Chamberlain sentence example
Robert Parys, chamberlain of North Wales under Henry IV., is often given as their godfather.
Next came dignities of a slightly lower rank, such as those of grand almoner (Fesch), grand marshal of the palace (Duroc), grand chamberlain (Talleyrand), grand master of the horse (Caulaincourt), grand huntsman (Berthier), grand master of ceremonies (Segur).
In later years, when the Boers desired to regard the whole of this convention (and not merely the articles) as cancelled by the London Convention of 1884, and with it the suzerainty, which was only mentioned in the preamble, Mr Chamberlain, a member of the cabinet of 1880-1885, pointed out that if the preamble to this instrument were considered cancelled, so also would be the grant of self-government.
So wrote Mr Chamberlain, the colonial secretary, on the 9th of November following, to the treasury.
Mr Chamberlain concluded by asking whether the treasury would consent to sending a royal commission to the West Indies to inquire into the effect of the foreign sugar bounties on their principal industry.Advertisement
Chamberlain, the necessity of committing to memory two syllabaries, one of which has many variant forms, and at least two or three thousand Chinese ideographs, in forms standard and cursive ideographs, too, most of which are susceptible of three or four different readings according to circuinstance,add, further, that all these kinds of written symbols are apt to be encountered pell mell on the same page, and the task of mastering Japanese becomes almost Herculean.
The latters magnum opus, Kojikiden (Exposition of the Record of Ancient Matters), declared by Chamberlain to be perhaps the most admirable work of which Japanese erudition can boast, consists of 44 large volumes, devoted to elucidating the Kojiki and resuscitating the ShintO cult as it existed in the earliest days.
The next summer, however, on Mr. Austen Chamberlain's resignation owing to the Mesopotamia report, he returned to the India Office as Secretary of State and began a tenure of that post which will always be memorable in Indian annals.
For the language question, see Mr Chamberlain's speech in the House of Commons, on the 28th of January 1902.
The attempt also of the daring highwayman Maternus to seize the empire was betrayed; but at last Eclectus the emperor's chamberlain, Laetus the praefect of the praetorians, and his mistress Marcia, finding their names on the list of those doomed to death, united to destroy him.Advertisement
On the assumption of the imperial title by Napoleon in May 1804, Talleyrand became grand chamberlain of the empire, and received close on 500,000 francs a year.
On the 9th of July 1815 he became foreign minister and president of the council under Louis XVIII., but diplomatic and other difficulties led him to resign his appointment on the 23rd of September 1815, Louis,, however, naming him high chamberlain and according him an annuity of 100,000 francs.
His father, Pierre d'Amboise, seigneur de Chaumont, was chamberlain to Charles VII.
He had previously been made lord of La Roche-Tesson (1361) and chamberlain (1364); he was now made count of Longueville and lieutenant of Normandy.
The inside cleaning of windows belongs to the lord chamberlain's department, but the outer parts must be attended to by the office of woods and forests, so that windows remain dirty unless the two departments can come to an understanding."Advertisement
Mr Chamberlain, the secretary for the colonies, induced his colleagues to seize the opportunity of making the jubilee a festival of the British empire.
Sir Philip Sidney was born at Penshurst, being descended from William de Sidney, chamberlain to Henry II.
Another well-known motor meter, working on a somewhat similar principle, is that of Chamberlain and Hookham.
In this year began the " Tariff Reform " movement initiated by Mr Joseph Chamberlain, but Free Trade retained a strong hold on the British electorate, and the return of the overwhelming Radical majority to parliament in 1906 involved its retention under the fiscal policy of that party.
Thomas Kajetan Wggierski (1755-1787), who was chamberlain to the king, enjoyed a considerable reputation among his countrymen for his satirical writing.Advertisement
It was probably on this occasion that he was named chamberlain to the pope.
During the South African crisis of 1899-1902 he was specially vehement in opposition to Mr Chamberlain, and took the "pro-Boer" side so bitterly that he was mobbed in Birmingham during the 1900 election when he attempted to address a meeting at the Town Hall.
Under the marquess of Rockingham he was, from July 1765 to December 1766, lord chamberlain, and on the return of Rockingham to power in April 1782 he was made lord-lieutenant of Ireland.
Ingelram's wife was the daughter and heiress of William de Berkeley, lord of Reidcastle in Forfarshire, and chamberlain of Scotland, and by her he had a son Henry, who became chamberlain about 1223.
It is probable but not certain that Henry's son was Alexander de Baliol, lord of Cavers in Teviotdale, and chamberlain of Scotland.Advertisement
Alexander took a leading part in Scottish affairs during the latter part of the 13th century, and is first mentioned as chamberlain in 1287.
Already in 1201 he was chamberlain to King John, the sheriff of three shires, the constable of Dover and Windsor castles, the warden of the Cinque Ports and of the Welsh Marches.
There are also several pages of honour in the master of the horse's department, who must not be confounded with the pages of various kinds who are in the department of the lord chamberlain.
Anciently the residence of Sir Stephen de Penchester, Penshurst was granted to Henry VIII.'s chamberlain, Sir William Sidney, whose grandson, Sir Philip Sidney, was born here in 1554.
After studying at Padua, he went to reside at Rome, and was received with great favour by Pope Clement VIII., who made him his private chamberlain.Advertisement
Chachanobori (about 7382 ft.) is described by Messrs Chamberlain and Mason as "a cone within a cone, the inner and higher of the two being - so the natives say - surrounded by a lake."
During a tour through Kashmir with Sir Henry Lawrence he kept the purse and Sir Henry could never obtain an account from him; subsequently Sir George Lawrence accused him of embezzling the funds of the Lawrence Asylum at Kasauli; while Sir Neville Chamberlain in a published letter says of the third brother, Lord Lawrence, "I am bound to say that Lord Lawrence had no opinion of Hodson's integrity in money matters.
General Crawford Chamberlain states that this was Hodson's way of wiping out the debt.
He was educated by the Jesuits at Rome till his seventeenth year, when he accompanied Jerome Colonna as chamberlain to the university of Alcala in Spain.
The task of clearing up after the war, both in South Africa and at home, lay before him; but his cordial relations with Mr Chamberlain, and the enthusiastic support of a large parliamentary majority, made the prospects fair.Advertisement
Mr Chamberlain went to South Africa in the late autumn, with the hope that his personality would influence the settlement there; and the session of 1903 opened in February with no hint of troubles to come.
Mr Ritchie's remission of the shilling import-duty on corn led to Mr Chamberlain's crusade in favour of tariff reform and colonial preference, and as the session proceeded the rift grew in the Unionist ranks.
In the separate article on Mr Chamberlain the progress of this movement is sufficiently narrated.
But Mr Chamberlain's new programme for a general tariff, with new taxes on food arranged so as to give a preference to colonial products, involved a radical alteration of the established fiscal system, and such out-and-out Unionist free-traders in the cabinet as Mr Ritchie and Lord George Hamilton, and outside it, like Lord Hugh Cecil and Mr Arthur Elliot (secretary to the treasury), were entirely opposed to this.
Mr Balfour was anxious to avoid a rupture, doubtful of the feeling of the country, uncertain of the details by which Mr Chamberlain's scheme could be worked out.Advertisement
Mr Chamberlain rested his case largely on the alleged diminution in British trade, and the statistics therefore required investigation before the government could adopt any such programme.
From the middle of May, when Mr Chamberlain began to press the matter, Mr Balfour had a difficult hand to play, so long as it was uncertain how the party would follow the new lead.
These were the strait free-traders, but at the same time Mr Chamberlain resigned also.
The correspondence between Mr Chamberlain and Mr Balfour (September 9th and 16th) was published, and presented the latter in the light of a sympathizer with some form of fiscal union with the colonies, if practicable, and in favour of retaliatory duties, but unable to believe that the country was yet ready to agree to the taxation of food required for a preferential tariff, and therefore unwilling to support that scheme; at the same time he encouraged Mr Chamberlain to test the feeling of the public and to convert them by his missionary efforts outside the government.
Mr Chamberlain on his side emphasized his own parliamentary loyalty to Mr Balfour.Advertisement
This manifesto was at first taken, not only as the platform of the government, but also as that from which its resigning free-trade members had dissented; and the country was puzzled by a statement from Lord George Hamilton that Mr Balfour had circulated among his colleagues a second and different document, in fuller agreement with Mr Chamberlain.
The speech was enthusiastically received by the National Union of Conservative Associations, who had year by year flirted with protectionist resolutions, and who were known to be predominantly in sympathy with Mr Chamberlain.
Mr Chamberlain spoke all over the country, advocating a definite scheme for reorganizing the budget, so as to have more taxes on imports, including food, but proposing to adjust the taxation so as to improve the position of the workingclasses and to stimulate employment.
The free-trade Unionists, with the duke of Devonshire, Lord Goschen, Lord James and Lord Hugh Cecil, as their chief representatives, started a Free Food league in opposition to Mr Chamberlain's Tariff Reform league; and at a great meeting at Queen's Hall, London, on the 24th of November their attitude was made plain.
They rejected Mr Chamberlain's food-taxes, discredited his statistics, and, while admitting the theoretical orthodoxy of retaliation, criticized Mr Balfour's attitude and repudiated his assumption that retaliation would be desirable.Advertisement
Finally in December came the appointment of Mr Chamberlain's Tariff Commission.
His dialectical dexterity in evading the necessity of expressing his fiscal opinions further than he had already done became a daily subject for contemptuous criticism in the Liberal press; but he insisted that in any case no definite action could be taken till the next parliament; and while he declined to go the "whole hog" - as the phrase went - with Mr Chamberlain, he did nothing to discourage Mr Chamberlain's campaign.
The more aggressive protectionists among Mr Chamberlain's supporters had lately become very confident, and Mr Balfour plainly repudiated "protection" in so far as it meant a policy aiming at supporting or creating home industries by raising home prices; but he introduced a new point by declaring that an Imperial Conference would be called to discuss with the colonies the question of preferential tariffs if the Unionist government obtained a majority at the next general election.
The Edinburgh speech was again received with conflicting interpretations, and much discussion prevailed as to the conditions of the proposed conference, and as to whether it was or was not an advance, as the Chamberlainites claimed, towards Mr Chamberlain.
But, though Mr Chamberlain declared his desire for an early appeal to the electors, he maintained his parliamentary loyalty to Mr Balfour.
The end came in November 1905, precipitated by a speech made by Mr Balfour at Newcastle on the 14th, appealing for unity in the party and the sinking of differences, an appeal plainly addressed to Mr Chamberlain, whose supporters - the vast majority of the Unionists - were clamouring for a fighting policy.
But Mr Chamberlain was no longer prepared to wait.
While Mr Chamberlain had a signal personal triumph in all the divisions of Birmingham, Mr Balfour himself was defeated by a large majority in Manchester.
Being in a miserable minority in parliament (1S7 Unionists against 379 Liberals, 51 Labour members, and 83 Nationalists), some form of consolidation among the Unionists was immediately necessary, and negotiations took place between Mr Balfour and Mr Chamberlain which resulted in the patching up of an agreement (expressed in a correspondence dated February 14th), and its confirmation at a meeting of the party at Lansdowne House a few days later.
His speech at Birmingham (November 14, 1907), fully accepting the principles of Mr Chamberlain's fiscal policy, proved epoch-making in consolidating the Unionist party - except for a small number of free-traders, like Lord Robert Cecil, who continued to hold out - in favour of tariff reform; and during 1908 the process of recuperation went on, the by-elections showing toamarked degree the increased popular support given to the Unionist candidates.
His daughter, Mary Crowninshield Endicott, was married to the English statesman Mr Joseph Chamberlain in 1888.
Its defect is that its tragic conclusion does not seem absolutely inevitable, but the characters - especially those of the Grafin Orsina and Marinelli, the prince of Guastalla's chamberlain who weaves the intrigue from which Emilia escapes by death, are powerfully drawn.
His last speech at Birmingham was on 29th March 1888, at a banquet to celebrate Mr Chamberlain's return from his peace mission to the United States.
He became known in the House of Commons principally for his candid criticism of the measures introduced by his nominal leaders, and he was rather to be ranked among the Opposition than as a Ministerialist; and when the crisis with the Transvaal came in 1899, Mr Courtney's views, which remained substantially what they were when he supported the settlement after Majuba in 1881, had plainly become incompatible with his position even as a nominal follower of Lord Salisbury and Mr Chamberlain.
Chamberlain of Chicago University have given a valuable general account of the morphology of Angiosperms as far as concerns the flower, and the series of events which ends in the formation of the seed (Morphology of Angiosperms, Chicago, 1903).
In 572 or 573, however, he was assassinated by his chamberlain Peredeo at the instigation of Queen Rosamund, whom Alboin had grievously insulted by forcing her to drink wine out of her father's skull.
During the critical years of Mr Chamberlain's crusade (1903-1906) he made himself the chief spokesman of the Liberal party, delivering a series of speeches in answer to those of the tariff-reform leader; and his persistent following and answering of Mr Chamberlain had undoubted effect.
He became chamberlain of the exchequer, and from May 1559 to April 1564 he was ambassador in France.
When Mr Chamberlain started his new fiscal programme, combining Tariff Reform with Colonial Preference, Lord Rosebery at first seemed inclined to treat it as non-political, and on the 19th of May 1903 he declared in an address to the Burnley Chamber of Commerce that he was not one of those who regarded Free Trade as part of the Sermon on the Mount.
But this idea was quickly dispelled; on the 22nd he expressed his surprise that anybody should have thought he intended to approve of Mr Chamberlain's plan; he was not prepared to dismiss in advance a proposal for the consolidation of the empire made by the responsible government, but he believed that the objections to a policy of preference were insurmountable.
The fact, no doubt, was that Mr Asquith, Lord Rosebery's chief lieutenant in the Liberal League, made himself from the outset a determined champion of free trade in opposition to Mr Chamberlain; and Lord Rosebery quickly came into line with the rest of the Liberal party on this question.
On the r 2th of June, addressing the Liberal League, he admitted that as a lifelong Imperialist it was with pain and grief that he could not support Mr Chamberlain's scheme, but the empire had been built upon free trade, and he only saw danger to the empire in these new proposals.
It was dissolved under Edward VI., and a charter was obtained for Walden, appointing a treasurer and chamberlain and twentyfour assistants, all elective, who, with the commonalty, formed the corporation.
Returning to Weimar in 1850, he was made a chamberlain by the grand-duke, and in 1852, his health being now somewhat restored, he entered the Prussian diplomatic service and went as attaché to Rome.
Returning from a journey to Russia, he met Frederick the Great who made him a count of Prussia (1740) and court chamberlain (1747).
He did not at first speak very often, though he showed an active interest both in legal questions and in Chamberlain's schemes of social betterment and imperial unity.
When Chamberlain resigned in 1903 in order to carry on his Tariff Reform campaign unhampered by office, Lyttelton was selected by Mr. Balfour, after Lord Milner's refusal, for the vacant secretaryship for the Colonies.
His residence was at Rosafa on the border of the desert, and he rarely admitted visitors into his presence; as a rule they were received by his chamberlain Abrash.
Irritated by this failure, the caliph in 781 sent Harun, accompanied by his chamberlain Rabi`, with an army of nearly ioo,000 men, with orders to carry the war to the very gates of Constantinople.
The only Barmecide who remained unmolested with his family was Mahommed the brother of Yahya, who had been the chamberlain of the caliph till 795, when Fadl b.
He was probably brought young to Constantinople, and attained a footing in the officium of the grand chamberlain.
The last ilnportant dynasty in Persia prior to the Mongol invasion was that of the Saigharids in Fars, founded by the descendants of a Turkish general Salaghar, who had formerly been a Turkoman leader and ultimately became chamberlain to Toghrul Beg.
There had been a change of ministry in Great Britain and Joseph Chamberlain had become colonial secretary.
Mr Chamberlain still desired Kruger to grant immediate reforms and propounded a scheme of " Home Rule " for the Rand.
On the 4th of May 1899 Sir Alfred Milner felt it his duty to report at some length by cable to Mr Chamberlain.
The liverymen of the companies, being freemen of the city, have still, however, the exclusive power of electing the lord mayor, sheriffs, chamberlain and other corporate officers.
To secure the removal of the interdict the leading statesmen who were identified with the policy of his father - Goncalo Mendes the 23 chancellor, Pedro Annes the lord chamberlain 1223--121248.
Parliament demanded that laymen only should be chancellor, treasurer, privy seal and chamberlain of the exchequer.
He fought also at Stoke against the insurgents with Lambert Simnel, was made a knight banneret, governor of Calais, and lord chamberlain.
On the 4th the king, having been shown the letter, ordered the earl of Suffolk, as lord chamberlain, to examine the buildings.
Chamberlain, to whom the peaceful solution of the difficulty had largely been due, retired from the task assigned him by Garcelon on the 5th of January " to protect the public property and institutions of the state" until Garcelon's successor should be duly qualified.
Lawrence saw that the surest way to prevent the Mutiny from spreading from the sepoy army of Bengal to the recently conquered fighting races of the Punjab was to hurl the Sikh at the Hindu; instead of taking measures for the defence of the Punjab, he acted on the old principle that the best defence is attack, and promptly organized a force for the reduction of Delhi, with the ardent co-operation of born leaders like John Nicholson, Neville Chamberlain and Herbert Edwardes.
Though the nominal commanders of the army which captured Delhi were in turn Barnard, Reed and Wilson, the policy thus stated by Canning and Lawrence was really carried out by their subordinates - Baird Smith, Nicholson and Chamberlain.
Wilson actually thought of retreating; but Baird Smith and Chamberlain insisted on perseverance, and the city was captured after six days' hard fighting.
As Coulter and Chamberlain express it, " the habitats of the Gymnosperms to-day indicate that they either are not at home in the more genial conditions affected by Angiosperms, or have not been able to maintain themselves in competition with this group of plants."
These were the Great Logothete (Marele Logofetu) or chancellor; the governor of Lower Moldavia - Vorniculu de t'erra de josu; the governor of Upper Moldavia - Vorniculu de t'erra de sus; the Hatman or commander - in - chief; the high chamberlain - Marele Postelnicu; the great Spathar, or sword-bearer; the great cupbearer - Marele Paharnicu; and the treasurer, or Vistiernicu, who together formed the prince's council and were known as Boiari de Svatu.
During 1895 Sir Hercules Robinson was reappointed governor and high commissioner of South Africa in succession to Sir Henry Loch, and in the same year Mr Chamberlain became secretary of state for the colonies.
P. Schreiner was one, and a protest was then sent by Mr Chamberlain stating that the government would regard the closing of the drifts as a breach of the London Convention, and as an unfriendly action calling for the gravest remonstrance.
His public expressions of opinion were hostile in tone to the policy pursued by Mr Chamberlain and Sir Alfred Milner.
On the 11th of June 1899, shortly after the Bloemfontein conference, from which Sir Alfred Milner had just returned, Mr Schreiner asked the high commissioner to inform Mr Chamberlain that he and his colleagues agreed in regarding President Kruger's Bloemfontein proposals as " practical, reasonable and a considerable step in the right direction."
On the 28th of July Mr Chamberlain sent a conciliatory despatch to President Kruger, suggesting a meeting of delegates to consider and report on his last franchise proposals, which were complex to a degree.
Mr Schreiner, on the 3rd of August, telegraphed to Mr Fischer begging the Transvaal to welcome Mr Chamberlain's proposal.
In the early part of 1903 Mr Chamberlain included Cape Town in his visit to South Africa, and had conferences with the political leaders of all parties.
The speech so much impressed Mr. Balfour that he introduced Mr. Law into his Government as Parliamentary Secretary of the Board of Trade; and Mr. Joseph Chamberlain's Tariff Reform movement, which was started in the following year, showed how right Mr. Law was in his diagnosis of the future.
As the movement proceeded, Mr. Law was regarded as, along with Mr. Austen Chamberlain, the most decided Tariff Reformer left in the Ministry after Mr. Chamberlain's resignation.
There is no doubt that he chafed, in these years, at the slow rate at which his chief, Mr. Balfour, moved in the direction of Tariff Reform; but, though he would have preferred a more whole-hearted acceptance of Mr. Chamberlain's programme, he remained loyal to the Prime Minister.
The withdrawal of Mr. Chamberlain from active work in Parliament, owing to ill-health, left the stalwart Tariff Reform Ministry without a leader; his son, Mr. Austen Chamberlain, was his natural representative; but Mr. Law, by a series of fighting speeches both in the House and in the country, made himself particularly congenial to the more prominent members of that section.
This loyal attitude, no doubt, was one of the reasons, and his strong Tariff Reform programme was another, which recommended him to his party as Mr. Balfour's successor in the leadership when the claims of Mr. Austen Chamberlain and Mr. (afterwards Lord) Long appeared to divide the Unionists pretty evenly.
He brought seven of his colleagues into the Cabinet with him - Lord Lansdowne, Mr. Balfour, Mr. Austen Chamberlain, D'Ir.
Chamberlain, who resigned to become a member of the U.S. Senate.
A house of Augustinian canons established here in 1119 by Erkenbert, chamberlain of Worms, was suppressed in 1562 by the elector palatine Frederick III., who gave its possessions to Protestant refugees from the Netherlands.
By the wise action of Si Ahmad bin Musa, the chamberlain of El Hasan, Abd-elAziz's accession to the sultanate was ensured with but little fighting.
These were the two Hugh Despensers, father and son; the elder was an ambitious baron who hated Lancaster, the younger had been made Edwards chamberlain in 1318 and had become his secret councillor and constant companion.
It was led by Lord Lovel, Richards chamberlain and admiral; but the insurgents dispersed when Henry marched against them with a large force (1486), and Lovel took refuge in Flanders with Margaret of York, the widow of Charles the Bold of Burgundy, whose dower towns were the refuge of all English exiles, and whose coffers were always open to subsidize plots against her nieces husband.
But in the winter of 1494-1495 the traitors were themselves betrayed, and a large number of arrests were made, including not only Lord Fitzwaiter and a number of well-known knights of Yorkist families, but Sir William Stanley, the kings chamberlain, who had been rewarded with enormous gifts for his good service at Bosworth, and was reckoned one of the chief supports of the throne.
Lord Hartington, and others of his former colleagues, declined to join his administration; Mr Chamberlain, who, in the first instance, accepted office, retired almost at once from the ministry; and Bright, whose eloquence and past services gave him a unique position in the House, threw in his lot in opposition to Home Rule.
Mr Chamberlain and other Liberal Unionists joining the government.
He is generally supposed to have been praetorian praefect in Spain (399), proconsul of Africa (410), and lord chamberlain (422).
When the earl of Pembroke, then lord chamberlain, broke his staff across May's shoulders at a masque, the king took him under his protection as "my poet," and Pembroke made him an apology accompanied with a gift of -050.
Louis XI., who had joined his troops to those of the princes of Anjou, attached Boffille to his own person, made him his chamberlain and conferred on him the vice-royalty of Roussillon and Cerdagne (1471), together with certain important lordships, among others the countship of Castres, confiscated from James of Armagnac, duke of Nemours (1476), and the temporalities of the bishopric of Castres, confiscated from John of Armagnac. He also entrusted him with diplomatic negotiations with Flanders and England.
In April the Government of Ireland Bill was brought in, Mr Chamberlain, Mr Trevelyan and others leaving the ministry.
In October Mr Chamberlain visited Ulster, where he was received with enthusiasm, and delivered several stirring Unionist speeches.
Next day the visitors were entertained by Lord Salisbury at Hatfield, the duke of Devonshire, Mr Balfour, Mr Goschen and Mr Chamberlain being present.
By her be was made hajiblord chamberlain, prime minister, great domestic, alter ego, in short, of the puppet caliphfor Hishgm II.
Young Chamberlain was educated at Canonbury from 1845 to 1850, and at University College school, London, from 1850 to 1852.
Nettlefold & Chamberlain employed new methods of attracting customers, and judiciously amalgamated rival firms with their own so as to reduce competition, with the result that in 1874, after twenty-two years of commercial life, Mr Chamberlain was able to retire with an ample fortune.
But the great work carried through by Mr Chamberlain for Birmingham was the municipalization of the supply of gas and water, and the improvement scheme by which slums were cleared away and forty acres laid out in new streets and open spaces.
The prosperity of modern Birmingham dates from 1875 and 1876, when these admirably administered reforms were initiated, and by his share in them Mr Chamberlain became not only one of its most popular citizens but also a man of mark outside.
In 1876 Mr Dixon resigned his seat in parliament, and Mr Chamberlain was returned for Birmingham in his place unopposed, as John Bright's colleague.
The Liberal partynumbered 349, against 243 Conservatives and 60 Irish Nationalists; and the Radical section of the Liberal party, led by Mr Chamberlain and Sir Charles Dilke, was recognized by Mr Gladstone by his inclusion of the former in his cabinet as president of the Board of Trade, and the appointment of the latter as under secretary for foreign affairs.
In his new capacity Mr Chamberlain was responsible for carrying such important measures as the Bankruptcy Act 1883, and the Patents Act.
At the general election of November 1885 Mr Chamberlain was returned for West Birmingham.
Unlike Lord Hartington (afterwards duke of Devonshire) and other Liberals, who declined to join Mr Gladstone in view of the altered attitude he was adopting towards Ireland, Mr Chamberlain entered the cabinet as president of the Local Government Board (with Mr Jesse Collings as parliamentary secretary), but on the 15th of March 1886 he resigned, explaining in the House of Commons (8th April) that, while he had always been in favour of the largest possible extension of local government to Ireland consistently with the integrity of the empire and the supremacy of parliament, and had therefore joined Mr Gladstone when he believed that this was what was intended, he was unable to consider that the scheme communicated by Mr Gladstone to his colleagues maintained those limitations.
At Birmingham Mr Chamberlain was supported by the "Two Thousand," but deserted by the "Caucus" and Mr Schnadhorst.
In May the Radicals who followed Mr Bright and Mr Chamberlain, and the Whigs who took their cue from Lord Hartington, decided to vote against the second reading of the Home Rule Bill, instead of allowing it to be taken and then pressing for modifications in committee, and on 7th June the bill was defeated by 343 to 3 1 3, 94 Liberal Unionists - as they were generally called - voting against the government.
Mr Chamberlain was the object of the bitterest attacks from the Gladstonians for his share in this result; he was stigmatized as "Judas," and open war was proclaimed by the Home Rulers against the "dissentient Liberals" - the description used by Mr Gladstone.
Before 1892 Mr Chamberlain had the satisfaction of seeing Lord Salisbury's ministry pass such important acts, from a progressive point of view, as those dealing with Coal Mines Regulation, Allotments, County Councils, Housing of the Working Classes, Free Education and Agricultural Holdings, besides Irish legislation like the Ashbourne Act, the Land Act of 1891, and the Light Railways and Congested Districts Acts.
The Senate refused to ratify it; but a protocol provided for a modus vivendi pending ratification, giving American fishing vessels similar advantages to those contemplated in the treaty; and on the whole Mr Chamberlain's mission to America was accepted as a successful one in maintaining satisfactory relations with the United States.
At the general election of 1892 Mr Chamberlain was again returned, with an increased majority, for West Birmingham; but the Unionist party as a whole came back with only 315 members against 355 Home Rulers.
During the eighty-two days' discussion in the House of Commons Mr Chamberlain was the life and soul of the opposition, and his criticisms had a vital influence upon the attitude of the country when the House of Lords summarily threw out the bill.
In that year, on the defeat of Lord Rosebery, the union of the Unionists was sealed by the inclusion of the Liberal Unionist leaders in Lord Salisbury's ministry; and Mr Chamberlain became secretary of state for the colonies.
There had been much speculation as to what his post would be, and his nomination to the colonial office, then considered one of secondary rank, excited some surprise; but Mr Chamberlain himself realized how important that department had become.
Mr Chamberlain's influence in the Unionist cabinet was soon visible in the Workmen's Compensation Act and other measures.
This act, though in Sir Matthew White Ridley's charge as home secretary, was universally and rightly associated with Mr Chamberlain; and its passage, in the face of much interested opposition from highly-placed, old-fashioned conservatives and capitalists on both sides, was principally due to his determined advocacy.
Another "social" measure of less importance, which formed part of the Chamberlain programme, was the Small Houses Acquisition Act of 18 9 9; but the problem of old age pensions was less easily solved.
This subject had been handed over in 18 9 3 to a royal commission, and further discussed by a select committee in 1899 and a departmental committee in 1900, but both of these threw cold water on the schemes laid before them - a result which, galling enough to one who had made so much play with the question in the country, offered welcome material to his opponents for electioneering recrimination, as year by year went by between 1895 and 1900 and nothing resulted from all the confident talk on the subject in which Mr Chamberlain had indulged when out of office.
Eventually it was the Liberal and not the Unionist party that carried an Old Age Pensions scheme through parliament, during the 1908 session, when Mr Chamberlain was hors de combat.
Mr Chamberlain had a very difficult part to play, in a situation dominated by suspicion on both sides, and while he firmly insisted on the rights of Great Britain and of British subjects in the Transvaal, he was the continual object of Radical criticism at home.
Attempts were even made to ascribe financial motives to Mr Chamberlain's actions, and the political atmosphere was thick with suspicion and scandal.
The report of the Commons committee (July 18 9 7) definitely acquitted both Mr Chamberlain and the colonial office of any privity in the Jameson Raid, but Mr Chamberlain's detractors continued to assert the contrary.
The elections of 1900 (when he was again returned, unopposed, for West Birmingham) turned upon the individuality of a single minister more than any since the days of Mr Gladstone's ascendancy, and Mr Chamberlain, never conspicuous for inclination to turn his other cheek to the smiter,was not slow to return the blows with interest.
Mr Chamberlain's tenure of the office of colonial secretary between 18 9 5 and 1900 must always be regarded as a turningpoint in the history of the relations between the British colonies and the mother country.
While he was still under Mr Gladstone's influence these opinions were kept in subordination; but Mr Chamberlain was always an imperial federationist, and from 1887 onwards he constantly gave expression to his views on the desirability of drawing the different parts of the empire closer together for purposes of defence and commerce.
In 1895 the time for the realization of these views had come; and Mr Chamberlain's speeches, previously remarkable chiefly for debating power and directness of argument, were now dominated by a newnote of constructive statesmanship, basing itself on the economic necessities of a world-wide empire.
Not the least of the anxieties of the colonial office during this period was the situation in the West Indies, where the canesugar industry was being steadily undermined by the European bounties given to exports of continental beet; and though the government restricted themselves to attempts at removing the bounties by negotiation and to measures for palliating the worst effects in the West Indies, Mr Chamberlain made no secret of his repudiation of the Cobden Club view that retaliation would be contrary to the doctrines of free trade, and he did his utmost to educate public opinion at home into understanding that the responsibilities of the mother country are not merely to be construed according to the selfish interests of a nation of consumers.
As regards foreign affairs, Mr Chamberlain more than once (and particularly at Leicester on 30th November 18 9 9) indicated his leanings towards a closer understanding between the British empire, the United States and Germany, - a suggestion which did not save him from an extravagant outburst of German hostility during the Boer War.
During the progress of the Boer War from 1899 to 1902, Mr Chamberlain, as the statesman who had represented the cabinet in the negotiations which led to it, remained the object of constant attacks from his Radical opponents - the "little Englanders" and "Pro-Boers," as he called them - and he was supported by the Imperialist and Unionist party with at least equal ardour.
Mr Chamberlain's speech, in answer to what had been intended as a contemptuous rebuke, was universally applauded.
When Mr Arthur Balfour succeeded Lord Salisbury as prime minister in July 1902, Mr Chamberlain agreed to serve loyally under him, and the friendship between the two leaders was indeed one of the most marked features of the political situation.
In November 1902 it was arranged that Mr Chamberlain should go out to South Africa, and it was hoped, not without reason, that his personality would effect more good than any ordinary official negotiations.
In South Africa - as in any other British colony, since all of them were accustomed to tariffs of a protectionist nature, and the idea of a preference (already started by Canada) was fairly popular - Mr Chamberlain had found this view well established.
Mr Chamberlain himself had proposed only to take it off as regards colonial, and not foreign corn, - thus inaugurating a preferential system.
This idea, which had for some time been floating in Mr Chamberlain's mind (see especially his speech at Birmingham of May 16, 1902), now took full possession of it.
Considered in the light of after events, this putting the necessity of food-taxes in the forefront was decidedly injudicious; but imperialist conviction and enthusiasm were more conspicuous than electioneering_ tact in the launching of Mr Chamberlain's new scheme.
Mr Chamberlain and his supporters argued that since 1870 certain other countries (Germany and the United States), with protective tariffs, had increased their trade in much larger proportion, while English trade had only been maintained by the increased business done with British colonies.
The Tariff Reform League was founded in order to further Mr Chamberlain's policy, holding its inaugural meeting on July 21st; and it began to take an active part in issuing leaflets and in work at by-elections.
Phelps, - men of admitted competence, yet, after all, of no higher authority than the economists supporting Mr Chamberlain, such as Dr Cunningham and Professor Ashley.
And on the 18th the resignations were announced, not only of the more rigid freetraders in the cabinet, Mr Ritchie and Lord George Hamilton, but also of Mr Chamberlain.
Letters in cordial terms were published, which had passed between Mr Chamberlain(September 9) and Mr Balfour (September 16).
Mr Chamberlain pointed out that he was committed to a preferential scheme involving new duties on food, and could not remain in the government without prejudice while it was excluded from the party programme; remaining loyal to Mr Balfour and his general objects, he could best promote this course from outside, and he suggested that the government might confine its policy to the "assertion of our freedom in the case of all commercial relations with foreign countries."
Mr Balfour, while reluctantly admitting the necessity of Mr Chamberlain's taking a freer hand, expressed his agreement in the desirability of a closer fiscal union with the colonies, but questioned the immediate practicability of any scheme; he was willing to adopt fiscal reform so far as it covered retaliatory duties, but thought that the exclusion of taxation of food from the party programme was in existing circumstances necessary, so long as public opinion was not ripe.
At the same time he welcomed the fact that Mr Chamberlain's son, Mr Austen Chamberlain, was ready to remain a member of the government.
It is sufficient to say that while Mr Balfour's sympathetic "send off" appeared to indicate his inclination towards Mr Chamberlain's programme, if only further support could be gained for it, his endeavour to keep the party together, and the violent opposition which gathered against Mr Chamberlain's scheme, combined to make his real attitude during the next two years decidedly obscure, both sections of the party - free-traders and tariff reformers - being induced from time to time to regard him as on their side.
On January 18th, 1904, Mr Chamberlain ended his series of speeches by a great meeting at the Guildhall, in the city of London, the key-note being his exhortation to his audience to "think imperially."
All this activity on Mr Chamberlain's part represented a great physical and intellectual feat on the part of a man now sixtyseven years of age; but his bodily vigour and comparatively youthful appearance were essential features of his personality.
Free-trade unionists like Lord Goschen and Lord Hugh Cecil, and the Liberal leaders - for whom Mr Asquith became the principal spokesman, though Lord Rosebery's criticisms also had considerable weight - found new matter in Mr Chamberlain's speeches for their contention that any radical change in the traditional English fiscal policy, established now for sixty years, would only result in evil.
The broad fact remained that while Mr Chamberlain's activity gathered round him the bulk of the Unionist members and an enthusiastic band of economic sympathizers, the country as a whole remained apathetic and unconvinced.
Mr Chamberlain had relied on his personal influence, which from 1895 to 1902 had been supreme; but his own resignation, and the course of events, had since 1903 made his personality less authoritative, and new interests - such as the opposition to the Education Act, to the heavy taxation, and to Chinese labour in the Transvaal, and indignation over the revelations concerned with the war - were monopolizing attention, to the weakening of his hold on the public. The revival in trade, and the production of new statistics which appeared to stultify Mr Chamberlain's prophecies of progressive decline, enabled the free-trade champions to reassure their audiences as to the very foundation of his case, and to represent the whole tariff reform movement as no less unnecessary than risky.
On the other hand the colonies took a great interest in the new movement, though without putting any such pressure on the home public as Mr Chamberlain might have expected.
Mr Chamberlain, however, declined; his work at home was too pressing.
From the end of Mr Chamberlain's series of expository speeches on his scheme of tariff reform, onwards during the various fiscal debates and discussions of 1904, it is unnecessary to follow events in detail.
The scheme was now before the country, and Mr Chamberlain was anxious to take its verdict.
Mr Chamberlain needed a rest, and was away in Italy and Egypt from March to May, and again in November.
In January some correspondence was published between Mr Chamberlain and the duke of Devonshire, dating from the previous October, as to difficulties arising from the central Liberal-Unionist organization subsidizing local associations which had adopted the programme of tariff reform.
Mr Chamberlain retorted that this was a matter for a general meeting of delegates to decide; if the duke was outvoted he might resign his presidency; for his own part he was prepared to allow the local associations to be subsidized impartially, so long as they supported the government, but he was not prepared for the violent disruption, which the duke apparently contemplated, of an association so necessary to the success of the Unionist cause.
The duke was in a difficult position as president of the organization, since most of the local associations supported Mr Chamberlain, and he replied that the differences between them were vital, and he would not be responsible for dividing the association into sections, but would rather resign.
Mr Chamberlain then called a general meeting on his own responsi bility in February, when a new constitution was proposed; and in May, at the annual meeting of the Liberal-Unionist council, the free-food Unionists, being in a minority, retired, and the association was reorganized under Mr Chamberlain's auspices, Lord Lansdowne and Lord Selborne (both of them cabinet ministers) becoming vice-presidents.
On July 14th the reconstituted Liberal-Unionist organization held a great demonstration in the Albert Hall, and Mr Chamberlain's success in ousting the duke of Devonshire and the other free-trade members of the old Liberal-Unionist party, and imposing his own fiscal policy upon the Liberal-Unionist caucus, was now complete.
During the spring and summer of 1905 Mr Chamberlain's more active supporters were in favour of forcing a dissolution by leaving the government in a minority, but he himself preferred to leave matters to take their course, so long as the prime minister was content to be publicly identified with the policy of eventually fighting on tariff reform lines.
Speaking at the Albert Hall in July Mr Chamberlain pushed somewhat further than before his "embrace" of Mr Balfour; and in the autumn, when foreign affairs no longer dominated the attention of the government, the crisis rapidly came to a head.
In reply to Mr Balfour's appeal for the sinking of differences (Newcastle, November 14), Mr Chamberlain insisted at Bristol (November 21) on the adoption of his fiscal policy; and Mr Balfour resigned on December 4, on the ground that he no longer retained the confidence of the party.
At the crushing Unionist defeat in the general election which followed in January 1906, Mr Chamberlain was triumphantly returned for West Birmingham, and all the divisions of Birmingham returned Chamberlainite members.
It remained the fact that Mr Chamberlain staked an already established position on his refusal to compromise with his convictions on a question which appeared to him of vital and immediate importance.
Mr Chamberlain's own activity in the political field was cut short in the middle of the session of 1906 by a serious attack of gout, which was at first minimized by his friends, but which, it was gradually discovered, had completely crippled him.
Mr Chamberlain himself was returned unopposed for West Birming ham again.
In his criticism on Adam Smith, and his arguments for a system of moderate protective duties associated with the deliberate policy of promoting national interests, his work was the inspiration of Friedrich List, and so the foundation of the economic system of Germany in a later day, and again, still later, of the policy of Tariff Reform and Colonial Preference in England, as advocated by Mr Chamberlain and his supporters.
He studied at several Italian universities, became chamberlain to Pope Gregory XV., and in 1625 was made archbishop of Fermo.
What is called the "Bayreuth Idea" is set forth in much detail from this point of view by Houston Stewart Chamberlain, in his Richard Wagner (1897 and 1900).
The Sachsenspiegel, written before 1235, mentions the margrave as one of the electors, by virtue of the office of chamberlain, which had probably been conferred on Albert the Bear by the German king Conrad III.
Another theory is that Chamberlain believed that appeasement was worth trying but that war was inevitable.
The unity theaters movement grew as a direct response to the theater censorship being exercised as directed by the Lord Chamberlain.
By 1700 anyone admitted as Mayor's Child was usually given an immediate chamberlain 's place.
Casimir was the name of the king's eldest brother, who held the office of grand chamberlain.
In fact, a former chamberlain to the Crown Prince described the remarks as the equivalent to a declaration of war.
He now lies at the lord chamberlain 's, not daring to have himself carried to his apartments at the palace.
Some would interpret it as some sort of palace overseer or court chamberlain.
The doctor was sworn one of the king's chaplains by the Earl of Manchester, Lord Chamberlain, who truly honored him.
Joseph Chamberlain - the great reforming Mayor of Birmingham - built his own suburban dreamland (' Highbury ') in leafy Ed gbaston.
Reasons for the weakness of the treaty have been sought in Chamberlain's excessive preoccupation with French security interests.
But directly afterward the impudent scoundrel who had taken hold of my arm came up and began to speak to the chamberlain in German.
She was still in England at the Revolution, having delayed her return to Portugal to prosecute a lawsuit against the second earl of Clarendon, formerly her chamberlain.
At the Imperial Conference in London in 1907 Mr Deakin, the Commonwealth premier, was the leading advocate of colonial preference with a view to imperial commercial union; and though no reciprocal arrangement was favoured by the Liberal cabinet, who temporarily spoke for the United Kingdom, the colonial representatives were all agreed in urging such a policy, and found the Opposition (the Unionist party) in England prepared to adopt it as part of Mr Chamberlain's tariff reform movement.
And it was directly challenged by the representatives of Mr Chamberlain's school of Imperialist thought (see Chamberlain, Joseph).
The situation resulting from the Jameson raid (see Transvaal and South Africa) was one of the greatest delicacy and difficulty, and Mr Chamberlain, now colonial secretary, selected Milner as Lord Rosmead's successor.
The tariff reform movement in England started by Mr Chamberlain had the result of giving new boldness to the opponents of Manchesterism, and the whole subject once more became controversial (see Free Trade; Corn Laws; Protection; Tariff; Economics).
When Mr Chamberlain reached the Transvaal in January 1903 the feeling among the British section of the community was optimistic. Mr Chamberlain was well received by the Boer leaders; it was, however, to the Rand magnates that he turned for financial help. That large sums were imperatively needed to accomplish the work of reconstruction was apparent.
Her extravagant expenditure, returned by Salisbury in 1605 at more than L50,000 and by Chamberlain at her death at more than 84,000, was unfavourably contrasted with the economy of Queen Elizabeth; in spite of large allowances and grants of estates which included Oatlands, Greenwich House and Nonsuch, it greatly exceeded her income, her debts in 1616 being reckoned at nearly fio,000, while her jewelry and her plate were valued at her death at nearly half a million.
There was another palace of still more wonderful character, built by the presbyter's father in obedience to a heavenly command, in the city of Bribric. Should it be asked why, with all this power and splendour, he calls himself merely "presbyter," this is because of his humility, and because it was not fitting for one whose sewer was a primate and king, whose butler an archbishop and king, whose chamberlain a bishop and king, whose master of the horse an archimandrite and king, whose chief cook an abbot and king, to be called by such titles as these.
The praetorian guards had keenly resented the murder of their patron Domitian, and now, at the instigation of one of their two prefects, Casperius Aelianus, whom Nerva had retained in office, they imperiously demanded the execution of Domitian's murderers, the chamberlain Parthenius and Petronius Secundus, Aelianus's colleague.
The royal residences and grounds used to be under the control of four different officials - the lord chamberlain, the lord steward, the master of the horse and the commissioners of woods and forests.
Baron Stockmar, describing the confusion fostered by this state of things, said The lord steward finds the fuel and lays the fire; the lord chamberlain lights it.
The lord chamberlain provides the lamps; the lord steward must clean, trim and light them.
After an escapade in England in 1787, he spent two months with her at Colombier before becoming, in deference to his father's wishes, chamberlain at the court of Charles William, duke of Brunswick, where in 1789 he married one of the ladiesin-waiting, Wilhelmina, Baroness Chramm.
He was an alderman from 1868 to 1870, a coroner from 1873 to 1876, a fire commissioner in 1883 and 1887, and city chamberlain from 1889 to 1890.
In 1832 the title of "imperial chamberlain" was conferred upon him, and in 1839 he married Maria, daughter of Count Attems. After the revolution of 1848 at Vienna he represented the district of Laibach at the German national assembly at Frankfort-on-theMain, to which he tried in vain to persuade his Slovene compatriots to send representatives.
He was a strenuous advocate of the abolition of the House of Lords (see 20.845, 846); at the time of the Parnell Commission he had much to do with the unmasking of Pigott; and he was a member of the inquiry into the Jameson Raid, his hostility to Mr. Chamberlain being as pronounced as against Lord Rosebery when the latter became leader of the Liberal party.
During 1877 the new federation of Liberal Associations which became known as the "Caucus" was started under Mr Chamberlain's influence in Birmingham - its secretary, Mr Schnadhorst, quickly making himself felt as a wire-puller of exceptional ability; and the new organization had a remarkable effect in putting life into the Liberal party, which since Mr Gladstone's retirement in 1874 had been much in need of a stimulus.
Even in what Mr Chamberlain called his "Radical days" he had never supported the "Manchester" view of the value of a colonial empire; and during the Gladstone ministry of1882-1885Mr Bright had remarked that the junior member for Birmingham was the only Jingo in the cabinet - meaning, no doubt, that he objected to the policy of laissez-faire and the timidity of what was afterwards known as "Little Englandism."
The tariff reform movement itself was now, however, outside the purely official programme, and Mr Chamberlain (backed by a majority of the Unionist members) threw himself with impetuous ardour into a crusade on its behalf, while at the same time supporting Mr Balfour in parliament, and leaving it to him to decide as to the policy of going to the country when the time should be ripe.
It may be left to future historians to attempt a considered judgment on the English tariff reform movement, and on Mr Chamberlain's responsibility for the Unionist debacle of 1906.
At one end of the table, the old chamberlain was heard assuring an old baroness that he loved her passionately, at which she laughed; at the other could be heard the story of the misfortunes of some Mary Viktorovna or other.
Explore the warren of cellar rooms were Neville Chamberlain, then more famously Winston Churchill planned the II World War.
Along with Wilt Chamberlain, Michael shares the NBA record for most consecutive seasons leading the league in scoring.
Krusen left the band after their debut album and was replaced by Matt Chamberlain, who also left.
Chamberlain's has an extensive wine list and variety of high-end liquors.
Boris became court chamberlain in 1676.
In 1666 he was appointed teacher of 'medicine at Mainz and body-physician to the archbishop-elector; and the same year he was made councillor of commerce (Commerzienrat) at Vienna, where he had gained the powerful support of Albrecht, Count Zinzendorf, prime minister and grand chamberlain of the emperor Leopold I.
On the outbreak of the South African War in 1899 Grant was at first disposed to be hostile to the policy of Lord Salisbury and Mr Chamberlain; but his eyes were soon opened to the real nature of President Kruger's government, and he enthusiastically welcomed and supported the national feeling which sent men from the outlying portions of the Empire to assist in upholding British supremacy in South Africa.
He was a member of parliament in 1774 and 1775; in 1776 he became a peer as Baron Osborne, and in 1777 lord chamberlain of the queen's household.
In the House of Lords he was prominent as a determined foe of the prime minister, Lord North, who, after he had resigned his position as chamberlain, deprived him of the office of lordlieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire in 1780.
From April to December 1697 he discharged the duties of lord chamberlain, and for part of this time he was one of the lords justices, but the general suspicion with which he was regarded terrified him, and in December he resigned.
BrOhl, who began as page and chamberlain, was largely employed in procuring money for his profuse master.
See Mellen Chamberlain (and others), History of Chelsea (2 vols., Boston, 1908), published by the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Having obtained the leave of the British government to accept the prince's offer, he received the honour of knighthood from George III., and during eleven years he remained at Munich as minister of war, minister of police, and grand chamberlain to the elector.
He returned to the Cape in February 1899 fully assured of the support of Mr Chamberlain, though the government still clung to the hope that the moderate section of the Cape and Free State Dutch would induce Kruger to deal justly with the Uitlanders.
While this work of reconstruction was in progress domestic politics in England were convulsed by the tariff reform movement and Mr Chamberlain's resignation.
At midnight on the 6th of December 1741, with a few personal friends, including her physician, Armand Lestocq, her chamberlain, Michael Ilarionvich Vorontsov, her future husband, Alexius Razumovski, and Alexander and Peter Shuvalov, two of the gentlemen of her household, she drove to the barracks of the Preobrazhensky Guards, enlisted their sympathies by a stirring speech, and led them to the Winter Palace, where the regent was reposing in absolute security.
So suspicious had the ministry become of the nature of the military preparations that were being made by the Boers, that in May 1899 they communicated their apprehensions to the High Commissioner, Sir Alfred Milner, who telegraphed on the 25th of May to Mr Chamberlain, informing him that Natal was uneasy.
Mr Chamberlain on his visit to South Africa came first to Natal, where he landed in the last days of 1902, and conferred with the leading colonists.
In the 14th century the original house of Dalberg became extinct in the male line, the fiefs passing to Johann Gerhard, chamberlain of the see of Worms, who married the heiress of his cousin, Anton of Dalberg, about 1330.
His own family was of great antiquity, his ancestors having been hereditary ministerials of the bishop of Worms since the time of Ekbert the chamberlain, who founded in i 119 the Augustinian monastery of Frankenthal and died in 1132.
Sir Hercules Robinson, in response to a message from Mr Chamberlain, who had been secretary of 'state for the colonies since July 1895, urging him to use firm language in reference to reasonable concessions, replied that he considered the moment inopportune, and on the 15th of January he left for Cape Town.
In January 1899 Mr Chamberlain pointed out in a despatch to President Kruger that the dynamite monopoly constituted a breach of the London Convention.
In response to this appeal, Mr Chamberlain, in a despatch dated the 10th of May, proposed a conference at Pretoria.
Sir Alfred Milner urged the home government strongly to insist upon a minimum of reform, and primarily the five years' franchise; and Mr Chamberlain, backed by the cabinet, adopted the policy of the high commissioner.
In England, on the other hand, it was thought by most people that if a firm enough attitude were adopted Mr Kruger would " climb down," and the effect of this error was shown partly in the whole course of the negotiations, partly in the tone personally adopted by Mr Chamberlain.
At this period Mr Chamberlain determined to visit South Africa and use his personal influence to help forward the settlement of the country.
Mr Chamberlain when in South Africa in 1903 had also put forward federation as the desired goal.
The leader of the Opposition from the first denounced the diplomatic steps taken by Lord Milner and Mr Chamberlain, and objected to all armed intervention or even preparation for hostilities.
The blunders of the government were open to a united attack, andMr Chamberlain's tariff-reform movement in 1903 provided a new rallying point in defence of the existing fiscal system.
Theatres, music halls, concert halls and other places of entertainment are licensed by the County Council, except that the licence for stage-plays is granted by the lord chamberlain under the Theatres Act 1843.
Various alterations were subsequently made and now the qualification of electors at the election of the corporate offices of lord mayor, sheriffs, chamberlain and minor offices in Common Hall is that of being a liveryman of a livery company and an enrolled freeman of London.
The chamberlain or comptroller of the king's chamber is appointed by the livery.
In the same year there appears in the accounts of the chamberlain of Scotland a payment at the rate of is.
See Chamberlain, Journ.
In 1849, accordingly, he re-entered the service of Denmark, was appointed a royal chamberlain and in 1850 sent to represent the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein at the restored federal diet of Frankfort.
Chamberlain remained colonial secretary, his son Austen being postmaster-general with a seat in the cabinet.
The Empress' chamberlain invited him to see Her Majesty.