Chambers Sentence Examples
Katie watched her walk down the hall toward her chambers, stunned.
He stopped outside her chambers, heart pounding.
Both descriptions of rock yielded good material for building; while in the soft meleke tanks, underground chambers, tombs, &c., were easily excavated.
By the law of the 20th of February 1906 the Council of the Empire was associated with the Duma as a legislative Upper House; and from this time the legislative power has been exercised normally by the emperor only in concert with the two chambers.
Of the elected members 3 are returned by the " black " clergy (the monks), 3 by the " white " clergy (seculars), 5 18 by the corporations of nobles, 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities, 6 by the chambers of commerce, 6 by the industrial councils, 34 by the governments having zemstvos, 16 by those having no zemstvos, and 6 by Poland.Advertisement
The sum of 700,000,000 roubles per annum is thus excepted from the control of the chambers.
These ordinances must, however, be of a temporary nature, must not infringe the fundamental laws or statutes passed by the two chambers, or change the electoral system, and must be laid upon the table of the Duma at the first opportunity.
For such the reader may consult Brand's Popular Antiquities, Hone's Every-Day Book, and Chambers's Book of Days.
In any case the cavity of the prostomium is single, and not formed, as is the cavity of the segments of the body, by paired coelomic chambers.
The Chaetopoda are characterized by a spacious coelom, which is divided into a series of chambers in accordance with the general metamerism of the body.Advertisement
Light spilled across the church as a door leading to the chambers in the rear opened.
The weapon hadn't been cleaned since it was last fired, but all six chambers contained bullets.
He stopped in front of the closed door to the massive set of chambers that were supposed to be his.
A blow sent him smashing into a wall, and he morphed instantly, diving at the demons chasing his brothers as they retreated through the burnt doorway of Kris.s chambers to search for weapons.
Lana suspected the labyrinth of tunnels and chambers ran beneath the entire town.Advertisement
Judge Adamson arrived and there followed more conversation at the bench and in the judge's chambers than in the courtroom.
These men will escort you to your chambers.
The book was where he left it in Rissa's chambers.
Thus, there may be a platform round the nuraghe, generally with two, three or four bastions, each often containing a chamber; or the main nuraghe may have additional chambers added to it.
Central Government.The principles upon which the French constitution is based are representative government (by two chambers), manhood suffrage, responsibility of ministers and irresponsibility of the head of the state.Advertisement
The members of both chambers owe their election to universal suffrage; but the Senate is not elected directly by the people and the Chamber of Deputies is.
These ruins include the palace of Yesu II., which has several fine chambers.
In 1856 the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce began an agitation for the purchase by the government of the telegraphs, and other chambers of commerce in Great Britain joined the agitation, which was strongly supported by the Press.
At present such chambers exist in many Italian cities, while leagues of improvement,, or of resistance, are rapidly spreading in the country districts.
The low level of wages in many trades and the jealousies of the Chambers of Labor and other working-class organizations impede rapid development.Advertisement
Each of the chambers has the right of introducing new bills, as has also the government; but all money bills must originate in the Chamber of Deputies.
With an apical pneumatophore, not divided into chambers, followed by a series of nectocalyces or bracts.
With a very large pneumatophore not divided into chambers, but without nectocalyces or bracts.
The gills, borne on four arches, are internal and enclosed in the branchial chambers.
The water is expelled from the branchial chambers by one or two tubes opening by one orifice in most Batrachians.
The cat cemetery on the west side of the town consisted of numbers of large brick chambers, crammed with burnt and decayed mummies, many of which had been enclosed in cat-shaped cases of wood and bronze.
The cloaca is divided by transverse circular folds, which project from its inner walls, into three successive chambers.
This is the typical arrangement, which is exhibited in the majority of the Polychaeta and Oligochaeta; in these the successive chambers of the coelom are separated by the intersegmental septa, sheets of muscle fibres extending from the body wall to the gut and thus forming partitions across the body.
One important result of its publication was that, in 1781, Lord Shelburne (afterwards first marquess of Lansdowne) called upon its author in his chambers at Lincoln's Inn.
The upper whorls of the shell are seen to be divided into separate chambers by the formation of successively formed " septa."
The election of Merlin of Douay and Francois of Neufchatel as Directors, in place of Carnot and Barthelemy, gave to that body a compactness which enabled it to carry matters with a high hand, until the hatred felt by Frenchmen for this soulless revival of a moribund Jacobinism gradually endowed the Chambers with life and strength sufficient to provoke a renewal of strife with the Directory.
As for the chambers, based avowedly on universal suffrage, their existence thenceforth was ornamental or sepulchral.
At Lyons, on the 13th of March, Napoleon had issued an edict dissolving the existing chambers and ordering the convocation of a national mass meeting, or Champ de Mai, for the purpose of modifying the constitution of the Napoleonic empire.
On arriving at Paris three days after Waterloo he still clung to the hope of concerting national resistance; but the temper of the chambers and of the public generally forbade any such attempt.
The autocrat and Lucien Bonaparte were almost alone in believing that by dissolving the chambers and declaring himself dictator, he could save France from the armies of the powers now converging on Paris.
Among the public buildings are the communal chambers, a Reformed church (1661), a Roman Catholic church and a synagogue.
The legislative power is vested in a national congress of two chambers, elected by direct suffrage, and convened on the 3rd of May each year.
During the session of 1830 the chambers adopted a criminal code in which punishment by death for political offences was abolished.
In 1834 a reform which was well received consisted in the alteration of the regency, from that of three members elected by the legislative chambers, to one regent chosen by the whole of the electors in the same manner as the deputies; and the councils of the provinces were replaced by legislative provincial assemblies.
It contains, in addition to the ancient national records, adequate accommodation, in fireproof chambers, for all Scottish title-deeds, entails, contracts and mortgages, and for general statistics, including those of births, deaths and marriages.
In conformity with the motto of the city, Nisi Dominus frustra, there are numerous handsome places of public worship. St Giles's church, which was effectively restored (1879-1883) by the liberality of Dr William Chambers the publisher, has interesting historical and literary associations.
The opening up of the wide thoroughfare of Chambers Street, on the site of College Wynd and Brown and Argyll Squares, cleared the precincts of unsightly obstructions and unsavoury neighbours.
At St Helena he told Gourgaud that he intended in 1815 to dissolve the chambers as soon as he had won a great victory.
Even Davout, minister of war, advised him that the destinies of France rested solely with the chambers.
The coffins are of small size, contain corpses with the knees drawn up to the chin and are found in excavated chambers or pits.
First (and perhaps earliest in time), the chambers are grouped round a central court, being engaged one with the other in a labyrinthine complexity, and the greater oblongs are entered from a long side and divided longitudinally by pillars.
They lead into chambers, formed by inpushing of the cuticle, whose delicate inner walls are in contact with air-tubes; on the outer surface of these latter are ridges, along which the special nerveendings are arranged.
At present the magnificent council chambers for the different legislative bodies of the Venetian republic and the state apartments of the doges are richly decorated with gilt carving and panelling in the style of the later Renaissance.
On the walls of the chief council chambers are a magnificent series of oil-paintings by Tintoretto and other less able Venetians - among them Tintoretto's masterpiece, "Bacchus and Ariadne," and his enormous picture of Paradise, the largest oil-painting in the world.
She was worshipped, under the form of a conical stone, in an open-air sanctuary of the usual Cypriote type (not unlike those of Mycenaean Greece), the general form of which is known from representations on late gems, and on Roman imperial coins;' its ground plan was discovered by excavations in 1888.2 It suffered repeatedly from earthquakes, and was rebuilt more than once; in Roman times it consisted of an open court, irregularly quadrangular, with porticos and chambers on three sides, and a gateway through them on the east.
The constitution of 1820, subject to four subsequent modifications, is still the law of the land, the legislative power being vested in two chambers and the executive power being exercised by the three departments of the ministry of state.
A high class soap, which after framing contains about 30% of water, is brought down to a water content of 11-14% by drying in chambers through which warm air is circulated.
They consist of chambers of various sizes, some of which were evidently human habitations, together with cisterns, channels, seats, steps, terraces and quadrangular tombs, all cut in the rock.
Some of the rock chambers originally intended for tombs were afterwards converted, perhaps under pressure of necessity, into habitations, as in the case of the so-called " Prison of Socrates," which consists of three chambers horizontally excavated and a small round apartment of the " beehive " type.
The temple consisted of an eastern cella with pronaos; behind this was the opisthodomos, divided into three chambers - possibly treasuries - with a portico at the western end.
The Stoa consisted of a series of 21 chambers, probably shops, faced by a double colonnade, the outer columns being of the Doric order, the inner unfluted, with lotus-leaf capitals; it possessed an upper storey fronted with Ionic columns.
The interior consisted of a spacious court surrounded by a colonnade of ioo columns, into which five chambers opened at the eastern end.
In the same year Berzelius discovered selenium in a deposit from sulphuric acid chambers, his masterly investigation including a study of the hydride, oxides and other compounds.
The more noteworthy are the old government house (now occupied by the school of mines), the legislative chambers, municipal hall and jail - all fronting on the Praga da Independencia - and elsewhere the old Casa dos Contos (afterwards the public treasury), a theatre (the oldest in Brazil, restored in 1861-1862) and a hospital.
Publishing, on the other hand, has drifted away, only a few leading houses - such as those of Blackwood, Chambers and Nelson - still making the Scottish capital their headquarters.
According to this Hamburg is a republic, the government (Staatsgewalt) residing in two chambers, the Senate and the House of Burgesses.
She was attended by a man, and three other men were buried in the other chambers.
In September a meeting of the chambers of mines and commerce was held at Johannesburg, and a letter on various matters of the greatest importance to the mining industry was addressed to the Boer executive.
To the northwest of the theatre a winding road ascends through the rock, with comparatively late tomb chambers on each side of it.
With changes of the pressures of the blood in arteries, veins or capillaries, and in the heart itself and its respective chambers, static changes are apt to follow in these parts; such as degeneration of the coats of the arteries, due either to the silent tooth of time, to persistent high blood pressures, or to the action of poisons such as lead or syphilis.
Somerset House (1776-1786), a massive range of buildings by Sir William Chambers, surrounding a quadrangle, and having its front upon the Strand and back upon the Victoria Embankment, occupies the site of a palace founded by the protector Somerset, c. 1548.
Instead of mining in horizontal floors the filling method permits the ore to be mined in vertical chambers or slices which extend from one level to the next above and from one wall of the deposit to the other.
When a chamber has been excavated and completely filled the slice adjoining is mined out, or at times a block of ground may be left untouched between two filled chambers and then mined out.
This method of mining and filling can be used when the work is done in horizontal floors or in transverse chambers.
For high heads the water cylinders, valves and valve chambers are specially constructed to withstand heavy pressures, water being sometimes raised in a single lift to heights of more than 2000 ft.
Chambers, recently reported on Jamaica tobacco as of good quality and flavour but often of a heavy nature.
The cuneiform inscriptions are on the rock pinnacles above the town, with some rock chambers, indicating a town or fortress of the Vannic period.
In both chambers the exercise of some scientific profession is accepted in lieu of the pecuniary income.
Large chambers are also used in the condensation of mercury.
The Palazzo della Ragione, with its great hall on the upper floor, is reputed to have the largest roof unsupported by columns in Europe; the hall is nearly rectangular, its length 2672 ft., its breadth 89 ft., and its height 78 ft.; the walls are covered with symbolical paintings in fresco; the building stands upon arches, and the upper storey is surrounded by an open loggia, not unlike that which surrounds the basilica of Vicenza; the Palazzo was begun in 1172 and finished in 1219; in 1306 Fra Giovanni, an Augustinian friar, covered the whole with one roof; originally there were three roofs, spanning the three chambers into which the hall was at first divided; the internal partition walls remained till the fire of 1420, when the Venetian architects who undertook the restoration removed them, throwing all three compartments into one and forming the present great hall.
Besides the imposing proportions of its chambers, the cavern is remarkable for the variegated beauty of its stalactite formations, some resembling transparent drapery, others waterfalls, trees, animals or human beings, the more grotesque being called by various fanciful appellations.
Released from the labours of office, Gladstone, living in chambers in the Albany, practically divided his time between his parliamentary duties and study.
The latter consisted of a principal hall, where the master of the house lived, ate and slept, and of three suites of chambers, disposed on the north, the east and the west of the principal hall.
The government of Baden is an hereditary monarchy, with the executive power vested in the grand-duke, while the legislative authority is shared by him with a representative assembly (Landtag) consisting of two chambers.
The chambers meet at least every two years.
The result was a deadlock; and, even before the promulgation of the Carlsbad decrees in October 1819 the grand-duke had prorogued the chambers, after three months of sterile debate.
The Bee, or Universal Weekly Pamphlet (1733-1735) of the unfortunate Eustace Budgell, and the Literary Magazine (1735-1736), with which Ephraim Chambers had much to do, were short-lived.
Next come the various kinds of inhumation graves, the most important of which are rock-hewn chambers, many of which contain well-preserved paintings of various periods; some show close kinship to archaic Greek art, while others are more recent, and one, the Grotta del Tifone (so called from the typhons, or winged genii of death, represented) in which Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions appear, belongs perhaps to the middle of the 4th century B.C. Fine sarcophagi from these tombs, some showing traces of painting, are preserved in the municipal museum, and also numerous fine Greek vases, bronzes and other objects.
Six chambers were thus formed which showed the chaste beauty of Greek workmanship, while the stratum of native rock which covered them gave a touch of nature and made them caves.
The chambers were really reservoirs, filled by the water which flowed along their backs.
In it were carved out four chambers or reservoirs all connected and a porch consisting of three pillars between two antae in which the side walls ended.
In these buildings there is a great preference for apsidal terminations to the internal chambers, and the façades are as a rule slightly curved.
Locally it is ruled by an Imperial governor (the Statthalter) who resides at Innsbruck, where, too, meets annually the local legislature or Diet (the Landtag), composed (according to the constitution of 1861) of 68 members; the archbishop of Salzburg, the bishops of Trent and Brixen, and the rector of the university of Innsbruck sit in person, while the great ecclesiastical corporations send four deputies, the chambers of commerce of Innsbruck, Trent and Rovereto each one, the nobles ten, the towns 13, and the peasants 34.
In the female, each ovary consists of a large number of ovarian tubes, in which swollen chambers containing the egg-cells alternate with smaller chambers enclosing nutrient material.
These belong to the 7th century B.C., and are followed by the tombe a camera, in which the tomb is a chamber hewn in the rock, and which can be traced back to the beginning of the 6th century B.C. From one of the earliest of these came the famous Francois vase; another is the tomb of Poggio Renzo, or della Scimmia (the monkey), with several chambers decorated with archaic paintings.
Other noteworthy tombs are those of the Granduca, with a single subterranean chamber carefully constructed in travertine, and containing eight sarcophagi of the same material; of Vigna Grande, very similar to this; of Cone Casuccini (the ancient stone door of which is still in working order), with two chambers, containing paintings representing funeral rites; of Poggio Moro and Valdacqua, in the former of which the paintings are almost destroyed, while the latter is now inaccessible.
Some remains of the town walls still exist, and also two ancient bridges, both belonging to the Via Clodia, and many tombs hewn in the rock - small chambers imitating the architectural forms of houses, with beams and rafters represented in relief.
Many variations of this apparatus are in use; in one of the commonest there are two cylindrical chambers, joined at the bottom, and each provided at the top with fine tubes bent at right angles; sometimes the inlet and outlet tubes are provided with caps.
The second rectangle contains a small hypostyle hall with six columns, and the sanctuary, with their subsidiary chambers.
On the roof of the temple, reached by two staircases, are a pavilion and several chambers dedicated to the worship of Osiris.
Inside and out, the whole of the temple is covered with scenes and inscriptions in crowded characters, of ceremonial and religious import; the decoration is even carried into a remarkable series of hidden passages and chambers or crypts made in the solid walls for the reception of its most valuable treasures.
He was the soul of the reactionary opposition that led to the fall of Thiers; and in 1873 it was he who, with Lucien Brun, carried to the comte de Chambord the proposals of the chambers.
In the neighbourhood they make their "lodges," which are roomy chambers, with the entrance beneath the water.
Occasionally filtration into a vacuum is practised, but more often, as in filterpresses, the liquid is forced under pressure, either hydrostatic or obtained from a force-pump or compressed air, into a series of chambers partitioned off by cloth, which arrests the solids, but permits the passage of the liquid portions.
It consisted of a rectangular court surrounded by chambers on the outside and with a colonnade of thirty-six columns of cipollino (Carystian) marble and grey granite.
The well-preserved amphitheatre, the subterranean parts of which below the arena are intact, with a main passage down the centre, a curved passage all round with holes for trap doors in its roof, and numerous small chambers, also with trap doors in their vaulted roofs for admitting the wild beasts, whose cages were on the other side of the curved passage, to the arena, are especially interesting.
In many mints the flues pass into condensing chambers where volatilized gold and silver are recovered.
It was authorized to plant colonies and to govern them under a very limited supervision of the States-General, such as the approval of its appointment of a governor and of its instructions to him; and its own government was vested in five chambers of directors and an executive board or college of nineteen delegates from those chambers, eight of the nineteen representing the Chamber of Amsterdam.
Elected deputy by Marseilles in the general elections of 1881, he was at that time the sole representative of the Socialist party in the chambers.
The feudal estates were replaced by two chambers, largely elective, and the privy council by a responsible ministry of six departments.
The chains pass over lofty piers on which they usually rest on saddles carried by rollers, and are led down on either side to anchorages in rock chambers.
The difficulty of casting heavy arch ribs led to the construction of cast iron arches of cast voussoirs, somewhat like the voussoirs of masonry chambers and air locks, a feat unprecedented in the annals of engineering.
Various remains of the Roman period exist between the walls, including a large water reservoir divided into ten chambers.
Through his family connexions in the City of London, clients soon came to Palmer's chambers, and his business at the Chancery bar increased rapidly.
In 1904 a bill was passed in the chambers for the enlargement and embellishment of the palace.
The buildings flanking the chambers and nearer the park are government offices with residences for the ministers attached.
In 1770 the miners accidentally discovered a complete gallery, which has been driven many hundred yards into the bed of coal, branching into thirty-six chambers dressed quite square, and in a workman-like manner.
The president of the republic is elected in a joint session of the two Chambers.
The composition of the Chambers sufficiently explained the fact that up to Sept.
His literary standing meantime improved, and he became a regular contributor to The Intellectual Observer, Chambers's Journal and the Popular Science Review.
When the rock is much removed from the surface, or inconveniently situated for open workings, it is quarried in underground chambers reached by levels driven through the intervening mass and across or along the beds.
Lampblack is prepared by burning tar, resin, turpentine and other substances rich in carbon, with a limited supply of air; the products of combustion being conducted into condensing chambers in which cloths are suspended, on which the carbon collects.
In the centre of the tomb are two vaulted chambers, reached by a spiral passage or gallery 62 ft.
The larger of the two chambers is 141 ft.
The French chambers alone possess the legislative power, though in the absence of express legislation decrees of the head of the state have the force of law.
At the instance of their representatives in the chambers it was abandoned in 1870, and was not revived till seventeen years later.
It constructs elaborate burrows containing several chambers, one of which is employed as a granary, and filled with corn, frequently of several kinds, for winter use.
The interior is lavishly decorated and contains, besides the legislative chambers, a magnificent library of over 52,000 volumes.
In the Upper Mississippi lead region of Missouri, Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin the ore fills large cavities or chambers in limestone.
In 1823 Bahia became a province of the empire, and in 1889 a state in the republic. Its government consists of a governor elected for four years, and a general assembly of two chambers, the senators being elected for six years and the deputies for two years.
In April 1547 he took chambers in the Inner Temple, and began to study law; but finding divinity more congenial, he removed, in the following year, to St Catharine's Hall, Cambridge, where he studied with such assiduity that in little more than a year he was admitted by special grace to the degree of master of arts, and was soon after made fellow of Pembroke Hall, the fellowship being "worth seven pound a year."
Outside of these, to the west and east, are the "halls and chambers devoted to the exercise of hospitality, with which every monastery was provided, for the purpose 'of receiving as guests persons who visited it, whether clergy or laity, travellers, pilgrims or paupers."
The small cloister lies to the south-east of the larger cloister, and still farther to the east we have the remains of the infirmary with the table hall, the refectory of those who were able to leave their chambers.
From them it is carried in refrigerator railway cars and in cold storage chambers on steamships to its ultimate destination.
The government offered subventions to those who would provide cold-storage warehouses at various points where these were necessary, and also arranged with the owners of ocean steamships to provide cold-storage chambers on them by means of mechanical refrigerators.
Similar chambers occur on the west, north and south sides, accessible only from the interior.
Vast cemeteries of animals which belonged to the revered species have been discovered; more especially may be mentioned that of the cats at Bubastis, the remains of which, charred by some great fire, until recently filled numberless chambers of crude brick in the ruins at Zagazig.
The reply of the chambers was a protest against "the unjust distrust of the sentiment and reason of France"; whereupon they were first prorogued, and on the 16th of May dissolved.
Wellington the proposal seemed premature; he would prefer to wait till "the assembly had published its conduct by its acts"; for if the new chambers were to prove as intractable as the dissolved Chambre introuvable, the monarchy would not be able to dispense with its foreign tutors.
The new chambers proved their trustworthy quality by passing the budget, and the army of occupation was reduced by 30,000 men.
Two days later he showed that he intended to exercise the right of the President to address Parliament direct - a right which had fallen into desuetude - by sending a message to the Chambers, in which he stated that it was his function as President "to be a guide and adviser for public opinion in times of crisis" and "to seek to make a rational choice between conflicting interests."
On the very eve of the war, immediately after the rising of the Chambers on July 15 1914, Poincare set out on a State visit to Russia and the Scandinavian countries, arriving at Kronstadt on July 20.
After the outbreak of war his activities were mainly directed to stirring up the patriotic spirit of the people, as in his messages to the Chambers of Aug.
Two chambers were established, the one formed of nobles and the other of elected representatives; but although they were authorized to control the finances, their power with regard to legislation was very circumscribed.
Representation was granted to the peasants; the two chambers were empowered to initiate legislation; ministers were made responsible for all acts of government; a civil list was given to the king in return for the surrender of the crown lands; and, in short, the new constitution was similar to that of Great Britain.
Recovering the crown lands, he abolished the principle of ministerial responsibility, the legislative power of the two chambers, and other reforms, virtually restoring affairs to their condition before 1833.
It may be said to have begun with the visit of the Association of British Chambers of Commerce to Paris in 1900, at a time when France was still smarting from the humiliation of the Fashoda affair, and the Boer War was exciting hostile demonstrations against Great Britain throughout the continent of Europe.
This type comprised nave and aisles, ending at one end in an apse and two chambers resembling rudimentary transepts, and at the other end in a porch (narthex).
There are five, or sometimes fewer, carpels, which unite to form an ovary with as many chambers, in each of which are one or two, rarely more, pendulous anatropous ovules, attached to the central column in such a way that the micropyle points outwards and the raphe is turned towards the placenta.
From the main gate, which was defended by a tower, a strong passage led between the outer wall and an inner one to an inner gate, thence to a propylaeum or double porch, with two wooden columns on each side, adjoining which were chambers for guards.
This court was surrounded by wooden columns supporting a roof, like a medieval cloister; on the south side are chambers for attendants (BaXaµoc).
In addition to this there is also a second system, with open courts, hall and chambers; this has been generally supposed to be the women's quarters, but there is no authority for such duplication, and it is possible that it should rather be explained as another house.
C, Chambers in the thickness of the wall opening out of the gallery.
Part of outer wall, with intermediate passage and rows of chambers, as shown in fig.
On the south is a gallery built in the thickness of the wall, and roofed by projecting courses of stone; and chambers or storehouses open out of this gallery.
Throughout the stone age inhumation appears to have been universal, many of the neolithic tombs being chambers of considerable size and constructed with massive blocks of stone.
At the foot of the Acropolis Hill, where the ground begins to rise, the theatre lies; and though the material of which this was built is rough, and only seven imperfect rows of seats remain, a good part of the scena and of the chambers behind it is preserved, and beneath these there runs a tunnel, which, together with other peculiar features, has raised interesting questions in connexion with the arrangement of the Greek theatre, the orchestra being at present on a level about 12 ft.
When the Belgian Chambers voted in February 1906 the sums necessary for the improvement of the harbour of Antwerp no definite scheme was sanctioned, the question being referred to a special mixed commission.
It is protected by a broad wet ditch (plans in article Fortification), and in the caponiers are the magazines and store chambers of the fortress.
The tombs are subterranean chambers of varied and often irregular form, sometimes arranged in two storeys, sometimes in several rows one behind the other.
While in early times a mere perpendicular shaft led to these excavations, at a later date stairs were constructed down to the chambers.
It is much frequented as a health and summer resort, and has a variety of lake, brine, vegetable and pine-cone baths, a hydropathic establishment, inhalation chambers, whey cure, &c. There are a great number of excursions and points of interest round Gmunden, specially worth mentioning being the Traun Fall, 10 m.
The new chambers, however, demanded the constitution of 1831; and, after several dissolutions which always resulted in the return of the same members, the federal diet decided to restore the constitution of 1831 (May 24, 1862).
At other times the spores are divided by both transverse and longitudinal septa producing the muriform (murali-divided) spore so called from the resemblance of the individual chambers to the stones in a wall.
This purified oxide, mixed with sodium chloride and coal tar, was carbonized at a red heat, and ignited in a current of dry chlorine as long as vapours of the double chloride were given off, these being condensed in suitable chambers.
For commercial purposes, crowns of lily of the valley, tulip and other bulbs, and such deciduous woody plants as lilac and deciduous species of rhododendron, while in a state of rest, are packed in wet moss and introduced into coldstorage chambers, where they may be kept in a state of quiescence, if desired, throughout the following summer.
Coldstorage chambers form a part of the equipment of most of the leading establishments where flowers are grown for market.
The walls bordering the central paths are arched or clotted to admit heat from the chambers below the beds.
Side pipes are occasionally dispensed with, heat being obtained by means of slots at the back of the beds, communicating with the chambers.
Those intended to provide bottom heat, however, are set in (a) water tanks running under the beds, or (b) in enclosed dry chambers under the beds, or are (c) embedded in the soil or plunging material.
He tried to reconcile political parties by granting from his own initiative a liberal constitution (April 6, 1901), introducing for the first time in the constitutional history of Servia the system of two chambers (skupshtina and senate).
Thus she retained a separate diplomatic service, military administration, and postal, telegraph and railway systems. The treaty was ratified by the Bavarian chambers on the 21st of January 1871, though not without considerable opposition on the part of the so-called "patriot" party.
To him belong the ultimate direction of foreign affairs, the power to declare war and peace, to make treaties and alliances, and to dissolve one or both chambers of parliament, the supreme command of the army and navy, the supreme administration of the state finances and of the colonies and other possessions of the kingdom, and the prerogative of mercy.
By the provisions of the same constitution he establishes the ministerial departments, and shares the legislative power with the first and second chambers of parliament, which constitute the states-general and sit at the Hague.
It has lately been shown by Fraser and Chambers that in Eurotium both io FIG.
The gleba is usually differentiated into a number of chambers which are lined directly by the hymenium (basidial layer), or else the chambers contain an interwoven mass of hyphae, the branches of which bear the basidia.
Io, the gas and air in one phase enter at the bottom of all three of the large vertical chambers, burn in passing up wards, and escape at once at the top, as shown by the broken m arrows.
When " on gas," the gas and air enter at the bottom of each of the three larger vertical chambers, pass once up through the stove, and escape at the top, as shown by means of broken arrows.
In the position shown in solid lines, these valves deflect the air and gas into the left-hand pair of "regenerators" or spacious heat-transferring chambers.
The succession is vested in the heirs male of Leopold I., and should they ever make complete default the throne will be declared vacant, and a national assembly composed of the two chambers elected in double strength will make a fresh nomination.
In 1894" a new article numbered 61 was inserted in the constitution providing that " in default of male heirs the king can nominate his successor with the assent of the two chambers, and if no such nomination has been made the throne shall be vacant," when the original procedure of the constitution would be followed.
He is the head of the army and has the exclusive right of dissolving the chambers as preliminary to an appeal to the country.
At Brussels there are four separate chambers or tribunals in the appeal court.
The budget is submitted to the chambers by the minister of finance and passed by them.
Ministers were to be appointed by him, but be responsible to the cham bers The legislature was composed of two chambers - g P the senate and the chamber of deputies.
These territories were treated in every way as a part of Belgium, and sent representatives to the chambers.
The chambers argued that Belgium had been induced to agree to the twenty-four articles in 1832 in the hope of thereby at once terminating all harassing disputes, but as Holland refused then to accept them, the conditions were no longer binding and the circumstances were now quite changed.
At the election of August 1870, the Catholics obtained a majority in both chambers.
The citizen in order to possess a vote for the election of representatives to the chambers was to be of a minimum age of twenty-five years, and of thirty years for the election of senators and provincial and communal councillors.
The election in May 1900 resulted in the return of a substantial (though reduced) Catholic majority in both chambers.
In April of the same year the Belgian chambers authorized the king to be the chief of the state founded by the Association, which had already taken the name of Etat Independant du Congo.
As prescribed by the constitution, a dissolution took place and two new chambers were elected.
Both the government and the opposition in the chambers saw that delay was impossible, and that revision must be carried out.
The result was that in November 1907 a new treaty of cession was presented to the Belgian chambers, while in March 1908 an additional act modified one of the most objectionable features of the treaty - a clause by which the king retained control of the revenue of a vast territory within the Congo which he had declared to be his private property.
A colonial law, also submitted to the chambers, secured for Belgium in case of annexation complete parliamentary control over the Congo state, and the bill for annexation was finally passed in September 1908.
The chief public buildings are the town and county halls, the corn exchange, the hospital and Chambers Institution.
The last was once the town house of the earls of March, but was presented to Peebles byWilliam Chambers, the publisher, in 1859.
Of St Andrew's Church, founded in 1195, nothing remains but the tower, restored by William Chambers, who was buried beside it in 1883.
The old cross, which had stood for several years in the quadrangle of Chambers Institution, was restored and erected in High Street in 1895.
The average value of each article is fixed annually in Germany under the direction of the Imperial Statistical Office, by a commission of experts, who receive information from chambers of commerce and other sources.
Chambers of Reunion were appointed to give an appearance of legality to these proceedings, which culminated, in 1681, in the seizure of Strassburg.
Soon, in Eaden, in Wurttemberg, in Bavaria, the sovereigns and the chambers were at odds, united only in a common opposition to the central authority.
The Liberal ministries of 1848 were dismissed, the constitutions were changed or abolished, and new chambers were elected under a severely restricted suffrage.
On the one side Protection were the seaports, the chambers of commerce, and the city of Berlin, the town council of which made itself the centre of the opposition.
The proportion of members assigned to the towns was increased, the special representatives of the chambers of commerce and of the landed proprietors were retained, and the suffrage was not extended.
Liechtenstein, who complained of the political influence exercised by the chambers of commerce, and demanded the organization of working men in gilds.
Taaffe's bill, while keeping the curiae of the feudal proprietors and the chambers of commerce as they were, and making no change in the number of members, proposed to give the franchise in both towns and rural districts to every one who could read and write, and had resided six months in one place.
But the form of the tombs always remains the same, a small low chamber hewn in the rock, with a rectangular opening about 2 by 22 ft., out of which open other chambers, each with its separate doorway; and inhumation is adopted without exception, whereas in a Greek necropolis a low percentage of cases of 1 Leontini, Megara, Naxos, Syracuse, Zancle are all recorded as sites where the Sicel gave way to the Greek (in regard to Syracuse [q.v.] this has recently been proved to be true), while many other towns remained Sicel longer, among them Abacaenum, Agyrium, Assorus, Centuripae, Cephaloedium, Engyum, Hadranum, Halaesa, Henna, Herbessus, Herbita, Hybla Galeatis, Inessa, Kale Akte, Menaenum, Morgantina.
Rostock, however, never entirely lost the independence which it enjoyed as a Hanse town; and in 1788, as the result of long contentions with the rulers of Mecklenburg, it secured for itself a peculiar and liberal municipal constitution, administered by three burgomasters and three chambers.
The ovary is incompletely divided into many chambers by the ingrowth of the placentas which bear numerous ovules and form in the fruit a many-seeded short capsule opening by small valves below the upper edge.
Tombs of brick with a single chamber were succeeded by tombs of stone with several chambers, until they really merited the name of houses of eternity that the Egyptians gave to them.
These great rock chambers were covered with paintings, which show a large range of the daily life and civilization.
The great temple of Karnak was largely built by him; most of the remaining chambers are his, including the beautiful botanical waIls showing foreign plants.
The Mameluke amirs were to be retained in office as heads of twelve sanjaks into, which Egypt was divided; and under the next sultan, Suleiman I., two chambers were created, called respectively the Greater and the Lesser Divan, in which both the army and the ecclesiastical authorities were represented, to aid the pasha by their deliberations.
The king shares his power with the parliament (Rigsdag), which consists of two chambers, the Landsthing and the Folkething, but the constitution contains no indication of any difference in their attributes.
The primary idea of sepulture appears to have been the provision of a habitation for the dead; and thus, in its perfect form, the barrow included a chamber or chambers where the tenant was surrounded with the prized possessions of his previous life.
In Denmark the chambers are at irregular intervals along the body of the mound, and have no passages leading into them.
Their chambers are rudely but strongly built, with dome-shaped roofs, formed by overlapping the successive courses of the upper part of the side walls.
In Scandinavia, on the other hand, such dome-roofed chambers are unknown, and the construction of the chambers as a rule is megalithic, five or six monoliths supporting one or more capstones of enormous size.
They are unusually interesting from the fact that many of the exposed slabs in the walls of the chambers are ornamented with spirals and other devices, rudely incised.
A Siberian barrow, described by Demidov, contained three contiguous chambers of unhewn stone.
In the former case it is often difficult to obtain the brine at a density even approaching saturation, and chambers and galleries are sometimes excavated within the saliferous beds to increase the dissolving surface, and water let down fresh is pumped up as brine.
At the back were large chambers connected with the Osiris worship (Caulfield, Temple of the Kings); and probably from these led out the great Hypogeum for the celebration of the Osiris mysteries, built by Mineptah (Murray, Osireion).
The tomb-pit is surrounded by chambers to hold the offerings, the actual sepulchre being a great wooden chamber in the midst of the brick-lined pit.
By the end of the IInd dynasty the type changed to a long passage bordered with chambers on either hand, the royal burial being in the middle of the length.
Fruit cut across showing the petals and the stigmas have three chambers containing been removed, leaving the seeds.
The three valves bear the septa in the centre and the opening takes place through the back of the chambers.
The tombs, which are chambers cut in tiers in the hard clay of the hillside, were used with few exceptions for repeated burials, and the ejected offerings had been scattered down the slope.
Robert Chambers, in the once famous Vestiges of Creation, interested and shocked his contemporaries by his denial of the fixity of species and his insistence on creation by progressive evolution, but had no better theory of the cause of variation than to suppose that organisms - "from the simplest and oldest to the highest and most recent" were possessed of "an inherent impulse, imparted by the Almighty both to advance them from the several grades and modify their structure as circumstances required."
A tribunal of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a branch of the Bank of France, and chambers of commerce and of arts and manufactures are among the public institutions.
The work of packing is a most disagreeable and unhealthy operation which is best relieved by erecting the chambers at a higher level and placing the casks underneath, communication being made by means of traps in the chamber-bottom, so that the packers can do their work FIG.
The weak chlorine from the Deacon process cannot be treated in this manner, as chambers of impossibly large dimensions would be required.
Originally the absorption of the Deacon chlorine took place in a set of chambers, constructed of large slabs of stone, containing a great many horizontal shelves superposed over one another.
About sixteen such chambers were combined in such manner that the fresh gas passed into that chamber which had been the longest time at work and in which the bleaching-powder was nearly finished, and so forth until the gas, now all but entirely exhausted, reached the last-filled chamber in which it met with fresh lime and there gave up the last of the chlorine.
These " Deacon chambers " occupied a large space, besides being expensive to build and difficult to keep in repair.
Many genera of bees are represented, like most other insects, by ordinary males and females, each female constructing a nest formed of several chambers ("cells") and storing in each chamber a supply of food for the grub to be hatched from the egg that she lays therein.
These chambers are used by the amir as store-houses for grain.
On the northern side of this terrace, between the second temple and the Cyclopean supporting wall, a long stoa or colonnade runs from east to west abutting at the west end in structures which evidently contained a well-house and waterworks; while at the eastern end of this stoa a number of chambers were erected against the hill, in front of which were placed statues and inscriptions, the bases for which are still extant.
Below the second terrace at the south-west end a large and complicated building, with an open courtyard surrounded on three sides by a colonnade and with chambers opening out towards the north, may have served as a gymnasium or a sanatorium.
In 1883 he was invited to assist in chambers the then Attorney-General, Sir Henry James, and from this time his success was assured.
The executive is in the hands of the Senate, but the House of Burgesses has the right of initiating legislation, including that relative to foreign treaties; the sanction of both chambers is required to the passing of any new law.
The public buildings include the legislative council chambers and the legislative assembly buildings, government house, the government offices, college, post office and market buildings.
Directly across the plaza is the old Cabildo, a plain, heavy-looking two-storeyed edifice of the colonial period, the seat of municipal administration during Spanish rule, but now occupied by the two chambers of the Uruguayan Congress and by the higher police authorities of the city.
Sanctuary chambers may be seen at various points in the site of Petra, and many places of sacrifice open to the sky are met with among the tombs, marked by remains of altars.
To the north-east of the ziggurat stood, apparently, the House of Bel, and in the courts below the ziggurat stood various other buildings, shrines, treasure chambers and the like.
Romar remains have been found in the vicinity, and the ridge of Arcos is honeycombed with rock-hewn chambers, said to be ancient cave-dwellings.
Thiers still maintained his warlike tone, and the king's speech prepared by him for the opening of the Chambers on the 28th of October was in effect a declaration of defiance to Europe.
The equivocal tone of the new speech from the Throne raised a storm of protest in the Chambers and the country.
The government is vested in two legislative chambers, a senate or council of state (Stdnderat), and a national council (Nationalrat), constituting unitedly the federal assembly.
The city was chartered in 1802, with a mayor appointed annually by the president of the United States and an elective council of two chambers.
In 1850 Spano excavated many Phoenician tombs; they are rectangular or square chambers cut in the rock, measuring from 6 to 9 ft.
Salvatore, with underground rock-cut chambers below it, used as a baptistery (?) by the early Christians, though the walls are decorated with paintings of a decidedly pagan nature.
We may note, however, the difference between the house of Priam, surrounded by distinct dwellings for his many sons and daughters, and the houses of Ulysses and Alcinous, with many chambers under a single roof.
The back of the body is occupied by a crest, called the dorsal fin, consisting of a hollow ridge, the cavity of which is divided into about 250 compartments or fin chambers, into each of which, with the exception of those near the anterior and posterior end of the body, projects a stout pillar composed of characteristic laminar tissue, the fin ray.
Soon after he was translated to Queen's College, where he became pauper puer serviens; that is, a poor serving child that waits on the fellows in the common hall at meals, and in their chambers, and does other servile work about the college."
They were found in the chanceries of the republics, in the papal curia, in the council chambers of princes, at the headquarters of condottieri, wherever business had to be transacted, speeches to be made and the work of secretaries to be performed.
The dimensions of the various chambers included in Luray Cavern cannot easily be stated, on account of the great irregularity of their outlines.
Of these, the Tour de Constance, built by Louis IX., is the most interesting; it commands the northwestern angle of the ramparts, and contains two circular, vaulted chambers, used as prisons for Protestants after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
The apparatus consists of a tank with two chambers, the partition being perforated.
Furnaces with rotating working chambers admit of continuous working; the fuel and labour costs are both low.
Sulphuric acid may be applied as such on the ores placed in lead, brick, or stone chambers; or as a mixture of sulphur dioxide, nitrous fumes (generated from Chile saltpetre and sulphuric acid), and steam, which permeates the ore resting on the false bottom of a brick chamber.
The Riksdag consists of two chambers.
Both chambers have in theory equal power.
The agreement of both chambers is necessary before a bill becomes law, but when they differ on budget questions the matter is settled by a common vote of both, which arrangement gives the second chamber a certain advantage from the greater number of its members.
The way had been prepared in 1860 by a sweeping measure of municipal reform; and, in January 1863, the government brought in a reform bill by the terms of which the Riksdag was henceforth to consist of two Constitu- chambers, the Upper House being a sort of aristo- Reform, cratic senate, while the members of the Lower 1866.
In the vital matter of national defence no common understanding had been arrived at, and during the conflicts which had raged round this question, the two chambers had come into frequent collision and paralysed the action of the government.
The government stood midway between these conflicting majorities in the chambers, without support in either.
In the Riksdag of 1887 there was a majority for protection in the Second Chamber, and in the first the majority against the tax was so small that the tax on corn would have triumphed in a combined meeting of the two chambers.
The victory of the free traders was not, however, destined to be of long duration, as the protectionists obtained a majority in both chambers in the next Riksdag (1888).
At last Baron Gillis Bildt, who, while Swedish ambassador in Berlin, had witnessed the introduction by Prince Bismarck of the agrarian protectionist system in Germany, accepted the premiership, and it was under his auspices that the two chambers imposed a series of duties on necessaries of life.
The elections of 1890, when the metropolis returned free traders and Liberals to the Second Chamber, certainly effected a change in the latter, as the representatives of the towns and the old " Landtmanna " party joined issue and established a free-trade majority in the chamber, but in the combined meetings of the two chambers the compact protectionist majority in the First Chamber turned the scale.
He accordingly introduced in the Riksdag of 1896 a very moderate bill for the extension of the franchise, which was, nevertheless, rejected by both chambers, all similar proposals by private members meeting the same fate.
Processions of many thousands of workmen were organized, in Stockholm and in other towns of the kingdom, just before the Riksdag began the discussion on the above-mentioned bill of the government, and when the bill was introduced in the chambers a general and wellorganized strike took place and continued during the three days the debate on the bill lasted.
As this strike was of an exclusively political kind, and was intended to put pressure on the chambers, it was generally disapproved, and failed in its object.
The latter chamber instead passed a bill for manhood suffrage at elections for the Second Chamber, on the condition that the elections for both chambers should take place on the basis of proportional representation.
Both chambers thereupon decided to ask the opinion of the king with regard to the simultaneous extension of the franchise to women at elections for the Second Chamber.
A Conservative government was then formed on the 29th of May by Mr Lindman, whose principal task was to find a solution of the suffrage question which both chambers could accept.
By this act proportional representation was established for both chambers, together with universal manhood suffrage at elections for the Second Chamber, a reduction of the qualifications for eligibility for the First Chamber and a reduction of the electoral term of this chamber from nine to six years, and finally payment of members of the First Chamber, who hitherto had not received any such emolument.
The legislative power is exercised by a national congress, which consists of two chambers - a senate of 32 members, and a chamber of deputies of 94 members.
A permanent committee of 14 members represents the two chambers during the congressional recess and exercises certain supervisory and advisory powers in the administration of public affairs.
These elections are held on the 25th of June in the last year of a presidential term, the electors cast their votes on the 25th of July, and the counting takes place in a joint session of the two chambers of congress on the 30th of August, congress in joint session having the power to complete the election when no candidate has been duly chosen by the electors.
He was induced to take this course in consequence of the violent opposition raised in the chambers by the liberal policy he pursued in connexion with Church matters.
In order to ensure a majority favourable to his views, the president threw the whole weight of his official influence into the elections for senators and deputies in 1888; but many of the members returned to the chambers through this official influence joined the opposition shortly after taking their seats.
According to usage and custom in Chile, a ministry does not remain in office unless supported by a majority in the chambers.
The chambers were now only waiting for a suitable opportunity to assert their authority.
The president of the republic has no power to dissolve the chambers, to endeavour to remedy the evil by one or another political party obtaining a substantial working majority, but must wait to see the results of the triennial elections.
The tomb chambers are either hewn in the rock or covered by mounds.
The presence of both nominated and elected members in the Senate is a novel provision in the constitution of the upper chambers of British colonial legislatures.
According to Herodotus, the entire building, surrounded by a single wall, contained twelve courts and 3000 chambers, 1500 above and 1500 below ground.
Herodotus himself went through the upper chambers, but was not permitted to visit those underground, which he was told contained the tombs of the kings who had built the labyrinth, and of the sacred crocodiles.
On the 15th of August 1792, he led a band of peasants to prevent the departure of the volunteers of St Ouen, near Laval, and retired to the wood of Misdon, where they lived in huts and subterranean chambers.
Among its public buildings are the municipal chambers, combination fever hospital, Samaritan hospital and reception houses for the poor.
Two sepulchral chambers were discovered in it in 1838.
The combined length of these contiguous chambers is 400 ft.
Again, there are chambers with drifts of snowy crystals of the sulphate of magnesia, the ceilings so thickly covered with their efflorescence that a loud concussion will cause them to fall like flakes of snow.
The two first of these were vested in the sovereign, who might be a woman, and who shared the legislative power with two chambers, the Camara dos Pares or House of Peers, and the Camara dos Deputados or House of Commons; these were collectively styled the Corks Geraes, or more briefly the Conies.
In 1889 a resolution unanimously adopted by both chambers invited the ministry, of which Jose de Castro was president and Barros Gomes foreign minister, to press forward the territorial claims of Portugal in East and Central Africa.
Even after the offices of the Parlement had become legally saleable the councillors could only pass from the other chambers into the Grand Chambre by order of seniority.
The chambers have separate and concurrent powers defined by the constitution.
To the east of the space in front of the temple was an oblong building of two chambers, with a colonnade on each side but not in front; this may have been the Prytaneum or some other official building; beyond it is the most interesting and characteristic of all the monuments of Delphi.
At the north of the precinct was a broad road, flanked with votive offerings and exedrae, and along the boundary were porticoes and chambers intended for the reception of the OEwpiac or sacred embassies; there are two entrances on this side, each of them through extensive propylaea.
The most extensive building is a very large court surrounded by chambers, a sort of club or exchange.
The shore of the channel facing Rheneia is lined with docks and warehouses, and behind them, as well as elsewhere in the island, there have been found several private houses of the 2nd or 3rd century B.C. Each of these consists of a single court surrounded by columns and often paved with mosaic; various chambers open out of the court, including usually one of large proportions, the avSpcwv or dining-room for guests.
The New Constitution Bill, passed during the same year by the local legislature, provided for two deliberative chambers, the assembly to be elected and the council nominated, and for the responsibility of the executive to the legislature.
The gills are inserted at the base of the thoracic limbs, and lie within a pair of branchial chambers covered by the carapace.
In most Decapods the " stomach " or dilated portion of the fore-gut is divided into two chambers, a large anterior " cardiac " and a smaller posterior " pyloric."
Hone's Every-Day Book, and Chambers's Book of Days may be consulted.
But he was soon called away by Ludovico to a different undertaking, the completion of the interior decorations, already begun by another hand and interrupted, of certain chambers of the Castello called the Saletta Negra and the Sala Grande dell' Asse, or Sala della Torre.
When, in the last decade of the 19th century, works of thorough architectural investigation and repair were undertaken in that building under the superintendence of Professor Luca Beltrami, a devoted foreign student, Dr Paul Muller-Walde, obtained leave to scrape for traces of Leonardo's handiwork beneath the replastered and whitewashed walls and ceilings of chambers that might be identified with these.
He advocated the suspensory veto, and the establishment of trial by jury in civil causes, but voted with the Left against the system of two chambers.
This use still survives in the application to the small separate chambers in a prison in which prisoners are confined.
Remains of other villas may be seen, but the most important ruin is the reservoir of the (subterranean) aqueducts just outside the town on the east, which had no less than twenty-seven chambers each about 90 ft.
In May 1864, owing to difficulties between the government and the general assembly, the assembly was dissolved, and a statute was submitted to universal suffrage giving greater authority to the prince, and creating two chambers (of senators and of deputies).
January 1872 the chambers passed a law by which Rumania undertook to pay the railway coupons.
The Rumanian chambers were assembled on the 26th of April, and the convention with Russia was sanctioned.
The Ottoman government immediately broke off diplomatic relations with Rumania, and on the 11th of May the chambers passed a resolution that a state of war existed with Turkey.
Gerbils are inhabitants of open sandy plains, where they dwell in burrows furnished with numerous exits, and containing large grass-lined chambers.
There are over 120 separate chambers, the caverns extending nearly a mile in a straight line.
The legislature consisted of two chambers, a Legislative Council and a House of Assembly.
With the exception of the Red Marls forming the upper part of the Keuper, most of the New Red Sandstone is permeable, and some parts contain, when saturated, even more water than solid chalk; but, just as in the case of the chalk, a well or borehole in the sandstone yields very little water unless it strikes a fissure; hence, in New Red Sandstone, also, it is a common thing to form underground chambers or adits in search of additional fissures, and sometimes to sink many vertical boreholes with the same object in view.
The production of sulphuric acid by the assistance of the oxides of the nitrogen is carried out in the" vitriol chambers."These are immense receptacles, mostly from 100 to 200 ft.
The vitriol chambers must be supported on all sides by suitable wooden or iron framework, and they are always erected at a certain height over the ground, so that any leaks occurring can be easily detected.
In nearly all cases several of these chambers are connected so as to form a set of a cubic capacity of from 100,000 to 200,000 cub.
The reactions taking place in the vitriol chambers are very complicated, and have been explained in many different ways.
This theory at once explains, among other things, why the acid formed in the vitriol chambers always contains an excess of water (the second of the above-quoted reactions requiring the "mass action" of this excess), and why the external cooling produced by the contact of the chamber sides with the air is of great importance (liquid water in the shape of a mist of dilute sulphuric acid being necessary for the process).
These spaces cannot be constructed in any other way than is actually done in the shape of the lead chambers; neither iron nor brickwork can be employed for this purpose, as they would be quickly destroyed by the acid liquids and gases.
When issuing from the chambers, the gases still contain the whole of the free nitrogen contained in the air which had entered into the burners, together with about a third, or at least a fourth, of the oxygen originally present therein, such excess of oxygen being required in order to carry out the conversion of the sulphur dioxide into sulphuric acid as completely as possible.
For similar reasons it is necessary to employ much more water than is required to form H 2 SO 4; and this is all the more necessary as strong sulphuric acid dissolves the nitrous compounds in the shape of nitroso-sulphuric acid, and thus withdraws these oxygen carriers from the gas-space of the chambers where the necessary reactions take place.
It follows from this that the acid collecting at the bottom of the chambers must never exceed a certain concentration, say 70%, H2S04 having a specific gravity of 1.615, but it is preferable to make it only 66 to 67%, having a specific gravity of 1.57 to 1.58.
But this important invention was of little use until John Glover, about 1866, found that the nitrous vitriol could be most easily reintroduced into the process by subjecting it to the action of burner-gas before this enters into the lead chambers, preferably after diluting it with chamber acid, that is, acid of from 65 to 70%, H 2 SO 4, as formed in the lead chambers.