the silvery plumes of the steppe-grass (Stipa pennata) wave in the wind, tinting the steppe a bright yellow.
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  • But cultivation rapidly changes the physiognomy of the steppe.
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  • Under his influence a synod endorsed the changes in 1654; one bishop alone, Paul of Colomna, dissented, and he was deposed, knouted and kept in prison till he died mad.
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  • Having obtained these important concessions the tsar imagined for a moment that in any further territorial changes he would be consulted and his advice allowed due weight, and he seems even to have indulged in the hope that the affairs of Europe might be directed by himself and his new ally.
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  • This was clearly perceived and keenly felt by the educated classes, and as soon as the strong hand of the uncompromising autocrat was withdrawn, they clamoured loudly for radical changes in the aims and methods of their rulers.
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  • The expectation entertained in many III.; ac- quarters that great legislative changes would at once of be made in a liberal sense was not realized.
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  • When Nicholas an influential deputation from the province of Tver, which had long enjoyed a reputation for liberalism, ventured to hint in a loyal address that the time had come for changes in the existing autocratic regime, they received a reply which showed that the emperor had no intention of making any such changes.
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  • Private suggestions in the same sense, offered directly and respectfully, were no better received, and no important changes were made in the legislation of the preceding reign.
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  • Each of these changes has tended to improve the existing status, to legitimize railway enterprise, and to safeguard capital or investment.
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  • With increase of speeds this matter has become important as an element of comfort in passenger traffic. As a first approximation, the centre-line of a railway may be plotted out as a number of portions of circles, with intervening straight tangents connecting them, when the abruptness of the changes of direction will depend on the radii of the circular portions.
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  • A catena of opinions may be produced in favour of almost any theory; but formularies express the collective or average belief of any given period, and changes in them are a sure indication that there has been a general change in ideas.
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  • It is struck by a wooden beam swung on the outside, and only at the changes of the night-watches, when its deep tone may be heard in all parts of the city.
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  • It seemed to Herschel that he was thus able to view the actual changes by which masses of phosphorescent or glowing vapour became actually condensed down into stars.
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  • It is indeed very doubtful whether any changes of a nebula have ever been seen which are of the same character as the changes Herschel's theory would require.
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  • It seems, however, most likely that the periods of time required for such changes are immense and that the changes accomplished in only a century or two are absolutely inappreciable.
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  • The most noticeable features in his reign were the repeated and sudden changes of policy, which, while they arose from the extreme difficulty of finding any system by which the Habsburg monarchy could be governed, were due also to the personal idiosyncrasies of the emperor.
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  • It was then governed by consuls, but various changes of constitution supervened in the direction of enlarging the governing body.
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  • The political changes involved in the Babylonian, Assyrian, Egyptian or Persian conquests surely affected it as little as the subsequent waves of Greek, Roman and other European invasions.
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  • Throughout these vicissitudes there were important political and religious changes which render the study of the composite sources a work of unique difficulty.
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  • In the absence of its native records its relations with Palestine are not always clear, but it may be supposed that amid varying political changes it was able to play a double game.
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  • The value of this external evidence for the history of Israel is enhanced by the fact that biblical tradition associates the changes in the thrones of Israel and Damascus with the work of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, but handles the period without a single reference to the Assyrian Empire.
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  • If the impression left upon current thought can be estimated from certain of the utterances of the court-prophet Isaiah and the Judaean countryman Micah, the light which these throw upon internal conditions must also be used to gauge the real extent of the religious changes ascribed to Hezekiah.
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  • Tradition concentrated upon Ezra and his age many events and changes of fundamental importance.
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  • This Austrian reformation was so typical of other changes elsewhere, and so expressive of the previous disabilities of the Jews, that, even in this rapid summary, space must be spared for some of the details supplied by Graetz.
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  • At Oxford also are the Oxford College for Women, chartered in 1906, an outgrowth, after various changes of name, of the Oxford Female Academy (1839); and the Western College for Women (chartered in 1904), an outgrowth of the Western Female Seminary (opened in 1855).
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  • This, of course, varies in different longitudes, while a further difficulty occurred in the attempt to fix the correct time of Easter by means of cycles of years, when the changes of the sun and moon more or less exactly repeat themselves.
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  • Stokesley opposed all changes in the doctrines of the Church and was very active in persecuting heretics.
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  • This body is not, however, a special board, as in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, but a kind of administrative cabinet as in Iowa, consisting of the secretary of state, the auditor, the treasurer, and the superintendent of 2 The changes made in 1875 were adopted in a convention, were ratified in 1876, and were so numerous that the amended constitution is frequently referred to as the Constitution of 1876.
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  • Thompson, From the Cotton Field to the Cotton Mill, a Study of the Industrial Transition in North Carolina (New York, 1906), contains some interesting observations on the changes in social conditions resulting from the growth of the cotton-manufacturing industry.
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  • Check my contribution to see all my changes and discuss them with me if i did something wrong.
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  • The Blue Grotto is in the Tithonian limestones; it shows indications of recent changes of level.
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  • In 1879 he followed up the Urangi river to the Altai Mountains, and demonstrated to the world the extraordinary physical changes which have passed over the heart of the Asiatic continent since Jenghiz Khan massed his vast armies in those provinces.
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  • This evidence of a gradual process of upheaval still in action may throw some light on the physical (especially the climatic) changes which must have passed over that part of Asia since Balkh was the " mother of cities," the great trade centre of Asia, and the plains of Balkh were green with cultivation.
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  • The necessary and immediate results of such periodical changes of pressure are winds, which, speaking generally, blow from the area of greatest to that of least pressure - subject, however, to certain modifications of direction, arising from the absolute motion of the whole body of the air due to the revolution of the earth on its axis from west to east.
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  • Although the succession of the periodical winds follows the progress of the seasons as just described, the changes in the wind's direction everywhere take place under the operation of special local influences which often disguise the more general law, and make it difficult to trace.
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  • In these features, and in the fact that the gonads are local proliferations of the coelomic epithelium, which have undergone no further changes in the simpler forms, the coelom of this group shows in a particularly clear fashion the general characters of the coelom in the higher Metazoa.
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  • When this great convention met the king must show himself ready to recognize that great changes have taken place, that feudalism and absolutism have for ever disappeared, and that a new relation between king and people has arisen, which must be loyally observed on both sides for the future.
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  • For he proved that the various changes occurring in the several processes of fermentation - as, for example, in the vinous, where alcohol is the chief product; in the acetous, where vinegar appears; and in the lactic, where milk turns sour - are invariably due to the presence and' growth of minute organisms called ferments.
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  • The controversy on this question was waged with spirit on both sides; but in the end Pasteur came off victorious, and in a series of the most delicate and most intricate experimental researches he proved that when the atmospheric germs are absolutely excluded no changes take place.
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  • In the interior of the grape, in the healthy blood, no such germs exist; crush the grape, wound the flesh, and expose them to the ordinary air, then changes, either fermentative or putrefactive, run their course.
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  • The Finance Act of 1894, with its great changes in the death duties, overshadowed all other acts of that year both in its immediate effects and in its far-reaching consequences.
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  • Among other things, he made a more thorough study of socialist writers, with the result that, though he was not converted to any of their schemes as being immediately practicable, he began to look upon some more equal distribution of the produce of labour as a practicability of the remote future, and to dwell upon the prospect of such changes in human character as might render a stable society possible without the institution of private property.
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  • Trade unions, so far from disappearing, were legalized, gathered strength from the changes in industrial organization, and nowhere became so powerful as in the most progressive industries; while other forms of combination appeared, incomparably stronger, for good or evil, than those of earlier times.
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  • The extensions, the changes or the qualifications, of old doctrines, which at any rate in the works of responsible writers are rarely made without good if not always sufficient reason, have modified very considerably the whole science, and weakened the confidence of ordinary educated men in its conclusions.
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  • As in other Molluscan groups, we find a wide variation in the early process of the formation of the first embryonic cells, and their arrangement as a diblastula, dependent on the greater or less amount of food-yolk which is present in the egg-cell when it commences its embryonic changes.
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  • The external form of the embryo goes through the same changes as in other Gastropods, and is not, as was held previously to Lankester's observations, exceptional.
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  • A majority of the Ancients was ready to support Sieyes and make drastic changes in the constitution; but in the Council of Five Hundred the prevalent feeling was democratic or even Jacobinical.
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  • Lucien now consolidated the work of the soldiery by procuring from the Ancients a decree which named Bonaparte, Sieyes and Ducos as provisional consuls, while a legislative commission was appointed to report on necessary changes in the constitution.
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  • Napoleon (who now used his Christian name instead of the surname Bonaparte) thereupon sent proposals for various changes in the constitution, which were at once registered by the obsequious Council of State and the Senate on the 4th of August (16 Thermidor) 1802.
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  • The constitutional changes of August 1802, initiated solely by Bonaparte, made France an absolute monarchy.
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  • In order to understand the utter inability of the old republican party to withstand these changes, it is needful to retrace our steps and consider the skilful use made by Bonaparte of plots and disturbances as they occurred.
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  • His action in the matters just named, as also in the complex affair of the secularizations of clerical domains in Germany (February 1803), belongs properly to the history of those countries; but we may here note that, even before the signature of the peace of Amiens (27th of March 1802), he had effected changes in the constitution of the Batavian (Dutch) republic, which placed power in the hands of the French party and enabled him to keep French troops in the chief Dutch fortresses, despite the recently signed treaty of Luneville which guaranteed the independence of that republic. His treatment of the Italians was equally high-handed.
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  • The Genoese republic a little earlier underwent at his hand changes which made its doge all-powerful in local affairs, but a mere puppet in the hands of Bonaparte.
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  • The effect of these extraordinary changes, then, was the carrying out of Napoleonic satrapies in the north and centre of Italy in a way utterly inconsistent with the treaty of Luneville; and the weakness with which the courts of London and Vienna looked on at these singular events confirmed Bonaparte in the belief that he could do what he would with neighbouring states.
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  • The changes brought about by this constitution were mainly titular.
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  • More important were the titular changes Napoleon, as we have seen, did not venture to create an order of nobility until 1808, but he at once established an imperial hierarchy.
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  • As happened at every stage of Napoleon's advancement, the states tributary to France underwent changes corresponding to those occurring at Paris.
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  • By the peace of Presburg (26th of December 1805) Napoleon compelled Austria to recognize all the recent changes in Italy, and further to cede Venetia, Istria and Dalmatia to the new kingdom of Italy.
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  • The tsar acquired a frontier district from Prussia, recognized the changes brought about by Napoleon in Germany and Italy, and agreed by a secret article that the Cattaro district on the east coast of the Adriatic should go to France.
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  • The more subservient Champagny now became what was virtually the chief clerk in the French foreign office; and other changes placed in high station men who were remarkable for docility rather than originality and power.
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  • The aim in all these changes, it will be observed, was to acquire control over the seaboard, or, failing that, the commerce of all European states.
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  • There are, however, in certain respects at certain periods, evidences of such changes as might be due to the intrusion of small conquering castes, which adopted the superior civilization of the conquered people and became assimilated to the latter.
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  • These and other less well marked changes, say some critics, are signs of a racial convulsion not long after 2000 B.C. An old race was conquered by a new, even if, in matters of civilization, the former capta victorem cepit.
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  • Five hundred years later - about r600 B.C. - we observe that certain striking changes have taken place.
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  • These changes were mainly due to the inspiration of Lord Fisher, and of Sir Arthur Wilson, Lord Fisher's successor as First Sea Lord.
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  • These changes are regarded as having been produced by the operation of heat, pressure and folding.
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  • The cerci, when present, appear in the mature insect to be attached to the tenth segment, but according to Heymons they are really appendages of the eleventh segment, their connexion with the tenth being secondary and the result of considerable changes that take place in the terminal segments.
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  • Metamorphosis is, from this point of view, the sum of the changes that take place under the cuticle of an insect between the ecdyses, which changes only become externally displayed when the cuticle is cast off.
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  • The hypodermis is the immediate agent in effecting the external changes.
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  • Insect metamorphosis may be briefly described as phenomena of development characterized by abrupt changes of appearance and of structure, occurring during the period subsequent to embryonic development and antecedent to the reproductive state.
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  • These changes are in the higher insects so extreme that it is difficult to imagine how they could be increased.
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  • In the case of the common drone-fly, Eristalis tenax, the individual, from a sedentary maggot living in filth, without any relations of sex, and with only unimportant organs for the ingestion of its foul nutriment, changes to a creature of extreme alertness, with magnificent powers of flight, living on the products of the flowers it frequents, and endowed with highly complex sexual structures.
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  • Many of the species are in process of extinction, owing to the extensive changes tha.t are taking place in the natural conditions of the world by the extension of human population and of cultivation, and by the destruction of forests; hence it is probable that a considerable proportion of the species at present existing will disappear from the face of the earth before we have discovered or preserved any specimens of them.
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  • Interesting relationships between the Ethiopian and Oriental, the Neotropical and West African, the Patagonian and New Zealand faunas suggest great changes in the distribution of land and water, and throw doubt on the doctrine of the permanence of continental areas and oceanic basins.
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  • As an abstract of that has already been given, it may be sufficient here to point out the chief changes made in his newer arrangement.
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  • Apart from its intrinsic merits as a learned and valuable addition to classification, this work is interesting in the history of ornithology because of the wholesale changes of nomenclature it introduced as the result of much diligence and zeal in the application of the strict rule of priority to the names of birds.
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  • Side by side with these changes has proceeded the reorganization of the Royal Gallery of Ancient Art, which, created by Napoleon I.
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  • The prevailing winds in most parts are westerly, but sudden changes, as well as the extremes of temperature, are caused mainly by the frequent shifting of the wind from N.W.
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  • Until after the War of Independence the primitive topography remained unchanged, but it was afterwards subjected to changes greater than those effected on the site of any other American city.
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  • Montgomery Field, until in 1903 the famous Boston Museum was swept away, as other interesting old places of entertainment (the old Federal Street theatre, the Tremont theatre, &c.) had been, in the course of further building changes.
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  • It was still a wealthy place as late as the 14th century; but in the general decline of the East, and owing to changes in the trade routes, it sunk at length to a poor group of hovels gathered in the courtyard of the Temple of the Sun.
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  • According to the system of phonetic changes generally known as "Grimm's law," an original b appears in English as p, an original bh as b.
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  • The way was paved for these changes by the existence in Ulster of a local custom having virtually the force of law, which had two main features - fixity of tenure, and free right of sale by the tenant of his interest.
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  • Finally settling at Northumberland, Pennsylvania, he lived there for nearly ten years, until on the 6th of February 1804, after clearly and audibly dictating a few changes he wished made in some of his writings, he quietly expired.
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  • We shall not attempt to trace the changes as they appeared in every market of importance, but shall confine our attention to one only, and that perhaps the most important of all, namely, the market at Liverpool.
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  • Now it is evident that brokers in turn require some means of passing on the risks that they are bearing, or some portion of them from one to another, or of sharing them with other market experts, as they find themselves overburdened, and as their judgment of the situation changes.
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  • American cotton, we may remind the reader, is graded into a number of classes, both on the Liverpool and New York Ex changes, and an attempt is made in each market to keep the grades as fixed as possible.
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  • The complete explanation of changes 1n these relations is still a mystery .
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  • Thus mind and matter are to Geulincx only the "occasional" causes of each other's changes, while Malebranche, facing further the epistemological problem, maintains that mind cannot even know matter, which is merely the "occasion" of knowledge.
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  • He framed a code which introduced several beneficial changes into the laws of his kingdom.
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  • It is found that transparent oils under the influence of light absorb oxygen, becoming deeper in colour and opalescent, while strong acidity and a penetrating odour are developed, these changes being due to the formation of various acid and phenylated compounds, which are also occasionally found in fresh oils.
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  • In the first place, many political changes had been wrought, largely under its influence.
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  • It is impossible here to follow in detail the numerous changes in the distribution of the territory and the gradual disappearance of particular dynasties which maintained a footing for some time longer in Chalcis, Abila, Emesa and Palestine; but it is of special interest to note that the kingdom of the Arab Nabataeans was able to keep its hold for a considerable period on the north as far as Damascus.
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  • It is, however, requisite to make provision for the effect of changes in atmospheric temperature.
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  • Then no changes of external temperature can affect the sag of the wire, and the only thing which can alter its length relatively to the supporting bar is the passage of a current through it.
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  • Changes of atmospheric temperature affect both wires equally and do not tilt the mirror.
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  • In the construction of this soft-iron instrument it is essential that the fragment of iron should be as small and as well annealed as possible and not touched with tools after annealing; also it should be preferably not too elongated in shape so that it may not acquire permanent magnetization but that its magnetic condition may follow the changes of the current in the coil.
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  • Wise, prudent and conservative, Gallatin made few changes in Hamilton's arrangements, and for twelve years administered the national finances with the greatest skill.
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  • The climate is temperate, but liable to sudden changes; the mean temperature is 63° I F., the maximum (in July) 99° 01, the minimum (in January) 31°.
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  • Becoming convinced that the common law in America, and particularly in New York state, needed radical changes in respect to the unification and simplification of its procedure, he visited Europe in 1836 and thoroughly investigated the courts, procedure and codes of England, France and other countries, and then applied himself to the task of bringing about in the United States a codification of the common law procedure.
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  • Eventually the civil code with some changes was adopted in twenty-four states, and the criminal code in eighteen, and the whole formed a basis of the reform in procedure in England and several of her colonies.
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  • He was one of the first to perceive the vast changes which must ensue from the introduction of steam into the navy, which would necessitate a new system of signals and a new method of tactics.
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  • As in his active career he had wrought organic changes in the ordering, direction and control of fleets, so by his historic studies, pursued after his retirement, he helped greatly to effect, if he did not exclusively initiate, an equally momentous change in the popular, and even the professional, way of regarding sea-power and its conditions.
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  • The Revolution of 1868 in Spain promised such salutary changes for the Antilles as the introduction of political parties, the restoration of representation in the Spanish Cortes, and the enfranchisement of the slaves; but the imprudent "Insurrection of Lares," and other outbreaks of 1867-68, delayed these anticipated reforms. The reactionaries feared separation from the mother country.
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  • For example, the physicist determines the density, elasticity, hardness, electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, &c.; the chemist, on the other hand, investigates changes in composition, such as may be effected by an electric current, by heat, or when two or more substances are mixed.
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  • The existence of a fundamental principle, unalterable and indestructible, prevailing alike through physical and chemical changes, was generally accepted.
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  • First and foremost, he demanded that the balance must be used in all investigations into chemical changes.
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  • Three kinds of changes are to be distinguished, viz.
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  • Changes of the first and second kind, according to our views of the constitution of molecules, are probably of very rare occurrence; in fact, chemical action appears almost always to involve the occurrence of both these kinds of change, for, as already pointed out, we must assume that the molecules of hydrogen, oxygen and several other elements are diatomic, or that they consist of two atoms. Indeed, it appears probable that with few exceptions the elements are all compounds of similar atoms united together by one or more units of affinity, according to their valencies.
    0
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  • Note whether any moisture condenses on the cooler parts of the tube, a gas is evolved, a sublimate formed, or the substance changes colour.
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  • If the substance to be weighed changes in composition on strong heating, it is necessary to employ a tared filter, i.e.
    0
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  • Physical Chemistry We have seen how chemistry may be regarded as having for its province the investigation of the composition of matter, and the changes in composition which matter or energy may effect on matter, while physics is concerned with the general properties of matter.
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  • Since a/d is the real specific volume of the molecule, it is therefore a constant; hence (N2-I)/(N2+2)d is also a constant and is independent of all changes of temperature, pressure, and of the state of aggregation.
    0
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  • He also showed how changes in constitution effected dispersions to a far greater extent than they did refractions; thus, while the atomic dispersion of carbon is 0.039, the dispersions due to a double and treble linkage is 0.23 and 0.19 respectively.
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  • Hexachlorethane is trimorphous, forming rhombic, triclinic and cubic crystals; the successive changes occur at about 44° and 71°, and are attended by a decrease in density.
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  • When we listen to the free declamation of the singers at the outset of Der fliegende Hollander - a declamation which is accompanied by 1 The subsequent division into three acts, as given in all the published editions, has been effected in the crudest way by inserting a full close in the orchestral interludes at the changes of scene, and then beginning the next scene by taking up the interludes again.
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  • Wagner effected vast changes in almost every branch of his all-embracing art, from theatrebuilding and stage-lighting to the musical declamation of words.
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  • It is, however, generally agreed that the changes confessedly made by Bretonneau were merely formal.
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  • Rheinhessen is separated from Starkenburg by the Rhine, and has that river as its northern as well as its eastern frontier, though it extends across it at the north-east corner, where the Rhine, on receiving the Main, changes its course abruptly from south to west.
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  • The treaty with the Latins is mentioned by Dionysius of Halicarnassus alone, who had not seen it himself; indeed, it is doubtful whether it was then in existence, and in any case, considering the changes which the language had undergone, it would have been unintelligible.
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  • Towards the close of the 19th century the town became popular as a summer resort for visitors from the interior of Spain, and, in consequence, its appearance under went many changes and much of its early prosperity returned.
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  • This development, which is accompanied by changes in the structure of the skull, depends on breeding the animals in warm damp hutches, without which the best developed parents fail to produce the desired offspring.
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  • Nothing is known with certainty as to the origin of the vast majority of breeds of dogs, and it is an unfortunate fact that the progressive changes which have been made within comparatively recent times by fanciers have not been accurately recorded by the preservation, in museums or collections, of the actual specimens considered typical at different dates.
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  • The air is pure, the climate mild, dry and not subject to sudden changes.
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  • It is not easy to state with certainty the doctrines of a body which (in England at least) has never demanded subscription to any creed, and whose views have undoubtedly undergone more or less definite changes.
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  • Its ten Sephiroth are made up of the grosser elements of the former three worlds; they consist of material substance limited by space and perceptible to the senses in a multiplicity of forms. This world is subject to constant changes and corruption, and is the dwelling of the evil spirits.
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  • The consistent firmness with which he adhered to the cause of constitutional liberalism during the many changes of his times gained him the highest respect of his countrymen, by whom he was styled the Aristides of the French tribune.
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  • The introduction of English law, and the changes made in the judicial and legal systems of Louisiana after 1804 have already been described.
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  • With the establishment of peace in 1898 and the influx of American and other capital and of a heavy immigration, great changes took place in agriculture as in other industrial conditions.
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  • Apart from the heavy losses which it imposed on her, it constitutes a fresh departure in her history, as putting an end to her splendid isolation and rendering her dependent on the changes of European politics.
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  • Changes of ministry at Constantinople were powerless to bring about an improvement, and early in 1896 Cretan affairs became so serious as to call for the intervention of the powers.
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  • Aided by lucky changes of wind, he reached Cadiz, was joined by 1 French and 6 Spanish ships under Admiral Gravina, which, added to the 1 r he had with him, gave him a force of 18 sail.
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  • Since Cleveland became a city in 1836 it has undergone several important changes in government.
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  • Approaching the coasts from the interior, the snow of the surface gradually changes its structure.
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  • Excavations carried out by the marquess of Bute from 188 9 onward furnished for the first time conclusive proof that Cardiff had been a Roman station, and also revealed the sequence of changes which it had subsequently undergone.
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  • As to the causes of the changes in the strength of the current from year to year much investigation has still to be made.
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    0
  • The heating of the latter causes great differences of pressure, which in turn set up changes of atmospheric circulation.
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  • Many economic changes probably occurred in consequence of the variations in tide-generating force, as, for instance, the decline in the mediaeval Baltic herring fisheries controlled by the Hanseatic League.
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  • The respiratory current of water is therefore conducted to the exterior by different means from that adopted by Amphioxus, and this difference is so great that the theory which seeks to explain it has to postulate radical changes of structure, function and topography.
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  • Albumins are generally detected by taking advantage of this property, or of certain colour changes.
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  • By many lines of evidence we are led to believe that obsidians in course of time suffer devitrification, in other words they pass from the vitreous into a crystalline state, but as the changes take place in a solid mass they require a very long time for their achievement, and the crystals produced are only of extremely small size.
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  • When the passage of an electric current through a substance is accompanied by definite chemical changes which are independent of the heating effects of the current, the process is known as electrolysis, and the substance is called an electrolyte.
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  • With other electrolytes similar phenomena appear, though the primary chemical changes may be masked by secondary actions.
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  • The electromotive force of Volta's simple cell falls off rapidly when the cell is used, and this phenomenon was shown to be due to the accumulation at the metal plates of the products of chemical changes in the cell itself.
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  • This reverse electromotive force of polarization is produced in all electrolytes when the passage of the current changes the nature of the electrodes.
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  • To explain this result, chemists suppose that both changes can occur simultaneously, and that equilibrium results when the rate at which AB and CD are transformed into AD and CB is the same as the rate at which the reverse change goes on.
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  • Various forms of apparatus have been used, the principle of them all being to secure efficient separation of the two volumes of solution in which the changes occur.
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  • It is found that, in such cases as this, where it seems necessary to imagine the existence of complex ions, the transport number changes rapidly as the concentration of the original solution is changed.
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  • Thus, diminishing the concentration of the cadmium iodine solution from normal to one-twentieth normal changes the transport number from I 12 to o 64.
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  • Solid copper chloride is brown or yellow, so that its concentrated solution, which contains both ions and undissociated molecules, is green, but changes to blue as water is added and the ionization becomes complete.
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  • The method employed was to measure the changes in volume caused by the action.
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  • When the solutions of two substances are mixed, similar considerations to those given above enable us to calculate the resultant changes in dissociation.
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  • In order that the current should be maintained, and the electromotive force of the cell remain constant during action, it is necessary to ensure that the changes in the cell, chemical or other, which produce the current, should neither destroy the difference between the electrodes, nor coat either electrode with a non-conducting layer through which the current cannot pass.
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  • When the applied electromotive force is diminished by an infinitesimal amount, the cell produces a current in the usual direction, and the ordinary chemical changes occur.
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  • If the external electromotive force exceed that of the cell by ever so little, a current flows in the opposite direction, and all the former chemical changes are reversed, copper dissolving from the copper plate, while zinc is deposited on the zinc plate.
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  • If the chemical changes which occur in the cell were allowed to take place in a closed vessel without the performance of electrical or other work, the change in energy would be measured by the heat evolved.
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  • Thus, if L denote the heat corresponding with the chemical changes associated with unit electric transfer, Le will be the heat corresponding with an electric transfer e, and will also be equal to the change in internal energy of the cell.
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  • We may imagine these changes reversed in two ways.
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  • In ordinary cases possible changes in the concentrations only affect the electromotive force by a few parts in a hundred, but, by means such as those indicated above, it is possible to produce such immense differences in the concentrations that the electromotive force of the cell is not only changed appreciably but even reversed in direction.
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  • The phenomena of polarization are thus seen to be due to the changes of surface produced, and are correlated with the differences of potential which exist at any surface of separation between a metal and an electrolyte.
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  • The secular fashions altered with changes of taste; but the Church retained the dress with the other traditions of the Roman Empire.
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  • Father Braun, to whose kindness the writer is indebted for the above account of the causes of the ritual changes in the Carolingian epoch, adds that the papacy was never narrowminded in its attitude towards local rites, and that it was not until the close of the middle ages, when diversity had become confusion and worse, that it began to insist upon uniformity.
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  • Yet in view of later controversies, the changes made during this period, notably in the vestments connected with the mass, are not without significance.
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  • Before discussing the changes made in the various Reformed Churches, due to the doctrinal developments of the 16th century, we may therefore give here a list of the vestments now worn by the various orders of clergy in the Roman Catholic Church and the Oriental Churches.
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  • When exposed to air the latex gradually undergoes putrefactive changes accompanied by coagulation of the caoutchouc. The addition of a small quantity of ammonia or of formalin to some latices usually has the effect of preserving them for a considerable time.
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  • The effect of chemical agents in producing coagulation are in consonance with what is known of other instances of polymeric or condensation changes, whilst the fact that the collection of globules separated by creaming after thorough washing, and therefore removal of all proteid, is susceptible of solidification into caoutchouc by a merely mechanical act such as churning, strongly supports the view that the character of the change is distinct from that of any alteration which may occur in the proteid constituents of the latex.
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  • The globules in the latex, however, consist more probably of a distinct liquid substance which readily changes into the solid caoutchouc. The coagulation of the latex often originates with the " curding " of the proteids present, and this alteration in the proteid leads to the solidification of the globules into caoutchouc. The latter, however, is probably a distinct effect.
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  • Finally, the laws of distribution of animals over Siberia cannot be made out until the changes undergone by its surface during the Glacial and Lacustrine periods are well established and the Post-Tertiary fauna is better known The remarkable finds of Quaternary mammals about Omsk and their importance for the history of the Equidae are merely a slight indication of what may be expected in this field.
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  • On account of its transparency and its resistance to fire and sudden changes of temperature, mica has been much used for the windows of stoves and lanterns, for the peep-holes of furnaces, and the chimneys of lamps and gas-burners.
    0
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  • Hence the transposition of columns merely changes the sign of the determinant.
    0
    0
  • Similarly it is shown that the transposition of any two columns or of any two rows merely changes the sign of the determinant.
    0
    0
  • Interchange of any two rows or of any two columns merely changes the sign of the determinant.
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  • None of these political changes weakened the independent spirit of the Bearnais.
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  • In general the climate, which varies with the configuration of the surface, is moderate and healthy, although subject to rapid changes of temperature.
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  • A later improvement (which somewhat changes the mode of working) is that by Moffett.
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  • Hence they were resolutely opposed to any idea of reform; for to begin making changes in the Church's system would be a tacit admission that Luther had some show of reason on his side.
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  • Some changes were eventually necessitated by the wars with the Moors and the Vandals.
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  • Thus it is found that the action of the heart is accelerated by pleasant, and retarded by unpleasant, stimuli; again, changes of weight and volume are found to accompany modifications of affection - and so on.
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  • The second is Fechner's method; it consists of recording the changes in feeling-tone produced in a subject by bringing him in contact with a series of conditions, objects or stimuli graduated according to a scientific plan and presented singly in pairs or in groups.
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  • The most careful determinations are affected by systematic errors arising from those diurnal and annual changes of temperature, the effect of which cannot be wholly eliminated in astronomical observation; and the recently discovered variation of latitude has introduced a new element of uncertainty into the determination.
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  • Changes of Dimensions attending Magnetization.
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  • On the other hand, the magnetic properties of a substance are affected by such causes as mechanical stress and changes of temperature.
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  • Unfortunately the effects of magnetization upon the specific resistance of bismuth vary enormously with changes of temperature; it is therefore necessary to take two readings of the resistance, one when the spiral is in the magnetic field, the other when it is outside.
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  • Changes Of Dimensions Attending Magnetization It is well known that the form of a piece of ferromagnetic metal is in general slightly changed by magnetization.
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  • Some experiments were next undertaken with the view of ascertaining how far magnetic changes of length in iron were dependent upon the hardness of the metal, and the unexpected result was arrived at that softening produces the same effect as tensile stress; it depresses the elongation curve, diminishing the maximum extension, and reducing the " critical value " of the magnetizing force.
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  • In the case of the ring in question, the circumferential changes were in weak fields less than twice as great as the transverse ones, while in strong fields they were more than twice as great; under increasing magnetic force therefore the volume of the ring was first diminished, then it regained its original value (for H=go), and ultimately increased.
    0
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  • Hence the changes of volume undergone by a given sample of wrought iron under increasing magnetization must depend largely upon the state of the metal as regards hardness; there may be always contraction, or always expansion, or first one and then the other.
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  • Honda, measured the changes of length of various metals shaped in the form of ovoids instead of cylindrical rods, and determined the magnetization curves for the same specimens; a higher degree of accuracy was thus attained, and satisfactory data were provided for testing theories.
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  • For soft iron, tungsten-steel and nickel little difference appeared to result from lowering the temperature down to - 186° C. (the temperature of liquid air); at sufficiently high temperatures, 600 to 1000° or more, it was remarked that the changes of length in iron, steel and cobalt tended in every case to become proportional to the magnetic force, the curves being nearly straight lines entirely above the axis.
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  • Honda subjected tubes of iron, steel and nickel to the simultaneous action of circular and longitudinal fields, and observed the changes of length when one of the fields was varied while the other remained constant at different successive values from zero upwards.
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  • In the latter case the first application of stress is always attended by an increase-often a very great one-of the magnetization, whether the field is weak or strong, but after a load has been put on and taken off several times the changes of magnetization become cyclic. From experiments of both classes it appears that for a given field there is a certain value of the load for which the magnetization is a maximum, the maximum occuring at a smaller load the stronger the field.
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  • Analogous changes are observed in the residual magnetization which remains after the wire has been subjected to fields of different strength.
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  • Thomson (Applications of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry, 47) that on dynamical principles there must be a reciprocal relation between the changes of dimensions produced by magnetization and the changes of magnetization attending mechanical strain.
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  • So, too, the Villari reversals in iron and cobalt might have been predicted - as indeed that in cobalt actually was - from a knowledge of the changes of length which those metals exhibit when magnetized.
    0
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  • Recent researches have shown that other imporant changes in its properties occur at the same critical temperature.
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  • The first exact experiments demonstrating the changes which occur in the permeability of iron,, 3 Phil.
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  • The paper contains tables and curves showing details of the magnetic changes, sometimes very complex, at different temperatures and with different fields.
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  • Observations were also made of the changes of permeability which took place as the temperature of the sample slowly rose from - 186° to 15°, the magnetizing force being kept constant throughout an experiment.
    0
    0
  • The first immersion into liquid air generally produced a permanent decrease of magnetic moment, and there was sometimes a further decrease when the metal was warmed up again; but after a few alternations of temperature the changes of moment.
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  • At constant temperature the resistance increased with the field; the changes in the resistance of the spiral when the temperature was 18° C. are indicated in the annexed table, from which it will be seen that in the strongest transverse field reached the resistance was increased more than threefold.
    0
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  • Bidwell," who, adopting special precautions against sources of error by which former work was probably affected, measured the changes of thermo-electric force for iron, steel, nickel and cobalt produced by magnetic fields up to I Soo units.
    0
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  • Changes of elasticity are in all cases dependent, not only upon the field, but also upon the tension applied; and, owing to hysteresis, the results are not in general the same when the magnetization follows as when it precedes the application of stress; the latter is held to be the right order.
    0
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  • With small magnetizing forces the hysteresis was indeed somewhat larger than that obtained in an alternating field, probably on account of the molecular changes being forced to take place in one direction only; but at an induction of about 16,00o units in soft iron and 15,000 in hard steel the hysteresis reached a maximum and afterwards rapidly diminished.
    0
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  • The statements in ancient authorities as to the changes in the number of the equites during the regal period are very confusing; but it is regarded as certain that Servius Tullius found six centuries in existence, to which he added twelve, making,' eighteen in all, a number which remained unchanged throughout the republican ' period.
    0
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  • He was evidently the prime mover in the various changes effected in the law by the novels of Justinian (Novellae constitutiones), which became much less frequent and less important after death had removed the great jurist.
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  • They are corrected to cover all boundary changes to 1906.
    0
    0
  • The banking facilities of the republic have undergone many changes under the new regime.
    0
    0
  • This institution has undergone four changes of site since its foundation in 1670 by Sir Andrew Balfour and Sir Robert Sibbald, and now occupies an area of 34 acres in Inverleith Row.
    0
    0
  • Important changes were made in the con stitution by acts passed in 1858 and 1889.
    0
    0
  • Owing to the great changes effected during the latter part of the 19th century, some of the old markets were demolished and the system of centralizing trade was not wholly revived.
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  • In 1387, after various political changes, it surrendered to Antonio da Montefeltro of Urbino, and remained under the dominion of the dukes of Urbino until, in 1624, the whole duchy was ceded to the pope.
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  • The turbulent action of the twelve and the Salimbeni, being dissatisfied with these changes, speedily rose against the new government.
    0
    0
  • These disorders were only checked by fresh changes in the council of fifteen.
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    0
  • The Reformation brought in radical changes, which were on the whole a return to the primitive type.
    0
    0
  • Adjoining the lower Tana are many backwaters, which seem to show that the course has been subject to great changes.
    0
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  • When in 1824 the next attempt was made by Europeans to form a settlement at the bay, Cape Colony had passed from the Dutch into the ' possession of Great Britain, while in Natal great changes had come over the land as a result of wars between the natives.
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  • These somewhat frequent changes of ministry, characteristic of a country new to responsible government, reflected, chiefly, differences concerning the treatment of commercial questions and the policy to be adopted towards the natives.
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  • He was, moreover, assailed with great violence by a powerful section of the English press, while the large number of minute details with which he had to deal in connexion with proposed changes in the French tariff, involved a tax on his patience and industry which would have daunted a less resolute man But there was one source of embarrassment greater than all the rest.
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  • The year 1787 was rendered further memorable by Laplace's announcement on the 19th of November (Memoirs, 1786), of the dependence of lunar acceleration upon the secular changes in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit.
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  • If, however, the 3.4.5 results of making changes like this are written down, it will be seen that any one term in the required product is written down several times.
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  • The accession of the Emperor Charles, and the ferment aroused by the Russian Revolution, led to considerable political changes in both halves of the Dual Monarchy, the most notable being the dismissal of Count Tisza from the Hungarian premiership (May 23 1917), the grant of a general political amnesty, and the summons of the Austrian Reichsrat, which had not been allowed to meet since March 1914.
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  • In consequence of this excess of births there is a struggle for existence and a survival of the fittest, and consequently an ever-present necessarily acting selection, which either maintains accurately the form of the species from generation to generation or leads to its modification in correspondence with changes in the surrounding circumstances which have relation to its fitness for success in the struggle for life.
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  • By others the word " fluctuation " is apparently applied only to those small " acquired " variations due to the direct action of changes in food, moisture and other features of the environment.
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  • This process is known as " direct adaptation "; and there is no doubt that such structural adaptations are acquired by an animal in the course of its life, though such changes are strictly limited in degree and rare rather than frequent and obvious.
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  • The path of a ray from the wave-surface A 0 B 0 to the point A is changed; but in virtue of the minimum property the change may be neglected in calculating the optical distance,as it influences the result by quantities of the second order only in the changes of refrangibility.
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  • Its tendency to undergo cyclical changes.
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  • It is the subject of the operation of certain forces in virtue of which it undergoes internal changes, modifies external objects, and is modified by them; and 4.
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  • That the Pharaoh's skirt, sometimes decorated with a pleated golden material, should become an honorific garment, the right of wearing which was proudly recorded among the bearer's titles, is quite intelligible, but many difficulties arise when one attempts to identify the individuals represented, or to trace the evolution of ideas.2 The well-known conservatism of religious practice manifests itself in ceremonial festivals (where there is a tendency for the original religious meaning to be obscured) and among cere= the priests, and it is interesting to observe that despite the great changes in Egyptian costume in the New Kingdom the priests still kept to the simple linen skirt of earlier days (Erman, 206).
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  • On the one hand, there was a conservatism which is exemplified when the Jews in course of immigration took with them the characteristic dress of their former adopted home, or when they remained unmoved by the changes of the Renaissance.
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  • No such difficulty occurs in regard to the weights and measures; it is generally agreed that a system was already in existence in the time of Pheidon, into which he introduced certain changes.
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  • The territorial divisions of Venezuela have been subjected to many changes.
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  • Both overlooked the changes brought by the introduction of the longrange rifle (muzzleand breech-loading alike), which had rendered impossible the "case shot preparation" which had formed the basis of Napoleon's tactical system.
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  • The structural changes occurring in the bronchi in catarrhal bronchitis have also been ascertained, and, as in the case of pneumonia, have been shown to be frequently excited by the presence of a microphyte.
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  • Fermentative changes are set up in it, characterized by the evolution of gas and the formation of products of suboxidation, some of which, being volatile, account for the characteristic odour.
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  • The central part of the obstructed area very soon undergoes degenerative changes, and rapidly becomes decolourized.
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  • The ovaries show atrophic changes after the menopause.
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  • The loss of an eye will be followed by atrophy of the optic nerve; the tissues in a stump of an amputated limb show atrophic changes; a paralysed limb from long disuse shows much wasting; and one finds at great depths of the sea fishes and marine animals, which have almost completely lost the organs of sight, having been cut off for long ages from the stimuli (light) essential for these organs, and so brought into an atrophic condition from disuse.
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  • Injury and loss of tissue are usually followed by repair, and both the destructive and reparative changes are, as a rule, classified under the term inflammation.
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  • There is thus brought into play a series of processes on the part of the tissues - the vascular inflammatory changes - which is really the first move to neutralize the malign effects.
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  • The vascular changes are practically absent in healing by first intention.
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  • In certain pathological conditions an excessive formation and discharge of such material is usually associated with catarrhal changes in the epithelium.
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  • These changes are found in senile wasting, in metaplasia of cartilage, in many tumours, especially mixed growths of the parotid gland and testicle, and in various inflammatory granulation ulcers.
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  • In acute and chronic alcoholism, in phthisis, and in other diseases this fatty condition may be very extreme, and is commonly found in association with other tissue changes, so that probably we should look on these changes as a degeneration.
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  • In diabetes mellitus, in which there is marked derangement in metabolism, extreme fatty changes are occasionally found in the organs, and the blood may be loaded with fat globules.
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  • Certain degenerative changes in the supra-renal glands may lead to Addison's disease, which is characterized by an excessive pigmentary condition of the skin and mucous membranes.
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  • Prolonged ingestion of arsenic may cause pigmentary changes in the skin.
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  • It is a retrogressive process producing characteristic changes in the fine connectivetissue fibrils.
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  • The development of rich gold and silver mines brought in more Spanish settlers, and then the record changes to one of partisan warfare, which continued down to the administration of President Porfirio Diaz.
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  • The disassociation from his local origin involved in this doctrine of the triad gave to Bel a rank independent of political changes, and we, accordingly, find Bel as a factor in the religion of Babylonia and Assyria to the latest days.
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  • The duty of the physician was to foresee these changes, "to assist or not to hinder them," so that "the sick man might conquer the disease with the help of the physician."
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  • Still in some parts of his system Sylvius shows an anxiety to base his pathology on anatomical changes.
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  • Broussais's system, to which he gave the name of "Medecine physiologique," did much indirect good, in fixing attention upon morbid changes in the organs, and thus led to the rise of the strongly opposed anatomical and pathological school of Corvisart, Laennec and Bayle.
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  • The pathologico-anatomical method was also followed with great zeal and success by Gaspard Laurent Bayle (1774-1816), whose researches on tubercle, and the changes of the lungs and other organs in consumption, are the foundation of most that has been done since his time.
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  • With changes of the pressures of the blood in arteries, veins or capillaries, and in the heart itself and its respective chambers, static changes are apt to follow in these parts; such as degeneration of the coats of the arteries, due either to the silent tooth of time, to persistent high blood pressures, or to the action of poisons such as lead or syphilis.
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  • In the sphere of physiology and in the interpretation of associated arterial diseases much obscurity still remains; as, for instance, concerning the nature of the toxic substances which produce those bilateral changes in the kidneys which we call Bright's disease, and bring about the "uraemia" which is characteristic of it.
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  • In the middle part of the century, by a natural exaggeration of the importance of newly-discovered local changes in the pelvic organs, much harm was done to women by too narrow an attention to the site, characters and treatment of these; the meddlesomeness of the physician becoming in the temperament of woman.
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  • A study of the changes going on in the rif tvalley in which the lakes lie leads, however, to the belief that the Albert Edward and Albert Nyanzas are drying up, a process which the nature of the drainage areas is helping to bring about.
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  • In connexion with these two features of a Roman city supposed to be found in Ancient London the author argues for the continuity of the city through the changes of Roman and Saxon dominion.
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  • One of the most striking changes in the appearance of Norman London was caused by the rebuilding of old churches and the building of new ones, and also by the foundation of bourhood of London, although the houses of nuns, of which there were many dotted over the suburbs of London, were governed by this rule.
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