Century Sentence Examples
We're living in the 21st century, Mary.
After a century, electricity was still being generated.
He was born in Ireland in the eighteenth century.
As for time; it could have been a year or a century ago.
A century later, machines entered the scene.Advertisement
We have enough to be concerned with today's problems without having to clutter my mind about the happenings of a century ago.
About a century later the manor was acquired by the Basset family.
In the succeeding century it was connected with Carthage by a great highway.
The first fifteen years of the nineteenth century in Europe present an extraordinary movement of millions of people.
The last century Ouray sold flesh, this century it's tee shirts.Advertisement
If we live in the Nineteenth Century, why should we not enjoy the advantages which the Nineteenth Century offers?
It has been general since the 9th century.
In the century leading up to its extermination, smallpox killed about 500,000,000 people.
From the beginning of the 18th century the greater number of the Presbyterian congregations became practically independent in polity and Unitarian in doctrine.
During the 18th century Irish Presbyterianism became infected with Arianism.Advertisement
Early in the 18th century Antoine Court made marvellous efforts to restore Presbyterianism.
The frescoes are interesting works of the early 13th century.
Then there can be a week, a month, a year, a decade, and a century without war.
We don't know what Bird Song was at the turn of the century, just that there was a building or some sort on this site.
It was given about the end of the 18th century as based on some experiments, but with a footnote stating that little reliance could be placed on it.Advertisement
It is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until the middle of the 6th century, when it was captured by Totila after a long siege.
In the 15th century power was at last concentrated in the Baglioni family, who, though they had no legal position, defied all other authority.
Could you have imagined a store like this if you lived a century ago?
Just half a century ago, Americans on average spent more than 20 percent of their income on food.
The very fact that the nineteenth century has not produced many authors whom the world may count among the greatest of all time does not in my opinion justify the remark, "There may come a time when people cease to write."Advertisement
Their signature oyster loaves have been popular for nearly a century.
It was opened to foreign trade towards the latter end of the 18th century.
Nine of these Puritan Presbyterian churches were established on Long Island between 1640 and 1670 - one at Southampton and one at Southold (originally of the Congregational type) in 1640, one at Hempstead about 1644, one at Jamaica in 1662, and churches at Newtown and Setauket in the next half century; and three Puritan Presbyterian churches were established in Westchester county, New York, between 1677 and 1685.
Pietro, from the 7th century onwards, were also exhibited.
San Pietro de' Cassinensi (outside the Porta Romana) is a basilica with nave and aisles, founded in the beginning of the i 1th century by San Pietro Vincioli on the site of a building of the 6th century, and remarkable for its conspicuous spire, its ancient granite and marble columns, its walnut stall-work of 1535 by Stefano de' Zambelli da Bergamo, and its numerous pictures (by Perugino, &c.).
At the end of the eighteenth century there were a couple of dozen men in Paris who began to talk about all men being free and equal.
The quarterly conference held four times a century with the highest ranking station commanders was coming up soon, and he had more pressing issues to resolve before it launched.
Dean tried to picture the bustling town of a century past, at one time home to a dozen saloons, four restaurants, a newspaper, nearly three hundred houses and more than a thousand inhabitants.
Right now I don't give a damn about what happened a century ago and I'm in no position to make judgments of a situation I know so little about.
He wore bathing trunks, a Phillies baseball cap and a t-shirt with the imprint "Eastern PA Century Bicycle Tour" and a date four years earlier.
Giovanni Evangelista, which was founded along with the Benedictine monastery in 981, but as a building dates from 1510, and has a façade erected by Simone Moschino early in the 17th century.
The fiction of Belisarius wandering as a blind beggar through the streets of Constantinople, which has been adopted by Marmontel in his Belisaire, and by various painters and poets, is first heard of in the 10th century.
It is this district that from the end of the 13th century was called the Dauphine d'Auvergne.
The earliest recorded count of Dammartin was a certain Hugh, who made himself master of the town in the 10th century; but his dynasty was replaced by another family in the 11th century.
Angelo, with sixteen antique columns in the interior, probably dates from the middle of the 6th century.
He says the count was the last representative but one of the great century, and that it is his own turn now, but that he will do all he can to let his turn come as late as possible.
I understand opportunities were limited a century ago but surely she could have been a school teacher or office clerk or something above a brothel prostitute.
At the beginning of the 19th century it did not contain 20,000 inhabitants, and its real advance began with the reigns of Kings Frederick and William I., who exerted themselves in every way to improve and beautify it.
It was not completed, however, till the 19th century, when the west portal and towers and two bays of the nave were added, according to the plans of Violletle-Duc. The fine stained glass of the windows dates from the 13th to the 15th centuries.
Among the old houses one, dating from the 16th century, was the birthplace of Blaise Pascal, whose statue stands in a neighbouring square.
The present name, derived from Clarus Mons and originally applied only to the citadel, was used of the town as early as the 9th century.
In the wars against the English in the 14th and 15th centuries and the religious wars of the 16th century the town had its full participation; and in 1665 it acquired a terrible notoriety by the trial and execution of many members of the nobility of Auvergne who had tyrannized over the neighbouring districts.
Christianity was introduced in the 5th century, and Aran soon became one of the most famous island-resorts of religious teachers and ascetics.
Towards the end of the 12th century the town was in the hands of the Servian prince Stephen Nemanya, who there received hospitably the German emperor Frederic Barbarossa and his Crusaders.
The Servians having, in the beginning of the 19th century, successfully cleared Servia of Turks, were emboldened to attack Nish in 1809, but were repulsed with great loss.
There is some reason to hope that the day of these misconceptions is passed; although there is also some reason to fear that on other grounds the present era may be known to posterity as an era of instrumentation comparable, in its gorgeous chaos of experiment and its lack of consistent ideas of harmony and form, only to the monodic period at the beginning of the 17th century, in which no one had ears for anything but experiments in harmonic colour.
Nishapur was an important place during the 5th century, for Yazdegerd II.
It has also been conferred during the closing years of the 19th century by letters patent on other cities - Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Sheffield, Leeds, Cardiff, Bradford, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Belfast, Cork.
And the algebraists or arithmeticians of the 16th century, such as Luca Pacioli (Lucas de Borgo), Geronimo or Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), and Niccola Tartaglia (1506-1559), had used geometrical constructions to throw light on the solution of particular equations.
Against this work and the Ethics of Spinoza the orthodox Cartesians (who were in the majority), no less than sceptical hangers-on like Bayle, raised an all but universal howl of reprobation, scarcely broken for about a century.
Gyula-Fehervar is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and has a fine Roman Catholic cathedral, built in the 1 nth century in Romanesque style, and rebuilt in 5443 by John Hunyady in Gothic style.
The bishopric was founded in the 1th century by King Ladislaus I.
A great and widespread revival marked the opening years of the century, resulting in marvellous increase of zeal and numbers.
The eighty-one canons which were adopted reflect with considerable fulness the internal life and external relations of the Spanish Church of the 4th century.
The actual building dates from the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century, and contains a fine library with a collection of rare manuscripts and incunabula; near it is the small and old town of Tepl (pop. 2789).
The almshouse established in 1592 by Sir John Hawkins for decayed seamen and shipwrights is still extant, the building having been re-erected in the 19th century; but the fund called the Chatham Chest, originated by Hawkins and Drake in 1588, was incorporated with Greenwich Hospital in 1802.
The use of cranes is of great antiquity, but it is only since the great industrial development of the 19th century, and the introduction of other motive powers than hand labour, that the crane has acquired the important and indispensable position it now occupies.
Down to the closing decades of the 19th century hydraulic power was practically the only system available for working cranes from a power station.
These tribal dynasties of Rajputs were gradually supplanted by the Moslem invaders of the 11th century and weakened by internal feuds.
By the end of the century nearly the whole of Rajputana had been virtually subdued by the Mahrattas.
This area was termed " a bow " as early as the 8th century B.C., but the usage was much earlier.
From the 11th to the 14th century it belonged to Pisa, and in 1399 came under the dukes of Piombino.
The industrial and commercial progress of Cartagena was much hindered, during the first half of the 19th century, by the prevalence of epidemic diseases, the abandonment of the arsenal, and rivalry with the neighbouring port of Alicante.
The bishop's manor was alienated in 1550 to Sir Andrew Dudley, but West Teignmouth remained with the dean and chapter until early in the 19th century.
The Saturday market, which was held up to the 19th century, is mentioned in 1220, and was confirmed by royal charter in 1253, together with a fair at Michaelmas.
Cuyaba was founded in 1719 by Paulista gold hunters, and its goldwashings, now apparently exhausted, yielded rich results in the 18th century.
In the struggle between France and Austria from the 17th century onwards the Breisgau frequently changed masters.
It was only at the close of the 19th century that the true cause of malariathe conveyance of the infection by the bite of the Malaria..
It is clear, however, that the Celtic and Etruscan elements together occupied the greater part of the district between the Apennines and the Alps down to its Romanization, which took place gradually in the course of the 2nd century B.C. Their linguistic neighbors were Ligurian in the south and south-west, and the Veneti on the east.
According to Flint, 4 there were four men who in this and the preceding century seized and made prominent this idea, namely, Bodin, Bacon, Descartes and Pascal.
But first we must go further back, from Shakespeare at the end of the sixteenth century to Plato around 370 BC.
Your father, a man of the last century, evidently stands above our contemporaries who so condemn this measure which merely reestablishes natural justice.
Down to the close of the 17th century it was of some importance as a naval station.
There is no existing MS. of Propertius older than the 12th century.
By the close of the 17th century there were three frontier "generalates" - Carlstadt, Warasdin and Petrinia.
A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
Schweidnitz, dating from about the 11th century, received civic rights in 1250.
See James Mackintosh, Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy (Edinburgh, 1832); and specially Sir Leslie Stephen, English Thought in the 18th Century, iii.
Another church is the Annexkirche, formerly a convent of the Minorites; this dates from the middle of the 15th century.
The town was the seat of the counts of Cleves as early as the 11th century, but it did not receive municipal rights until 1242.
Though the emperor Julian improved its defences, the town was destroyed by the Huns under Attila, in the 5th century, but Justinian did his best to restore it.
In the 9th century the Bulgarians became masters of Naissus, but had to cede it to the Hungarians in the iith century, from whom the Byzantine emperor Manuel I.
Landsberg was the capital of a small margraviate of this name, ruled in the 12th century by a certain Dietrich, who built the town.
The Presbyterian Church of Wales, commonly known as the "Calvinistic Methodist," had its origin in the great evangelical revival of the 18th century.
Simon then constructed a new citadel, north of the Temple, to take the place of the Acra, and established in Judaea the Asmonean dynasty, which lasted for nearly a century, when the Roman republic began to make its influence felt in Syria.
In the 6th century the emperor Justinian erected a magnificent basilica at Jerusalem, in honour of the Virgin Mary, and attached to it two hospitals, one for the reception of pilgrims and one for the accommodation of the sick poor.
About the middle of the 12th century the country was subdued by the duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, who founded a bishopric at Ratzeburg, and after Henry's fall in 1180 it formed part of the smaller duchy of Saxony, which was governed by Duke Bernhard.
These ruins, for which the name Kizil minare or Chihil menare (" the forty columns or minarets "), can be traced back to the 13th century, are now known as Takhti Jamshid (" the throne of Jamshid ").
This fruitful region, however, was covered with villages till the frightful devastations of the 18th century; and even now it is, comparatively speaking, well cultivated.
Ouseley points out that this castle was still used in the 16th century, at least as a state prison.
It is a military station, and was founded towards the close of the 11th century.
At the verge of the rock on the western side is the old baronial castle, erected by King John in 1185, which was the residence of the bishops till the 14th century.
It is impossible to say who were the first discoverers of Australia, although there is evidence that the Chinese had some knowledge of the continent so far back as the 13th century.
The oak-panelled hall and the principal rooms are of the 15th century.
Texel was already separated from the mainland in the 8th century, but remained a Frisian province and countship, which once extended as far as Alkmaar in North Holland, until it came into the possession of the counts of Holland.
In Abulfeda's days (13th century A.D.) a very imposing temple still stood here.
Nonnus, the Greek poet, was born at Panopolis at the end of the 4th century.
The word thane was used in Scotland until the 15th century, to describe an hereditary non-military tenant of the crown.
It was long believed that work done against such forces was lost, and it was not till the r9th century that the energy thus transformed was traced; the conservation of energy has become the master-key to unlock the connexions in inanimate nature.
In the 16th century instrumentation was, in its normal modern sense, non-existent; but in a special sense it was at an unsurpassable stage of perfection, namely, in the treatment of pure vocal harmony.
In the 17th century the use of instruments became a necessity; but there were at first no organized ideas for their treatment except those which were grounded on their use as supporting and imitating the voice.
Choral writing itself has become different from what it was in the 16th century.
The genius of the modern pianoforte is to produce richness by depth and variety of tone; and players who cannot find scope for such genius in the real part-writing of the 18th century will not get any nearer to the 18th-century spirit by sacrificing the essentials of its art to an attempt to imitate its mechanical resources by a modern tour de force.
At the beginning of the 16th century the Rajput power began to revive, only to be overthrown by Baber at Fatehpur Sikri in 1527.
The fruit of his policy, which made of Rome a counterpoise against the effete empire of the Greeks upon the one hand and against the pressure of the feudal kingdom on the other, was seen in the succeeding century.
Early in the 10th century the papacy fell into the hands of a noble family, known eventually as the counts of Tusculum, who almost succeeded in rendering the office hereditary, and in uniting the civil and ecclesiastical functions of the city under a single member of their house.
Within the cities and upon the open lands the Italians, in this and the next century, doubled, trebled and quadrupled their numbers.
It still needed nearly a century of struggle to render the burghers independent of lordship, with a fully organized commune, self-governed in its several assemblies.
For the sake of clearness, we have anticipated the course of events by nearly a century.
Lombardy was, roughly speaking, divided between two parties, the one headed by Pavia professing loyalty to the empire, the other headed by Milan ready to oppose its claims. The municipal animosities of the last quarter of a century gave substance to these factions; yet neither the imperial nor, the anti-imperial party had any real community of interest with Frederick.
Therefore, after the middle of the century, this profession fell into the hands of natives.
Sorau is said to have existed in 840, and to have belonged to the abbey of Fulda till the 12th century.
Towards the end of the 3rd century, the inroads of the Franks having been repelled by the emperor Probus, the city rapidly acquired wealth and importance.
For a century, from Maximian to Maximus (286-388), it was (except under Julian, who preferred to reside in Paris) the administrative centre from which Gaul, Britain and Spain were ruled, so that the poet Ausonius could describe it as the second metropolis of the empire, or "Rome beyond the Alps."
In the latter half of the 16th century the direction of education fell into the hands of the Jesuits.
Let us now pass to the French writers of the 18th century.
The question of human development which Holbach touched on was one which occupied many minds both in and out of France during the 18th century, and more especially towards its close.
Supported by the great authority of Haller, the doctrine of evolution, or development, prevailed throughout the whole of the 18th century, and Cuvier appears to have substantially adopted Bonnet's later views, though probably he would not have gone all lengths in the direction of " emboitement."
The notion that all the kinds of animals and plants may have come into existence by the growth and modification of primordial germs is as old as speculative thought; but the modern scientific form of the doctrine can be traced historically to the influence of several converging lines of philosophical speculation and of physical observation, none of which go further back than the 17th century.
Thus in the end of the 17th century the seed was sown which has at intervals brought forth recurrent crops of evolutional hypotheses, based, more or less completely, on general reasonings.
But a little consideration showed that, though Lamarck had seized what, as far as it goes, is a true cause of modification, it is a cause the actual effects of which are wholly inadequate to account for any considerable modification in animals, and which can have no influence at all in the vegetable world; and probably nothing contributed so much to discredit evolution, in the early part of the 29th century, as the floods of easy ridicule which were poured upon this part of Lamarck's speculation.
Is the ferment of the peoples of the west at the end of the eighteenth century and their drive eastward explained by the activity of Louis XIV, XV, and XVI, their mistresses and ministers, and by the lives of Napoleon, Rousseau, Diderot, Beaumarchais, and others?
Historic establishments abound, not the least of which are the bars and taverns frequented by patrons for more than a century.
Guests can also wander through the town and enjoy the ambiance of a century gone by.
The old castle was largely rebuilt in the 19th century.
The most marked proof of the change which came over Italy towards the middle of the I4th century is furnished by the companies of adventure.
At the end of this century and a half, five principal powers divided the peninsula; and their confederated action during the next forty-five years (1447-1492) secured for Italy a season of peace and brilliant pro,sperity.
Venice, however, in the 14th century took her place at last as an Italian power on an equality at least with the very greatest.
Whatever parts the Italians themselves played in the succeeding quarter of a century, the game was in the hands of French, Spanish and German invaders.
Venice rapidly declined throughout the 17th century.
Moved partly by external influences and partly by a slow internal reawakening, the people was preparing for the efforts of the I9th century.
Thus, after a struggle of more than half a century, ix spite of apparently insuperable obstacles, the liberation an the unity of Italy were accomplished.
Early in the 13th century Uzhitse was the seat of St Sava, the first archbishop, and the patron saint of Servia.
E.S.E., there is a 13th-century church, dedicated to St Aril, who, according to tradition, was martyred in the 9th century by unconverted Serbs.
His difficulty consisted in the fact that, like all Anglicans of the 16th century, he recognized no right of private judgment, but believed that the state, as represented by monarchy, parliament and Convocation, had an absolute right to determine the national faith and to impose it on every Englishman.
Magna Carta throws much light on the condition of England in the early 13th century.
Andaman first appears distinctly in the Arab notices of the 9th century, already quoted.
The age of this building is very uncertain; it has been assigned to dates ranging from the 1st to the 4th century A.D.
The vaulting of the nave and aisles and the beautiful cloisters were added in the 13th century.
Close by are the Steipe or Rotes Haus, formerly the town hall, of the 15th century, and the Frankenturm or propugnaculum, of the 10th century, said to be the oldest stone domestic building in Germany.
It dates from the 2nd century, and was the family monument of the Secundini.
Corstopitum ceased to exist early in the 5th century, and the site was never again occupied.
James Prinsep was then devoting his rare genius to the decipherment of the early inscriptions of northern India, especially those of Asoka in the 3rd century B.C. He derived the greatest assistance from Tumour's work not only in historical information, but also as regards the forms of words and grammatical inflexions.
The inscriptions are at present scattered through a number of learned periodicals; a complete list of all those that can be approximately dated between the 3rd century B.C. and the 2nd century A.D.
The first is Dhammapala, who wrote in Kancipura, the modern Conjevaram in south India, in the 5th century of our era.
The second is Buddhadatta, who wrote the Jindlankara in the 5th century A.D.
The results of these investigations show that in Ceylon from the 3rd century B.C. onwards there has been a continuous succession of teachers and scholars.
Many of them lived in the various vihdras or residences situate throughout the island; but the main centre of intellectual effort, down to the 8th century, was the Maha Vihara, the Great Minster, at Anwradhapura.
It would seem that up to the 4th century of our era the Sinhalese had written exclusively in their own tongue; that is to say that for six centuries they had studied and understood Pali as a dead language without using it as a means of literary expression.
In Burma, on the other hand, where Pali was probably introduced from Ceylon, no writings in Pali can be dated before the nth century of our era.
In Alexandria about the middle of the 3rd century it was already 1 M von Rohr, Zeitschr.
Some Churches still continued the three weeks' fast, but by the middle of the 5th century most of these divergences had ceased and the usages of Antioch-Constantinople and Rome-Alexandria had become stereotyped in their respective spheres of influence.
It was introduced into France in 1749, and appears to have been grown in Germany and Britain soon after the middle of the last century, if not earlier.
It is said by Alton to have been introduced into Britain about the end of the 17th century.
Thus various parts of criminals, such as the thigh bone of a hanged man, moss grown on a human skull, &c., were used, and even the celebrated Dr Culpeper in the 17th century recommended " the ashes of the head of a coal black cat as a specific for such as have a skin growing over their sight."
In the 6th century Alexander of Tralles used colchicum for gout, iron for anaemia, and rhubarb in liver weakness and dysentery.
In the 19th century the word chymist became altered to chemist, although the original spelling is still continued to a small extent.
The curious signs on the coloured carboys in chemists' windows, which were commonly to be seen until the middle of the 19th century, were signs used by the alchemists to indicate various chemical substances.
Like most great teachers he published a text-book, and his Traite de Chimie elementaire, theorique et pratique (4 vols., Paris, 1813-16), which served as a standard for a quarter of a century, perhaps did even more for the advance of chemistry than his numerous original discoveries.
This Palestinian town was in the 16th century the headquarters of the Kabbala.
The gild, to which both sexes were admitted, was in existence early in the 13th century, and it was incorporated by a charter from Edward III.
To no town has the memory of one famous son brought wider notoriety than that which the memory of William Shakespeare has brought to Stratford; yet this notoriety sprang into strong growth only towards the end of the 18th century.
The Gild of the Holy Cross, founded in the 13th century for the support of poor priests and others, exercised great authority over the town for many years.
From the 6th century onwards he was looked upon as one of the chief poets and musicians of antiquity, the inventor or perfecter of the lyre, who by his music and singing was able not only to charm the wild beasts, but even to draw the trees and rocks from their places, and to arrest the rivers in their course.
The architecture of the department is chiefly displayed in its churches, many of which possess stained glass of the 16th century.
Besides the cathedral and other churches of Troyes, those of Mussy-sur-Seine (r3th century), Chaource (16th century) and Nogent-sur-Seine (15th and 16th centuries), are of note.
The use of the term to mean the individualized nucleated mass of living protoplasm, which, whether with or without a limiting membrane, primitively forms the proximate histological element of the body of every organism, dates from the second quarter of the i9th century.
History and Bibliography.The study of plant anatomy was begun in the middle of the seventeenth century as a direct result of the construction of microscopes, with which a clear view of the structure of plant tissues could be obtained.
It was revived by several German workers, prominent among whom were Treviranus and Link, and later Moldenhawer, as well as by the Frenchmen Mirbel, at the beginning of the j9th century.
From Mohl down to the eighth decade of the century the study of anatomy was entirely in the hands of a group of German.
Tesla was messing around with this stuff at the turn of the last century.
Before that, a company out of Denver started the dig, back around the turn of the century.
The bullet had caught him full in the chest, driving him backward into the scooped out grotto where his uncle had lain for more than half a century.
The clothes looked far brighter after their first washing in a century.
There were lots of rooming houses but we have no idea how Bird Song was utilized at the turn of the century.
The mountains haven't changed and there are a lot of buildings still standing from the last century.
A half-burned candle sat in a dish on the bureau, perhaps signs of Edith's fascination with the last century.
Astorga has been the see of a bishop since the 3rd century, and was formerly known as the City of Priests, from the number of ecclesiastics resident within its walls.
From the 4th century down to the time of the Mahommedan invasion several ecclesiastical buildings were erected on the spot, but of these no distinct traces remain.
The work of reclamation was removed farther eastwards to Helenaveen in the second half of the 19th century.
The church of St Just, founded in the 10th century, has good wood-carving.
An Ursuline convent, built in 1764, serves as hotel de ville and law court, and a church of the 14th century is used as a market.
Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
It is a centre of the paper-making industry, with which the town has been connected since the 14th century.
The countship of Angouleme dated from the 9th century, the most important of the early counts being William Taillefer, whose descendants held the title till the end of the 12th century.
The site of the church of St Peter has long been occupied by a parish church (there was one in the 12th century, if not earlier), but the existing building dates only from 1870.
The manor of Little Bolton seems to have been, at least from Henry III.'s reign, distinct from that of Great Bolton, and was held till the 17th century by the Botheltons or Boltons.
The cognate industry of bleaching has been carried on since early in the 18th century, and large ironworks grew up in the latter half of the 19th century.
Up to the beginning of the r9th century the market day was Monday, but the customary Saturday market gradually superseded this old chartered market.
The New Year and Whitsuntide Show fairs only arose during the 9th century.
It was not until the middle of the 18th century that experiments due to Benjamin Franklin showed that the electric phenomena of the atmosphere are not fundamentally different from those produced in the laboratory.
But we know that the pressure of the barbarians began to be felt seriously in the later part of the 2nd century, and after long struggles the whole or almost the whole district east of Rhine and north of Danube was lost - seemingly all within one short period - about A.D.
In the 5th century the name " Ionian " was already falling into discredit.
The town was independent in the 13th century, but in 1353, owing to the dissensions of the Salvucci (Ghibellines) and Ardinghelli (Guelphs), it fell into the hands of Florence.
The famous political preacher, Henry Sacheverell, held the living early in the 18th century.
The woollen manufactures, dating from the close of the 16th century, are the most important in Scotland, though now mainly confined to the weaving of tweeds.
The principal building is the cathedral, a Gothic edifice begun in the 13th century.
The church of St Mary is mainly Perpendicular, and contains a Norman font and monuments of the 8th century.
The name of Mannheim was connected with its present site in the 8th century, when a small village belonging to the abbey of Lorsch lay in the marshy district between the Neckar and the Rhine.
Towards the end of the r8th century Mannheim attained great celebrity in the literary world as the place where Schiller's early plays were performed for the first time.
Godollo is the summer residence of the Hungarian royal family, and the royal castle, built in the second half of the 18th century by Prince Anton Grassalkovich, was, with the beautiful domain, presented by the Hungarian nation to King Francis Joseph I.
Victor (rebuilt1580-1615and 1795), to which is attached an ancient baptistery (dating from the 9th century but rebuilt in the 13th).
It may confidently be dated to a period not earlier than the 14th or 15th century A.D., and attributed to the same Bantu people the remains of whose stone-fenced kraals are found at so many places between the Limpopo and the Zambezi.
Early in the 19th century the venue of the dinner, which had now become a ministerial function, was transferred to Greenwich, and though at first not always held here, was later celebrated regularly at the "Ship," an hotel of ancient foundation, closed in 1908.
He may, in fact, be called the father of modern pathology, for his view, that every animal is constituted by a sum of vital units, each of which manifests the characteristics of life, has almost uniformly dominated the theory of disease.since the middle of the 59th century, when it was enunciated.
In the local and municipal politics of Berlin again he took a leading part, and as a member of the municipal council was largely responsible for the transformation which came over the city in the last thirty years of the 19th century.
Favoured by its proximity to two great waterways and by its two ports, Nisaea on the Saronic and Pegae on the Corinthian Gulf, Megara took a prominent part in the commercial expansion of Greece from the 8th century onwards, and for two hundred years enjoyed prosperity out of proportion to the slight resources of its narrow territory.
In the 4th century Megara recovered some measure of prosperity, but played an insignificant part in politics, its only notable move being the participation in the final conflict against Philip II.
In literature Megara figures as the reputed home of the comedian Susarion, and in the 4th century gave its name to a school of philosophy founded by Euclid.
In the 7th century he became the head of the administration and a veritable prime minister.
In the 16th century, when Transylvania separated from Hungary, the town became the residence of the Transylvanian princes.
It was taken by the Turks in the 16th century, and is now noted for its sponges.
Of the church in Ostia there is no authentic record before the 4th century A.D., though there are several Christian inscriptions of an earlier date; but the first bishop of Ostia of whom we have any certain knowledge dates from A.D.
Excavations on the site of Ostia were only begun towards the close of the 18th century, and no systematic work was done until 1854, when under Pius IX.
In the centre of the area are the substructions of a temple, and on the south-east side are the remains of the theatre, built in the early imperial period, restored by Septimius Severus in 196-197 and again in the 4th or 5th century.
His opportunity seemed to have come when, in the middle of the 16th century, the Order of the Sword broke up, and the possession of Livonia was fiercely contested between Sweden, Poland and Denmark.
The Baltic seaboard was lost to Muscovy for another century and a half.
Ecclesiastically the place was dependent on Altham till after the middle of the 19th century.
It has been traced certainly to the 13th, and conjecturally to the 12th century.
Another MS. of the same century has a picture - crude, but spirited - which brings us into close touch with the existing game.
Biased bowls were introduced in the 16th century.
It had been known in Scotland since the close of the 16th century (the Glasgow kirk session fulminated an edict against Sunday bowls in 1595), but greens were few and far between.
It has existed in France since the 17th century.
There is evidence of its vogue in Holland in the 17th century, for the painting by David Teniers (1610-1690), in the Scottish National Gallery at Edinburgh, is wrongly described as "Peasants playing at Skittles."
Serious efforts to organize the game were made in the last quarter of the 19th century, but this time the lead came from Australia.
We find the office mentioned in a Corcyraean inscription dating probably from the 7th century B.C., and it continued to grow more important and frequent throughout Greek history.
This was the name in common use when the Jesuits entered China towards the end of the 16th century, and began to send home accurate information about China.
Destroyed by barbarian invaders in the 7th century the town recovered its importance only in comparatively modern times.
Rulers of this name are found at Rhodes as late as the 1st century B.C. The Prytaneum was regarded as the religious and political centre of the community and was thus the nucleus of all government, and the official "home" of the whole people.
In the 13th century it became the seat of Count Gerhard of Wesemael, who surrounded it with walls and built a castle.
By the end of the 15th century it had become one of the most prosperous towns of Holland, on account of its fisheries and its cloth-trade.
The ruined church at Longpont (13th century) is the relic of an important Cistercian abbey; Urcel and Mont-Notre-Dame have fine churches, the first entirely in the Romanesque style, the second dating from the 12th and 13th centuries, to which period the church at Braisne also belongs.
In the town hall (1507) are the library and a small museum with two pictures by the 17th century artist Caesar van Everdingen, who with his more celebrated brother Allart van Everdingen was a native of the town.
The name of Alkmaar, which means "all sea," first occurs in the 10th century, and recalls its former situation in the midst of marshlands and lakes.
In 1254 it received a charter from William II., count of Holland, similar to that of Haarlem, but in the 15th century duke Philip the Good of Burgundy made the impoverishment of the town, due to ill-government, the excuse for establishing an oligarchical regime, by charters of 1436 and 1437.
Syriac and Armenian versions were made in the 5th century.
In the i i th century Simeon Seth, protovestiarius at the Byzantine court, translated the fabulous history from the Persian back into Greek.
The earliest known French romance of Alexander, by Alberic of Besancon (or more properly Briancon), was, until the discovery of a fragment of ioq lines at Florence in 1852, known only through the German adaptation by Lamprecht the preacher, who wrote towards the end of the 12th century, and by the version made by a Poitevin poet named Simon in decasyllabic lines.
The letter from Alexander to Aristotle and his correspondence with Dindimus are found in Early English versions dating from the 11th century.
There are two considerable fragments of an English alliterative romance on the subject written in the west midland dialect, and dating from the second half of the 14th century.
The church of St Mary and St Modwen is classic in style, of the 18th century, but embodies some remains of an ancient Gothic building.
The former abbot's house at Seyney Park is a half-timbered building of the 15th century.
Burton-upon-Trent (Burhton) is first mentioned towards the close of the 9th century, when St Modwen, an Irish virgin, is said to have established a convent on the Isle of Andressey opposite Burton.
In the last quarter of the 12th century the two brothers Amalric and Guy, sons of Hugh the Brown, played a considerable part in the history of the Latin East.
Though Conrad was almost immediately assassinated, the crown did not 1 A branch of the line continued in Poitou during the 13th century, and ruled in LaMarche till 1303.
This transposition has had, as we shall see, much to do with the history of our subject, ultimately influencing the ecclesiastical chant and lasting until the 17th century of our era.
Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley's comparison of the church and chamber pitches of Orlando Gibbons (vide Ellis's lecture) clearly shows the minor third in Great Britain in the first half of the 17th century.
This lowering tendency towards the low church pitch, and the final adoption of the latter as a general mean pitch throughout the 18th century, was no doubt influenced by the introduction of the violin, which would not bear the high tension to which the lutes and viols had been strained.
Since the 5th century it has been the seat of an archbishop, who has now fifteen suffragans.
The people of the interior are mostly of the old Iranian stock, and there are also a few nomads of the Turkish Baharlu tribe which came to Persia in the lath century when the province was subdued by a Turkish chief.
The struggle between ethical religion and the current worship became acute toward the end of the 7th century.
It contains some fine tapestry and portraits, and the Lee Pennyfamiliar to readers of Sir Walter Scott's Talisman-which was brought from Palestine in the 14th century by the Crusading knight, Sir Simon Lockhart.
The drying-up process has been comparatively rapid since the middle of the 19th century, a town which in 1850 was on the southern margin of the lake being in 1905 over 20 m.
He was the foremost Jewish figure of the 18th century, and to him is attributable the renaissance of the House of Israel.
Mendelssohn was the first great champion of Jewish emancipation in the 18th century.
In the first part of the lath century, the criticism of Jewish dogmas and traditions was associated with a firm adhesion to the older Jewish mode of living.
The word appears in French as pirate for a liquid measure as early as the 13th century.
During the first half of the 19th century civil war and despotic government seriously restricted the natural growth of the country, but since the definite organization of the republic in 1860 and the settlement of disturbing political controversies, the population had increased rapidly.
Another disturbing influence has been the high protective tariffs, adopted during the closing years of the century, which increased the costs of living more rapidly than the wages for labour, and compelled thousands of immigrants to seek employment elsewhere.
The development of the pastoral industry of Argentina from that time to the end of the century was remarkable.
Manufacturing enterprise in Argentina, favoured by the protection of a high tariff, made noticeable progress in the national capital during the closing years of the last century, especially in those small industries which commanded a secure market.
Thus at the opening of the 17th century, after many adventurous efforts, and the expenditure of many lives and much treasure, the Spaniards found themselves securely established on the river Plate, and had planted a number of centres of trade and colonization in the interior.
In 1665 the relaxation of this system was brought about by the continual remonstrances of the people, but for more than a century afterwards (until 1776) the policy of exclusion was enforced.
The birth- Basses-Al rate markedly decreased during the 19th century; Basses-Py despite an increase of population between 1801 and Belfort, 1
The capital value of land, which greatly decreased during the last twenty years of the i9th century, is estimated at 3,120,000,000, and that of stock, buildings, implements, &c., at 340,000,000.
Iron.The iron-mines of France are more numerous than its coalmines, but they do not yield a sufficient quantity of ore for the needs of the metallurgical industries of the country; as will be seen in the table below the production of iron in France gradually increased during the 19th century; on the other hand, a decline in prices operated against a correspondingly marked increase in its annual value.
Metallurgy.The average production and value of iron and steel manufactured in France in the last four decades of the I 9th century is shown below Cast Iron.
It is only from the middle of the I9th century that close attention has been.
Cellular imprisonment was, however, partially adopted for persons awaiting trial., Central prisons, in which prisoners lived and worked in association, had been in existence from the commencement of the i9th century.
It is collected in accordance with a register of property (cadastre) drawn up for the most part in the first half of the 19th century, dealing with every piece of property in France, and giving its extent and value and the name of the owner.
Public Debt.The national debt of France is the heaviest of any country in the world., Its foundation was laid early in the 15th century, and the continuous wars of succeeding centuries, combined with the extravagance of the monarchs, as well as deliberate disregard of financial and economic conditions, increased it at an alarming rate.
It became an important Seljuk town, and late in the 14th century passed into Ottoman hands.
The defences of the place are now solely confined to the island of Danholm, known down to the 13th century as Strehla or Strehlo, lying in the Sound.
It was one of the five Wendish towns whose alliance extorted from King Eric of Norway a favourable commercial treaty in 1284-1285; and in the 14th century it was second only to Lubeck in the Hanseatic League.
After the peace of Westphalia Stralsund was ceded with the rest of Western Pomerania to Sweden; and for more than a century and a half it was exposed to attack and capture as the tete - de - pont of the Swedes in continental Europe.
The Loyalty group was discovered at the beginning of the 19th century, and Dumont d'Urville laid down the several islands in his chart.
The islands were discovered early in the 26th century by Spaniards, who gave them their present name.
In the 3rd century we find it issuing coins with an Oscan legend, but in 211 B.C. it shared the fate of Capua.
In the neighbourhood are the ruins of Law Castle, Crosbie Castle and Portincross Castle, the last, dating from the 13th century, said to be a seat of the Stuart kings.
Their produce has gradually decreased since the 17th century, and is now unimportant, but sulphate of copper, iron pyrites, and some gold, silver, sulphur and sulphuric acid, and red ochre are also produced.
It is found in European streams, and is caught by anglers, being also a favourite in aquariums. The well-known and important industry of "Essence Orientale" and artificial pearls, carried on in France and Germany with the crystalline silvery colouring matter of the bleak, was introduced from China about the middle of the 17th century.
The Kalmucks and Circassians of the Kuban attacked it repeatedly in the r 7th century, so that it had to be fortified by a strong earthen and palisaded wall, traces of which are still visible.
In England this power was frequently employed during the 18th century and was confirmed by the Post Office Act of 1837; its most notorious use being, perhaps, the opening of Mazzini's letters in 1844.
Their approximate form was only arrived at by excavations made during the later years of the 19th century.
After the restoration of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah, a considerable number of Jews returned to the city, but we know practically nothing of its history for more than a century until, in 332 B.C., Alexander the Great conquered Syria.
There are portions probably of the 12th and 13th centuries, but the bulk of the building is of the 17th century, and considerable additions, including the tower and spire, were made in the 19th.
This appears actually to be the case in the period of the First Dynasty of Babylon and also in the 7th century in Assyria, where early Babylonian customs were kept up conservatively.
From this town we have a very interesting though brief inscription dating probably from early in the 3rd century B.C.; it is cut upon a small bronze plate (now in the Naples Museum), which must have once been fixed to some votive object, dedicated to the god Declunus (or the goddess Decluna).
C.; and many of whom were conquered by the Samnites about a century or more earlier.
The Maclaurins acquired the district as early as the 9th century and occupied it for several hundred years until ousted by the Macgregors, a neighbouring clan, who had repeatedly raided their lands, and in 1558 slew the chief and many of his followers.
Gabriel Bethlen was certainly one of the most striking and original personages of his century.
It was found in some abundance at the end of the 18th century in the copper mines of the St Day district in Cornwall, and has since been found at a few other localities, for example, at Konigsberg near Schemnitz in Hungary, and in the Tintic district in Utah.
But among the Greeks themselves the two works of Pheidias which far outshone all others, and were the basis of his fame, were the colossal figures in gold and ivory of Zeus at Olympia and of Athena Parthenos at Athens, both of which belong to about the middle of the 5th century.
Much more satisfactory as evidence are some 5th century torsos of Athena found at Athens.
The Béarnaise family named Besiade moved into the province of Orleanais in the 17th century, and there acquired the estate of Avaray.
It was continued by Mademoiselle de Montpensier in the latter half of the 17th century, and restored by Louis Philippe who, in 1843 and 1845, received Queen Victoria within its walls.
His sister's son, John of Burgundy, count of Nevers, now received the countship, which passed through heiresses, in the 15th century, to the house of Cleves, and to that of Lorraine-Guise.
The title of count of Eu was revived in the 19th century in favour of the eldest son of the duke of Nemours, second son of King Louis Philippe.
The picturesque fortifications also by which the city is surrounded remain almost unaltered as they were in the 15th century.
In the 5th century the three cities were enrolled in the Delian League, and democracies became prevalent.
In the 4th century its political development was arrested by constant struggles between oligarchs and democrats, who in turn brought the city under the control of Sparta (4 12 -395, 39 1 -37 8), of Athens (395-39 1, 37 8 -357), and of 'the Carian dynasty of Maussollus (357-340).
Though Rhodes continued a free town for another century, its commercial prosperity was crippled and a series of extensive earthquakes after A.D.
Up to the end of the 19th century, little was thought of any locally-raised or locally-provided defensive forces, the mother-country being relied upon.
Numerically the flocks of Australia represent one-sixth of the world's sheep, and in just over half a century (1851-1905) the exports of Australian wool alone reached the value of £650,000,000.
As early as the beginning of the 9th century Ameland was a lordship of the influential family of Cammingha who held immediately of the emperor, and in recognition of their independence the Amelanders were in 1369 declared to be neutral in the fighting between Holland and Friesland, while Cromwell made the same declaration in 1654 with respect to the war between England and the United Netherlands.
In the beginning of the 18th century Wangeroog comprised eight times its present area.
The origin of his family has been traced back as far as the end of the 14th century.
From the middle of the 18th century the ancestors of Ferdinand de Lesseps followed the diplomatic career, and he himself occupied with real distinction several posts in the same calling from 1825 to 1849.
But when the Panama "scandal" has been forgotten, for centuries to come the traveller in saluting the statue of Ferdinand de Lesseps at the entrance of the Suez Canal will pay homage to one of the most powerful embodiments of the creative genius of the 19th century.
The parish church of St Mary Magdalene was rebuilt, in 1726-1729, near the site of the old one dating from before the 12th century.
Woolwich seems to have been a small fishing village until in the beginning of the 16th century it rose into prominence as a dockyard and naval station.
The two first of these three are handsome suspension bridges; the third, an iron structure, replaced a wooden bridge of many arches which was closed in 1881, after standing a little over a century.
The sources of our knowledge of the country down to the 8th century are Caesar's De Bello Gallico, iv., the history of Velleius Paterculus, ii.
Of this period scarcely any record remains, but when at the end of the 3rd century the Franks began to swarm over the Rhine into the Roman lands, the names of the old tribes had disappeared.
Towards the end of the century, Charlemagne, himself a Netherlander by descent and ancestral possessions, after a severe struggle, thoroughly subdued the Frisians and Saxons, and compelled them to embrace Christianity.
Three years later, however, Godfrey was murdered, and although the raids of the Northmen did not entirely cease for upwards of another century, no further attempt was made to establish a permanent dynasty in the land.
Little is known about the Netherland towns before the 12th century.
In the north also the 13th century was rich in municipal charters.
In the northern Netherlands generally up to the end of the 14th century the towns had no great political weight; their importance depended upon their river commerce and their markets.
Thus at the close of the 14th century, despite the constant wars between the feudal sovereigns who held sway in the Netherlands, the vigorous municipal life had fostered industry and commerce, and had caused Flanders in particular to become the richest possession in the world.
Its foundation dates from the year 1030, while the nave is Romanesque of the middle of the 12th century, with much pointed work.
The transept was added in the 13th century.
There are several old pictures of merit, and the shrine of St Eleuthere, the first bishop of Tournai in the 6th century, is a remarkable product of the silversmith's art.
These were removed to Paris, and when Napoleon was crowned emperor a century and a half later he chose Childeric's bees for the decoration of his coronation mantle.
The Pont des Trous over the Scheldt, with towers at each end, was built in 1290, and among many other interesting buildings there are some old houses still in occupation which date back to the 13th century.
In the 5th century the Franks seized Tournai, and Merovaeus made it the capital of his dynasty.
In the early 16th century Tournai was an English possession for a few years and Henry VIII.
Such a motive weighed much with Hobbes and with the French materialists of the 18th century, such as La Mettrie and d'Holbach.