no certainty can be arrived at with regard to its earlier forms and later development.
Nothing is known with certainty as to the date or author.
While Howie, between his brain damage, operations and lengthy coma created a rare combination of mental soup, could we say with any certainty that his ability was absolutely unique to him?
With the growing certainty of touch a stiffness of movement appears which gradually disturbs the listener who can appreciate freedom, whether in the classical forms which Wagner has now abolished, or in the majestic flow of Wagner's later style.
Be this as it may, enthusiastic as he was for a new logic that might give certainty to moral and social conclusions, Mill was no less resolute that the new logic should stand in no antagonism to the old.
"And whither," he adds, "can mankind so advantageously turn, in order to learn the proper means, and to form their minds to the proper habits, as to that branch of knowledge in which by universal acknowledgment the greatest number of truths have been ascertained, and the greatest possible degree of certainty arrived at ?"
It is necessary to notice, however, that although the general course of the stream of life is certain, there is not the same certainty as to the actual individual pedigrees of the existing forms. In the attempts to place existing creatures in approximately phylogenetic order, a striking change, due to a more logical consideration of the process of evolution, has become established and is already resolving many of the earlier difficulties and banishing from the more recent tables the numerous hypothetical intermediate forms so familiar in the older phylogenetic trees.
None of the groups of existing Endopterygota have been traced with certainty farther back than the Mesozoic epoch, and all the numerous Palaeozoic insect-fossils seem to belong to forms that possessed only imperfect metamorphosis.
I resolved to remain calm for her sake and talked of nothing but positive certainty of our escape.
To obtain an absolutely pure culture with certainty it is necessary, even when the gelatin method is employed, to start from a single cell.
They claim probability - moral certainty - mathematical certainty.
The officer points out the folly of such a course, and the certainty that the republic, whose troops had triumphed over those of Prussia and Austria, will speedily disperse the untrained levies of Provence.
On the other hand, many evolutionists ignore the certainty that there must be a continuum in any real evolutionary process.
The exact line of this third wall is not known with certainty, but it probably followed approximately the same line as the existing north wall of Jerusalem.
By trailing a thread behind them spiders are able to drop from any height to the ground and to retrace their steps with certainty to a particular spot.
The Apologists themselves welcomed, and commended to others, the Christian revelation as affording a certainty of immortality such as reason could not give.
Duty must be accepted as a given certainty, or it is vindicated - unsatisfactorily enough, perhaps - in the way just explained.
In consequence of this tampering with the market no certainty can be felt about the effect even of expert dealing.
She gropes her way without much certainty in rooms where she is quite familiar.
We are allowed moral certainty, but are forbidden the hope of genuine moral victory.
But the town of Adullam, which has not been identified with any certainty, lay in the low country of Judah (Josh.
Who has hitherto here with certainty measured the realm of the possible and the real?
As yet our authorities do not permit us to follow them to Egypt with any certainty, but the Psalms of Solomon express the mind of one who survived to see Pompey the Great brought low.
To this belief, many and good as are the arguments which can be advanced for it, a confident certainty is given by Christian faith in the Risen Lord, and the life and immortality which he has brought to light in his Gospel.
But elsewhere there are few passages in which the extremely recondite harmonic style can be with certainty traced to anything but habit.
Besides the ELXXoi we have some lines preserved from the 'IvaaXyoi, a poem in elegiac verse, which appears to have inculcated the tenets of scepticism, and one or two fragments which cannot be with certainty assigned to either poem.
But the progress of husbandry, evidenced by the production of larger and better crops with more certainty, is due to that rationalizing of agricultural practices which is the work of modern times.
There can be no doubt that there is no fundamental difference between the living substance of animals and plants, for many forms exist which cannot be referred with certainty to either kingdom.
So far only is it possible to speak with certainty, but it is permissible to take a few steps into the twilight of dawning knowledge and indicate the chief subdivisions which are likely to be established in the great crust-hollow and the great crust-heap. The boundary between these should obviously be the mean surface of the sphere.
A collective polyphyletic or heterogeneous group, originally cosmopolitan; with certainty existing since the Miocene.
But on account of experimental errors in weighing and measuring, and through loss of material in the transfer of substances from one vessel to another, such analyses are rarely trustworthy to more than one part in about Soo; so that small changes in weight consequent on the chemical change could not with certainty be proved or disproved.
We may draw with some certainty the conclusion that a general movement southward of vegetation had been brought about.
The Nuclei of the Lower Plants.It is only in comparatively recent times that it has been possible to determine with any degree of certainty that the minute deeply stainable bodies described more especially by Schmitz (1879) in many Algae and Fungi could be regarded as true nuclei.
Weigh that against the certainty that nearly a billion people are hungry right now and I don't know why we would decline to acquire this knowledge.
Two people were all he knew with certainty: Sofia and the Watcher with his forest green eyes.
Few of the poems can be dated with certainty, but those that can, with the exception of iv.
But intuitionalism claims to allege a higher certainty; everything (or every change) must have a cause - this is not merely actual fact but necessary truth.
Little is known with certainty of his university career beyond the facts that he became a fellow of Jesus College in 1510 or 1511, that he had soon after to vacate his fellowship, owing to his marriage to " Black Joan," a relative of the landlady of the Dolphin Inn, and that he was reinstated in it on the death of his wife, which occurred in childbirth before the lapse of the year of grace allowed by the statutes.
The critical method which has since become almost a formal system, aiming at scientific certainty, was with him an unexampled power, based on the insight acquired from wide knowledge, which enabled him to judge the credibility of an author or the genuineness of an authority; but he has made it impossible for any one to attempt to write modern history except on the "narratives of eye-witnesses and the most genuine immediate documents" preserved in the archives.
The date of his birth cannot be fixed with any certainty, but it was probably between 1030 and 1040.
The Theseum or temple of Theseus, which lay to the east of the Agora near the Acropolis, was built by Cimon: here he deposited the bones of the national hero which he brought from Scyros about 470 B.C. The only building in the city which can with certainty be assigned to the administration of Pericles is the Odeum, beneath the southern declivity of the Acropolis, a structure mainly of wood, said to have been built in imitation of the tent of Xerxes: it was used for musical contests and the though not established, may be regarded as practically certain, notwithstanding the difficulty presented by the subjects of the sculptures, which bear no relation to Hephaestus.
Though this narrative is a mixture of truth and fiction, it may be said with certainty that a thorough study of the philosophy of Peripatetics and Pythagoreans, Stoics and Platonists, brought home to Justin the conviction that true knowledge was not to be found in them.
In Hughes's instrument almost perfect accuracy and certainty have been attained; and in actual practice it has proved to be decidedly superior to all previous type-printing telegraphs, not only in speed and accuracy, but in less liability to mechanical derangement from wear and tear and from accident.
B~it the staining reactions of nuclei may vary at different stages of their development; and it i~ probable that there is no method of staining which differentiates with certainty the various morphological constituents of the nucleus.
When we are first entitled to speak with any kind of certainty, the non-privileged class possess a certain share in the election of magistrates and the making of laws.
All these villas can be identified with more or less certainty, the best preserved being those on the east extremity, consisting of a large number of vaulted substructures and the foundations perhaps of a Pharos (lighthouse).
As an appendix to the Oligochaeta, and possibly referable to that group, though their systematic position cannot at present be determined with certainty, are to be placed the Bdellodrilidae (Discodrilidae auct.), which are small parasites upon crayfish.
But Buffier does not claim for these truths of "common sense" the absolute certainty which characterizes the knowledge we have of our own existence or the logical deductions we make from our thoughts; they possess merely the highest probability, and the man who rejects them is to be considered a fool, though he is not guilty of a contradiction.
This meant the certainty of a pension.
purposive interpretation of a contract is a useful tool where the purpose can be identified with reasonable certainty.
In these cases, however, the " infallibility " connotes certainty only in so far as anything human can be certain.
Finally the Deutero-Isaiah conveyed to captive Israel the message of Yahweh's unceasing love and care, and the certainty of their return to Judaea and the restoration of the national prosperity which Ezekiel had already announced in the earlier period of the exile.
This order can be traced with certainty back to the early Jurassic epoch, while the Permian fossil Eugereon, and the living order - specially modified in many respects - of the Thysanoptera indicate steps by which the aberrant suctorial and piercing mouth of the Hemiptera may have been developed from the biting mouth of primitive Isopteroids, by the elongation of some parts and the suppression of others.
With regard to the buildings on the east end of the Acropolis, where the present museums stand, no certainty exists; among the many statues here were those of Xanthippus, the father of Pericles, and of Anacreon.
(3) It is doubtful whether there are any actual inscriptions which can be referred with certainty to the language of the Ligures, but some other evidence seems to link them with the -CO- peoples, whose early distribution is discussed under VoLscI and LIGURIA.
I, 2 and 3), used to bolt the head of one of the screws, and the instrument was provided with a slipping piece, giving motion to the micrometer by screws acting on two slides, one in right ascension, the other in declination, so that " either of the, webs can be placed upon either component of a double star with ease and certainty (Mem.
Every percept is such a starting-point; it is an immediate certainty, remaining with us unmodified as the basis 1 Deontology, p. 42.
The feud between these two princes originated probably in a dispute over the succession to the throne; its details, however, are obscure, and the only fact which can be ascertained with any certainty is that Duncan was slain by Macbeth in 1040.
Mere argument is never sufficient; it may decide a question, but gives no satisfaction or certainty to the mind, which can only be convinced by immediate inspection or intuition.
To the latter category it is now possible to refer with certainty only the Etruscans (for the chronology and limits of their occupation of Italian soil see ETRURIA: section Language).
Descartes began with the certainty that we are thinking beings; that region remains untouched; but up to its very borders the mechanical explanation of nature reigns unchecked.
Nehemiah mentions a number of places on the eastern hill, including the tomb of David, the positions of which cannot with our present knowledge be fixed with any certainty.
The connexion between the velocity and the pressure of the wind is one that is not yet known with absolute certainty.
Leo; on the other hand, Thomas of Celano's two Lives are free from the "tendencies" ascribed to them by Sabatier, and that of 1248 was written with the collaboration of Leo and the other companions; thus the best sources of information are those portions of the Speculum that can with certainty be carried back to Br.
These materials, imperfect as they are, when combined with the notices derived from ancient writers and the evidence of archaeological excavations, may be considered as having furnished some results of reasonable certainty.
The careful and complete collection, by Franke, of the philological evidence at present available, has raised this hypothesis into a practical certainty.
2 Whether the myth of the creation of the first man by the angels, which recurs in many Gnostic systems, found a place also in the system of Basilides, cannot be determined with any certainty.
16) belonged to early nomadic Israel (as seems probable) it is not possible to determine with any certainty.
Taanach), together with the contemporary archaeological evidence (from Lachish, Gezer, Megiddo, Jericho, &c.), represent advanced conditions of life and culture, the precise chronological limits of which cannot be determined with certainty.
Nothing is known with certainty as to the origin of the vast majority of breeds of dogs, and it is an unfortunate fact that the progressive changes which have been made within comparatively recent times by fanciers have not been accurately recorded by the preservation, in museums or collections, of the actual specimens considered typical at different dates.
It is not easy to state with certainty the doctrines of a body which (in England at least) has never demanded subscription to any creed, and whose views have undoubtedly undergone more or less definite changes.
The question as to the total number of slaves at Rome or in Italy is a very difficult one, and it is not, perhaps, possible to arrive with any degree of certainty at an approximate estimate.
24), with perfect truth, that it is no longer possible to determine with any certainty when he lived and legislated.
Their formation has been attributed to the effect of rotting vegetation on the rock, but without certainty.
To disavow the acts and desires of the army and of the secret societies for defence with which all north Germany was honeycombed would be to imperil the very existence of the monarchy, whilst an attack on the wreck of the Grand Army meant the certainty of a terrible retribution from the new armies now rapidly forming on the Rhine.
The field due to a coil can be made as nearly uniform as we please throughout a considerable space; its intensity, when the constants of the coil are known, can be calculated with ease and certainty and may be varied at will'through wide ranges, while the apparatus required is of the simplest character and can be readily constructed to suit special purposes.
These show that the very few facts known with certainty were freely supplemented by a number of ill-founded conjectures, and sometimes even by " figments and falsehoods, which in the earliest times, no less than nowadays, used to be put forth by raw smatterers and copyists to be swallowed of men."
Coulomb, 2 however, by using long and thin steel rods, symmetrically magnetized, and so arranged that disturbing influences became negligibly small, was enabled to deduce from his experiments with reasonable certainty the law that the force of attraction or repulsion between two poles varies inversely as the square of the distance between them.
The suicide of Essex, the news of which was brought into court during the trial, was quoted as additional evidence against him, as pointing to the certainty of Essex's guilt.
With approximate certainty may be ascribed also to Tamas and Balint the original of the still extant transcript, by George Nemeti, of the Four Gospels, the Jciszay or Munich Codex (finished at Tatros in Moldavia in 1466).
Unfortunately however it is impossible to date the book of Chronicles with certainty.
xlv., though the unsoundness of the text in certain parts makes it difficult to speak with certainty, would suit the marriage of Alexander Balas at Ptolemais in 150 B.C., at which the high priest Jonathan was present as an honoured guest.
But unfortunately it has not been found possible to get from these accounts any clear picture of the ritual of any certainty as to the technical terms used.
When the unalloyed metal was first introduced cannot be ascertained with certainty.
23 a their retreat was not established with any degree of certainty for several days.
The certainty with which tissues can now be fixed in the state they were in when living, and the delicacy with which they can be stained differentially, have been the means of opening up a new world of exploration.
Although we have not reached a stage of certainty regarding their origin, function and destiny, recent investigations have brought forward evidence to elucidate the importance of the part played by the different cells in the various types of the inflammatory process.
The first led him into a teleological system so minute and overstrained as to defeat its own end; the second was successfully attained by giving greater precision and certainty to medical and surgical practice in difficult cases.
All that can with certainty be said is that a school or collection of schools gradually grew up in which especially medicine, but also, in a subordinate degree, law and philosophy were taught.
Among the drawbacks of this temper, which on the whole made for progress, was the rise of a school of excessive scepticism, which, forgetting the value of the accumulated stores of empiricism, despised those degrees of moral certainty that, in so complex a study and so tentative a practice as medicine, must be our portion for the present, and even for a long future, however great the triumphs of medicine may become.
The statements cannot be perfectly reconciled; but we may say with certainty that Lucretius was born between 98 and 95 B.C., and died in 55 or 54.
It may be presumed with some certainty that his attentions to women were for the most part platonic; indeed, both on the good and the bad side of him, he was all brain.
Although the course of the later Roman walls is clear, we do not know with any certainty the position of the Roman gates.
Growth And Population Much has been written upon the population of medieval London, but little certainty has resulted therefrom.
In the case of a developed mine its life may be predicted in many cases with absolute certainty - as when the extent of the mineral deposit and the volume of mineral can be measured.
Where the deposit is regular and the future can be predicted with some degree of certainty, we may be justified in adopting in some cases possibly as low as 5%.
There is no certainty as to the date or method of their introduction.
There is reason, however, to believe that the uncertainty in regard to many of these names will eventually be resolved into reasonable certainty.
Messerschmidt, editor of the best collection of Hittite texts up to date, made a tabula rasa of all systems of decipherment, asserting that only one sign out of two hundred the bisected oval, determinative of divinity - had been interpreted with any certainty; and in view of this opinion, coupled with the steady refusal of historians to apply the results of any Hittite decipherment, and the obvious lack of satisfactory verification, without which the piling of hypothesis on hypothesis may only lead further from probability, there is no choice but to suspend judgment for some time longer as to the inscriptions and all deductions drawn from them.
The duration of John's ministry cannot be determined with certainty: it terminated in his imprisonment in the fortress of Machaerus, to which he had been committed by Herod Antipas, whose incestuous marriage with Herodias, the Baptist had sternly rebuked.
The chronology of this expansion is entirely unknown, nor can we recover with certainty the names of the cities which constituted the two leagues of twelve founded in the conquered districts on the analogy of the original league in Etruria proper (below).
Even the Scotland series probably belongs to the Tertiary system, but owing to the want of characteristic fossils, it is impossible to determine with any degree of certainty the precise homotaxis of the several formations.
By means of his coins his accession may be dated with practical certainty at A.D.
Towards the south this starfish disappears, it seems, completely; for it is not yet known with certainty to exist either in the Mediterranean or in the southern parts of the Atlantic Ocean.
probare, to test, approve), a term used both in theology and in philosophy with the general implication that in the absence of certainty probability is the best criterion.
No rule can be given for determining with certainty the day on which any given Jewish year begins without entering into the minutiae of their irregular and complicated calendar.
Frequently the year cannot be fixed with certainty, unless we know also the month and the day.
Whether Bessel communicated such a course of reasoning to Fraunhofer, or whether that great artist arrived independently at like conclusions, we have been unable to ascertain with certainty.
by jerks instead of with the necessary smoothness and certainty.
Thus, for refined purposes, it cannot be assumed with any certainty that the instantaneous scale-value of the heliometer is known, or that it is a function of the temperature.
Each of these has its legitimate province, and the extent of this province can in most cases be defined with reasonable certainty.
As a result of these considerations we may arrive at the date of the work with almost greater certainty than that of any other New Testament book.
This can be used with certainty to 02° C. for water down to 250 fathoms, after taking account of the slight disturbance produced by the expansion of the greatly compressed deep water.
For shallow water greater precision and certainty are obtained by using a lever actuated by a weight slipped down the line to cause the reversal, as in the patterns of Rung, Mill and others.
17, 1793) several unsuccessful attempts were made by her friends to rescue her and her children, among others by Jarjayes, Toulan and Lepitre, and the "baron de Batz," and negotiations for her release or exchange were even opened with Danton; but as the allied armies approached her trial and condemnation became a certainty.
Speaking loosely, we may say that there is a probability P/(P+p), amounting to certainty in the limit, that one of these systems, selected at random, will be in the normal state after a sufficient time has elapsed.
Like Brian Walton and John Mill before him, he had to encounter the opposition of those who believed that the certainty of the word of God was endangered by the importance attached to the various readings.
Their dynasty of monarchs can be traced back with tolerable certainty to a period coincident with the reign of Henry IV.
All philosophy is the search for reality and rational certainty as opposed to mere formalism on the one hand, to authority and dogmatism on the other.
Equally impossible was it thenceforth to assert the mediate or immediate certainty of material substance as the cause either of events in nature or of sensations in ourselves.
On the other hand, there is absolute certainty on a point long disputed.
Occasional references to the celebrated musician in the works of his contemporaries are, however, by no means rare, and from these it may be conjectured with all but absolute certainty that Guido was born in the last decade of the 10th century.
In fact, nothing whatever can be asserted with certainty in regard to God.
Although the figure of the hero frequently occurs in groups - such as the work of Scopas showing his removal to the island of Leuke by Poseidon and Thetis, escorted by Nereids and Tritons, and the combat over his dead body in the Aeginetan sculptures - no isolated statue or bust can with certainty be identified with him; the statue in the Louvre (from the Villa Borghese), which was thought to have the best claim, is generally taken for Ares or possibly Alexander.
It is not possible to trace the episcopal see of Puteoli with any certainty further back than the beginning of the 4th century.
If these suppositions have a basis of reality, the proper motion of Algol should be disturbed by a small, but measurable undulation, corresponding to the projection of its orbit upon the sky; and although certainty on the point cannot be attained for some years to come, Lewis Boss regarded the evidence available in 1895 as tending to confirm Dr Chandler's theory.6 Proceedings Amer.
His last choral composition which can be dated with any certainty was the Mass in C minor, written in 1802 for the name-day of Princess Esterhazy.
But he refused to be elected under any misapprehension of his attitude, and with what his friends thought unnecessary candour re-stated his obnoxious views on universal amnesty at length, just before the time for the election, with the certainty that this would prevent his success.
In the "Apologie de Raymund Sabunde," he has apparently amused himself with gathering together, in the shape of quotations as well as of reflections, all that can be said against certainty in aesthetics as well as in dogmatics.
It is impossible to estimate with any degree of certainty the number of separate dwellings of which any of these villages may have consisted, but at Niederwil they stood almost contiguously on the platform, the space between them not exceeding 3 ft.
Three Latin hymns may, however, be attributed to the saint with some degree of certainty.
They also, in the absence of certainty, allowed a large scope to probability as a motive to action, and defended their doctrine on this point with greater care and skill.
After all care has been taken in laying and pointing, in accordance with the rules of theory and practice, absolute certainty of hitting the same spot every time is unattainable, as causes of error exist which cannot be eliminated, such as variations in the air and in the muzzle-velocity, and also in the steadiness of the shot in flight.
- lxvi., however, are not by Isaiah, but are the work of a prophet who wrote about 540 B.C., shortly before the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus, and whose aim was to encourage the Israelites in exile, and assure them of the certainty of their approaching restoration to Canaan.
That the standard edition was not the result of the critical investigation of existing materials may be assumed with some certainty.
it possible to recover the Greek original with considerable certainty.
This text, however, had suffered certain now obvious corruptions, and, probably enough, more corruption than can now, or perhaps, ever will be, detected with certainty.
The Epistle of Jude cannot be either dated or localized with any certainty.
the original Hieronymian text may be reconstructed with considerable certainty.
- The birth of Christ took place before the death of Herod, and the evidence of Josephus fixes the death of Herod, with some approach to certainty, in the early spring of 4 B.C. Josephus, indeed, while he tells us that Herod died not long before Passover, nowhere names the exact year; but he gives four calculations which serve to connect Herod's death with more or less known points, namely, the length of Herod's own reign, both from his de jure and from his de facto accession, and the length of the reigns of two of his successors, Archelaus and Herod Philip, to the date of their deposition and death respectively.
26-27; the length of the ministry was fixed, with some approach to certainty, at between two and three years, and here too the resultant date for the Crucifixion would be the Passover of A.D.
44-64 can thus be fixed with a fair approximation to certainty, it is unfortunately otherwise with the events of A.D.
The earlier stages in the growth of the extant Rabbinical Midrashim cannot be traced with any certainty.
as liberator of Bologna is ascribed to his hand, but not with certainty.
The instinctive certainty that there is a supreme good, lying beyond empirical experience, and yet not an intellectual good - this feeling, and the accompanying conviction of the utter vanity of all earthly things, were produced and sustained by Neoplatonism.
On Irenaeus, and probably also on Justin, Hippolytus drew for his Syntagma (beginning of the 3rd century), a work which is also lost, but can, with great certainty, be reconstructed from three recensions of it: in the Panarion of Epiphanius (after 374), in Philaster of Brescia, Adversus haereses, and the Pseudo-Tertullian, Liber adversus omnes haereses.
Of all the fundamental ideas of Gnosticism of which we have so far treated, it can with some certainty be assumed that they were in existence before the rise of Christianity and the influence of Christian ideas on the development of Gnosticism.
By this means it has been ascertained with practical certainty that, among the family of Tsetseflies (Glossinae) for instance, at least four species are the natural carriers of different Trypanosomes.
The site is now occupied in part by the town of Budrum; but the ancient walls can still be traced round nearly all their circuit, and the position of several of the temples, the theatre, and other public buildings can be fixed with certainty.
Crommelin of Greenwich, the latter having carried the comet back to 87 B.C. with certainty, and to 240 B.C. with fair probability.
The explanation of the apparent conformity of the strata from the Cambrian to the Pennsylvanian in some parts of the west, with no fossils defining with certainty any horizon between the Ordovician and the Mississippian, is one of the open problems in the geology of the United States.
Jurassic SystemThis system is not known with certainty in the eastern half of the United States, though there are some beds on the mid-Atlantic coast, along the inland border of the coastal plain, which have been thought by some, on the basis of their reptilian fossils, to be Jurassic. The lower and middle parts of the system are but doubtfully represented in the western interior.
There was therefore no absolute certainty that a believer who had been baptized had also received confirmation (Acts xix.
Brandis assigned 258 years to the 3rd dynasty; other summations have been proposed with equally little assurance of certainty.
The "genealogical" method, as we may call it, cannot in strictness be applied to conflated MSS., as their mutual relations can rarely be with certainty disentangled.
In other words, a critic may deliberately pronounce that what stands in the text represents what the author wrote or might well have written, that it is doubtful whether it does, that it certainly does not, or, in the last event, that it may be replaced with certainty by something that does.
He urges very rightly that if alteration is carried beyond a certain point it cuts away its own foundation, and so all certainty is destroyed.
The works of Tertullian, on the chronology of which a great deal has been written, and which for the most part do not admit of being dated with perfect certainty, fall into three classes - the apologetic, defending Christianity against paganism and Judaism; the polemical dogmatic, refuting heresies and heretics; and the ascetic or practical, dealing with points of morality and church discipline.
" We cannot assert with certainty," says R.
Of less interest nowadays are Robins's more purely mathematical writings, such as his Discourse concerning the Nature and Certainty of Sir Isaac Newton's Methods of Fluxions and of Prime and Ultimate Ratios (1735), "A Demonstration of the Eleventh Proposition of Sir Isaac Newton's Treatise of Quadratures" (Phil.
Among the Joseph-tribes (Ephraim and Manasseh), the most important of Israelite divisions, the traditions of an ancestor who had lived and died in Egypt would be a cherished possession, but although most writers agree that not all the tribes were in Egypt, it is impossible to determine their number with any certainty.
microcarpa; the " grey " is less esteemed; but the varieties from which these woods are obtained cannot always be traced with certainty.
Northallerton (Alvetune, Allerton) is said to have been a Roman station and afterwards a Saxon "burgh," but nothing is known with certainty about it before the account given in the Domesday Survey, which shows that before the Conquest Earl Edwin had held the manor, but that the Normans had destroyed it so utterly that it was still waste in 1086.
Six companions to the main lines are found with comparative ease and certainty and these have been carefully measured by Prince Galitzin, 3 H.
Such series ought all to be capable of being represented by a formula resembling that of Balmer, but so far the exact form of the series has not been established with certainty.
Though cherishing a strong antipathy to the received ecclesiastical formulas, Irving's great aim was to revive the antique style of thought and sentiment which had hardened into these formulas, and by this means to supplant the new influences, the accidental and temporary moral shortcomings of which he detected with instinctive certainty, but whose profound and real tendencies were utterly beyond the reach of his conjecture.
- The earliest coins which can be identified with certainty are some silver pieces which bear in Runic letters the name of the Mercian king 'Ethelred (675-704).
The part played by Ulfilas in these troublous times cannot be ascertained with certainty.
As no Teutonic inscriptions are extant from before the 3rd or 4th centuries, it cannot be stated with absolute certainty what types of objects are characteristic of Teutonic civilization in the bronze and earliest iron ages.
How far the Teutonic peoples extended northwards at this time cannot be determined with certainty, but it is clear that they occupied at least a considerable part of the Scandinavian peninsula.
Tacitus says that certain marks were inscribed on the divining chips, but it cannot be determined with certainty whether these were really letters or not.
How far these beliefs were common to the Teutonic peoples as a whole cannot be determined with certainty.
and W., with great certainty, without that multiplication of bearings of the points of the compass usual in our maps, which serves as the root of the others."
This revolution could already be foreseen with tolerable certainty, when Urban embroiled himself even with his political friends - the queen of Naples and her husband, Duke Otto of Brunswick.
The process, maybe, from the point of view of those outside, was to make a mental wilderness and call it peace; but from the papal point of view it had a double advantage: it attracted those in search of religious certainty, it facilitated the maintenance of its hold over the Catholic democracy.
21 p. so), unfortunately cannot be dated exactly, or with certainty even approximately; but if Delitzsch and Ed.
Nor does it appear with certainty to which of the twenty satrapies into which, according to Herodotus, the Persian empire was divided, Mesopotamia belonged; probably it was included in 'Abar nahara.
It is based on Descartes' fundamental principle that knowledge must be clear, and seeks to give to philosophy the certainty and demonstrative character of mathematics, from the a priori principle of which all its claims are derived.
Little certainty, however, can be allowed to these traditional chronologies.
Castrum Cerrucium, Castel-sur-Azine (from the neighbouring stream, Azine) and Castellum Sarracenum are suggested derivations, no one of which can be adopted with certainty.
The Twelve Labours of Heracles were depicted on the metopes of the prodomos and opisthodomos; and of these reliefs much the greater part was found - enough to determine with certainty all the essential features of the composition.
Of the early history of Bijnor even after it passed under Mahommedan rule little is known with any certainty.
The difference between the two phenomena is essential and evident; but without experimental information as to palatability it is impossible to know with certainty to which of the two a particular case of mimicry is to be assigned.
Over and over again extended knowledge on this point and inferences drawn from other facts have shown the certainty or probability of examples of mimicry being in reality " Mullerian," which were previously accepted without question as " Batesian."
in 1280, more certainty attaches to the fact that the order was in existence in 1336.
No certainty has been reached in the interpretation of these passages, but they may suggest to the Christian mind the expectation that the final destiny of no soul can be fixed until in some way or other, in this life or the next, the opportunity of decision for or against Christ has been given.
These passages inspire a hope, but do not sustain a certainty.
Nothing is known of the family with certainty; but the name is familiar from the interesting romance of Gines Perez de Hita, Guerras civiles de Granada, which celebrates the feuds of the Abencerrages and the rival family of the Zegris, and the cruel treatment to which the former were subjected.
It is now established, almost with certainty, that he returned to the neighbourhood of Paris; and it is supposed that his residence was known to the French ministers, who, however, firmly v.
The theoretical question is consequently that of the nature of the supposed relation, and of the certainty of judgments and inferences resting on it.
For a complete treatment of this portion of the theory of knowledge, there require to be taken into consideration at least the following points: (a) the exact nature and significance of the space and time relations in our experience, (b) the mode in which the primary data, facts or principles, of mathematical cognition are obtained, (c) the nature, extent and certainty of such data, in themselves and with reference to the concrete material of experience, (d) the principle of inference from the data, however obtained.
97.) (c) In respect to the third point, the nature, extent and certainty of the elementary propositions of mathematical science, Hume's utterances are far from clear.
Very few of the localities connected with the story of these princes have been identified with certainty, but such identifications as there are point to the southern part of Hampshire.
"unwritten"), the name given to certain utterances ascribed, with some degree of certainty, to Jesus, which have been preserved in documents other than the Gospels, e.g.
In other words, if we could know exactly all these conditions, we should be able to forecast with mathematical certainty the course which the agent would pursue.
But their fate is noticed by Dio Cassius, and its circumstances may be gathered with certainty from the condition in which the city has been found.
The population of Pompeii at the time of its destruction cannot be fixed with certainty, but it may very likely have exceeded 20,000.
It is claimed for this foundation (but not with certainty) that it was the first house of Carmelites established in England, and the first general chapter of the order was held here in 1245.
For this we have no knowledge after the of details for which the same certainty can be claimed.
certainty that their condition was sufficiently wretched to drive them to revolt without any serious pressure from outside.
The attitude of Napoleon was dubious; the active alliance of Italy was necessary to the certainty of Prussian success; and the policy of Italy depended ultimately upon that of France.
War, though still postponed, was now certain; and with this certainty the desire of the Italians for the Prussian alliance, now recommended by Napoleon, revived.
As the lakes never freeze, the prevalent cold north-west winds of North America are warmed in their passage over them, and often much of the winter precipitation is in the form of rain, so that the weather has much less certainty than in the north.
This has generally been regarded as Plato's own work; but the certainty of this conclusion will be doubted by those who observe (I) the elaborate preparations made in the dialogue for a recital of the EpwrcKOS which shall be verbally exact, and (2) the closeness of the criticism made upon it.
A criterion is thus given us for the reconstruction of the Apology, where the Greek which we have has been abbreviated, and we are enabled to claim with certainty some passages of the Syriac which might otherwise be suspected as interpolations.
In spite of all, the dominant fact remains, that to the end he was zealous for his God and for the salvation of his people, nay, of the whole of humanity, and that he never lost the unconquerable certainty of his divine mission.
And since the revelations given in Medina frequently take notice of events about which we have fairly accurate information, and whose dates are at least approximately known, we are often in a position to fix their date with at any rate considerable certainty; here again tradition renders valuable assistance.
Of seventy-five hits on the hulls of the ships only five can with certainty be ascribed to projectiles from rifled guns, and thirty were unquestionably due to the old smoothbores, which were not provided with sights.
The Romans believed that these Cimbri and Teutones were the same as those who invaded Gaul and Italy at the end of the 2nd century B.C. The Cimbri may probably be traced in the province of Aalborg, formerly known as Himmerland; the Teutones, with less certainty, may be placed in Thyth or Thyland, north of the Limfjord.
This has long been a debated matter, but it may now be stated, with considerable certainty, that the higher centres are incoordinately stimulated, a state closely resembling that of delirium tremens being induced.
No method of sexual reproduction is known with certainty.
We cannot with certainty identify any of these as being by the 'prentice hand of the young Darer.
Their direction we cannot retrace with certainty.
But hardly one can be identified with any approach to certainty, except in the extreme south.
Nor has any certainty been reached about the ethnological problems of the population, the Aryan or non-Aryan character of the Picts and the like.
The declaration of war with Spain and the certainty of war with France promised to the Jacobites good fishing in turbid waters; and they entertained futile hopes of enlisting Argyll with his potent clan.
Were either of these identifications established, the date of composition might be referred with certainty to the beginning of the 14th century or the end of the 13th.
The derivation and significance of the two names have been established with certainty.
The nature of axiomatic certainty is part of the fundamental problem of logic and metaphysics.
What was the quarrel between them, and what the causes they represented, cannot now be ascertained with certainty.
But here we have entered upon a region of less certainty, in which critical scholarship has still much to do; and these passages are mentioned here only as a reminder that the document must have contained more than what St Matthew and St Luke each independently determined to borrow from it.
Religion in this shape is the nearest step to the stage of absolute knowledge; and this absolute knowledge- " the spirit knowing itself as spirit " - is not something which leaves these other forms behind but the full comprehension of them as the organic constituents of its empire; " they are the memory and the sepulchre of its history, and at the same time the actuality, truth and certainty of its throne."
Contemplating the position of recent philosophy from Locke to Hegel, and having his eye directed to the ancient and fundamental problem of the origin, truth and certainty of our ideas, he wrote: "If philosophy is to be restored to love and respect, I think it will be necessary, in part, to return to the teachings of the ancients, and in part to give those teachings the benefit of modern methods" (Theodicy, n.
Hence the name Rosmini gives it of ideal being; and this he laid down as the fundamental principle of all philosophy and the supreme criterion of truth and certainty.
His administration ended the possibility, probability or certainty - measure it as one will - of the development of Federalism in the direction of class government; and the party he formed, inspired by the creed he gave it, fixed the democratic future of the nation.
Of his personal history nothing is known, nor can his date be fixed with certainty.
Since the transit circle is preferable to the equatorial for such observations wherein great accuracy is required, the declination and hour circles of an equatorial are employed, not for the determination of the right ascensions and declinations of celestial objects, but for directing the telescope with ease and certainty to any object situated in an approximately known position, and which may or may not be visible to the naked eye, or to define approximately the position of an unknown object.
But that Petra itself is mentioned in the Old Testament cannot be affirmed with certainty; for though Petra is usually identified with Sela` 2 which also means " a rock," the reference in Judges i.
Roman remains have been discovered here, but no identification with a Roman station by name has been made with certainty.
The Values Deduced In This Manner For The Equivalent Agreed As Closely As Could Be Expected Considering The Impossibility Of Regulating The External Condition Of Temperature And Moisture With Any Certainty In An Engine Room.
The subsequent sequence of events cannot be traced with certainty, but it seems likely that the pear-shaped form is succeeded by an hour-glass-shaped form, which finally separates at the neck into two masses of fluid.
Fortunately the study of proper motions teaches us with some degree of certainty something of the general mean distances and distribution of these more distant stars, though it cannot tell us the distances of individual stars.
These lectures, first printed separately, were afterwards published together under the title of A Discourse concerning the Being and Attributes of God, the Obligations of Natural Religion, and the Truth and Certainty of the Christian Revelation, in opposition to Hobbes, Spinoza, the author of the Oracles of Reason, and other Deniers of Natural and Revealed Religion.
Certainty is not to be obtained in the whole matter.
Can we then infer any certainty at all?
In order to answer this question we must remember that there are many degrees of probability, and that induction, and therefore deduction, draw conclusions more or less probable, and rise to the point at which probability becomes moral certainty, or that high degree of probability which is sufficient to guide our lives, and even condemn murderers to death.
Induction thus is the source of deduction, of its truth, of its probability, of its moral certainty; and induction, combined with identification, is the origin of the necessary principles of demonstration or deduction to necessary conclusions.
How does inference draw conclusions more or less probable up to moral certainty?
Between Euclides and Antisthenes the Socratic induction and universal definition were alike discredited from the point of view of the Eleatic logic. It is with the other point of doctrine that Plato comes to grips, that which allows of a certainty or knowledge consisting in an analysis of a compound into simple elements themselves not known.
The learner is to be led forward to the unknown by being made to hark back to more familiar groupings of the alphabet of nature which he is coming to recognize with some certainty.
In order to lay bare the ground of certainty he raises the universal doubt, and, although, following Augustine,2 he finds its limit in the thought of the doubter, this of itself is not enough.
The clue of mathematical certainty is discarded in substance in the English form of " the new way of ideas."
1 Locke's logic comprises, amid much else, a theory of general terms 2 and of definition, a view of syllogism 3 and a declaration as to the possibility of inference from particular to particular,4 a distinction between propositions which are certain but trifling, and those which add to our knowledge though uncertain, and a doctrine of mathematical certainty.
ideas and Hume's change of front as to mathematical certainty.
They had undermined the foundations of scientific certainty, and so far as the fecundity of contemporary science did not give them pause, were ready, notwithstanding the difference of their starting-point, to acquiesce in the formula as well as the temper of Pyrrhonism.
Though obviously not exhaustive, the unique extent of this induction was held to render it competent to give practical certainty or psychological necessity.
The order of truths, the phase of experience of Trans- and its certainty had to be taken for granted.
In all such systems, God is the terminus ad quem, a direct knowledge of whom is not claimed, but who is, as it were, the hypothesis adopted, with varying degrees of certainty in different thinkers, for the explanation of the facts before them.
Hardly more than a few words can be said to have been separated and translated with certainty - kalatoras (masc. gen.
Not in proofs by formal logic but in the reality of consciousness was the certainty of God.
The earliest alphabetic document which can be dated with comparative certainty is the famous Moabite stone, which was discovered in 1868, and after a controversy between rival claimants which led to its being broken in pieces by the Arabs, ultimately reached the Louvre, where in a restored form it remains.
Probably more than half the pillar is lost, so that it is not possible to make out the sense with certainty.
Diffusion.-At the outset it is characteristic of this subtle disorder that the present pandemic diffusion cannot be traced with certainty to a definite time or place of origin.
Despite the weakness of the Sleme - Mrzli line, both dominated and enfiladed, despite the practical certainty that it could not be maintained against a resolute offensive in force, the enemy attack found a large number of Italian guns, including many of medium calibre, stationed well in advance of the Pleca - Selisce line.
It has been shown by means of spectroscopic observations that the green colour of the elytra, &c., is due to the presence of chlorophyll; and that the variations of the spectral bands are sufficient, after the lapse of many years, to indicate with some certainty the kind of leaves on which the insects were feeding shortly before they were killed.
The striking forms of Alima and Erichthus, at one time regarded as distinct genera, are now with more or less certainty affiliated to their several squillid parents.
The York-Antwerp Rules have not only had the valuable result of introducing uniformity where there had been great variety, and corresponding certainty as to the principles which will be acted upon in adjusting any G.A.
Mechanical uniformity and minute regulation are inadequate substitutes for observance of the canons of equality, certainty and economy in the operation of the tax system.
ojv, month, X6yos, discourse), and their existence can be traced back with certainty to the 9th century (Theodore of Studium, Epist.
Nothing is known with certainty of the reception given to this official explanation, but the ill-feeling against Bacon was not wholly removed, and some years later, in 1604, he published, in the form of a letter to Mountjoy, an Apology for his action in the case.
It is here proposed merely to classify the works, to indicate their general character and to enter somewhat more in detail upon what he himself regarded as his great achievement, - the reorganization of the sciences and the exposition of a new method by which the human mind might proceed with security and certainty towards the true end of all human thought and action.
" The knowledge whereof the world is now possessed, especially that of nature, extendeth not to magnitude and certainty of works."
In place of these straggling efforts of the unassisted human mind, a graduated system of helps was to be supplied, by the use of which the mind, when placed on the right road, would proceed with unerring and mechanical certainty to the invention of new arts and sciences.
4 Concealed among the facts presented to sense are the causes or forms, and the problem therefore is so to analyse experience, 5 so to break it up into pieces, that we shall with certainty and mechanical ease arrive at a true conclusion.
Such was the method devised by Bacon, and to which he ascribed the qualities of absolute certainty and mechanical simplicity.
By this means the flax is kept at a uniform temperature with great certainty, since even should the heat of the air vary considerably through neglect, the water in the vat only by slow degrees follows such fluctuations.
It is almost a certainty that a number of trees would be found to be quite hardy.
On the whole, we seem justified in concluding that, under favourable conditions, and with a proper adaptation of means to the end in view, man may become acclimatized with at least as much certainty and rapidity (counting by generations rather than by years) as any of the lower animals.
The slaves in Persia have a good time; well fed, well clothed, treated as spoiled children, given the lightest work, and often given in marriage to a favorite son or taken ar segah or concubine by the master himself, slaves have the certainty of a well-cared-for old age.
The date of this migration cannot yet be determined with certainty.
But, since we still lack sure data to fix the home of this language with any certainty, the convenient name of Zend has become generally established in Europe, and may be provisionally retained.
But at times he uses language that almost compels one to attribute to him the popular view of conscience as passing its judgments with unerring certainty on individual acts.
The prime fact in philosophy was to him, as to Augustine and Descartes, the certainty of individual consciousness.
These plants grow in swampy forests, and, being dioecious and varying much in the form of leaf in different individuals, are imperfectly known to botanists, only two species having been identified with certainty.
The time at which this satire was composed cannot be fixed with certainty, but some allusions render it highly probable that it was given to the world in the later years of Trajan, and before the accession of Hadrian.
Still it is impossible to say with certainty what decrees were actually passed at Vienne.
What originality it had - at first sight it would seem not much - belongs to these thinkers; but the loss of all their works except the hymn of Cleanthes, and the inconsistencies in such scraps of information as can be gleaned from unintelligent witnesses, for the most part of many centuries later, have rendered it a peculiarly difficult task to distinguish with certainty the work of each of the three.
viii., and since the intervening chapters exhibit obvious traces of belonging to another source, we may conclude with some certainty that Lev.
The attendants reply as may be imagined; and Josaphat goes home more pensive than ever, dwelling on the certainty of death and on what shall be thereafter.
The difficult subject of the classification of bacteria dates ' The difficulties presented by such minute and simple organisms as the Schizomycetes are due partly to the few " characters " which they possess and partly to the dangers of error in manipulating them; it is anything but an easy matter either to trace the whole development of a single form or to recognize with certainty any one stage in the development unless the others are known.
That " soil " is thus prepared on barren rocks and mountain peaks may be concluded with some certainty.
Though an enormous of amount of work has been done on the subject, no important bacterial toxin has as yet been obtained in a pure condition, and, though many of them are probably of proteid nature, even this cannot be asserted with absolute certainty.
On the Turkish side, equally little is known with certainty as to the original project, though it is probably safe to say that this consisted in a defensive concentration of the I., II.
The Bulgarian losses out of perhaps 110,000 combatants numbered 15,000; those of the enemy, whose force was probably rather less, are not known with certainty, but are supposed to have been about 25,000 inclusive of prisoners.
The deists, differing widely in important matters of belief, were yet agreed in seeking above all to establish the certainty and sufficiency of natural religion in opposition to the positive religions, and in tacitly or expressly denying the unique significance of the supernatural revelation in the Old and New Testaments.
Of matters generally regarded as pertaining to natural religion, that on which they were least agreed was the certainty, philosophical demonstrability and moral significance of the immortality of the soul, so that the deists have sometimes been grouped into "mortal" and "immortal" deists.
The date of none of these works is known with any certainty, but it is highly improbable that any one of them is older than the 6th century after the death of Gotama.
Recent criticism has succeeded in answering this question with some degree of certainty.
It is argued that Livy's mode of using his authorities is tolerably uniform, and that his mode of using Polybius in particular is known with certainty from the later decades.
We may say with certainty that Laura's death, accompanied by that of so many distinguished associates, was the turning-point in Petrarch's inner life.
The balloon cannot be transferred with any degree of certainty from one point of the earth's surface to another, and hence the chief danger in its employment.
That the posterior margin of the wing yields to a slight extent during both the down and up strokes will readily be admitted, alike because of the very delicate and highly elastic properties of the posterior margins of the wing, and because of the comparatively great force employed in its propulsion; but that it does not yield to the extent stated by Marey is a matter of absolute certainty.
Thanks, however, to the efforts of automobile engineers, great improvements were now being effected in the petrol engine, and, although the certainty and trustworthiness of its action still left something to be desired, it provided the designers of flying machines with what they had long been looking for - a motor FIG.
As for the boundaries of these ancient seas, we can say nothing with certainty, but it is of interest to note the evidence we possess of still older land conditions, such as we have in the old rocks of Shropshire, &c. In the Devonian period it is clear that an elevatory movement had set in towards the north, which gave rise to the formation of inland lakes and narrow estuaries in which the Old Red Sandstone rocks were formed, while in the south of England lay the sea with a vigorous coral fauna.
Of these, excluding Welsh ones, we may with some certainty identify Canterbury (Caint), Caerleonon-Usk, Leicester (Lerion), Penzelwood, Carlisle, Colchester, Grantchester (Granth), London, Worcester (Guveirangon), Doncaster (Daun), Wroxeter (Guoricon), Chester (Legion - this is Roman), Lichfield (Licitcsith) and Gloucester (Gloui).
When they, the immediate successors of Plato, rejected their master's ontology and proposed to themselves as ends mere classificatory sciences which with him had been means, they bartered their hope of philosophic certainty for the tentative and provisional results of scientific experience.
The crisis of his mental conflict had just been passed in Tirol, and he was now beginning to let his creed grow again from the one fixed point which nothing had availed to shift: "The one great certainty to which, in the midst of the darkest doubt, I never ceased to cling - the entire symmetry and loveliness and the unequalled nobleness of the humanity of the Son of Man."
Few events of his life are known to us with any certainty.
Still unsatisfied, longing always for a certainty that seemed ever just beyond his grasp, he had added vigil to vigil, and penance to penance, until at last, when to the wondering view of others he had become more than a saint, his bodily strength and his indomitable resolution and faith had together suddenly and completely broken down.
The statistics of the pilgrimage cannot be given with certainty and vary much from year to year.
Other explanations of the SoKrio-cs or appearance have, however, been suggested, and, in the absence of any statement by those who first used the word of the grounds on which they did so, it is impossible to determine between them with certainty.
Certainty and legal protection were so essential that even villain holdings were treated as villain socage when legal protection was obtainable for it, as was actually the case with the peasants on Ancient demesne who could sue their lords by the little writ of right and the Monstraverunt.
But it is possible to refer all these cases with more or less certainty to the Edwardsian type.
Denying the possibility of innate ideas, he asserted that morality comes by revelation, and is therefore not only certain, but the only real certainty.
Thus of his descendants, Gomer, Magog, 4 Tubal, Meshech, Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah are peoples who are located with more or less certainty in N.E.
It has been said, but without certainty, that Hale was engaged as counsel for the earl of Strafford; he certainly acted for Archbishop Laud, Lord Maguire, Christopher Love, the duke of Hamilton and others.
Little is known with certainty about the distribution of salinity in the depths, the number of trustworthy observations available being still very small.
The theory of plurality cannot indeed pretend to the certainty of the theory of unity, being of necessity untrustworthy, because it is the partial and inconstant representation of that which is partial and inconstant in nature.
Cousin made no reply to Hamilton's criticism beyond alleging that Hamilton's doctrine necessarily restricted human knowledge and certainty to psychology and logic, and destroyed metaphysics by introducing nescience and uncertainty into its highest sphere - theodicy.
His eclecticism was the proof of a reverential sympathy with the struggles of human thought to attain to certainty in the highest problems of speculation.
the Geilfine consisting of the flaith-fine and four others in the same or nearest degree of kinship to the centre, and the Deirbhfine, Tarfine and Innfine, each consisting of four heads of families, forming widening concentric circles of kinship to which the rights and liabilities of the fine extended with certainty, but in diminishing degrees.
By dividing his two states between his sons the Con~queror undid his own work, and left to his subjects the certainty of civil war.
But the business was kept dark at the time, and it was long before any one could assert with certainty that they were dead or alive.
Suspicion was easily aroused that a deep plot existed, of which Laud was believed to be the centre, for carrying the nation over to the Church of Rome, a suspicion which seemed to be converted into a certainty when it was known that Panzani and Conn, two agents of the pope, had access to Charles, and that in 1637 there was a sudden accession to the number of converts to the Roman Catholic Church amongst the lords and ladies of the court.
The apprehension never died out in his mind; and when he knew that the principles and abstractions, the un-English dialect and destructive dialectic, of his former acquaintances were predominant in the National Assembly, his suspicion that the movement would end in disastrous miscarriage waxed into certainty.
Some confirmation of this theory is afforded by the fact that whereas we can recognize ancestral deer in the Tertiaries of Europe we cannot point with certainty to the forerunners of the Bovidae.
Of these three branches the prose romances offer the most insuperable problems; none can be dated with any certainty; all are of enormous length; and all have undergone several redactions.
Harnack takes a different view of Origen; the certainty of ultimate salvation overbears free will with a sort of physical necessity.
Jesus, a teacher who sealed His testimony with His blood, and, raised from the dead, was exalted or adopted to divine glory, thus giving to men for the first time the certainty that God's favour could be won and eternal life enjoyed - such is the scheme.
It was a protest against those who in theology " peremptorily require demonstration and demand certainty where probability only is to be had."
Assent in religion as in everything else he could justify only on the ground of its harmony with reason; professed " illumination without search, and certainty without proof " was to him a sign of absence of the divine spirit in the professor.
It was the first attempt on a great scale, and in the Baconian spirit, to estimate critically the certainty and the adequacy of human knowledge, when confronted with God and the universe.
Although the second book is a sort of inventory of our ideas, as distinguished from the certainty and boundaries of our knowledge, Locke even here makes the assumption that the " simple ideas " of the five senses are practically qualities of things which exist without us, and that the mental " operations " discovered by " reflection " are those of a person continuously existing.
Locke next inquired to what extent knowledge - in the way either of intuitive certainty, demonstrative certainty, or sense perception - is possible, in regard to each of the four (already mentioned) sorts of knowable relation.
Our knowledge under Locke's fourth category of relations - real existence - includes (a) intuitive perceptions of our own existence; Real exist- (b) demonstrable certainty of the existence of God; and.
Each person knows that he now exists, and is convinced that he had a beginning; with not less intuitive certainty he knows that " nothing can no more produce any real being than it can be equal to two right angles."
I have not that certainty of his continued existence which we call knowledge; though the great likelihood of it puts it past doubt.
St Alban is commemorated in the Roman martyrology on the 22nd of June; but it is impossible to determine with certainty whether he ever existed, as no mention of him occurs till the middle of the 6th century.
Among these subjects were the transit of Mercury, the Aurora Borealis, the figure of the earth, the observation of the fixed stars, the inequalities in terrestrial gravitation, the application of mathematics to the theory of the telescope, the limits of certainty in astronomical observations, the solid of greatest attraction, the cycloid, the logistic curve, the theory of comets, the tides, the law of continuity, the double refraction micrometer, various problems of spherical trigonometry, &c. In 1742 he was consulted, with other men of science, by the pope, Benedict XIV., as to the best means of securing the stability of the dome of St Peter's, Rome, in which a crack had been discovered.
Three propositions only can with certainty be attributed to him: (1) that God is all; (2) that every Christian is bound to believe that he is a member of the body of Christ, and that this belief is necessary for salvation: (3) that he who remains in love of God can commit no sin.
On account of the conflict of opinion in ethics we cannot hope to obtain certainty upon all questions; still reflection will lead us to discard some of the conflicting views and find a reconciliation for others, and will furnish, on the whole, a practically sufficient residuum of moral truth.
The Cambridge school, regarding morality primarily as a body of truth rather than a code of rules, insist on its absolute character and intuitive certainty.
Paley, however, holds that scripture is given less to teach morality than to illustrate it by example and enforce it by new sanctions and greater certainty, and that the light of nature makes it clear that God wills the happiness of his creatures.
There is, however, no certainty that the Chinese were then capable of predicting The Observatory, Nos.
Calvin's own record of his "conversion" is so scanty and devoid of chronological data that it is extremely difficult to trace his religious development with any certainty.
But owing to the imperfect state of existing information, it is impossible to say with any certainty what is the real state of the balance of visible trade between Ireland and other countries.
the name Lough Erne), Vennicnii, Rhobogdii, Darini and Eblanii, none of whom can be identified with certainty.
Hence this school of thought arose between the age of Isaiah and that of Jeremiah; but how long D itself may have been in existence before it was read in 622 to Josiah cannot be determined with certainty.
Whether the same myth was current in the far more distant days of Mycerinus, it is, of course, impossible to say with dogmatic certainty.
But evidence bearing on the Stone age in Africa, if the latter existed apart from the localities mentioned, is so slight that little can be said save that from the available evidence the palaeoliths of the Nile valley alone can with any degree of certainty be assigned to a remote period of antiquity, and that the chips scattered over Mashonaland and the regions occupied within historic times by Bushmen are the most recent; since it has been shown that the stone flakes were used by the medieval Makalanga to engrave their hard pottery and the Bushmen were still using stone implements in the 10th century.
Under such conditions, questions relating to the origin and spread of the racial stocks which form the population of Africa cannot be answered with any certainty; at best only a certain amount of probability can be attained.
That is why they rallied round him, as one to inspire them with that kind of certainty.
Many scholars are of opinion that the unknown author was a Sadducee, 1 but all that can be said with certainty is that he was a Palestinian Jew devotedly attached to the national cause.
Primitive Inhabitants.The origin and character of the early inhabitants of the Peninsula are unknown; recent conjectures on the subject, which have been many, are more bold than probable, and we must await the result of further excavations of prehistoric sites and further inquiries into the native inscriptions before we can hope for much certainty.
He came with a small force, but with the certainty of finding allies, and on being joined by another detachment of Berbers marched inland.
Owing to the varying latitude of the ship, and the fact that the observer attempted to draw curves of equal brilliancy instead of the central line, the required conclusions cannot be drawn with certainty from these observations.
A fine adjustment is also necessary, in order to perform conveniently and with certainty the slight motion of the microscope in relation to the object.
In some species of Annularia the extremely delicate ultimate twigs, bearing whorls of small lanceolate leaves, give a characteristic habit, suggesting that they may have belonged to herbaceous plants; other Annulariae, however, have been traced with certainty into connexion with the stems of large Calamites.
primary phloem can be recognized with certainty in favourable cases, the question of the formation of secondary phloem by the cambium is not yet fully cleared up. In the Lepidodendron fuliginosum of Williamson, shown by its leaf-bases to have been a Lepidophloios, the secondary wood is very irregular, and consists largely of parenchyma.
This is the first case in which the pollen-bearing organs of a Ptoridosperm have been identified with certainty It will be seen that, while the seeds of Lyginodendron were of an advanced Cycadean type, the microsporangiate organs were more like those of a Fern, the reproductive organs thus showing the same combination of characters which appears in the vegetative ct pc. A, Micropylar region.
In those stems which have been referred with certainty to the Cordaiteae there is no centripetal wood; the spiral elements are adjacent to the pith, as in a recent Conifer or Cycad; certain stems, however, are known which connect this type of structure with that of the Lyginodendreae; this, for example, is the case in the Permian genus Poroxylon, investigated by Bertrand and Renault, which in general structure has much in common with Cordaiteae, but possesses strands of primary wood, mainly centripetal, at the (After Grand' Eury, modified.
The male sporophylls are similar in form to the vegetative leaves, but smaller; sunk in their parenchyma are numerous tubular loculi, containing large pollen-grains, which are pluricellular like those of Cordaites; the female fructification had not yet been identified with certainty.
Without a fuller knowledge of internal structure and of the reproductive organs, we are compelled to speak of some of the Mesozoic plants as possibly Ferns or possibly Cycads, and not referable with certainty to one or other class.
4) in dedicating the third Gospel to Theophilus tells him that his aim in writing the book was "that thou mightest have certainty in the things in which thou has been instructed" (Karnx1)07/s), and we are told that Apollos was instructed (KarrtXrtpEvoi) " in the way of the Lord" (Acts xviii.
A Syrian official record from this reign, preserved in the Edessene Chronicle, gives a somewhat detailed account of a violent flood (autumn, 201) of the Daisan river which did much damage, destroying 1 The inscription, which is difficult to read, connects the structure with Shalmat the queen, daughter of Ma`nu, who cannot be identified with certainty, and refers to some image(s), which probably excited the pious vandalism of the Arabs.
It may be asked how the individual mind comes to know himself and the system of things with which he is connected, how the varied contents of his experience are to be accounted for, and what certainty attaches to his subjective consciousness of things.
Here, for the first time, appears definitely the distinction between synthesis and analysis, and in the distinction is found the reason for the superior certainty and clearness of mathematics as opposed to philosophy.
In his early essays he had rightly drawn the distinction between mathematical demonstration and philosophic proof, referring the certainty of the first to the fact that the constructions were synthetic in character and entirely determined by the action of constructive imagination.
The supreme end prescribed by reason in its practical aspect, namely, the complete subordination of the empirical side of nature to the prescripts of morality, demands, as conditions of its possible realization, the permanence of ethical progress in the moral agent, the certainty of freedom in self-determination, and the necessary harmonizing of the spheres of sense and reason through the intelligent author or ground of both.
The idea of such an understanding is, for cognition, transcendent, for no corresponding fact of intuition is furnished, but it is realized with practical certainty in relation to reason as practical.
The present site of Memphis may be the point where the Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto, reached the Mississippi river, but this cannot be determined with certainty.
With more certainty we may see a copy of an athlete by Lysippus in the statue of Agias found at Delphi (GREEK ART, Plate V.
In 642, however, Oswald was slain by Penda in a battle at a place called Maserfeld, which has not been identified with certainty.
The occupations of the terramara people as compared with their neolithic predecessors may be inferred with comparative certainty.
The goal was ascertained with certainty.
To abandon this certainty can leave us with a skeptical paradox that is genuinely depressing.
absolute certainty that I'm past my peak.
affirmed with certainty from the pages of the New Testament.
There is no one test that will diagnose appendicitis with certainty.
certainty of eventual victory.
certainty of mathematics on that of direct observation and induction.
Many people, therefore, prefer the certainty of an agreed settlement to the risk of letting the judge decide.
Another is that I think the British people at election time want certainty.
The saver provides certainty about how much a journey will cost.
Pensioners must be guaranteed certainty in their old age, said Mr Bell.
These terms alone lack the certainty required of charitable objects.
certainty for developers.
His rhetoric would allow nothing less than absolute certainty about Scripture's absolute clarity.
She watched him with the sickening certainty that if he got away she could never survive the years of suspense until his inevitable return.
The Tories ' abiding belief that taxes are wrong springs from a moral certainty that the state itself does moral harm.
This is also a scholar of remarkable epistemological certainty.
There is however one racing certainty: Sorrell will henceforth be known as the $ 80m man.
Research rarely proves things with 100 per cent certainty, there are always exceptions.
And exchange rate certainty within a large market area is, of course, a very considerable prize.
certainty being highly tipped as relegation certainties, Blues have gone all out to challenge this obvious misconception.
Under scrutiny and with retribution a certainty, indirect expression became circuitous.
They all symbolize certainty and sameness in a volatile universe, where the world's wealthier people are offered a cornucopia of choice.
This hints at the near certainty of a totally liquid ocean beneath the icy crust.
degree of relative existential certainty.
dogmatic certainty, nor vainly imagine such certainty to be attainable.
A budget can then be developed, giving certainty to funders and allowing drawdown of funds against the adopted business plan.
But thank God for John's first epistle, an epistle of certainty for his age and ours, which are ages of uncertainty.
It is interesting to read, in Snow's AAAS address, his naÃ¯ve faith in scientific certainty.
Barrie actively rejects fixity, resolution and certainty in his writing.
There is not enough gravitas and gentle but firm certainty.
indubitable certainty ' which claims to possess knowledge is all part of our alienation from God.
Even now his very proximity still infused many Germans with the certainty of eventual victory.
Delaying a decision so as to await medical certainty would be to render the process almost interminable: something no judge could sanction.
Wpt champion Juan sponsors want certainty by wpt enterprises.
Sponsors want certainty and mickey's malt liquor licenses its brand.
Fair hair has less melanin and consequently less heat is produced with less certainty of permanent destruction of the hair follicles.
I express all my joy at the certainty of passing the next five hours with the beloved mistress of my heart.
There was no certainty that the northerners would not respond promptly to the coup and place a Northerner in charge of the headless State.
patentee with a reasonable degree of certainty for third parties.
The truck is does he wash dishes box and reunions the the highest playthings the standard certainty.
predict with certainty the way ahead because of the current proposals for re-organisation.
Hooker also presupposes a similar underlying certainty to faith.
And this again is an equally sublime spiritual certainty that all men are comic.
I can tell you now with absolute certainty, nobody in the whole county of Lincolnshire comes out with more complete tripe than me.
There is no certainty that even a very popular Labor government could turn around public opinion to secure a 'yes ' vote.
It was found by Hansen that the same species of yeast can assume different shapes; and it therefore became necessary to determine how the different varieties of yeast could be distinguished with certainty.
The word has thus the general sense of "certainty"; we may, e.g., speak of a drug as an infallible specific, or of a man's judgment as infallible.
of the Epitome; and the treatise (based on a lost history of Alexander by Onesicritus), De gentibus Indiae et Bragmanibus, ascribed without certainty to Palladius (d.
These tests are in some cases repeated at another temperature, say 50Ã‚° F., for the purpose of obtaining at the same time greater certainty of the soundness of the core and the rate of variation of the conductor and dielectric resistances with temperature.
Next, from the certainty of duty we infer as our first moral postulate free will - " I can because I ought "; which, primarily at least, means " I know I can because I know I ought."
Theism is an afterthought - the reply to doubt - the attempted reflective justification of what announced it s elf at first as a prophetic certainty.
and whether its teaching be theistic or pantheistic, pantheism or theism, whichever turns out victorious, must henceforth rank as a demonstrated certainty.
The councils of Trent and of the Vatican mark the Two Truths hypothesis as heretical, when they affirm that there is a natural knowledge of God and natural certainty of immortality.
To begin with, Pasteur, in studying the malady in dogs, came to the conclusion that the virus had its seat in the nerve centres, and he proved that the injection of a portion of the matter of the spinal column of a rabid dog into the body of a healthy one produces in the latter with certainty the symptoms of rabies.
- The evidence, summarized above, though very various and voluminous, is not yet sufficient to answer all the questions which may be asked as to the origin, nature and history of this civilization, or to answer any but a few questions with absolute certainty.
Even were certainty as to these alternatives attained, we could only guess at the average rate of accumulation, which experience shows to proceed very differently on different sites and under different social and climatic conditions.
Further, it may be concluded with reasonable certainty that the passages that affirm a moral government of the world are additions by pious editors who wished to bring the book into harmony with the orthodox thought of the time.
We may consider this to be about the limit of closeness at which there could be any decided appearance of resolution, though E doubtless an observer accustomed to his instrument would recognize the duplicity with certainty.
They are hymns of the laity, describing with much beauty and depth of feeling the emotions of the pilgrim when his feet stood within the gates of Jerusalem, when he looked forth on the encircling hills, when he felt how good it was to be camping side by side with his brethren on the slopes of Zion (cxxxiii.), when a sense of Jehovah's forgiving grace and the certainty of the redemption of Israel triumphed over all the evils of the present and filled his soul with humble and patient hope.
On the other hand, not a few disorders proved to be alien to classes to which narrower views of causation had referred them; of such are tabes dorsalis, neuritis, infantile palsy or tetanus, now removed from the category of primary nervous diseases and placed in one or other of the class of infections; or, conversely, certain forms of disease of the joints are now regarded with some certainty as members of more than one series of diseases chiefly manifest in the nervous system.
Lord Lister's discoveries brought these new methods to bear with a certainty and a celerity previously undreamed of; and many visceral maladies, such as visceral ulcers, disease of the pancreas, stone of the kidney or gall-bladder, perityphlitis, ovarian dropsy, which in the earlier part of the 19th century were either fatal or crippling, are now taken promptly and safely in hand, and dealt with successfully.
This can be used with certainty to 02Ã‚° C. for water down to 250 fathoms, after taking account of the slight disturbance produced by the expansion of the greatly compressed deep water.
In England this revolt sought for the certainty and clearness that reason requires in the assurance of an outer world given to immediate sense experience; on the continent of Europe, in the assurance of an inner world given immediately in thought.
The increased importance of concealment for one's own guns and the certainty of being called upon to engage concealed targets, brought indirect laying into great prominence (see also Artillery).
In carrying out this scientific procedure false steps will from time to time be made, which will have to be retraced, or rather amended; but the combination of experimental science with theory has elevated our presumption of the rationality of all natural processes, so far as we can apprehend them at all, into practical certainty; so that, though the mode of presentation of the results may vary from age to age, it is hardly conceivable that the essentials of the method are not of permanent validity.
The origin of the doctrine cannot be traced with certainty, but there is little doubt that it is post-vedic, and that it was readily accepted by Buddha in the 6th century B.C. As he did not believe in the existence of soul he had to modify the doctrine (see Buddhism).
The translator of to-day can, if he wishes, mark where certainty ends and mere conjecture begins, and it is to be hoped that advkntage will be taken more widely of this new power.
No other hand could have ventured to render the hair and beard of a sitter, as it was the habit of this inveterate linearist to do, not by indication of masses, but by means of an infinity of single lines swept, with a miraculous certainty and fineness of touch, in the richest amd most intricate of decorative curves.