Certain sentence example

certain
  • I feel certain of it.

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  • I'm certain he doesn't realize it, but he does put himself first.

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  • We are certain about the results of this test, though.

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  • She was equally certain that he would have loved them.

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  • Glancing at the clock on her nightstand, she waited until certain her father had left then rose.

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  • I can't say for certain, but I feel eyes on me.

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  • Was it wishful thinking that made her so certain that he wasn't?

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  • Once she was certain Cade and his guests were comfortable, she retreated to her room with a book.

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  • Probably anonymously, probably with certain controls—but I believe they will share it.

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  • You don't sound certain enough to make a deal with me.

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  • They left her beyond confused, terrified and certain she didn't want anything to do with Darkyn right now.

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  • All people need rest, even if they are made of wood, and as there is no night here they select a certain time of the day in which to sleep or doze.

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  • But at a certain point, you don't need any more, and the technology is mature.

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  • The hair on the back of his neck had been standing for the past mile he'd walked, only he wasn't entirely certain why.

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  • Dulce was certain that he would return to his roots eventually.

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  • The two Guardians looked at each other, neither certain how to respond.

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  • I'm fairly certain she is the one; this Elizabeth...

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  • There were few things in life she was certain about, and one of them was that she'd felt safer with Jule during their short time together than she ever did with her father.

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  • She waited until she was certain he was distracted before she crept across the apartment, keeping as close to the wall farthest from him as possible.

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  • Then we see that only people in certain parts of the country are getting better.

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  • Are you certain this is what you want?

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  • Knowing Howie, I felt certain he loved her enough to forgive her.

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  • She has learned to connect certain movements of the body with anger, others with joy, and others still with sorrow.

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  • At a certain season of our life we are accustomed to consider every spot as the possible site of a house.

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  • He was making certain I win, she said.

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  • In that moment she was certain she saw something in his eyes - something akin to remorse.

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  • A spiked drink might seem harmless, but if a person was taking certain prescription drugs, it could be dangerous.

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  • If she hadn't witnessed his exchange with the woman earlier, she would have been certain he was disappointed.

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  • We have specific criteria and certain limitations.

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  • The heaviness of her mind grew, until she wasn't certain why she should resist Darkyn in the first place.

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  • Why are there fewer traffic jams in one certain city than in any other of its size?

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  • But no, she had been so certain, so naive.

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  • But I must be certain as it may well be the one I slayed as she squatted ignominiously on the toilet.

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  • And not just certain farms, but farms that used a certain pesticide.

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  • At a sufficient distance over the woods this sound acquires a certain vibratory hum, as if the pine needles in the horizon were the strings of a harp which it swept.

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  • Alpatych named certain peasants he knew, from whom he told him to take the carts.

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  • After the hussars had come to the village and Rostov had gone to see the princess, a certain confusion and dissension had arisen among the crowd.

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  • He gets stymied at times because of lack of access to certain information sources.

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  • He wasn't certain he believed me but he was definitely curious.

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  • I can't tell you which clips will be watched in a century, but I'm certain that some will be.

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  • Not at all certain what he meant, she was hungry enough to test his claim.

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  • Why do people in certain areas stay in school longer than those in other areas?

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  • Due to genetic factors we will certainly learn about in the future, some drugs and treatments do not work on certain people.

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  • Let us drink to his health and to the certain defeat of the French!

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  • Please. I have a covering for you as soon as I'm certain you bear me no ill will.

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  • I was certain he'd awake at the sound but his slumber was so deep he didn't move.

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  • There is a certain limit of time in less than which no amount of heat can melt the snow.

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  • There was something familiar about that face, yet she was certain she had never met him before.

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  • She withdrew her teeth from his neck, not at all certain what to think of what she'd done.

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  • Or that a certain group of people who do a seemingly unrelated set of a dozen activities report levels of happiness higher than average?

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  • Not just a certain pesticide, but pesticides that contained a certain chemical.

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  • Think of how a few thousand years of human civilization got us to a certain amount of computational power.

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  • If there was none of this magnanimity in war, we should go to war only when it was worth while going to certain death, as now.

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  • Our body is like a perfect watch that should go for a certain time.

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  • The books he read were chiefly historical, and on these he spent a certain sum every year.

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  • So you make sure that if your population of redheads had a million people with a certain distribution of age, the distribution in your non-redhead sample is exactly the same.

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  • This class of guests and members sat in certain habitual places and met in certain habitual groups.

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  • How certain are you?

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  • I'm certain you can respect that.

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  • The computers would then see that most people who got better bought their radishes in stores stocked from certain farms.

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  • The pay per click (PPC) business is a way to advertise online to people who did a specific search in a search engine like Google or who are viewing content on a certain topic.

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  • She knew for certain that she was pretty, but this no longer gave her satisfaction as it used to.

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  • In her view the aim of every religion was merely to preserve certain proprieties while affording satisfaction to human desires.

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  • Jauntily shifting the position of his legs in their tight riding breeches, diffusing an odor of perfume, and admiring his partner, himself, and the fine outlines of his legs in their well-fitting Hessian boots, Nicholas told the blonde lady that he wished to run away with a certain lady here in Voronezh.

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  • Evidently she could speak of Russia's misfortunes with a certain artificiality, but her brother was too near her heart and she neither could nor would speak lightly of him.

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  • Whether the preservation of my father's house in Moscow, or the glory of the Russian arms, or the prosperity of the Petersburg and other universities, or the freedom of Poland or the greatness of Russia, or the balance of power in Europe, or a certain kind of European culture called "progress" appear to me to be good or bad, I must admit that besides these things the action of every historic character has other more general purposes inaccessible to me.

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  • The historians of culture are quite consistent in regard to their progenitors, the writers of universal histories, for if historical events may be explained by the fact that certain persons treated one another in such and such ways, why not explain them by the fact that such and such people wrote such and such books?

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  • In every action we examine we see a certain measure of freedom and a certain measure of inevitability.

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  • I'll accept it now that it is certain.

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  • It said her boyfriend was the person they were looking for and she knew for certain.

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  • She looked him over again, certain he could escape any time he wanted.

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  • I'm very certain, Oz, that you gave me the best brains in the world, for I can think with them day and night, when all other brains are fast asleep.

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  • As soon as we have a certain number of worthy men in every state, each of them again training two others and all being closely united, everything will be possible for our order, which has already in secret accomplished much for the welfare of mankind.

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  • She knew this for certain, though she hardly heard his voice through the closed doors.

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  • We can't start the affair without knowing for certain how many there are.

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  • She punched slowly a few times until she was certain she'd corrected her punch.

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  • She stood in front of the door nervously for a long moment, not certain it would open.

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  • She nudged his chin aside but wasn't certain about biting him.

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  • She checked her locks to make certain they turned.

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  • Deidre wasn't certain if there was any affection for his daughter, though his persistence in healing her was a sign of either care or obligation.

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  • She needs certain facts pointed out to her.

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  • He was certain to take her to climax each time before seeking his own release, a practice she'd never participated, when she was a goddess who felt nothing.

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  • He watched as she tossed more clothing into her suitcase, certain what he wanted to say would only make her pack faster.

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  • She wasn't certain where her perfect killer was right now.

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  • To comprehend the real position we are forced to the conviction that the world of facts is the field in which, and that laws are the means by which, those higher standards of moral and aesthetical value are being realized; and such a union can again only become intelligible through the idea of a personal Deity, who in the creation and preservation of a world has voluntarily chosen certain forms and laws, through the natural operation of which the ends of His work are gained.

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  • We are certain that we are thinking, and in so far as we are thinking we are.

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  • It is the same spirit that makes people fanatical about a certain sports team, regardless of the players or the score.

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  • We have had to agree on a certain set of rules, called etiquette and politeness, to make this frequent meeting tolerable and that we need not come to open war.

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  • I made certain of that.

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  • Not just that you went to a certain address but that the address was a movie theater and—based on where you sat and that you ordered tickets online—you saw Episode VII of Star Wars.

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  • Some years ago, the State met me in behalf of the Church, and commanded me to pay a certain sum toward the support of a clergyman whose preaching my father attended, but never I myself.

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  • And the main thing is," he continued, "that I know, and know for certain, that the enjoyment of doing this good is the only sure happiness in life."

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  • I have heard of certain projects concerning... you know.

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  • Certain destruction lay behind the French but in front there was hope.

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  • Our conception of the degree of freedom often varies according to differences in the point of view from which we regard the event, but every human action appears to us as a certain combination of freedom and inevitability.

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  • What makes you so certain?

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  • One thing was certain.

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  • She pulled Jonny's number from the fridge but hesitated, still not certain what to tell him.

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  • Xander's ability was far weaker than hers, but he was able to see certain parts of another's path when in their minds.

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  • She wasn't certain her meltdown would wait, but this place seemed real enough.

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  • She wasn't certain if he'd follow or not.

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  • She really wasn't certain this was the right thing to do.

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  • She still wasn't certain what it meant to have the heart of a vampire.

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  • We have already mentioned the final conception in which Lotze's speculation culminates, that of a personal Deity, Himself the essence of all that merits existence for its own sake, who in the creation and government of a world has voluntarily chosen certain laws and forms through which His ends are to be realized.

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  • Certain acid fermentations are of common occurrence.

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  • Owing to observational difficulties, the exact measure of success attained is a little difficult to gauge, but it seems fairly certain that raindrops usually carry a charge.

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  • Her wealth made it certain that he would be the richest man in France, and he determined to play a part equal to that of his great-grandfather, the regent, whom he resembled in character and debauchery.

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  • The thegn became a member of a territorial nobility, and the dignity of thegnhood was attainable by those who fulfilled certain conditions.

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  • He had certain special privileges.

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  • When a combination of signals has been received and the armatures have taken up their respective positions corresponding to the transmitting keyboard, certain mechanism in the receiver translates the position of the five armatures into a mechanical movement which lifts the paper tape against a type-wheel and prints the corresponding letter.

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  • Before this interview a national council had met at St Albans at the beginning of August 1213, and this was followed by another council, held in St Paul's church, London, later in the same month; it was doubtless summoned by the archbishop, and was attended by many of the higher clergy and a certain number of the barons.

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  • This, however, is only to be done after certain liabilities have been met out of the estate, including the services due to the lord of the land.

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  • Certain privileges granted to them in the Articles are not found in Magna Carta, although, it must be noted, this document bestows exceptionally favoured treatment on the citizens of London.

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  • Though all descended from one stock, there are twelve distinct tribes of the Andamanese, each with its own clearly-defined locality, its own distinct variety of the one fundamental language and to a certain extent its own separate habits.

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  • Before marriage free intercourse between the sexes is the rule, though certain conventional precautions are taken to prevent it.

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  • The middle ages saw geographical knowledge die out in Christendom, although it retained, through the Arabic translations of Ptolemy, a certain vitality in Islam.

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  • For some of these we have no certain information, and regarding others the tales narrated in the early records are so hard to reconcile with present knowledge that they are better fitted to be the battle-ground of scholars championing rival theories than the basis of definite history.

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  • But in the 19th century and after exploring work was so generally and steadily maintained in all directions, and was in so many cases narrowed down from long journeys to detailed surveys within relatively small areas, that i t becomes desirable to cover the whole period at one view for certain great divisions of the world.

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  • Although the name of continent was not applied to large portions of land for any physical reasons, it so happens that there is a certain physical similarity or homology between them which is not shared by the smaller islands or peninsulas.

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  • At every stage of the geographical cycle the land forms, as they exist at that stage, are concerned in guiding the condensation and flow of water in certain definite ways.

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  • This is a vaguer form of control than a protectorate, and frequently amounts merely to an agreement amongst civilized powers to respect the right of one of their number to exercise government within a certain area, if it should decide to do so at any future time.

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  • One thing is certain, the language was ineffaceably stamped upon my brain, though for a long time no one knew it, least of all myself.

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  • By the grace of her movements, by the softness and flexibility of her small limbs, and by a certain coyness and reserve of manner, she reminded one of a pretty, half-grown kitten which promises to become a beautiful little cat.

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  • There is nothing certain, nothing at all except the unimportance of everything I understand, and the greatness of something incomprehensible but all-important.

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  • The races, the English Club, sprees with Denisov, and visits to a certain house--that was another matter and quite the thing for a dashing young hussar!

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  • He heard those around him disputing in whispers and one of them insisting that he should be led along a certain carpet.

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  • On returning home in the evening he would jot down in his notebook four or five necessary calls or appointments for certain hours.

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  • But Berg, smiling pleasantly, explained that if he did not know for certain how much Vera would have and did not receive at least part of the dowry in advance, he would have to break matters off.

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  • The Emperor said that the fiscal system must be reorganized and the accounts published, recounted Bitski, emphasizing certain words and opening his eyes significantly.

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  • Boris was thus the first to learn the news that the French army had crossed the Niemen and, thanks to this, was able to show certain important personages that much that was concealed from others was usually known to him, and by this means he rose higher in their estimation.

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  • It was not a council of war, but, as it were, a council to elucidate certain questions for the Emperor personally.

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  • From the tone in which the courtiers addressed him and the way Paulucci had allowed himself to speak of him to the Emperor, but above all from a certain desperation in Pfuel's own expressions, it was clear that the others knew, and Pfuel himself felt, that his fall was at hand.

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  • The count listened with closed eyes, heaving abrupt sighs at certain passages.

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  • The activity of a commander-in-chief does not at all resemble the activity we imagine to ourselves when we sit at ease in our studies examining some campaign on the map, with a certain number of troops on this and that side in a certain known locality, and begin our plans from some given moment.

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  • Beyond a certain limit no mechanical disruption of the body could hasten the process of decomposition.

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  • He was as indifferent as heretofore to money matters, but now he felt certain of what ought and what ought not to be done.

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  • But in the Crusades we already see an event occupying its definite place in history and without which we cannot imagine the modern history of Europe, though to the chroniclers of the Crusades that event appeared as merely due to the will of certain people.

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  • All that we know of the external world of nature is only a certain relation of the forces of nature to inevitability, or of the essence of life to the laws of reason.

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  • After her discovery in the forest, Jenn wasn't certain what to believe.

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  • He wasn't entirely certain the Black God could be trusted, if not for Bianca being in danger.

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  • Taran drew a deep breath and steeled himself against what confrontation was certain to await him.

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  • She waited until certain he was gone before rising.

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  • Vara will take care of me, I'm certain.

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  • Carmen was certain that her parents would have loved him, but he wasn't so sure.

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  • She was certain it wasn't his intent to be familiar.

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  • She watched him go in and then left with a certain amount of concern.

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  • He hadn't said anything to either of them, but he was certain Gerald's feelings for Carmen went deeper than mere friendship.

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  • If Denton found out about Justin, there would be a scene, of that she was certain.

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  • Xander barely resisted the urge to touch the finely woven garment with a fur lining that was certain to be the softest thing in the world.

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  • For a moment, she was certain the newcomer was going to hit the teen.

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  • Xander didn't like it, though he wasn't at all certain what the boy-god was doing.

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  • With your long list of enemies, I'm not certain which would've sent them.

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  • Are you certain Jessi is her real name?

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  • She didn't dare turn around, not certain she'd be able to witness Toni throwing herself at Xander without laughing at him.

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  • She was pretty certain Xander would be too occupied with Toni to notice her.

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  • Jessi wasn't certain if she should be laughing or horrified by the fawning women.

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  • Jessi wasn't certain how to respond.

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  • Rendered breathless, Jessi wasn't certain she'd be able to stand on her own, if he walked away too fast.

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  • Jessi braced herself against the counter, not certain she was able to stand on her own.

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  • Unless it involves a certain issue.

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  • Ignoring his guests, Xander changed into clothes certain to let him move freely, preparing for his dinner to arrive.

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  • Certain events occurred" he raised an eyebrow at her that made her shake her head "and we got sidetracked."

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  • He wasn't certain why it mattered, except that he wasn't about to lose this round to Damian or Jenn.

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  • Jessi took a step away from him and waved at Toni to make certain the model saw them.

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  • I'm not at all certain what to think of him, either.

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  • Xander wasn't certain what Jessi might be thinking.

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  • She wasn't so certain she and Xander had a chance, though, especially with Jonny waiting to pounce.

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  • Jessi began laughing, once again not at all certain what she agreed to – or why.

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  • Jessi wasn't certain she heard him correctly.

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  • He didn't want her anywhere near the Original Other or Jonny but was almost certain she'd figure out how to get herself in the middle somehow.

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  • She wasn't entirely certain what to do, how to keep the gem and Ashley safe.

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  • Jessi wasn't certain how, but she felt even worse about walking away from Xander.

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  • She bent and wiped it on the cement stair, not at all certain it was enough to tip him off.

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  • Thinking of what happened tomorrow did her no good, when she wasn't certain she'd live through the night.

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  • Jessi wasn't certain what to think.

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  • Language has crystallized them into certain definite notions and expressions, without which we cannot proceed a single step, but which we have accepted without knowing their exact meaning, much less their origin.

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  • By Dr Paul Matschie several races of the African elephant have been described, mainly, as already mentioned, on certain differences in the shape of the ear.

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  • The two differ in certain details of dentition, and in the greater development in the former of the parachute, especially the interfemoral portion, which in the latter is almost absent.

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  • Certain difficulties that he met with in his speculations led him to the conclusion that the particles of any one kind of gas, though all of them alike, must differ from those of another gas both in size and weight.

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  • The Daltonian would say that each of these weights represents a certain group of atoms, and that these groups can replace, or combine with, each other, to form new molecules.

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  • He was no follower of their ideas, indeed often opposed to them; but he derived from Bacon an increasing stimulus towards the investigation of certain great problems of history and philosophy, while Grotius proved valuable in his study of philosophic jurisprudence.

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  • Peter Bayle is severe on certain historical inaccuracies of Davila, and it is true that Davila must be read with due remembrance of the fact that he was not only a Catholic but the especial protege of Catherine de' Medici, but it is not to be forgotten that Bayle was as strongly Protestant.

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  • Moll JEthelwald, who may have been a brother of Eadberht, succeeded, and after a victory over a certain Oswine, who fell in the battle, abdicated and became a monk probably under compulsion in 765.

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  • The southern part of Northumbria now passed entirely into the hands of the invaders, but they allowed a certain Ecgberht to reign over the portion of the kingdom north of the Tyne.

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  • After him the chief power north of the Tyne came into the hands of a certain Eadulf of Bamburgh, who did not take the kingly title, but accepted the overlordship of Alfred the Great perhaps in 886.

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  • After an interregnum of a few years a certain Guthred became king in 883.

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  • Eadred placed Northumbria in the hands of a certain Osulf, who is called high-reeve at Bamburgh.

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  • That the partisans of neither would yield in favour of the other was certain.

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  • This method did not give very certain results, for it could not be guaranteed that the growth in the inoculated flask was necessarily derived from a single bacterium.

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  • Certain yeasts exercise a reducing action, forming sulphuretted hydrogen, when sulphur is present.

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  • Their selection for a particular purpose depends upon some special quality which they possess; thus for brewing certain essentials are demanded as regards stability, clarification, taste and smell; whereas, in distilleries, the production of alcohol and a high multiplying power in the yeast are required.

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  • His grandfather, Gregorio Brunacci, of an ancient family of Pisa, had changed his name in order to become heir to a certain marchese di Consalvi.

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  • He permitted laymen to hold certain public offices, under surveillance of the prelates, organized a guard from among the Roman nobility, decreed a plan for redeeming the base coinage, permitted the communes a certain degree of municipal liberty, and promised the liquidation of the public debt.

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  • Of all their numerous sources of revenue, the money furnished by Mr Hart was the only certain asset which could be offered as security for Chinese loans.

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  • It is by no means certain that he made the remark often attributed to him, "Let us enjoy the papacy since God has given it to us," but there is little doubt that he was by nature devoid of moral earnestness or deep religious feeling.

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  • Certain of the molar teeth of the middle of the series in both elephants and mastodons have the same number of principal ridges; those in front having fewer, and those behind a greater number.

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  • The fineness of the hair may perhaps be ascribed to some peculiarity in the atmosphere, for it is remarkable that the cats, dogs and other animals of the country are to 'a certain extent affected in the same way, and that they all lose much of their distinctive beauty when taken from their native districts.

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  • The actual highest summit is wholly French and is the loftiest peak in the Alps, and in Europe also, if certain peaks in the Caucasus be excluded.

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  • The anchorage is safe, and the bay full of fish; the harbour has a certain amount of trade.

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  • Simpson found no certain temperature effect on the value of q.

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  • At Karasjok, Simpson found a slight decrease in I_ as relative humidity increased, but no certain change in I +.

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  • In some tropical stations, at certain seasons of the year, thunder is almost a daily occurrence.

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  • Firefly is a term popularly used for certain tropical American click-beetles (Pyrophorus), due to their power of emitting light.

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  • We cannot even be absolutely certain when the frontier laid out by Pius was equipped with the Pfahlgraben and Teufelsmauer.

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  • From certain indications in the latter and the evidence of some odd leaves discovered by David Laing, it has been concluded that there was an earlier Edinburgh edition, which has been ascribed to Thomas Davidson, printer, and dated c. 1540.

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  • The cathedral contains other 14th-century and early Renaissance paintings, the former including some Passion scenes, the only certain work of Barna da Siena, and some fine choir stalls.

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  • It is certain that he took an active part in the restoration of Eton College, which Edward annexed to St George's, Windsor, in 1463, depriving it of a large part of its possessions.

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  • In some birds, such as the herons, certain down-feathers or plumulae break off into a fine dust as fast as they are formed and form tracts defined in size and situation and known as "powder-down patches."

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  • Although this separation might have been expected to be final, it is not certain that it was so.

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  • At the present time, so far as the Roman Catholic Church is concerned, apparelled albs are only in regular use at Milan (Ambrosian Rite), and, partially, in certain churches in Spain.

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  • The best testimony for the behaviour of Orleans during this summer is the testimony of an English lady, Mrs Grace Dalrymple Elliott, who shared his heart with the comtesse de Buffon, and from which it is absolutely certain that at the time of the riot of the 12th of July he was on a fishing excursion, and was rudely treated by the king on the next day when going to offer him his services.

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  • A certain instability of character is revealed by the fact that he took up arms against Ramiro, having repented of his renunciation of the world.

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  • The council was reduced to four members with a governor-general, who were to exercise certain indefinite powers of control over the presidencies of Madras and Bombay.

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  • It is more pleasing to point out certain of his public measures upon which no difference of opinion can arise.

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  • In the negotiations which followed, it was arranged that the bay and the land on both sides of the entrance within certain defined lines should be leased to Germany for 99 years.

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  • In return they usually had a house near the episcopal palace, a domain within and without the city, and sometimes the right to levy certain dues on the city.

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  • Collier preferred the version of the Book of Common Prayer issued in 1549, and regretted that certain practices and petitions there enjoined were omitted in later editions.

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  • On the deposition of Charles the Fat in 887 he was excluded from the throne by his youth; but during the reign of Odo, who had succeeded Charles, he succeeded in gaining the recognition of a certain number of notables and in securing his coronation at Reims on the 28th of January 893.

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  • It is for this reason that concordats always present a clearly marked character of mutual concession, each of the two powers renouncing certain of its claims in the interests of peace.

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  • For the purposes of a concordat the state recognizes the official status of the church and of its ministers and tribunals; guarantees it certain privileges; and sometimes binds itself to secure for it subsidies representing compensation for past spoliations.

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  • They may make certain concessions or privileges once given without any corresponding obligation; they constitute for a given country a special ecclesiastical law; and it is thus that writers have sometimes spoken of concordats as privileges.

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  • Again, it is quite certain that the spiritual matters upon which concordats bear do not concern the two powers in the same manner and in the same degree; and in this sense concordats are not perfectly equal agreements.

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  • Certain concordats deal with the orders and congregations of monks and nuns with a view to subjecting them to a certain control while securing to them the legal exercise of their activities.

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  • Ecclesiastical immunities, such as reservation of the criminal cases of the clergy, exemption from military service and other privileges, are expressly maintained in a certain number of pacts.

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  • The greater part of the district consists of state land, the cultivators being tenants of government, but there is a certain amount of hereditary freehold.

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  • The emperor's share in the work is not clear, but it seems certain that the general scheme and many of the incidents are due to him.

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  • Since the abolition of flogging in the services, the use of the cat is now restricted to certain classes of offenders in military prisons (Army Act 1881, § 133).

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  • In the English criminal law, where corporal punishment is ordered by the court for certain criminal offences, the "cat" is used only where the prisoner is over sixteen years of age.

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  • He also carried out many experiments in magneto-optics, and succeeded in showing, what Faraday had failed to detect, the rotation under the influence of magnetic force of the plane of polarization in certain gases and vapours.

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  • When the custom of commendation developed, the king charged the mayor of the palace to protect those who had commended themselves to him and to 1 The mayors of certain cities in the United Kingdom (London, York, Dublin) have acquired by prescription the prefix of "lord."

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  • Perceiving further, that in order to understand these relations I should sometimes have to consider them one by one, and sometimes only to bear them in mind or embrace them in the aggregate, I thought that, in order the better to consider them individually, I should view them as subsisting between straight lines, than which I could find no objects more simple, or capable of being more distinctly represented to my imagination and senses; and on the other hand that, in order to retain them in the memory or embrace an aggregate of many, I should express them by certain characters, the briefest possible."

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  • In both these doctrines of a priori science Descartes has not been subverted, but, if anything, corroborated by the results of experimental physics; for the so-called atoms of chemical theory already presuppose, from the Cartesian point of view, certain aggregations of the primitive particles of matter.

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  • Of the church in Ostia there is no authentic record before the 4th century A.D., though there are several Christian inscriptions of an earlier date; but the first bishop of Ostia of whom we have any certain knowledge dates from A.D.

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  • His youth, spent at the Neapolitan court, was far from blameless, and it is not certain that he was married to the mother of his numerous family.

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  • From here the caravans start for Persia, and at certain periods of the year long trains of camels may be seen, and Persian merchants conspicuous by their high black caps and long robes.

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  • An antiquity of 150o years is claimed for the foundation of the monastery, but it is certain that the first person who raised it to importance was the emperor Alexius Comnenus III.

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  • The term is used in this general sense in certain rubrics of the English Book of Common Prayer, in which it is applied equally to rectors and vicars as to perpetual curates.

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  • A definite issue was therefore sought by the congress on which to join battle, and it arose out of the death sentences which had been pronounced on certain naval and military officers who had been implicated in the Santa Fe outbreak.

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  • The rest belongs to private owners who are, however, subject to certain restrictions.

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  • Under it the cost of the necessary land was to be found as to one-third by the state and as to the residue locally, but this arrangement proved unworkable and was abandoned in 1845, when it was settled that the state should provide the land and construct the earthworks and stations, the various companies which obtained concessions being left to make the permanent way, provide rolling stock and work the lines for certain periods.

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  • As before, the sums paid out in respect of guaranteed dividend were to be regarded as advances which were to be paid back to the state out of the profits made, when these permitted, and when the advances were wiped out, the profits, after payment of a certain dividend, were to be divided between the state and the railway, two-thirds going to the former and one-third to the latter.

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  • By the 1859 conventions the state railway system obtained an entry into Paris by means of running powers over the Ouest from Chartres, and its position was further improved by the exchange of certain lines with the Orleans company.

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  • It left the government free either to apply to foreign countries the general tariff or to enter into negotiations with them for the application, under certain conditions, of a minimum tariff.

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  • The chief local bodies concerned with commerce and industry are the chambres de commerce and the chambres consultatives darts et manufactures, the members of which are elected from their own number by the traders and industrialists of a certain standing.

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  • The judges are elected by employers and workmen of a certain standing.

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  • Besides receiving taxes, they pay the creditors of the state in their departments, conduct all operations affecting departmental loans, buy and sell government stock (rentes) on behalf of individuals, and conduct certain banking operations.

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  • Besides these, certain other taxes (taxes assimilies aux contributions direcles) are included under the heading of direct taxation, e.g.

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  • But certain army corps have a special organization.

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  • Voluntary enlistments in the French army are permissible, within certain limits, at the age of eighteen, and the engages serve for at least three years.

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  • It is convenient, to mention in this place certain institutions attached to the war department and completing the French military organization.

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  • The naval prefect is assisted by a rearadmiral as chief of the staff (except at Lorient and Rochefort, where the office is filled by a captain), and a certain number of other officers, the special functions of the chief of the staff having relation principally to the efficien.cy and personnel of the fleet, while the major-general, who is usually a rear-admiral, is concerned chiefly with the materiel.

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  • The French navy is manned partly by voluntary enlistment, partly by the transference to the navy of a certain proportion of each years recruits for the army, but mainly by a system known as inscription maritime.

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  • They give an education similar to that offered in the lyces for boys with certain modificationsin a curriculum of five or six years.

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  • This last word is the regular French for "knight," and is chiefly used in English for a member of certain foreign military or other orders, particularly of the Legion of Honour.

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  • Fresh water, rising and falling with the tide, is found in certain large caverns in Lifu, and by sinking to the sea-level a supply may be obtained in any part of the island.

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  • The emoluments of the office are confined to certain insignificant admiralty droits.

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  • In 1901 Professor Furtwangler began a more systematic excavation of the site, and the new discoveries he then made, together with a fresh and complete study of the figures and fragments in Munich, have led to a rearrangement of the whole, which, if not certain in all details, may be regarded as approaching finality.

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  • Though this statement is probably to be rejected, it may be regarded as certain that Aegina was the first state of European Greece to coin money.

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  • That Athens had the worst of it in this war is certain.

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  • It should be added that Professor Elliot Smith has pointed out a certain peculiarity in its commissures whereby the brain of the diprotodonts differs markedly from that of the polyprotodonts From Flower, Quart.

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  • Dr Einar Lonnberg has also recorded certain adaptive peculiarities in the stomach.

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  • These ancient opossums have been separated generically from Didelphys (in its widest sense) on account of certain differences in the relative sizes of the lower premolars, but as nearly the whole of the species have been formed .on lower jaws, of which some hundreds have been found, it is impossible to judge how far these differences are correlated with other dental or osteological characters.

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  • Besides these interesting European fossils, a certain number of didelphian bones have been found in the caves of Brazil, but these are either closely allied to or identical with the species now living in the same region.

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  • Under the heading of Multituberculata will be found a brief account of certain extinct mammals from the Mesozoic formations of Europe and North America which have been regarded as more or less nearly related to the monotremes.

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  • The oppression of Antiochus led to a revolt of the Jews under the leadership of the Maccabees, and Judas Maccabaeus succeeded in capturing Jerusalem after severe fighting, but could not get The sites shown on the plan are tentative, and cannot be regarded as certain; see Nehemiah ii.

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  • Ctesias must certainly have known of it, and it is possible that he may have named it simply IIEpvac, after the people, as is undoubtedly done by certain writers of a somewhat later date.'

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  • But this certainly was not the leading point of view with the mass of the Rabbins; 1 and at any rate it is quite certain that the synagogue is a post-exilic institution, and therefore that the Sabbath in old Israel must have been entirely different from the Sabbath of the Scribes.

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  • What is certain is that the origin of the Sabbath must be sought within a circle that used the week as a division of time.

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  • They did not dedicate each day in turn to its astrological planet; and it is therefore precarious to assume that the Sabbath was in its origin what it is in the astrological week, the day sacred to Saturn, and that its observance is to be derived from an ancient Hebrew worship of that planet.4 The week, however, is found in various parts of the world in a form that has nothing to do with astrology or the seven planets, and with such a distribution as to make it pretty certain that it had no artificial origin, but suggested itself independently, and for natural reasons, to different races.

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  • The Babylonian calendars contain explicit directions for the observance of abstention from certain secular acts on certain days which forms a close parallel to the Jewish Sabbatical rules.

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  • And there is a marked contrast in style between these statues and the certain works of Pheidias.

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  • Whatever the racial affinities of the early inhabitants may have been, it is certain that in historic times Rhodes was occupied by a Dorian population, reputed to have emigrated mainly from Argos subsequently to the "Dorian invasion" of Greece.

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  • Forbes drew attention to a certain community amongst birds and other vertebrates, invertebrates, and amongst plants, on all the lands stretching towards the south pole.

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  • No certain cure has been or is likely to be discovered for their poison, but in less serious cases strychnine has been used with advantage.

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  • One thing is certain, that there is in Australia a flora that is a remnant of a vegetation once widely distributed.

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  • Religious instruction is not imparted by the state-paid teachers in any state, though in certain states persons duly authorized by the religious organizations are allowed to give religious instruction to children of their own denomination where the parents' consent has been obtained.

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  • This conference adopted an address to the queen expressing its loyalty and attachment, and submitting certain resolutions which affirmed the desirability of an early union, under the crown, of the Australasian colonies, on principles just to all, and provided that the remoter Australasian colonies should be entitled to admission upon terms to be afterwards agreed upon, and that steps should be taken for the appointment of delegates to a national Australasian convention, to consider and report upon an adequate scheme for a federal convention.

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  • Under this act the appropriation of these surplus funds to certain trust purposes in the Federal treasury is held to be equivalent to payment to the states.

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  • Worthy of special note are canon 33, enjoining celibacy upon all clerics and all who minister at the altar (the most ancient canon of celibacy); canon 36, forbidding pictures in churches; canon 38, permitting lay baptism under certain conditions; and canon 53, forbidding one bishop to restore a person excommunicated by another.

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  • A short time afterwards Artabanus was deposed again, and a certain Cinnamus was proclaimed king.

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  • Mehemet Ali, who was the viceroy of Egypt, owed his position, to a certain extent, to the recommendations made in his behalf to the French government by Mathieu de Lesseps, who was consul-general in Egypt when Mehemet Ali was a simple colonel.

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  • Straw-plaiting is a considerable industry at Lacco; and a certain amount of fishing is also done.

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  • To a certain extent these works embody the more important discoveries of their author.

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  • A second great service was the publication in the British Association Reports for 1833 of his "Report on the Recent Progress and Present State of certain branches of Analysis."

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  • But his efforts were already doomed to certain failure.

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  • In anti-religious materialism the motive is hostility to established dogmas which are connected, in the Christian system especially, with certain forms of spiritual doctrine.

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  • The animal is in a certain sense, indeed, the food of the god.

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  • Whether the division of the lobus dexter into two divisions - (i) lobus dexter proper and (2) lobus quadratus, as in modern anatomical nomenclature - was also assumed in Babylonian hepatoscopy, is not certain, but the groove separating the right lobe into two sections - the fossa venae umbilicalis - was recognized and distinguished by the designation of "river of the liver."

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  • The metallic glitter of avanturine or sun-stone (q.v.) is due to the enclosed scales of gothite and certain other minerals.

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  • On account of this, it has been suggested that in a forgotten past the Sakai were themselves the fashioners of the stone implements, and certain it is that all tools which have no representatives among the stone kelts are known to the Sakai by obvious corruptions of their Malayan names.

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  • The salt-houses were divided between the king, the earl of Chester and certain resident freemen of the neighbourhood.

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  • As the recognized leader of the new party, his nomination by the Republicans for the presidency in 1856 and in 1860 was regarded as certain; but in each instance he was put aside for another.

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  • Both these oaks grow well in British plantations, where their bright autumn foliage, though seldom so decided in tint as in their native woods, gives them a certain picturesque value.

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  • He declared, when answering a complaint that a certain captain in his regiment was a better preacher than fighter, that he who prayed best would fight best, and that he knew nothing could" give the like courage and confidence as the knowledge of God in Christ will."The superiority of these men - more intelligent than the common soldiers, better disciplined, better trained, better armed, excellent horsemen and fighting for a great cause - not only over the other parliamentary troops but over the royalists, was soon observed in battle.

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  • There are also certain liabilities or debts which, for the convenience of the remedy, have been made to appear as though they sprang from contract, and are sometimes termed quasi-contracts.

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  • In the United States imprisonment for debt was universal under the common law, but it has been abolished in every state, except in certain cases, as where there is any suspicion of fraud or where the debtor has an intention of removing out of the state to avoid his debts.

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  • Even the prologues, which later researches have shown to be in the main by the hand of Plautus himself, though certain passages were clearly added at a later date, e.g.

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  • His command of the art is such that his plays read like original works, and it may be at least said that some of his characters stand out so vividly from his canvas that they have ever since served as representatives of certain types of humanity, e.g.

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  • The earliest recorded count of Dammartin was a certain Hugh, who made himself master of the town in the 10th century; but his dynasty was replaced by another family in the 11th century.

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  • If we raise i lb of matter through a foot we do a certain amount of work against the earth's attraction; if we raise 2 lb through the same height we do twice this amount of work, and so on.

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  • All we can do in such cases is to place the system under certain conditions of transformation, and be content with the amount of work which it is, as it were, willing to render up under those conditions.

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  • An intelligent creature, or "demon," possessed of unlimited powers of vision, is placed in charge of each door, with instructions to open the door whenever a particle in A comes towards it with more than a certain velocity V, and to keep it closed against all particles in A moving with less than this velocity, but, on the other hand, to open the door whenever a particle in B approaches it with less than a certain velocity v, which is not greater than V, and to keep it closed against all particles in B moving with a greater velocity than this.

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  • Fichte's general views on philosophy seem to have changed considerably as he advanced in years, and his influence has been impaired by certain inconsistencies and an appearance of eclecticism, which is strengthened by his predominantly historical treatment of problems, his desire to include divergent systems within his own, and his conciliatory tone.

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  • Yet there is a certain difference between this and the work of a poor artist whose designs are threadbare.

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  • But it is equally certain that the pure violoncello tone in large masses belongs to a distinctly different region of orchestral effect.

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  • This could be fixed, within certain limits, at whatever pitch suited the composition; but on the horn it could be only very partially filled out by notes of a muffled quality produced by inserting the hand into the bell of the instrument, a device impossible on the trumpet.

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  • At present we can only be certain that the criterion according to which Brahms, being a symphonic writer, has no mastery of orchestration whatever, is not a criterion compatible with any sense of symphonic style.

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  • While the majority of the Nematodes are parasites, there are many that are never at any period of their life parasitic. These free-living forms are found everywhere - in salt and fresh water, in damp earth and moss, and among decaying substances; they are always minute in size, and like many other lower forms of life, are capable of retaining their vitality for a long period even when dried, which accounts for their wide distribution; this faculty is also possessed by certain of the parasitic Nematodes, especially by those which lead a free existence during a part of their life-cycle.

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  • The females produce thousands of larvae, which circulate in the blood, and show a certain periodicity in their appearance, being much more numerous in the blood at night than during the day.

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  • The speed of these two motions depends much on the length of the span and of the longitudinal run, and on the nature of the work to be done; in certain cases, e.g.

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  • On arriving at a certain height the lift ceases and the jenny is released, and by the continued pull of the rope, it runs up the jib; on arriving at an adjustable stop, the jenny is again locked, and the load can be lowered out; the hook can then be raised, when the jenny is automatically unlocked, and on paying out the rope the jenny gravitates to its first position, when the load is lowered and the cycle repeated.

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  • Later, a horseman was due from certain areas.

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  • The Code regulates the feudal position of certain classes.

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  • As the city grew, the right to so many days a year atone or other shrine (or its " gate ") descended in certain families and became a species of property which could be pledged, rented or shared within the family, but not alienated.

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  • But vestals, hierodules, certain palace officials and slaves had no rights over their children and could raise no obstacle.

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  • Nearly all the cable companies possess their own steamers, of sufficient dimensions and specially equipped for making ordinary repairs; but for exceptional cases, where a considerable quantity of new cable may have to be inserted, it may be necessary to charter the services of one of the larger vessels owned by a cable-manufacturing company, at a certain sum per day, which may well reach £200 to £300.

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  • This allowed a shorter train and stronger wheelwork to be used, securing more certain action, and involving less risk of derangement.

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  • Each channel consists of a keyboard and receiver both electrically connected to certain parts of the distributor.

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  • At regular intervals a rotating arm on the distributor connects the five keys of each keyboard to line, thus passing the signals to the distant station, where they pass through the distributor and certain relays which repeat the currents corresponding to the depressed keys and actuate electromagnets in the receivers.

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  • The Baudot apparatus can have certain channels extended so as to form a means of continuous communication between one station and two or three others by means of one line.

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  • In the Rowland multiple method of telegraphic working, the transmitter consists of a mechanical keyboard provided with a series of levers, which effect certain combinations of positive and negative currents for each letter.

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  • The submarine telegraphs are mainly controlled by companies, the amount of issued capital of the existing British telegraph companies (twenty-four in number) being £3 0, 447, 1 9 1, but a certain number of lines are in government hands.

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  • This form of electric wave detector proved itself to be far more certain in operation and sensitive than anything previously invented.

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  • Marconi, however, made the important discovery that if his sensitive tube or coherer had one terminal attached to a metal plate lying on the earth, or buried in it, and the other to an insulated plate elevated at a height above the ground, it could detect the presence of very feeble electric waves of a certain kind originating at a great distance.

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  • At the receiving station Marconi connected a single voltaic cell B 1 and a sensitive telegraphic relay R in series with his tube of metallic filings C, and interposed certain little coils called choking coils.

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  • In addition he added certain spark-generating coils across the contacts of the relay and tapper.

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  • In series with the tube is placed a single voltaic cell and a telegraphic relay, and Marconi added certain coils placed across the spark contacts of the relay to prevent the local sparks affecting the coherer.

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  • Very briefly stated, his method consists in sending out a group of wave trains at certain irregular but assigned intervals of time to constitute the simplest signal equivalent to a dot in the Morse code, and a sequence of such trains, say three following one another, to constitute the dash on the Morse code.

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  • A problem of great importance in connexion with electric wave telegraphy is that of limiting the radiation to certain directions.

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  • In his method three vertical antennae are employed, placed at equidistant distances, and oscillations are created in the three with a certain relative difference of phase.

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  • Duddell discovered in 1900 that if a continuous current carbon arc had its carbon electrodes connected by a condenser in series with an inductance, then under certain conditions oscillations were excited in this condenser circuit which appeared to be continuous.

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  • Increase in the voltage acting upon a solid conductor increases the current through it, but in the case of the electric arc an increase in current is accompanied by a fall in the difference of potential of the carbons, within certain limits, and the arc has therefore been said to possess a negative resistance.'

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  • But even in the earlier group certain variations appear.

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  • The receiver was based on the change of friction produced by the passage of an electric current through the point of contact of certain substances in relative motion.

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  • When the subscribers in a local area exceed a certain number, or when for some other reason it is not convenient or economical to connect all the subscribers in the area to one exchange, it is usual to divide the area into a number of districts in each of which an exchange is placed, and to connect these district exchanges together by means of " junction circuits."

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  • Several single switchboards like that described may be employed, each devoted to a certain section of the subscribers, and placed in care of an operator.

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  • Each subscriber's circuit is further connected to another spring-jack directly associated with the calling-drop. These springjacks, known as answering jacks, are distributed along the switchboard, a certain number being terminated upon each position and placed in the care of the operator assigned to that position.

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