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chain

chain

chain Sentence Examples

  • That's the real chain of events.

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  • That was one chain of events.

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  • He threw the chain in the truck bed.

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  • I'll bring over a chain saw in the morning and cut it up.

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  • He jerked the chain out of his truck and stared down at her sourly.

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  • For once, someone in the chain of command had some common sense.

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  • Malta and Gozo are the only islands of the Mediterranean which can be associated with this section, and, per contra, the mountain chain of north-west Africa belongs to Eurasia.

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  • Deidre sobbed, suddenly wishing she could go back and change whatever it was she did to start this chain of events.

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  • Ashley pulled the car into an Italian chain restaurant.

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  • She took in his wounds again, unable to fathom why her father would chain him to the wall in their wine cellar.

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  • She was plotting her return with a chain of events that ended with the human that bore her likeness being turned over to Darkyn.

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  • He wore a glowing talisman on a leather chain around his neck.

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  • Finally we spotted a large chain store and upon entering, detected a bank of telephones near the rest rooms.

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  • A slight burst of tears followed from Martha until Dean rendered a speech on survival of the fittest, the laws of the jungle, the food chain and supply and demand.

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  • I'm still not certain it'll work, but that chain of events is in motion.

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  • The chain around his hand bit into his finger, and he looked at it.

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  • Damian's heavy ring hung off a chain around her neck, and she clenched it.

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  • For one wild, glad moment we snapped the chain that binds us to earth, and joining hands with the winds we felt ourselves divine!

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  • I have said that Walden has no visible inlet nor outlet, but it is on the one hand distantly and indirectly related to Flint's Pond, which is more elevated, by a chain of small ponds coming from that quarter, and on the other directly and manifestly to Concord River, which is lower, by a similar chain of ponds through which in some other geological period it may have flowed, and by a little digging, which God forbid, it can be made to flow thither again.

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  • With a ring in my nose and a ball and chain on my ankle, no doubt.

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  • Kris produced a key chain from his pocket and unlocked the five locks before pulling the heavy door open.

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  • In 1886 he became proprietor of the San Francisco Examiner, the first of a long chain of papers to come under his control.

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  • Right now, I can't trust you to set up what I'd call healthy chain of events.

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  • "We're twins, now, though I think you liked your family," Rhyn said and pulled free an emerald on a chain around his neck.

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  • We set this chain of events in motion before the Schism.

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  • It was like the Olympic torch in antiquity: All it took was one guy carrying the torch to slip in the mud and the entire chain was broken.

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  • The recent chain of events made it impossible for her to deny something serious was going on, and she was somehow involved.

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  • He opened the top drawer and withdrew a key chain with a couple of keys and a tag.

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  • She'd almost managed to return to the zone when Darian gripped the chain at the top of the punching bag, stabilizing it before her and disrupting the swaying rhythm.

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  • Three others were romping with a young bear, one pulling him by the chain and trying to set him at the others.

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  • Unlike the others dressed for a white tie event, he was dressed in leather pants with a tight black Pearl Jam T-shirt, his hair braided, a chain from his spiked belt to his wallet, and heavy black boots.

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  • Darkyn glanced at the sand in the hourglass.  He had one more chain of events to set in motion.

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  • Neither Betsy nor I liked chain fast food so I looked in the windows of the café we liked.

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  • He continued testing the tension on his bike chain, wiping the grease on a paper napkin.

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  • Jake was led forward by his attorney, a newcom­er, a dapper little man resplendent in vest, patent leather shoes and a gold watch chain, all topped off by a condescending smile that seemed to say, "Look out, rubes, I'm going to spring this poor victim before you finish administrating the oath."

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  • There are a handful of family-owned establishments in the town offering a break from the chain food.

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  • The Sycamore tree that had fallen on it had been removed by Josh, Bill, Alex and Mr. Reynolds using a chain saw and good old-fashioned elbow grease.

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  • Though it is a larger chain, it won't disappoint you.

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  • He lifted the chain, kiri's chain, and looked at the identical marks, struck by the idea that he somehow belonged to the same world they did.

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  • In Sasha's zoo, he was at the bottom of the food chain of the otherworldly collection of creatures.

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  • In the box was a small, simple necklace of a bronze chain and faded bronze coin.

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  • Around the north-west and north shores is a continuous chain of gently sloping sand-hills covered with bush.

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  • - The fauna of the lower zones in the Alps is, on the northern side of the chain, practically identical with that of central Europe, and on the southern side with that of the Mediterranean basin.

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  • In the western Sierras, which are more or less closely attached to the main chain of the Cordillera, Cambrian and Silurian fossils have been found at several places.

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  • You can find a number of chain restaurants in the city, but there are original eating spots that you should also try.

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  • Chain of events, my friend.

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  • When you ignored my second summons, you forced me to make a choice and start off a new chain of events.

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  • She is sitting by me as I write, her face serene and happy, crocheting a long red chain of Scotch wool.

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  • As I was desirous to recover the long lost bottom of Walden Pond, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, early in '46, with compass and chain and sounding line.

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  • That is what people think of when I tell them about the chain of events.

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  • "I brought this back," she said and pulled off the chain, placing the ring on the table nearest the door.

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  • I'll ride back to the house and get my car and a chain.

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  • Gabriel turned the pages of the Oracle's book, watching as words scribbled themselves across the parchment, updating a chain of events that changed with every decision made by the Council That Was Seven.

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  • I'll go get my chain.

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  • "This is for the underworld, and this you will know when to use," Darkyn said.  He handed the shapeshifter a pouch identical to the one he'd given the other shapeshifting demon and a small talisman on a chain.

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  • It was a big, gold heart on a gold chain.

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  • problem for intelligence is so to enunciate every element, and so to repeat the connexion that we may finally grasp all the links of the chain in one.

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  • by the ranges of Grammos and Pindus; the entire chain, a prolongation of the Alpine systems of Bosnia and Dalmatia, may be described as the backbone of the peninsula; it forms the watershed between the Aegean and the Adriatic, and culminates in the lofty peak of Liubotrn, near Kalkandele, one of the highest summits in south-eastern Europe (8858 ft.).

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  • Along this coast is a continuous chain of islands running from north-west to south-east.

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  • Towards the east they lie at a lower level; but in the Andes they reach a height of nearly 10,000 ft., and are strongly folded, showing that the elevation of the chain was not completed until after their deposition.

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  • toW., and another chain arose in the south, running from S.W.

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  • No great mountain chain was ever raised by a single effort, and folding went on to some extent in other periods besides those mentioned.

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  • There are two piers, of which the Palace pier, near the site of the old chain pier (1823), which was washed away in 1896, is near the centre of the town, while the West pier is towards Hove.

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  • wide, and is separated from the coast by a part of the mountain chain which extends along almost the entire water front of the republic. It is covered with well-cultivated plantations.

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  • A narrow Cambrian sea must have extended across central Australia from the Kimberley Goldfield in the north-west, through Tempe Downs and the Macdonnell chain in central Australia, to the South Australian highlands, central Victoria at Mansfield, and northern Tasmania.

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  • Similar granitic intrusions occurred in New South Wales and Queensland, and built up a mountain chain, which ran north and south across the continent; its worn-down stumps now form the east Australian highlands.

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  • FRISIAN ISLANDS, a chain of islands, lying from 3 to 20 M.

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  • The chain of the Frisian Islands marks the outer fringe of the former continental coast-line, and is separated from the mainland by shallows, known as Wadden or Watten, answering to the maria vadosa of the Romans.

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  • The islands, though well lighted, are dangerous to navigation, and a glance at a wreck chart will show the entire chain to be densely dotted.

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  • A range of granite mountains forms a backbone which divides the peninsula into two unequal portions, the larger of which lies to the east and the smaller to the west of the chain.

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  • Smaller ranges run parallel to the main mountain chain in many places, and there are numerous isolated spurs which have no connexion with either.

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  • It is situated on the west side of a bay of the Mediterranean, to which it gives its name, in 36° 47' N., 3° 4' E., and is built on the slopes of the Sahel, a chain of hills parallel to the coast.

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  • BONIN ISLANDS, called by the Japanese Ogasawara-Jima, a chain of small islands belonging to Japan, stretching nearly due north and south, a little east of 142 E., and from 26° 35' to 2 7° 45' N., about 500 m.

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  • These rivers rise on the eastern versant of a chain of mountains which traverse the country in a south-westerly to north-easterly direction.

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  • The greater part of the colony lies west and north of the chain and belongs to the basin of the Volta.

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  • (2) The hook may be attached to a rope or chain, and the pulling cylinder connected with a system of pulleys around which the rope is led; by these means the lift can be very largely increased.

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  • Sometimes, especially in the case of overhead travelling cranes for very heavy loads, the chain is a special pitch chain, formed of flat links pinned together, and the barrel is reduced to a wheel provided with teeth, or " sprockets," which engage in the links.

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  • In this case the chain is not coiled, but simply passes over the lifting wheel, the free end hanging loose.

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  • In the latter case the overturning tendency begins as soon as the load leaves the ground, but ceases as soon as the load again touches the ground and thus relieves the crane of the extra weight, whereas overturning backwards is caused either by the reaction of a chain breaking or by excessive counterweight.

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  • The steamer on reaching the given position lowers one, or perhaps two, mark buoys, mooring them by mushroom anchor, chain and rope.

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  • Many of the islands are of volcanic formation; and a well-defined volcanic chain bounds the Cretan Sea on the north, including Milo and Kimolos, Santorin (Thera) and Therasia, and extends to Nisyros.

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  • Though the Alps form throughout the northern boundary of Italy, the exact limits at the extremities of the Alpine chain are not clearly marked.

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  • Here the main chain of the Alps (as marked by watershed) recedes so far to the north that it has never constituted the frontier.

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  • The great spur or promontory projecting towards the east to Brindisi and Otranto has no direct connexion with the central chain.

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  • More important are the rivers that descend from the main chain of the Graian and Pennine Alps and join the Po on its left bank.

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  • This great valley—one of the most considerable on the southern side of the Alps—has attracted special attention, in ancient as well as modern times, from its leading to two of the most frequented passes across the great mountain chain—the Great and the Little St Bernard—the former diverging at Aosta, and crossing the main ridges to the north into the valley of the Rhone, the other following a more westerly direction into Savoy.

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  • The tract adjoining this long line of lagoons is, like the basin of the Po, a broad expanse of perfectly level alluvial plain, extending from the Adige eastwards to the Carnic Alps, where they approach close to the Adriatic between Aquileia and Trieste, and northwards to the foot of the great chain, which here sweeps round in a semicircle from the neighborhood of Vicenza to that of Aquileia.

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  • Another lateral rsnge, the Prato Magno, which branches off from the central chain at the Monte Falterona, and separates the upper valley of the Arno from its second basin, rises to 5188 ft.; while a similar branch, called the Alpe di Catenaja, of inferior elevation, divides the upper course of the Arno from that of the Tiber.

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  • The Arno, which has its source in the Monte Falterona, one of the most elevated summits of the main chain of the Tuscan Apennines, flows nearly south till in the neighborhood of Arezzo it turns abruptly north-west, and pursues that course as far as Pontassieve, where it again makes a sudden bend to the west, and pursues a westerly course thence to the sea, passing through Florence and Pisa.

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  • From the neighborhood of Potenza, the main ridge of the Apennines is continued by the Monti della Maddalena in a direction nearly due south, so that it approaches within a short distance of the Gulf of Policastro, whence it is carried on as far as the Monte Pollino, the last of the lofty summits of the Apennine chain, which exceeds 7000 ft.

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  • The range is, however, continued through the province now called Calabria, to the southern extremity or toe of Italy, but presents in this part a very much altered character, the broken limestone range which is the true continuation of the chain as far as the neighbourhood of Nicastro and Catanzaro, and keeps close to the west coast, being flanked on the east by a great mass of granitic mountains, rising to about 6000 ft., and covered with vast forests, from which it derives the name of La Sila.

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  • (5) The Bradano, which rises near Venosa, almost at the foot of Monte Volture, flows towards the south-east into the Gulf of Taranto, as do the Basento, the Agri and the Sinni, all of which descend from the central chain of the Apennines south of Potenza.

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  • On each side of that great chain are found extensive Tertiary deposits, sometimes, as in Tuscany, the district of Monferrat, &c., forming a broken, hilly country, at others spreading into broad plains or undulating downs, such as the Tavoliere of Puglia, and the tract that forms the spur of Italy from Bari to Otranto.

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  • It was separated from Etruria and Umbria by the main chain of the Apennines; and the river Ariminus was substituted for the far-famed Rubicon as its limit on the Adriatic.

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  • The coasts are fairly indented, and, protected by these reefs, which often support a chain of green islets, afford many good harbours and safe anchorages.

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  • Other hairs consist of a chain of cells; others, again, are branched in various ways; while yet others have the form of a flat plate of cells placed parallel to the leaf surface and inserted on a stalk.

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  • Very soon the single cell gives rise to a chain of cells, and this in.

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  • The terrible losses sustained by whole communities of farmers, planters, foresters, &c., from plant diseases have naturally stimulated the search for remedies, but even now the search is too often conducted in the spirit of the believer in quack medicines, although the agricultural world is awakening to the fact that before any measures likely to be successful can be attempted, the whole chain of causation of the disease must be investigated.

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  • The Phoenicians are the earliest Mediterranean people in the consecutive chain of geographical discovery which joins prehistoric time with the present.

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  • The Sympathetic System forms a chain on either side of the vertebral column.

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  • Auditory ment in the crocodile, and with the ", chain " of Chicken, X 6 processus folii of the mammalian diameters; lateral and basal malleus, it follows that the whole views.

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  • For narrow as are the channels between Cuba and the opposite coast of Central America, between the Bahamas and Florida, and between Grenada and Tobago, the fauna of the Antillean chain, instead of being a mixture of that of the almost contiguous countries, differs, much from all, and exhibits in some groups a degree of speciality which may be not unfitly compared with that of oceanic islands..

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  • West of the Ain, with the exception of the district covered by the Revermont, the westernmost chain of the Jura, the country is flat, consisting in the north of the south portion of the Bresse, in the south of the marshy Dombes.

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  • 27, 31), and belonging to the Parachoathras chain.

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  • The municipality owns and operates the waterworks, the water being obtained from Lake Saint Mary, one of a chain of small lakes lying S.

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  • i) Moses received on Mount Sinai not only the written Law as set down in the Pentateuch, but also the Oral Law, which he communicated personally to the 70 elders and through them by a "chain of tradition" to succeeding ages.

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  • It was therefore of the first importance that the chain of tradition should be continuous and trustworthy.

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  • NIAS, the largest island in the chain off the west coast of Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, lying about 1° N., 97° 30' E.

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  • South of the lake two ranges of the Tian-shan, separated by the valley of the Naryn, stretch in the same direction, lifting up their icy peaks to 16,000 and 18,000 ft.; while westwards from the lake the precipitous slopes of the Alexander chain, 9000 to io,000 ft.

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  • Lake Balkash, or Denghiz, Lake Ala-kul (which was connected with Balkash in the post-Pliocene period, but now stands some hundred feet higher, and is connected by a chain of smaller lakes with Sissyk-kul), Lake Issyk-kul and the alpine lakes of Son-kul and Chatyr-kul are the principal sheets of water.

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  • there is a well-defined chain of mountains, of which the Pyreneos, Santa Rita and Santa Martha ranges form parts, but their elevation above the plateau is not great.

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  • A court seems more natural where a chain of degrees leads gradually up from the lowest subject to the throne than when all beneath the throne are nearly on a level.

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  • So too his son Isidorus explained the prophecies of a certain Parchor (= Barkoph) and appealed to the prophecies of Chain' (Clemens Alexandrinus, Stromat.

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  • The highest volcanoes, Tabanan, Batur and Gunung Agung (Bali Beak), have respectively heights of 7545 ft., 73 8 3 ft., and 10,497 ft., the central chain having an average altitude of 3282 ft.

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  • ADAM'S BRIDGE, or Rama'S Bridge, a chain of sandbanks extending from the island of Manaar, near the N.W.

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  • coast of the Black Sea belongs properly to Transcaucasia, a great chain of mountains separating it from Russia.

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  • The former extends from the sea to the central chain of hills and contains all the lowlands and many mountainous districts, some of the latter rising to an elevation of between 3000 and 4000 ft.

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  • The common form of non-automatic coupler, used in Great Britain for goods wagons, consists of a chain and hook; the chain hangs loosely from a slot in the draw-bar, which terminates in a hook, and coupling is effected by slipping the =chain of one vehicle over the hook of the next.

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  • (For Map, see Pacific Ocean.) It consists of 14 islands forming a slightly curved chain from W.

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  • The first substantial link in the actual History of chain of discovery was contributed in 1880 by Discovery.

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  • When Kildare became viceroy in 1524, O'Neill consented to act as his swordbearer in ceremonies of state; but his allegiance was not to be reckoned upon, and while ready enough to give verbal assurances of loyalty, he could not be persuaded to give hostages as security for his conduct; but Tyrone having been invaded in 1541 by Sir Anthony St Leger, the lord deputy, Conn delivered up his son as a hostage, attended a parliament held at Trim, and, crossing to England, made his submission at Greenwich to Henry VIII., who created him earl of Tyrone for life, and made him a present of money and a valuable gold chain.

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  • Bacchides occupied Judaea and made a chain of forts.

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  • It is along the western side of the northern half of the chain that the line of volcanic action is apparent; the islands here (of which some are active volcanoes) are lofty.

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  • The line of volcanic action extends along the western side of the northern half of the chain.

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  • Pascagoula and Point aux Chenes bays; separated from it by the shallow and practically unnavigable Mississippi Sound is a chain of low, long and narrow sand islands, the largest of which are Petit Bois, Horn, Ship and Cat.

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  • The strata here show some traces of the upheaval which formed the Appalachian Mountain chain.

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  • When this chain formed the Atlantic mountainborder of the continent excepting this north-eastern corner, Mississippi had not emerged from the waters of the ancient Gulf of Mexico.

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  • At the eastern extremity of the Coastal Plain Region an outer coast line is formed by a chain of long narrow barrier beaches from which project capes Hatteras, Lookout and Fear, whose outlying shoals are known for their dangers to navigation.

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  • Between Hatteras and Lookout is Raleigh Bay and between Lookout and Fear is Onslow Bay; and between the chain of islands and the deeply indented mainland Currituck, Albemarle, Pamlico and other sounds form an extensive area, especially to the northward, of shallow, brackish and almost tideless water.

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  • The harbours along the sounds and in the estuaries of the rivers are well protected from the storms of the ocean by the long chain of narrow islands in front, but navigation by the largest vessels is interrupted by shoals in the sounds, and especially by bars crossing the inlets between islands.

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  • N N: C C02H (11) N N: C C02H which it is connected by a chain bridge (1855) and two railway bridges.

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  • On the western frontier a northern extension of the great central chain of Goyaz forms the water-parting between the drainage basins of the Sao Francisco and Tocantins, and is known at different points as the Serra do Paranan, Serra de Sao Domingos and Serra das Divisoes.

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  • South-east of this chain, between the headwaters of the Parana and Sao Francisco, are the Serra da Canastra and Serra da Matta da Corde, an irregular chain of moderate elevation running north and south.

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  • The Mantiqueira-Espinhago chain shuts out the streams flowing directly east to the Atlantic, and the boundary ranges on the west shut out the streams that flow into the Tocantins, though their sources are on the actual threshold of the state.

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  • abound along the whole chain, and the points that exceed that elevation are numerous.

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  • This very remarkable longitudinal chain is undoubtedly the northern limit of the Chang Tang, the elevated highland steppes of Tibet; but from it there branches a minor system to the north-east from a point in about 83° E.

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  • The diurnal mountain winds are very strongly marked on the Himalaya, where they probably are the most active agents in determining the precipitation of rain along the chain - the monsoon currents, as before stated, not penetrating among the mountains.

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  • In the interior of the chain the rain is far less, and the quantity of precipitation is so small in Tibet that it can be hardly measured.

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  • The genera common to the Himalaya and Europe are much more abundant, and extend throughout the chain, and to all elevations.

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  • The vegetation of the higher and therefore cooler and less rainy ranges of the Himalaya has greater uniformity of character along the whole chain, and a closer general approach to European forms is maintained; an increased number of species is actually identical, among these being found, at the greatest elevations, many alpine plants believed to be identical with species of the north Arctic regions.

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  • In the latter, the segmentally arranged ganglia are more sharply marked off from the connectives than in other Chaetopods, where nerve cells exist along the whole ventral chain, though more numerous in segmentally disposed swellings.

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  • Ultimately, a chain of sexual Malmgren.) zooids is thus formed.

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  • The Guadiana was long believed to rise in the lowland known as the Campo de Montiel, where a chain of small lakes, the Lagunas de Ruidera (partly in Ciudad Real, partly in Albacete), are linked together by the Guadiana Alto or Upper Guadiana.

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  • The latter is fringed throughout its whole length by a chain of dunes, which rise in places to a height of nearly 200 ft.

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  • above the broad northern valley, at the north extremity of a long ledge, terminating in steep cliffs, forming part of the chain of Mt Gilboa.

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  • In Asia it occurs on the Caucasus and Ural, and in some parts of the Altaic chain.

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  • of the Caspian Sea, which extends from the Elburz chain eastwards towards Herat, and is bounded on the N.

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  • There are other ganglia in addition to those of the ventral chain, and Janet supposes that the ganglia of the sympathetic system indicate the existence of three anterior head-segments; the remains of the segments themselves are, in accordance with this view, to be sought in the XIII.

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  • Thus a mass or chain of embryos is produced, lying in a common cyst, and developing as their larval host develops.

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  • cap. 3) - " Nullus hiatus est, nulla fractio, nulla dispersio formarum, invicem connexa sunt velut annulus annulo "; but it is almost clear that he was thinking only of a chain.

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  • To the east of the Hohe Tauern stretches the group of the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria, namely the Pöllauer Alps with the glacier-covered peak of the Hafner Eck (10,041 ft.); the Stang Alps with the highest peak the Eisenhut (8007 ft.); the Saualpe with the highest peak the Grosse Saualpe (6825 ft.); and finally the Koralpen chain or the Stainzer Alps (7023 ft.) separated from the preceding group by the Lavant valley.

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  • South of Hermagor, the principal place of the Gail valley, is the chain of mountains which is famous as being the only place where the beautiful Wulfenia Carintlziaca is found.

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  • Pyramids of the Old and Middle kingdoms form a chain 20 m.

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  • It may be compared to a couple of elongated and flattened links of chain.

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  • - chain mail, long shield and heavy casque - as if they were on their native French soil.

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  • Ansariya, which presently springs up into a high chain of Jurassic limestone with basaltic intrusions, whose peaks rise to 10,000 ft.

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  • The eastern system springs from the Tauric offshoot (Kurd Dagh, &c.), which shuts off the Commagenian basins, and as the triple chain of J.

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  • Like its western parallel it springs up presently into a higher chain and is known as J.

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  • The southern boundary of both basins is a low chain which leaves the Euphrates near the mouth of the Sajur tributary, and runs west towards Mt Amanus, to which it is linked by a sill whereon stood the ancient fortified palace of Samal (Sinjerli; see Hittites).

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  • The Florida Keys, a chain of islands extending in a general south-westerly direction from Biscayne Bay, are included in the state boundaries, and the city of Key West, on an island of the same name, is the seat of justice of Monroe county.

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  • due south of Hakumosha-zan begins a chain of three peaks, Suisha-zan (6200 ft.), Hoo-zan (4928), and Niitaka-yama.

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  • (methylene) groups and the molecule consists of a single chain; such hydrocarbons are referred to as being normal; (2) has a branch and contains the group; CH (methine) in which the free valencies are attached to carbon atoms; such hydrocarbons are termed secondary or iso-; (3) is characterized by a carbon atom linked directly to four other carbon atoms; such hydrocarbons are known as tertiary.

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  • In classifying closed chain compounds, the first step consists in dividing them into: (1) carbocyclic, in which the ring is composed solely of carbon atoms - these are also known as homocyclic or isocyclic on account of the identity of the members of the ring - and (2) heterocyclic, in which different elements go to make up the ring.

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  • This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.

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  • If we accept Kekule's formula for the benzene nucleus, then we may expect the double linkages to be opened up partially, either by oxidation or reduction, with the formation of di-, tetra-, or hexa-hydro derivatives, or entirely, with the production of open chain compounds.

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  • Generally rupture occurs at more than one point; and rarely are the six carbon atoms of the complex regained as an open chain.

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  • the Vindhya chain of hills takes its origin in a low range not exceeding 50o ft.

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  • It is of Tertiary formation (Miocene), and has a chain of volcanic elevations along the axis, reaching a height of 2600 ft.

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  • The group has submarine connexion, under relatively shallow sea, with the Timorlaut group to the south-west and the chain of islands extending north-west towards Ceram; deep water separates it on the east from the Aru Islands and on the west from the inner islands of the Banda Sea.

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  • A pass through the hills gives access to Bahr-Assal; the last of a chain of salt lakes beginning 60 m.

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  • Through these Rocky Mountains the explorers and furtraders, by ascending the streams running down the eastern declivities of the mountains, and crossing by short portages to the streams of the western slope, have succeeded in discovering passes by which the mountain chain can be crossed, the range rarely exceeding 60 m.

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  • The master (dominus) could inflict on his coloni " moderate chastisement," and could chain them if they attempted to escape, but they had a legal remedy against him for unjust demands or injury to them or theirs.

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  • The boundary line follows the crest of the principal chain or ridge (Riesenkamm), which stretches along the northern side of the group, with an average height of over 4000 ft.

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  • a second and lower chain, of broad massive "saddles," with comparatively few peaks.

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  • Nearly the whole of the Riesenkamm and the western portion of the southern chain are granite; the eastern extremity of the main ridge and several mountains to the south-east are formed of a species of gneiss; and the greater part of the Bohemian chain, especially its summits, consists of mica-slate.

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  • Spanish rule, however, came unexpectedly to an end by the retrocession of Louisiana to France in 1800; and French dominion gave way in turn in 1803 - as the result of a chain of events even more unexpected, startling, and for the United States fortunate - to the rule of the last-named country.

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  • end of the chain; its altitude has been variously estimated from 2500 to 1950 ft.

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  • The Web rises in the mountain chain a little S.

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  • The main islands and groups, beginning from the north-west, are as follows: Little and Great Abaco, with Great Bahama to the west; Eleuthera (a name probably corrupted from the Spanish Isla de Tierra), Cat, Watling, or Guanahani, and Rum Cay on the outer line towards the open ocean, with New Providence, the Exuma chain and Long Island forming an inner line to the west, and still farther west Andros (named from Sir Edmund Andros, governor of Massachusetts, &c., at the close of the 17th century; often spoken of as one island, but actually divided into several by narrow straits); and finally the Crooked Islands, Mayaguana and Inagua.

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  • They are amongst the earliest examples of the "catenic" (catena, chain) form of commentary, consisting of a series of extracts from the fathers, arranged, with independent additions, to elucidate the portions of Scripture concerned.

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  • The Liber abaci, which fills 459 printed pages, contains the most perfect methods of calculating with whole numbers and with fractions, practice, extraction of the square and cube roots, proportion, chain rule, finding of proportional parts, averages, progressions, even compound interest, just as in the completest mercantile arithmetics of our days.

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  • A chain of parks connected by driveways follows the picturesque valley of Doan Brook on the E.

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  • The main range, that known as the Great Atlas, occupies a central position in the system, and is by far the longest and loftiest chain.

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  • The Saharan Atlas is essentially one chain, though known under different names: Jebel K'sur and Jebel Amur on the west, and Jebel Aures in the east.

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  • In the southern chain is found a limestone formation analogous to that in Bali, Lombok and Java.

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  • The most distinguishing features of the country were the chain of Rhodope (Despoto-dagh) and the river Hebrus (Maritza).

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  • Several of the summits of this chain are over 7000 ft.

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  • It follows, too, that when there is a number of substances, all essential for the elaboration of living material, and when one of these is present in minimal proportion, that one substance rules the production, just as the effective strength of a chain depends on the weakest link.

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  • Hara-bere-zaiti, the "High Mountain"), a great chain of mountains in northern Persia, separating the Caspian depression from the Persian highlands, and extending without any break for 650 m.

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  • Its main source is in a great glacier-mass of the northernmost chain of the Himalayas, called Kubigangri, about 82° N., and receives various tributaries including one formerly regarded as the true source from the pass of Mariam La (15,500 ft.), which separates its basin from the eastern affluents of the Mansarowar lakes, at least ioo m.

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  • Roughly speaking, the river may be said so far to run parallel to the main chain of the Himalaya at a distance of Too m.

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  • Thus, if the molecule of a substance in solution is represented by AB, Grotthus considered a chain of AB molecules to exist from one electrode to the other.

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  • In this manner, the B part of the last molecule of the chain was seized by the A of the last molecule but one, and the A part of the last molecule liberated at the surface of the cathode.

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  • The evidence in favour of dissociation in the case of solutions does not apply to fused salts, and it is possible that, in their case, a series of molecular interchanges, somewhat like Grotthus's chain, may represent the mechanism of conduction.

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  • This open chain structure is challenged in the views put forward by T.

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  • This is a wooded chain of mountains, with many branches, rich in brown coal and culminating in the Göblberg (2950 ft.).

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  • These high plains are bordered on the south-east by a picturesque chain - the Bureya Mountains, which are to be identified with the Little Khingan.

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  • broad runs in the same direction along the outer margin of the above chain.

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  • In 1852 a Russian military expedition under Muraviev explored the Amur, and by 1857 a chain of Russian Cossacks and peasants were settled along the whole course of the river.

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  • Galicia is traversed by mountain ranges, sometimes regarded as a continuation of the Cantabrian chain; and its surface is further broken in the east by the westernmost ridges of that system, which, running in a south-westerly direction, rise above the basin of the Mino.

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  • The central Cevennes, comprising the volcanic chain of Vivarais, incline south-east and extend as far as the Lozere group. The northern portion of this chain forms the Boutieres range.

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  • Concealed in part by later deposits, this ancient mountain chain extends from Castelnaudary to the neighbourhood of Valence, where it sinks suddenly beneath the Tertiary and recent deposits of the valley of the Rhone.

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  • It is in the Montagne Noire rather than in the Cevennes proper that the structure of the chain has been most fully investigated.

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  • Bergeron has shown that the gneiss and schist which form so much of the chain consist, in part at least, of metamorphosed Cambrian beds.

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  • The principal folding took place at the close of the Carboniferous period, and was contemporaneous with that of the old Hercynian chain of Belgium, &c. The Permian and later beds lie unconformably upon the denuded folds, and in the space between the Montagne Noire and the Cevennes proper the folded belt is buried beneath the horizontal Jurassic strata of the Causses.

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  • Although the chain was completed in Palaeozoic times, a second folding took place along its south-east margin at the close of the Eocene period.

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  • But by this time the ancient Palaeozoic chain had become a part of the unyielding massif, and the folding did not extend beyond its foot.

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  • The waters of the northwestern slope of the southern Cevennes drain into the Tarn either directly or by way of the Aveyron, which rises in the outlying chain of the Levezou, and, in the extreme south, the Agout.

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  • The great chain of mountains which, under the names of Paropamisus and Hindu-Kush, extends from the Caspian to the Pamirs is interrupted some 180 m.

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  • 910-915) by the Roman poet, Lucretius (96-5555 B.C.), in which it is stated that the stone can support a chain of little rings, each adhering to the one above it, indicates that in his time the phenomenon of magnetization by induction had also been observed.

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  • In this part of its course the river receives from the south the streams, often intermittent, which rise on the northern slopes of the Stormberg, Zuurberg and Sneeuwberg ranges - the mountain chain which forms the water-parting between the coast and inland drainage systems of South Africa.

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  • A chain of forts to the eastward is designed to facilitate the deployment of an army, concentrated within the fortified region, towards the Belgian frontier.

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  • The culminating point is near the western extremity of this chain and its altitude is estimated at 8500 ft.

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  • From the valleys their rugged, deeply indented escarpments, stretching away to the horizon, have the appearance of a continuous chain of mountains.

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  • It has, indeed, been subject to oscillations, but the movements have been regional in character and have not been accompanied by the formation of any mountain chain or any belt of intense folding.

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  • It lies in the north-east trade winds belt, but the mountain chain on its northern frontier robs these winds of their moisture and leaves the greater part of the Brazilian plateau rainless.

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  • The development of railway construction in Brazil has been impeded to a great extent by two unfavourable conditions-by the chain of mountains or plateau escarpments which follow the coast line and obstruct communication with the interior, and by the detached positions of the settlements along the Atlantic, which compel 1 The areas are reduced from the planimetrical calculations made at Gotha and used by A.

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  • by the chain of Taygetus (mod.

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  • About 1064 the accidental visit of Harold to the Norman court added another link to the chain of events by which William's fortunes were connected with England.

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  • The newer works enclose an area more suited to the needs of modern warfare: the chain of detached forts along the ridges of the left bank has a total length of 72 m., and the centre of this chain is supported by numerous forts and batteries lying between it and the citadel.

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  • On the other bank Fort Chaudanne is now the innermost of several forts facing towards the southwest, and the foremost of these works connects the fortifications of the left bank with another chain of detached forts on the right bank.

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  • The summit of the Biggarsberg chain is crossed at a point 233 m.

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  • Substitution takes place usually in the nucleus and only rarely in the side chain, and according to the conditions of the experiment and the nature of the compound acted upon, one or more nitro groups enter the molecule.

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  • The hilly regions of Transylvania and of the northern part of Hungary consist of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks and are closely connected, both in structure and origin, with the Carpathian chain.

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  • Thus, towards the end of his reign, Louis found himself cut off from the Greek emperor, his sole ally in the Balkans, by a chain of bitterly hostile Greek-Orthodox states, extending from the Black Sea to the Adriatic. The 1 Knatchbull-Hugessen, i.

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  • Biot, who assisted in the correction of its proof sheets, remarked that it would have extended, had the demonstrations been fully developed, to eight or ten instead of five volumes; and he saw at times the author himself obliged to devote an hour's labour to recovering the dropped links in the chain of reasoning covered by the recurring formula.

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  • Pascal and P. de Fermat had initiated he brought very nearly to perfection; but the demonstrations are so involved, and the omissions in the chain of reasoning so frequent, that the Theorie analytique (1812) is to the best mathematicians a work requiring most arduous study.

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  • In the course of reducing such expressions as (AB)C, (AB){C(DE)} and the like, where a chain of multiplications has to be performed in a certain order, the multiplications may be all progressive, or all regressive, or partly, one, partly the other.

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  • A' branch of the eastern chain of the Andes enters Venezuela in the west about 7° N.

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  • This branch consists of parallel chains enclosing elevated valleys, in one of which lies the town of Merida at the height of 5410 ft., overlooked by the highest summit of the chain (Picacho de la Sierra, 15,420 ft.).

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  • The Caribbean chain along the north coast is part of the Antillean system, and here the strike of the folds is nearly west to east or west-south-west to eastnorth-east.

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  • The oldest rocks in the country are the granites, gneisses, &c., of the southern massif and the crystalline schists which form the axis of the Cordillera and the Caribbean chain.

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  • The Cretaceous beds form a band along each side of the Cordillera and along the southern flank of the Caribbean chain, and they spread over the greater part of the provinces of Falcon and Lara.

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  • A towing chain, laid in the bed of the river, extends from Hamburg to Aussig, and by this means, as by paddle-tug haulage, large barges are brought from the port of Hamburg into the heart of Bohemia.

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  • His works have been much admired for the purity of the Greek style, and his accurate descriptions of disease; but, as he quotes no medical author, and is quoted by none before Alexander of Aphrodisias at the beginning of the 3rd century, it is clear that he belonged to no school and founded none, and thus his position in the chain of medical tradition is quite uncertain.

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  • In his Zoonomia (1794) he expounded a theory of life and disease which had some resemblance to that of Brown, though arrived at (he says) by a different chain of reasoning.

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  • In cold weather the Egyptians warm their rooms by placing in them a brazier, "chafing-dish," or "standing-dish," filled with charcoal, whereon incense is burnt; and in hot weather they refresh them by occasionally swinging a hand censer by a chain through them - frankincense, benzoin and aloe wood being.

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  • wide, is crossed by a chain of five islands, and the lake has its outlet near Kingston, where it discharges into the head of the St Lawrence river between a group of islands.

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  • - Zululand is part of the region of hills and plateaus which descend seaward from the Drakensberg - the great mountain chain which buttresses the vast tableland of inner South Africa.

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  • Even here, however, the main central water-divide, or axis of the chain, is apparently not the line of highest peaks, which must be looked for to the south, where the great square-headed giant called Tirach Mir dominates Chitral from a southern spur.

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  • Its upheaval above the great sea which submerged all the north-west of the Indian peninsula long after the Himalaya had massed itself as a formidable mountain chain, belongs to a comparatively recent geologic period, and the same thrust upwards of vast masses of cretaceous limestone has disturbed the overlying recent beds of shale and clays with very similar results to those which have left so marked an impress on the Baluch frontier.

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  • Greeks, White Huns, Samanidae of Bokhara, Ghaznevides, Mongols, Timur and Timuridae, down to Saddozais and Barakzais, have ruled both sides of this great alpine chain.

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  • catena, a chain), in mathematics, the curve assumed by a uniform chain or string hanging freely between two supports.

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  • Bernoulli also considered the cases when (I) the chain was of variable density, (2) extensible, (3) acted upon at each point by a force directed to a fixed centre.

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  • The manufactured goods are either removed gradually from a constant source of heat by means of a train of small iron trucks drawn along a tramway by an endless chain, or are placed in a heated kiln in which the fire is allowed gradually to die out.

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  • The organic derivatives of silicon resemble the corresponding carbon compounds except in so far that the silicon atom is not capable of combining with itself to form a complex chain in the same manner as the carbon atom, the limit at present being a chain of three silicon atoms. Many of the earlier-known silicon alkyl compounds were isolated by Friedel and Crafts and by Ladenburg, the method adopted consisting in the interaction of the zinc alkyl compounds with silicon halides or esters of silicic acids.

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  • It was probably suggested to Ctesibius by the Egyptian Wheel or Noria, which was common at that time, and which was a kind of chain pump, consisting of a number of earthen pots carried round by a wheel.

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  • The facts suggested that the six carbon atoms formed a chain, and that a hydroxy group was attached to five of them, for it is very rare for two hydroxy groups to be attached to the same carbon atom.

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  • It was a rugged and mountainous district, comprising some of the loftiest portions of the great range of Mt Taurus, together with the offshoots of the same chain towards the central table-land of Phrygia.

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  • The only place in the district at the present day deserving to be called a town is Isbarta, the residence of a pasha; it stands at the northern foot of the main mass of Mt Taurus, looking over a wide and fertile plain which extends up to the northern chain of Taurus.

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  • Styrolene gives origin to three series of derivatives, two of which contain the substituents in the side chain, e.g.

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  • m.; is situated at the southern extremity of Melanesia, between 20° 5' and 22° 16' S., and between 164° and 167° 30' E., and, like all the chief islands of that chain and the chain itself, lies north-west and south-east.

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  • The old British fort, Caer Drewyn, one of a chain of forts from Dyserth to Canwyd, is the supposed scene of Glendower's retreat under Henry IV., and here Owen Gwynedd is said to have prepared to repulse Henry II.

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  • in width, a central mountainous tract, embracing the great chain which runs parallel to the coast from near Taif to within 50 m.

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  • summits of the maritime chain, and the principal affluents of the Wadi Besha; the latter is a broad well-watered valley, with numerous scattered hamlets, four days' journey (perhaps 80 m.) from the crest of the range.

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  • The mountain chain, too, is less distinctly marked, and becomes little more than the seaward escarpment of the plateau which intervenes between the coast and the Hadramut valley.

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  • Each event is related in the words of eye-witnesses or contemporaries transmitted to the final narrator through a chain of intermediate reporters (rawis), each of whom passed on the original report to his successor.

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  • Bering Sea is the northward continuation of the Pacific Ocean, from which it is demarcated by the long chain of the Aleutian Islands.

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  • It is to be noted that only traces of the aromatic amines are produced by heating the halogen substituted benzenes with ammonia, unless the amino group be situated in the side chain, as in the case of benzylamine.

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  • Forbes was also interested in geology, and published memoirs on the thermal springs of the Pyrenees, on the extinct volcanoes of the Vivarais (Ardeche), on the geology of the Cuchullin and Eildon hills, &c. In addition to about 150 scientific papers, he wrote Travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers (1843); Norway and its Glaciers (1853); Occasional Papers on the Theory of Glaciers (1859); A Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa (1855).

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  • The great eastern chain, rising from the basin of the Amazon and forming the inner wall of the system, is of distinct origin.

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  • It contains a regular chain of volcanic peaks overlooking the coastregion of Tarapaca.

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  • the maritime chain separates into two branches, which run parallel to each other for 100 m., enclosing the remarkable ravine of Callejon de Huaylas - the eastern or main branch being known as the Cordillera Nevada and the western as the Cordillera Negra.

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  • high; and most of the peaks in this part of the chain reach a height of 19,000 ft.

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  • As this lower chain does not reach the snow-line, the streams rising from it are scanty, while the Santa, Pativilca and other coast-rivers which break through it from sources in the snowy chain have a greater volume from the melted snows.

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  • At the point where the river Santa breaks through the Cordillera Negra that range begins to subside, while the Maritime Cordillera continues as one chain to and beyond the frontier of Ecuador.

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  • No river, except the Maranon, breaks through it either to the east or west, while more than twenty coast streams rise on its slopes and force their way through the maritime chain.

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  • the central chain is connected with the Eastern Andes by the transverse mountain-knot of Vilcanota, the peak of that name being 17,651 ft.

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  • The central chain continues to run parallel with the Maritime Cordillera until, at Cerro Pasco, another transverse knot connects it with the Andes in to° 30' S.

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  • The Andes lose their majestic height to the northward; and beyond Cerro Pasco the eastern chain sinks into a lower range between the Huallaga and Ucayali.

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  • Above Lima the western chain of the Andes is composed of porphyritic tuffs and massive limestones, while the longitudinal valley of the Oroya is hollowed in carbonaceous sandstones.

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  • In the Cordillera Nevada the Mesozoic rocks which form the chain are often covered by masses of modern volcanic rock.

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  • Don Felix de Azara wrote of one which he kept on a chain that it was "as gentle and playful as any kitten could be."

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  • In the north is a range of primitive trap-hills known as the Cauvery chain, extending eastwards from the Nilgiris, and rising in places to a height of 4000 ft.

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  • In the Kaiser-Ferdinand grotto, the third of the chain, a great ball is annually held on Whit-Monday, when the chamber is brilliantly illuminated.

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  • MALDIVE ISLANDS, an archipelago of coral islets in the Indian Ocean, forming a chain between 7° 6' N.

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  • In the extreme south are the isolated atolls of Addu and Fua-Mulaku, separated from Suvadiva by the Equatorial Channel, which is itself separated from the main chain of atolls by One-and-ahalf-degree Channel.'

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  • Following the chain northward from this channel we have Haddumati and Kolumadulu, after which the chain becomes double: to the east the chief atolls are Mulaku, Felidu, South Male, North Male, Kardiva (where the channel of the same name, 35 m.

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  • broad, partly breaks the chain), and Fadiffolu.

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  • There are six large islands, namely Sakhalin (called by the Japanese Karafuto); Yezo or Ezo (which with the Kuriles is designated Hokkaido, or the north-sea district); Nippon (the origin of the sun), which is the main island; Shikoku (the four provinces), which lies on the east of Nippon; KiUshi or Kyushu (the nine provinces), which lies on the south of Nippon, and Formosa, which forms the most southerly link of the chain.

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  • The provinces of Hida and Etchiu are bounded on the east by a chain of mountains including, or having in their immediate vicinity, the highest peaks in Japan after Fuji.

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  • Finally in the east of Yezo rise the most westerly volcanoes of the Kurile chain.

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  • The process was known at an early period, and was employed for the purpose of subsidiary decoration from the close of the 16th century, but not until the 19th century did Japanese experts begin to manufacture the objects known in Europe as enamels; that is to say, vases, plaques, censers, bowls, and so forth, having their surface covered with vitrified pastes applied either in the chain plev or the cloisonn style.

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  • In the western portion of the county are the Few Mountains, a chain of abrupt hills mostly incapable of cultivation.

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  • by the chain of the Frisian Islands, and W., S., and E.

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  • The south of the chain is more open and undulating.

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  • Most of the mountain spurs run from east to west, but in northern Lebanon the prevailing direction of the valleys is north-westerly, and in the south some ridges run parallel with the principal chain.

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  • The 'Auwali and the Nahr el-Zaherani, the only other considerable streams before we reach the Litany, flow northeast to south-west, in consequence of the interposition of a ridge subordinate and parallel to the central chain.

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  • The Anti-Lebanon chain has been less fully explored than that of Lebanon.

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  • From the point where the southerly continuation of Anti-Lebanon begins to take a more westerly direction, a low ridge shoots out towards the south-west, trending farther and farther away from the eastern chain and narrowing the Buka'a; upon the eastern side of this ridge lies the elevated valley or hilly stretch known as Wadi et-Teim.

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  • from one foot of the chain to the other, beginning at the edge of the littoral plain behind Beirut and ending at the W.

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  • The Carpathians do not form an uninterrupted chain of mountains, but consist of several orographically and geologically distinctive groups; in fact they present as great a structural variety as the Alps; but as regards magnificence of scenery they cannot compare with the Alps.

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  • The outer zone is continuous throughout the whole extent of the chain, and is remarkably uniform both in composition and structure.

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  • Of all the peculiar features of the Carpathian chain, perhaps the most remarkable is the fringe of volcanic rocks which lies along its inner margin.

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  • They appear to be associated with faulting upon the inner margin of the chain.

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  • Trachytes, rhyolites, andesites and basalts occur, and a definite order of succession has been made out in several areas; but this order is not the same throughout the chain.

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  • Their quotations form a connecting link in the chain of evidence by which the use of the creed may be traced back to the writings of Caesarius, bishop of Arles (503-543).

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  • This chain of islands stretches from N.E.

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  • 43) show Metz as it was about 'goo; in the years following a new outer chain of defences was constructed, which extends as far as Thionville on the north side and has its centre in front of Metz on the Gravelotte battleground.

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  • The chain of causation in this action is particularly worthy of attention: A young reserve officer, seeing some troops of the I.

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  • He proposed the problem of the catenary or curve formed by a chain suspended by its two extremities, accepted Leibnitz's construction of the curve and solved more complicated problems relating to it.

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  • In September he surprised and routed Montrose at Philiphaugh near Selkirk, and was rewarded by the committee of estates with a present of -50,000 merks and a gold chain; but his victory was marred by the butchery of the captured Irish - men, women and children - to whom quarter had been given.

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  • It is traversed from west to east by the main chain of the Alps, which rises in various snow-covered summits, the more important being the Ortler (12,802 ft., the loftiest peak in Tirol and in the Eastern Alps generally), the Wildspitze (12,382 ft., Oetzthal group), the Zuckerhiitl (11,520 ft., Stubai group), the Hochfeiler (11, 559 ft., Zillerthal group), the Gross Venediger (12,008 ft.) and the Gross Glockner (12,461 ft., both in the Tauern range), while more to the south are the Dolomites, which culminate in the Marmolata (10,972 ft.).

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  • The surface of the country is for the most part very mountainous, being traversed towards the south by the great Cantabrian chain; but at the same time it is diversified with numerous narrow valleys and small plains.

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  • slope of the Prato Magno chain.

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  • Towards the continent there is a broad shelf, and just before the chain of islands separating them from the ocean runs a narrow and deep trough.

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  • This agent has been applied in various ways, in machines which either imitate the action of the collier by cutting with a pick or make a groove by rotating cutters attached to an endless chain or a revolving disk or wheel.

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  • In the Gartsherrie machine of Messrs Baird, the earliest of the flexible chain cutter type, the chain of cutters works round a fixed frame or jib projecting at right angles from the engine carriage, an arrangement which makes it necessary to cut from the end of the block of coal to the full depth, instead of holing into it from the face.

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  • The forward feed is given by a chain winding upon a drum, which hauls upon a pulley fixed to a prop about 30 yds.

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  • The chain machine has been largely developed in America in the Jeffrey, Link Bell, and Morgan Gardner coal cutters.

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  • These are similar in principle to the Baird machine, the cutting agent being a flat link chain carrying a double set of chisel points, which are drawn across the coal face at the rate of about 5 ft.

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  • per second; but, unlike the older machines, in which the cutting is done in a fixed plane, the chain with its motor is made movable, and is fed forward by a rack-and-pinion motion as the cutting advances, so that the cut is limited in breadth (31 to 4 ft.), while its depth may be varied up to the maximum travel (8 ft.) of the cutting frame.

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  • The forward motion is given by a chain winding upon a crab placed in front, by which it is hauled slowly forward.

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  • Endless chain system.

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  • For the endless chain system, which is much used in the Wigan district, a double line of way is necessary, one line for full and the other for empty tubs.

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  • The chain passes over a pulley driven by the engine, placed at such a height as to allow it to rest upon the tops of the tubs, and round a similar pulley at the far end of the plane.

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  • The forward edge of the tub carries a projecting pin or horn, with a notch into which the chain falls which drags the tub forward.

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  • The road at the outer end is made of a less slope than the chain, so that on arrival the tub is lowered, clears the pin, and so becomes detached from the chain.

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  • The tubs are placed on at intervals of about 20 yds., the chain moving continuously at a speed of from 21 to 4 m.

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  • hanging by a chain.

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  • The tubs are usually formed into sets of from 2 to 12, the front one being coupled up by a short length of chain to a clamping hook formed of two jaws moulded to the curve of the rope which are attached by the " run rider," as the driver accompanying the train is called.

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  • The endless rope system overhead is substantially similar to the endless chain.

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  • The wagons are attached at intervals by short lengths of chain lapped twice round the rope and hooked into one of the links, or in some cases the chains are hooked into hempen loops on the main rope.

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  • The cage is connected with the drawing-rope by short lengths of chain from the corners, known as tackling chains, gathered into a central ring to which the rope is attached.

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  • In this method a third drum is used to receive a heavy flat link chain, shorter than the main drawing-ropes, the end of which hangs down a special or balance pit.

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  • At starting, when the full load is to be lifted, the balance chain uncoils, and continues to do so until the desired equilibrium between the working loads is attained, when it is coiled up again in the reverse direction, to be again given out on the return trip.

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  • These consist essentially of links formed of a pair of parallel plates joined by a central bolt forming a scissors joint which is connected by chain links to the cage below and the winding-rope above.

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  • To these things used to y listen at the time, through the mercy of God vouchsafed to me, noting them down, not on paper but in my heart, and constantly by the grace of God brood over my accurate recollections."These are priceless words, for they establish a chain of tradition (John-Polycarp-Irenaeus) which is without a parallel in early church history.

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  • Waldenburg lies in the centre of the productive coal district of the Waldenburger Gebirge, a branch of the Sudetic chain, and its inhabitants are largely occupied in the mining industry.

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  • In the instructions sent to Ivan's guardian, Prince Churmtyev, the latter was ordered to chain up his charge, and even scourge him should he become refractory.

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  • They broke the chain of authority, without, however, recognizing the propriety of toleration.

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  • The defences consist of an inner line of works which preserve the place against surprise, and of an outlying chain of detached forts of fairly modern construction, forming roughly two-thirds of a circle of three miles radius.

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  • However adequate these identifications may seem, the persistence of an independent clan or tribe of Cherethites-Cretans to the close of the 7th century would imply an unbroken chain of nearly six hundred years, unless, as is inherently more probable, later immigrations had occurred within the interval.

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  • A human figure with pearl chain and arrows in left hand, and parrot on a wooden stick in the right.

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  • - Human Clay Figure, with bead chain of mussel shells and of Venetian glass in the ears and on the neck; 1st period of Spanish conquest.

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  • MENTAWI, a chain of islands in the Dutch East Indies, off the west coast of Sumatra, between r° and 3° 30' S.

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  • By means of a well-organized chain of tabulating centres, the preliminary totals, by sexes, of the 294 millions enumerated in 1901 were given to the public within a fortnight of the census, and differed from the final results by no more than 94,000, or 03%.

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  • The fillets are placed on an endless chain which moves slowly through the furnace, returning underneath.

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  • The chain dips below the water, then rises into the furnace and passes down into the other trough on its way out.

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  • The earlier papers deal chiefly with the properties and modes of synthesis of cloud chain hydrocarbons and their derivatives.

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  • Thus it happens that from Buffalo to New York City there is a chain of busy manufacturing centres along the natural highway followed by the Erie Canal and the Hudson river.

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  • Limestone 1 These include: the Adirondack Hatchery at Upper Saranac, Franklin county; the Caledonia Hatchery at Mumford, Monroe county; the Cold Spring Harbor Hatchery, at Cold Spring Harbor, Suffolk county; the Delaware Hatchery, at Margaretville, Delaware county; the Fulton Chain Hatcher y, at Old Forge, Herkimer county; the Linlithgo Hatchery, at Linlithgo, Columbia county; the Oneida Hatchery, at Constantia, Oswego county; and the Pleasant Valley Hatchery, at Taggart, Steuben county.

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  • Clinton met with little difficulty from the principal American defences of the Highlands, consisting of Forts Montgomery and Clinton on the western bank, together with a huge chain and boom stretched across the river to a precipitous mountain (Anthony's Nose) on the opposite bank, and ascended as far as Esopus (now Kingston) which he burned, but he was too late to aid Burgoyne.

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  • These three form a broken chain, North and South Islands being cut asunder by Cook Strait, a channel varying in width from 16 to 90 m.

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  • The beds take their name from the Maitai river near Nelson; they are largely developed in the mountains of the Tararua-Ruahine-Raukumara chain, on the eastern side of the North Island; they occur in the Kaikoura Mountains, and an outlier forms Mount Torlesse, near the eastern edge of the Southern Alps, west of Christchurch.

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  • Between this mountain chain and its spurs, which fall steeply to the E., and the Rhine, stretches a fertile plain forming the eastern half of Alsace.

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  • Though rugged in places, with outlying spurs and secondary chains, the westward slopes of the Drakensberg are much gentler than the eastern or Natal versant of the chain.

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  • It was not in two or three powerful groups but in one long chain of seven deployed divisions that the advance was made.

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  • The west and south-west half of Saxony is more or less occupied by the ramifications and subsidiary groups of this range, one of which is known from its position as the Central Saxon chain, and another lower group still farther north as the Oschatz group. The south-east angle of Saxony is occupied by the mountains of Upper Lusatia (highest summit 2600 ft.), which form the link between the Erzgebirge and Riesengebirge in the great Sudetic chain.

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  • So far as superstructure is concerned, more material must be used than for an arch or chain, for the girder is in a sense a combination of arch and chain.

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  • On the other hand, a girder imposes only a vertical load on its piers and abutments, and not a horizontal thrust, as in the case of an arch or suspension chain.

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  • A curved chain supported the obique chains and kept them straight.

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  • Rankine proved (Applied Mechanics, p. 370) that the necessary strength of a stiffening girder would be only one-seventh part of that of an independent girder of the same span as the bridge, suited to carry the same moving load (not including the dead weight of the girder which is supported by the chain).

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  • One half ring is rigidly attached to the tie and one to the hanging chain, so that the wear due to any movement is distributed over the length of the pin.

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  • Each chain over a shore span consists of two segments, the longer attached to the tie at the top of the river tower, the shorter to the link at the top of the abutment tower, and the two jointed together at the lowest point.

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  • For spans over 75 ft., expansion due to change of temperature is provided for by carrying one end of each chain girder on rollers placed between the bearing-plate on the girder and the bed-plate on the pier or abutment.

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  • By curving the top boom of a girder to form an arch and the bottom boom to form a suspension chain, the need of web except for non-uniform loading is obviated.

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  • deep. The lower boom is a pair of chains, of wrought-iron links, 14 in each chain, of 7 in.

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  • Chain Loaded uniformly along a Horizontal Line.

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  • - If the lengths of the links be assumed indefinitely short, the chain under given simple distributions of load will take the form of comparatively simple mathematical curves known as catenaries.

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  • The true catenary is that assumed by a chain of uniform weight per unit of length, but the form generally adopted for suspension bridges is that assumed by a chain under a weight uniformly distributed relatively to a horizontal line.

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  • resultant tension along the chain at F, the vertical force V passing through the point D, and the horizontal tension at O; hence H: V = DC: FC = wx 2 /2 y: wx = x/2.

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  • Let the length of half the parabolic chain be called s, then 4.

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  • The following is the approximate expression for the relation between a change Os in the length of the half chain and the corresponding change Ay in the dip s +Os =x+ (2/3x) {y2 or, neglecting the last term, 5 As= 4YAY/3x, and 6 Dy = 3xOs/4Y From these equations the deflection produced by any given stress on the chains or by a change of temperature can be calculated.

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  • A remarkable feature of the belt is the longitudinal chain of broad valleys - the Great Appalachian Valley - which, in the southerly sections divides the mountain system into two subequal portions, but in the northernmost lies west of all the ranges possessing typical Appalachian features, and separates them from the Adirondack group. The mountain system has no axis of dominating altitudes, but in every portion the summits rise to rather uniform heights, and, especially in the central section, the various ridges and intermontane valleys have the same trend as the system itself.

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  • It is a strip of land narrow at the north end and widening out towards the south, consisting roughly of the continuation of the mountain range which bounds central Siam on the W., though the range appears in certain parts as no more than a chain of hillocks.

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  • It is not however a single, long, continuous chain, as it is shown, for example, on the map of the Russian general staff, but consists of two parallel main ranges, and in the east of three, and even to the N.E.

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  • The latter range, the Chimen-tagh, is identical in its western parts with the Piazlik-tagh and in the east must be equated with the Tsaidam chain of Przhevalsky; and it is probably continued westwards by the range which the Russian explorers call the Moscow Range or the Achik-tagh, running north of the Achik-kol and, according to Przhevalsky, connecting on the west with the Tokuz-davan.

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  • Indeed Bogdanovich considers that the Tokuz-davan, the Muzluktagh, the Moscow Range and the Chimen-tagh form one single closely connected chain, in which he also places Przhevalsky's isolated peak of Mount Kreml (15,055 ft.).

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  • It lies between Siam and the Bay of Bengal, enclosed by mountains on three sides, viz., the main chain of the Bilauktaung on the east, rising in places to 5000 feet, which, with its densely wooded spurs, forms an almost impassable barrier, between British and Siamese territory; the Nwahlabo in the centre, which takes its name from its loftiest peak (5000 ft.); and a third.

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  • The turbid Arve is by far its largest tributary (left), and flows from the snows of the chain of Mont Blanc, the only other affluent of any size being the London (right).

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  • But the broad tract which projects towards the west as far as the shores of the Bosporus, though hilly and covered with forests - the Turkish Aghatch Denizi, or "The Ocean of Trees" - is not traversed by any mountain chain.

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  • OLEFINE, in organic chemistry, the generic name given to open chain hydrocarbons having only singly and doubly linked pairs of carbon atoms. The word is derived from the French olefiant (from olefier, to make oil), which was the name given to ethylene, the first member of the series, by the Dutch chemists, J.

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  • Although Bessel was the first to systematically treat of these functions, it is to be noted that in 1732 Daniel Bernoulli obtained the function of zero order as a solution to the problem of the oscillations of a chain suspended at one end.

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  • These are a chain of small bones belonging to the first four vertebrae, which are much modified, and connecting the air-bladder with the auditory organs.

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  • Bering Sea is bounded by the Alaskan Peninsula and the chain of the Aleutian Islands; the sea of Okhotsk is enclosed by the peninsula of Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands; the Sea of Japan is shut off by Sakhalin Island, the Japanese Islands and the peninsula of Korea; the Yellow Sea is an opening between the coast of China and Korea; the China Sea lies between the Asiatic continent and the island of Formosa, the Philippine group, Palawan and Borneo.

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  • In the west there is the great looped chain which fringes the east coast of Asia, and with it encloses the series of seas which form parts of the ocean.

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  • The north of the chain, from the Kuriles to Formosa, belongs to the empire of Japan; southward it is continued by the Philippines (belonging to the United States of America) which link it with the vast archipelago between the Pacific and Indian oceans, to which the name Malay Archipelago is commonly applied.

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  • As the loop of the Kuriles depends from the southern extremity of Kamchatka, so from the east of the same peninsula another loop extends across the northern part of the ocean to Alaska, and helps to demarcate the Bering Sea; this chain is distinctly broken to the east of the Commander Islands, but is practically continuous thereafter under the name of the Aleutian Islands.

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  • In Tonga, in the New Hebrides, and in the long chain of the Solomons and the Bismarck Archipelago there is much activity.

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  • Of the Polynesian Islands, the Hawaiian chain presents the type of a volcanic group through which coral reefs are not equally distributed.

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  • In1615-1617two Dutchmen, Jacob Lemaire and Willem Cornelis Schouten, having in view both the discovery of the southern continent and the possibility of establishing relations with the East Indies from the east, took a course which brought them to the north part of the Paumotu Archipelago, thence to part of the Tonga chain, and ultimately to New Pomerania, after which they reached the East Indies.

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  • We can restore then the old English system of long measure from the buildings, the statute-prohibition, the surviving chain and furlong, and the old English mile shown by maps and itineraries, thus:

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  • - It is obvious that the Linnaean binomial terminology and its subsequent trinomial refinement for species, sub-species, and varieties was adapted to express the differences between animals as they exist to-day, distributed contemporaneously over the surface of the earth, and that it is wholly inadapted to express either the minute gradations of successive generic series or the branchings of a genetically connected chain of life.

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  • The surface features consist of an immense elevated plateau with a chain of mountains on its eastern and western margins, which extends from the United States frontier southward to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; a fringe of lowlands (tierras calientes) between the plateau and coast on either side; a detached, roughly mountainous section in the south-east, which belongs to the Central American Plateau, and a low sandy plain covering the greater part of the Isthmus of Yucatan.

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  • The peninsula of Lower California is traversed from north to south by a chain of barren mountains which covers the greater part of its surface.

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  • Near the 10th parallel the great chain again divides, the eastern part crossing the southern end of the plateau, and the western, or Sierra Madre del Sur, following the shore line closely to Tehuantepec. The Sierra Madre Occidental has but few noteworthy elevations, its culminating points being the Nevado de Colima (14,363 ft.) and Volcan de Colima (12,750 ft.) in the state of Jalisco.

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  • The Sierra Madre Oriental consists of a broken chain of ranges extending along the eastern margin of the plateau from the great bend in the Rio Grande south-eastward to about the 19th parallel.

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  • " Only on the supposition that these volcanoes, which are on the surface connected by a skeleton of volcanic rocks, are also united under the surface by a chain of volcanic elements in continual activity, may we account for the earthquakes which in the direction mentioned cause the American continent, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean, to oscillate at the same time " (Egloffstein, p. 37).

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  • to the W., at the foot of the main chain of the Caucasus.

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  • ch, Chain of chromatic rodlets running from trophonucleus to kinetonucleus.

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  • In the cathedral may be seen the chain ball which killed General St Ruth at the battle of Aughrim, and the spurs which he wore.

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  • Ranging from Canada in the north to Guatemala in the south, and chiefly frequenting the open plains on both sides of the chain of the Rocky Mountains, the coyote, under all its various local phases, is a smaller animal than the true wolf, and may apparently be regarded as the New World representative of the jackals, or perhaps, like the Indian wolf (C. pallipes), as a type intermediate between wolves and jackals.

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  • It is, however, impossible to subdivide the Sierra Madre into a northern and a volcanic chain; for the volcanoes are isolated by stretches of comparatively low countr y; at least thirteen considerable streams flow down between them, from the main watershed to the sea.

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  • The depth of settlement, from the coast inland, varied greatly, ranging from what would be involved in the mere occupation of the shore for fishing purposes to a body of agricultural occupation extending back to the base of the great Atlantic chain, and averaged some 250 m.i Westward, beyonc the general line of continuous settlement, were four extensions of population through as many gaps in the Appalachian barrier, constituting the four main paths along which migration westward first took place: the Mohawk Valley in New York, the upper Potomac, the Appalachian Valley, and around the southern base of the Appalachian system.

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  • A curious chain suspension bridge across the Merrimac, connecting Newburyport with Amesbury, was built in 1827, replacing a similar bridge built in 1810, which was one of the first suspension bridges in America.

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  • This fric tion has been greatly re duced by making the draw doors, or sluice-gates, slide on each side against a verti A cal row of free-rollers sus pended by an encircling / chain; and the working .%i/ is much facilitated by FIG.

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  • The weir is opened by joining the needles of each bay by a chain passed through the eyes at the top and a line of wire through the central rings, so that when released at the top by the tilting of the escape bar by the derrick, they float down as a raft, and are caught by a man in a boat, or, when the cur rent is strong, they are 'mopes ?o drawn to the bank by a rope attached to them previously to their release.

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  • The Ill valley is bounded south by the snowy chain of the Rhatikon (highest point, the Scesaplana, 9741 ft., a famous view-point), and of the Silvretta (highest point, Gross Piz Buin, 1 0,880 ft.), both dividing Vorarlberg from Switzerland; slightly to the north-east of Piz Buin is the Dreilanderspitze (10,539 ft.), where the Vorarlberg, Tirolese and Swiss frontiers unite.

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  • Its boundary on the south is the parallel of latitude 49°, between the Pacific Ocean and Lake-of-the-Woods, then a chain of small lakes and rivers eastward to the mouth of Pigeon river on the north-west side of Lake Superior, and the Great Lakes with their connecting rivers to Cornwall, on the St Lawrence.

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  • Later the sediments lying to the south-east of this " protaxis," or nucleus of the continent, were pushed against its edge and raised into the Appalachian chain of mountains, which, however, extends only a short distance into Canada.

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  • Through this branch of the public service a complete chain of cold-storage accommodation between various points in Canada and markets in Europe, particularly in Great Britain, has been arranged.

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  • It was a far cry from New Orleans to Quebec. If France could link them by a chain of settlements and shut in the English to their narrow strip of Atlantic seaboard there was good promise that North America would be hers.

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  • to S.E., and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the E., and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tenos and Myconos.

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  • KURILES (Jap. Chishima, " thousand islands"), a chain of small islands belonging to Japan, stretching in a north-easterly direction from Nemuro Bay, on the extreme east of the island of Yezo, to Chishima-kaikyo (Kuriles Strait), which separates them from the southernmost point of Kamchatka.

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  • chain, or the Pyrenees, and in the wild state is unknown in the Spanish peninsula.

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  • Farther to the north two lesser ranges running parallel to the main chain traverse the centre of the department from southeast to north-west.

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  • The municipal park system is one of unusual beauty, consisting of a chain of parks with a total area of about 1030 acres, encircling the city and connected by boulevards and driveways.

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  • SOLOMON ISLANDS (Ger., Salomoinseln), an archipelago of the Western Pacific Ocean, included in Melanesia, and forming a chain (in continuation of that of the Admiralty Islands and New Mecklenburg in the Bismarck Archipelago) from N.W.

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  • The whole chain of islands appears to be rising steadily.

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  • In 1788 the English lieutenant Shortland coasted along the south side of the chain, and, supposing it to be a continuous land, named it New Georgia; and in 1792 Captain Edward Manning sailed through the strait which separates Ysabel from Choiseul and now bears his name.

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  • The mountains of the Hindu Kush running from east to west form the northern boundary of the province, and are met at the north-east corner of the Chitral agency by the continuation of an outer chain of the Himalayas after it crosses the Indus above the Kagan valley.

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  • From this chain minor ranges run in a south-westerly direction the whole length of Bajour and Swat, till they merge into the Mohmand hills and connect the mid-Himalayas with the Safed Koh.

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  • This led to the circulation of many editions of Josippon, which thus formed a link in the chain of events which culminated in the readmission of the Jews to England by Cromwell.

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  • HAWAII (Hawaiian Or Sandwich Islands), a territory of the United States of America, consisting of a chain of islands in the North Pacific Ocean, eight inhabited and several uninhabited.

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  • to W.N.W.; the uninhabited ones, mere rocks and reefs, valuable only for their guano deposits and shark-fishing grounds, continue the chain several hundred miles farther W.N.W.

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  • Towns, villages and country houses were their prominent features; troops were hardly seen in them save in some fortresses on the edge of the hills and in a chain of forts built in the 4th century to defend the south-east coast, the so-called Saxon Shore.

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  • A second road, turning north-west from Catterick Bridge, mounted the Pennine Chain by way of forts at Rokeby, Bowes and Brough-underStainmoor, descended into the Eden valley, reached Hadrian's wall near Carlisle (Luguvallium), and passed on to Birrens.

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  • It is clear from literary evidence that the helmet (helm) and coat of chain mail (byrne) were also in common use.

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  • For the acre also there was in later times a standard length and breadth, the former being called furhlang (furlong) and reckoned at one-eighth of a mile, while the aecerbraedu or " acre-breadth " (chain) was also a definite measure.

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  • The great chain of volcanoes which runs through Sumatra and Java is continued eastwards into the Moluccas, and terminates in a hooklike curve which passes through the Damar Islands to the Banda group. Outside this hook lies a concentric arc of non-volcanic islands, including Tenimber, the Lesser Kei Islands, Ceram and Buru; and beyond is still a third concentric arc extending from Taliabu to the Greater Kei Islands.

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  • Asturias consists of a portion of the northern slope of the Cantabrian Mountains,and is covered in all directions with offshoots from the main chain, by which it is almost completely shut in on the south.

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  • between extremities) roughly parallel with the first, consisting of the Sinjar chain (about 3000 ft., limestone, 50 m.

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  • This is an undulating plain which has been produced by the wearing away of weak sandstones, &c. On the north and west borders of this plain are two parts of a chain of semi-detached and usually rounded hills, known as the South Mountains.

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  • in the central part, its northern limit being marked by the chain of lakes running N.W.

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  • He confirmed the existence, long suspected, of a lofty mountain chain extending right across the country from the lake Tengri Nor (i.e.

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  • The largest island is New Pomerania, and the archipelago also includes New Mecklenburg, New Hanover, with small attendant islands, the Admiralty Islands and a chain of islands off the coast of New Guinea, the whole system lying in the form of a great amphitheatre of oval shape.

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  • Sagemehl, in which the airbladder is connected with the ear by a chain of small bones (socalled Weberian ossicles).

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  • Moreover, the chain of islands which fringes the northern part of the eastern shore reduces the extreme breadth of open sea in this part to 90 m.

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  • From a point between Curzola and the north shore of the spur of Monte Gargano there is a ridge giving shallower water, and a broken chain of a few islets extends across the sea.

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  • Westerland, one of the most frequented sea-bathing places of Germany, lies on the west side of the island, separated from the sea, which is seldom perfectly calm, by a chain of sand dunes, across which board walks lead to the beach.

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  • Thence it curves southwest, past Potsdam and Brandenburg, traversing another chain of lakes, and finally continues north-west until it joins the Elbe from the right some miles above Wittenberge after a total course of 221 m.

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  • 5 " If we sum up the principal ensigns of knighthood, ancient and modern, we shall find they have been or are a horse, gold ring, shield and lance, a belt and sword, gilt spurs and a gold chain or collar."

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  • J., and to the beaks of the two heads of the eagle is attached a chain on which is the legend Viribus Unitis.

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  • It consists of a well-marked main chain, accompanied in its central part by subsidiary ridges.

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  • The main chain is pierced by several deep gaps or "doors," through some of which important railways have been carried; e.g., the line connecting Paderborn and Hanover, and that connecting Herford and Hamm.

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  • This chain is collectively known as the Alps, and is the most important physical feature of the European continent.

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  • the Cevennes, the Jura, the hills of central Germany, the Carpathians, the Apennines), which ar really independent ranges rather than offshoots of the main chain, the best limits are on the west (strictly speaking south), the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (1624 ft.), leading from Turin to Savona and Genoa, and on the east the line of the railway over the Semmering Pass (3215 ft.) from Vienna to Marburg in the Mur valley, and on by Laibach to Trieste.

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  • But if we confine the meaning of the term Alps to those parts of the chain that are what is commonly called " Alpine," where the height is sufficient to support a considerable mass of perpetual snow, our boundaries to the west and to the east must be placed at spots other than those mentioned above.

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  • Main Chain.

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  • - In the case of every mountain system geographers are disposed to regard, as a general rule, the watershed (or boundary dividing the waters flowing towards opposite slopes of the range) as marking the main chain, and this usage is justified in that the highest peaks often rise on or very near the watershed.

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  • Yet, as a matter of fact, several important mountain groups are situated on one or other side of the watershed of the Alps, and form almost independent ranges, being only connected with the main chain by a kind of peninsula: such are the Dauphine Alps, the Eastern and Western Graians, the entire Bernese Oberland, the Todi, Albula and Silvretta groups, the Ortler and Adamello ranges, and the Dolomites of south Tirol, not to speak of the lower Alps of the Vorarlberg, Bavaria and Salzburg.

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  • Starting from the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (west of Savona), the main chain extends first south-west, then north-west to the Col de Tenda, though nowhere rising much beyond the zone of coniferous trees.

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  • From the head of the Val Pellice the main chain runs north-west, and diminishes much in average height till it reaches the Mont Thabor (10,440 ft.), which forms the apex of a salient angle which the main chain here presents towards the west.

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  • Once more the chain bends to the north-west, rising in several lofty peaks (the highest is the Aiguille de la Grande Sassiere, 12,323 ft.), before attaining the considerable depression of the Little St Bernard Pass.

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  • Thence for a short way the direction is north to the Col de la Seigne, and then north-east along the crest of the Mont Blanc chain, which culminates in the peak of Mont Blanc (15,782 ft.), the loftiest in the Alps.

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  • Thence after a short dip to the south-east, our chain takes near the Great St Bernard Pass the generally eastern direction that it maintains till it reaches Monte Rosa,whence it bends northwards, making one small dip to the east as far as the Simplon Pass.

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  • It is in the portion of the watershed between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon that the main chain maintains a greater average height than in any other part.

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  • On the other hand the chain between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon sinks at barely half a dozen points below a level of 10,000 ft.

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  • The Simplon Pass corresponds to what may be called a dislocation of the main chain.

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  • Thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass the main chain is ill-defined, though on it rises the Corno di Campo (10,844 ft.), beyond which it runs slightly north-east past the sources of the Adda and the Fra g ile Pass, sinks to form the depression of the Ofen Pass, soon bends north and rises once more in the Piz Sesvenna (10,568 ft.).

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  • The break in the continuity of the Alpine chain marked by the deep valley, the Vintschgau, of the upper Adige (Etsch) is one of the most remarkable features in the orography of the Alps.

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  • Eastward of this pass, the main chain runs north-east to the Brenner Pass along the snowy crest of the Oetzthal and Stubai Alps, the loftiest point on it being the Weisskugel (12,291 ft., Oetzthal), for the highest summits both of the Oetzthal and of the Stubai districts, the Wildspitze (12,382 ft.) and the Zuckerhiitl (11,520 ft.) stand a little to the north.

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  • The Brenner (4495 ft.) is almost the lowest of all the great carriage-road passes across the main chain, and has always been the chief means of communication between Germany and Italy.

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  • Our chain bends northeast near the Radstddter Tauern Pass, and preserves that direction through the Lesser Tauern Alps to the Semmering Pass.

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  • (b) On the other hand, if from the Dreiherrenspitze we cleave to the true main watershed of the Alpine chain, we find that it dips south, passes over the Hochgall (11,287 ft.), the culminating point of the Rieserferner group, and then sinks to the Toblach Pass, but at a point a little east of the great Dolomite peak of the Drei Zinnen it bends east again, and rises in the Monte Coglians (9128 ft., the monarch of the Carnic Alps).

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  • As might be expected, the main chain boasts of more glaciers and eternal snow than the independent or external ranges.

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  • In the main chain the two longest are both 94 m., the Mer de Glace at Chamonix and the Gorner at Zermatt.

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  • The spots at which they were crossed are called passes (this word is sometimes though rarely applied to gorges only), and are the points at which the great chain sinks to form depressions, up to which deep-cut valleys lead from the plains.

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  • In the one case we have no direct knowledge (though the Romans probably selected the passes pointed out to them by the natives as the easiest), while in the other we hear almost exclusively of the passes across the main chain or the principal passes of the Alps.

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  • For obvious reasons the Romans, having once found an easy direct pass across the main chain, did not trouble to seek for harder and more devious routes.

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  • the Mont Genevre, that is most directly reached by the Col du Lautaret; and the Simplon, which is best gained by one of the lower passes over the western portion of the Bernese Oberland chain.

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  • As late as 1905, the highest pass over the main chain that had a carriage road was the Great St Bernard (8111 ft.), but three still higher passes over side ridges have roads-the Stelvio (9055 ft.), the Col du Galibier (8721 ft.), in the Dauphine Alps, and the Umbrail Pass (8242 ft.).

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  • Still more recently the main alpine chain has been subjected to the further indignity of having railway lines carried over it or through it-the Brenner and the Pontebba lines being cases of the former, and the Col de Tenda, the Mont Cenis (though the tunnel is really 17 m.

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  • Divisions.-The Alps, within the limits indicated under (2) above, form a great range, consisting of a main chain, with ramifications, and of several parallel minor chains.

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  • We give below that which seems to us to be the most satisfactory (based very largely on personal acquaintance with most parts of the range), considering, as in the case of the limits of the chain, only its topographical aspect, as it exists at the present day, while leaving it to geologists, botanists and zoologists to elaborate special divisions as required by these various sciences.

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  • In the case of the Western Alps (minus the bit from the chain of Mont Blanc to the Simplon, which followed the fortunes of the Valais), a prolonged struggle for the Alpine region took place between the feudal lords of Savoy, the Dauphine and Provence.

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  • In the Central Alps the chief event, on the northern side of the chain, is the gradual formation from 1291 to 1815 of the Swiss Confederation, at least so far as regards the mountain Cantons, and with especial reference to the independent confederations of the Grisons and the Valais, which only became full members of the Confederation in 1803 and 1815 respectively.

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  • - There is no good modern and fairly large-scale map of the entire chain of the Alps.

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  • Ravenstein's maps (scale :250,000) of the Swiss Alps (2 sheets) and of the Eastern Alps (8 sheets) include the whole chain, save that portion south of the range of Mont Blanc.

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  • The folds run, in general, in the direction of the chain, and together they form an arc around the plain of Lombardy and Piedmont.

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  • Beyond the depression also, excepting in the Jura Mountains, there is no sign of the folding which has raised the Alpine chain.

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  • nGt only a representation of the chain of the Alps, but even a subsidiary fold in front in the position of the Jura Mountains may be obtained.

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  • Such is in outline the process by which the Alps were elevated; but when the chain is examined in detail, it is found that its history has not been uniform throughout; and it will be convenient, for purposes of description, to divide it into three portions, which may be called the Eastern Alps, the Swiss Alps, and the Western Alps.

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  • On the Italian side there is usually no zone of folded Tertiaries and the Mesozoic band forms the southern border of the chain.

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  • A few miles farther north these same beds rise again to the surface at the summit of an anticlinal which runs parallel to the chain.

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  • Eocene beds, indeed, penetrate farther within the chain, but these are limestones with nummulites or lignite-bearing shales and have nothing in common with the Flysch.

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  • Nevertheless, the difference between the deposits on the two sides of the chain shows that the central ridge was dry land during at least a part of the period.

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  • The age of a great part of the Palaeozoic belts is somewhat uncertain, but Permian, Carboniferous, Devonian and Silurian fossils have been found in various parts of the chain, and it is not unlikely that even the Cambrian may be represented.

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  • The Mesozoic belt of the southern border of the chain extends from Lago Maggiore eastwards.

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  • On the southern side of the chain the Mesozoic zone disappears entirely a little west of Lago Maggiore and the crystalline rocks rise directly from the plain.

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  • The main chain is formed chiefly of crystalline and schistose rocks, which on the Italian side rise directly from the plain without any intervening zone of Mesozoic beds.

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  • According to the view most widely accepted in France the main chain as a whole forms a fan, the folds on the eastern side leaning towards Italy and those on the western side towards France.

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  • From the above account it will at once appear that between the convex and the concave margins of the Alpine chain there is a striking difference.

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  • Upon the inner side the Tertiary band is found only in the eastern part of the chain, while towards the west, first the Tertiary and then the Mesozoic band disappears against the modern deposits of the low land.

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  • The appearance is strongly suggestive of faulting; and probably the southern margin of the chain lies buried beneath the plain of northern Italy.

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  • The chain of the Alps was not raised by a single movement nor in a single geological period.

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  • The structure of the zones in the Bavarian Alps seems to suggest that the chain grew outwards in successive stages, each stage being marked by the formation of a boundary fault.

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  • The following list includes a few selected works on each portion of the chain: - F.

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  • Many of them are restricted to some one small portion of the chain; these occur chiefly in the southern and eastern Alps.

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  • 48 so) and widely distributed within the limits of the chain.

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  • The snow-mouse (Arvicola nivalis) is confined to the alpine and snow regions, and is abundant at these levels throughout the whole chain of the Alps.

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  • denticornis, swarm in the ice-cold waters of the highest alpine tarns throughout the entire chain; and the former of these is also a characteristic inhabitant of pools formed from melting snow in the extreme north.

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  • A metal chain resting on the globe served to collect the charge.

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  • The eastern part of the chain passed from South France through the Vosges, the Black Forest, Thuringia, Harz, the Fichtelgebirge, Bohemia, the Sudetes, and possibly farther east; this constitutes the " Varischen Alps " of Suess.

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  • The general physical features of the island are simple: a chain of lofty mountain ranges extends throughout its length, the western slopes descending rapidly towards the ocean and the eastern looking out over a vast alluvial tract of unusual uniformity.

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  • Towards the north end of the island the spurs of the main chain sometimes extend towards the neighbourhood of the east coast and the eastern plain widens from north to south.

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  • (3) The valley of the Batang Toru, with the plateau of Sipirok in the east and the mountain chain of Tapanuli in the west.

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  • This section is divided by the Middengebergte or middle chain into a northern half watered by the Ombilin or upper Indragiri with its affluents, and a southern half traversed by the Batang Hari or upper Jambi.

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  • (7) The section of south Sumatra between the eastern chain of old rocks and the east coast with its numerous river mouths is formed of the alluvium of sea and rivers.

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