We're living in the 21st century, Mary.
After a century, electricity was still being generated.
He was born in Ireland in the eighteenth century.
As for time; it could have been a year or a century ago.
A century later, machines entered the scene.
We have enough to be concerned with today's problems without having to clutter my mind about the happenings of a century ago.
In the succeeding century it was connected with Carthage by a great highway.
About a century later the manor was acquired by the Basset family.
"They call them towns in this century," Iggy corrected him.
The last century Ouray sold flesh, this century it's tee shirts.
This all began to change in the twentieth century for a variety of reasons.
If we live in the Nineteenth Century, why should we not enjoy the advantages which the Nineteenth Century offers?
The first fifteen years of the nineteenth century in Europe present an extraordinary movement of millions of people.
Then there can be a week, a month, a year, a decade, and a century without war.
How does it feel to be a quarter of a century old?
Theveste was founded towards the close of the 1st century A.D.
Could you have imagined a store like this if you lived a century ago?
A century ago, cars were made one at a time by a half dozen people working together.
The town of Ouray, while only a century and a quarter old, was rich in history and Fred O'Connor, together with a cadre of widows with similar interests, spent many hours reading Ouray's old newspapers and written accounts.
Mary, on the other hand, was vocal about her opinion of Cade, even to the point of stating that he would be the greatest catch of the century - no doubt, even an exaggeration in Mary's mind.
Though the controversy went on, its most important result had already been achieved in the silencing of Convocation, for that body, though it had just "seemed to be settling down to its proper work in dealing with the real exigencies of the church" when the Hoadly dispute arose, did not meet again for the despatch of business for nearly a century and a half.
Is the ferment of the peoples of the west at the end of the eighteenth century and their drive eastward explained by the activity of Louis XIV, XV, and XVI, their mistresses and ministers, and by the lives of Napoleon, Rousseau, Diderot, Beaumarchais, and others?
"There were lots of folks who passed through these doors over the last century," he said, sounding not unlike Rod Sterling.
The quarterly conference held four times a century with the highest ranking station commanders was coming up soon, and he had more pressing issues to resolve before it launched.
The very fact that the nineteenth century has not produced many authors whom the world may count among the greatest of all time does not in my opinion justify the remark, "There may come a time when people cease to write."
There were wide eighteenth- century ball gowns, women in little black dresses, one in a fifties poodle skirt, and several in dark dresses with ornate brocade on the bodice, like that of wealthy Middle Age royalty.
Right now I don't give a damn about what happened a century ago and I'm in no position to make judgments of a situation I know so little about.
He wore bathing trunks, a Phillies baseball cap and a t-shirt with the imprint "Eastern PA Century Bicycle Tour" and a date four years earlier.
And what Cynthia Byrne might have become in a different century, under different circumstances, without a David Dean beside her.
Half a century later, nitrous oxide came into use as an anesthetic.
Mark Twain has said that the two most interesting characters of the nineteenth century are Napoleon and Helen Keller.
"I have enough problems with this century without resurrecting the last," she continued.
And today's primary method for treating cancer is, in a way, very tenth century: Essentially, chemotherapy is a medical way of saying, Let's fill you so full of poison either you or the cancer dies.
By the early twentieth century, most manufacturing of fertilizer had switched to the synthetic production of ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate.
I can't tell you which clips will be watched in a century, but I'm certain that some will be.
One minute she's in fear of her life, the next she's enthralled over Annie Quincy, dreaming about life a century ago.
In the 5th century, under Vandal dominion, it declined in importance.
I understand opportunities were limited a century ago but surely she could have been a school teacher or office clerk or something above a brothel prostitute.
The box, advertised as containing Ouray, Colorado correspondence from the last century and "other items of local interest," was offered via the Internet at three hundred dollars.
By the midpoint of the twentieth century, America's dreamers were preoccupied with the future—and not just any old future, but the great and glorious future that seemed inevitable.
Half a century ago, the United States had three channels on TV and everyone watched them.
Dean tried to picture the bustling town of a century past, at one time home to a dozen saloons, four restaurants, a newspaper, nearly three hundred houses and more than a thousand inhabitants.
Of the numerous churches in the city the most interesting are the Stiftskirche, with two towers, a fine specimen of 15th-century Gothic; the Leonhardskirche, also a Gothic building of the 15th century; the Hospitalkirche, restored in 1841, the cloisters of which contain the tomb of Johann Reuchlin; the fine modern Gothic church of St John; the new Roman Catholic church of St Nicholas; the Friedenskirche; and the English church.
In the century leading up to its extermination, smallpox killed about 500,000,000 people.
We don't know what Bird Song was at the turn of the century, just that there was a building or some sort on this site.
He says the count was the last representative but one of the great century, and that it is his own turn now, but that he will do all he can to let his turn come as late as possible.
Your father, a man of the last century, evidently stands above our contemporaries who so condemn this measure which merely reestablishes natural justice.
At the beginning of the 19th century it did not contain 20,000 inhabitants, and its real advance began with the reigns of Kings Frederick and William I., who exerted themselves in every way to improve and beautify it.
Owing to the historical past of Naples, and its social and economic condition at the end of the 17th century, the only study that really flourished there was that of law; and this soon penetrated from the courts to the university, and was raised to the level of a science.
Just half a century ago, Americans on average spent more than 20 percent of their income on food.
At the end of the eighteenth century there were a couple of dozen men in Paris who began to talk about all men being free and equal.
Refounded by the Byzantines in the 6th century, the city disappeared from history at the time of the Arab conquest of the country in the 7th century.
He was in fact a typical representative of the unscrupulous selfseeking Polish magnates of the 17th century who were always ready to sacrifice everything, their country included, to their own private ambition.
And yet over the last century, we also have seen colonies gain their independence and become nations, and nations peaceably divide.
That is the dreadful history of the final, and deadliest, century of smallpox.
A wild-eyed, crazed techno-optimist of the nineteenth century concluded that in fifty years there would be a telephone in every town in America.
But first we must go further back, from Shakespeare at the end of the sixteenth century to Plato around 370 BC.
Then the scientific race of the century was on, with this goal: to figure out how DNA conveyed genetic information.
And that was almost half a century ago!
By far, the world's bloodiest century was the twentieth century, which saw one hundred million people die from war.
No. But any code a minister's wife of the last century put together can't be all that sophisticated, can it?
Their signature oyster loaves have been popular for nearly a century.
As recently as the early twentieth century, relatively few careers existed in which young men of drive and ambition could distinguish themselves and leave a mark on the world.
Whether you are rich or poor, live in the developed world or the developing world, life today is better and easier than it was a century ago by virtually any measure.
But before the twentieth century, this was not the case and actual famines were much more common.
Historic establishments abound, not the least of which are the bars and taverns frequented by patrons for more than a century.
Towards the end of the 19th century came the discovery made by W.
Down to the close of the 17th century it was of some importance as a naval station.
Guests can also wander through the town and enjoy the ambiance of a century gone by.
It was not completed, however, till the 19th century, when the west portal and towers and two bays of the nave were added, according to the plans of Violletle-Duc. The fine stained glass of the windows dates from the 13th to the 15th centuries.
Among the old houses one, dating from the 16th century, was the birthplace of Blaise Pascal, whose statue stands in a neighbouring square.
The present name, derived from Clarus Mons and originally applied only to the citadel, was used of the town as early as the 9th century.
In the wars against the English in the 14th and 15th centuries and the religious wars of the 16th century the town had its full participation; and in 1665 it acquired a terrible notoriety by the trial and execution of many members of the nobility of Auvergne who had tyrannized over the neighbouring districts.
high, large remains of a circular cyclopean tower, called Dun-Aengus, ascribed to the Fir-bolg or Belgae; or, individually, to the first of three brothers, Aengus, Conchobar and Nil, who reached Aran Islands from Scotland in the 1st century A.D.
Christianity was introduced in the 5th century, and Aran soon became one of the most famous island-resorts of religious teachers and ascetics.
Antinous, the favourite of Hadrian, was adored in Egypt a century after his death (Origen, Contra Celsum, iii.
It dates from the 11th century, and once belonged to the Ogilvies, from whom it passed in 1535 to the Gordons.
There is no existing MS. of Propertius older than the 12th century.
By the close of the 17th century there were three frontier "generalates" - Carlstadt, Warasdin and Petrinia.
These "apparelled albs" (albae paratae) continued in general use in the Western Church till the 16th century, when a tendency to dispense with the parures began, Rome itself setting the example.
In England at the Reformation the alb went out of use with the other "Mass vestments," and remained out of use in the Church of England until the ritual revival of the 19th century.
the modern Italian camice for alb) - it seems to have been thus used as early as the 5th century.
In England rood lofts do not appear to have been introduced before the 14th century, and were not common till the 15th.
Large cemeteries have been excavated, which show three different periods from the 8th century B.C. down to the Roman domination.
This eastern region was occupied in the 17th century by the Annamese, who in the 18th century absorbed the western provinces.
The town is one of the oldest in Norway, founded in the 8th or 9th century, but the present town is modern, though narrow, winding streets and wooden houses give it an antique appearance.
It became the seat of a bishopric in the 13th century.
Though the bishop's see was removed to Christiansand in 1685, the Romanesque cathedral church of St Swithun, founded by the English bishop Reinald in the end of the 11th century, and rebuilt after being burned down in 1272, remains, and, next to the cathedral of Trondhjem, is the most interesting stone church in Norway.
It is evident from the fact of thirteen inhabitants being allowed to hold the manor that the town had some kind of incorporation in the 17th century, although its incorporation charter was not granted until 1899, when it was created a municipal borough.
With the crystallization of the feudal system in the 12th century the office of vidame, like that of avoue, had become an hereditary fief.
As "allies" of the Romans the Nabataeans continued to flourish throughout the first Christian century.
Nicolo is the so-called Oratory of Phalaris, a shrine of the 2nd century B.C., 274 ft.
Just outside the south wall is a Roman necropolis, with massive tombs in masonry, and a Christian catacomb, and a little farther south a tomb in two stories, a mixture of Doric and Ionic architecture, belonging probably to the 2nd century B.C., though groundlessly called Dimensions in English feet.
5 represents the instrument with which a half of the astronomical measurements of the 19th century were made.
This occurred especially in the last half of the 19th century, largely owing to the abolition of the so-called beni ademprivili.
There are signs of trade with Etruria as early as the 7th century B.C. The Carthaginians made it into an important grainproducing centre; and the Romans set foot in the island more than once during the First Punic War.
Some light is thrown on the condition and administration of the island in the 1st century B.C. by Cicero's speech (of which a part only is preserved) in defence of M.
The Barbaricini are mentioned in the 6th century A.D.
The three Cipxovms who appear in the loth-century inscriptions just mentioned bear alternately the names Torcotorius and Salusius; and, inasmuch as this is the case with the judices of Cagliari from the 11th to the 13th century, there seems no doubt that they were the successors of these Byzantine ripXovrfs, who were perhaps the actual founders of the dynasty.
The Greek language occurs in their official seals down to the 13th century.
In 1241 Adelasia, heiress of Gallura and Logudoro, was married as her third husband to Enzio, the natural son of Frederick II., who received the title of king of Sardinia from his father, but fell into the hands of the Bolognese in 1249, and 3 Three inscriptions of the middle of this century, set up by the iipXcov Zap8'vias with the title protospatarius, are illustrated by A.
Under Byzantium it remained nominally until the 10th century, when we find the chief magistrate still bearing the title of apXow.3 In the 8th century 4 (720) the period of Saracen invasion began; but the Saracens never secured a firm footing in the island.
In 725 Luidprand purchased and removed to Pavia the body of St Augustine of Hippo from Cagliari, whither it had been brought in the 6th century by the exiled bishop of Hippo.
The island had (probably since the end of the 9th century) been divided into four districts - Cagliari, Arborea, Torres (or Logudoro) and Gallura - each under a giudice or remained a prisoner at Bologna until his death.
In the 17th century we have only to mention the concordat between Urban VIII.
In the 18th century concordats are numerous: there are two for Spain, in 1737 and 1753; two for the duchy of Milan, in 1757 and 1784; one for Poland, in 1736; five for Sardinia and Piedmont, in 1727, 1741, 1742, 1750 and 1770; and one for the kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1741.
After the political and territorial upheavals which marked the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th, all these concordats either fell to the ground or had to be recast.
In the 1 9th century we find a long series of concordats, of which a good number are still in force.
After having been the law of the Church of France for a century, it was denounced by the French government in 1905.
The numerous concordats concluded towards the middle of the 19th century with several of the South American republics either have not come into force or have been denounced and replaced by a more or less pacific modus vivendi.
Among the notable buildings are the weigh-house (17th century), the bell-tower (1591), formerly attached to the town-hall before this was destroyed in the 18th century, and the church of St.
Mention is made of this church in a document of 1356, but it was not completed until the beginning of the 15th century.
A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
The town has wide streets and contains several old churches, one of which, a Roman Catholic church, built in the 14th century, has a tower 33 o ft.
The beer of Schweidnitz has long been famous under the name of "Schwarze Schdps," and in the 16th century it was exported as far as Italy.
Schweidnitz, dating from about the 11th century, received civic rights in 1250.
See James Mackintosh, Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy (Edinburgh, 1832); and specially Sir Leslie Stephen, English Thought in the 18th Century, iii.
Another church is the Annexkirche, formerly a convent of the Minorites; this dates from the middle of the 15th century.
The town was the seat of the counts of Cleves as early as the 11th century, but it did not receive municipal rights until 1242.
Though the emperor Julian improved its defences, the town was destroyed by the Huns under Attila, in the 5th century, but Justinian did his best to restore it.
In the 9th century the Bulgarians became masters of Naissus, but had to cede it to the Hungarians in the iith century, from whom the Byzantine emperor Manuel I.
Towards the end of the 12th century the town was in the hands of the Servian prince Stephen Nemanya, who there received hospitably the German emperor Frederic Barbarossa and his Crusaders.
The Servians having, in the beginning of the 19th century, successfully cleared Servia of Turks, were emboldened to attack Nish in 1809, but were repulsed with great loss.
Nishapur was an important place during the 5th century, for Yazdegerd II.
It has been general since the 9th century.
The actual building dates from the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century, and contains a fine library with a collection of rare manuscripts and incunabula; near it is the small and old town of Tepl (pop. 2789).
There was a tendency towards increased emigration during, the last quarter of the 19th century.
The most marked proof of the change which came over Italy towards the middle of the I4th century is furnished by the companies of adventure.
Albs were originally quite plain, but about the 10th century the custom arose of ornamenting the borders and the cuffs of the sleeves with strips of embroidery, and this became common in the 12th century.
Tesla was messing around with this stuff at the turn of the last century.
Before that, a company out of Denver started the dig, back around the turn of the century.
The bullet had caught him full in the chest, driving him backward into the scooped out grotto where his uncle had lain for more than half a century.
The clothes looked far brighter after their first washing in a century.
There were lots of rooming houses but we have no idea how Bird Song was utilized at the turn of the century.
The mountains haven't changed and there are a lot of buildings still standing from the last century.
A half-burned candle sat in a dish on the bureau, perhaps signs of Edith's fascination with the last century.
The lie held up for a century.
Even if it was Bird Song where she stayed, the place must have been altered a dozen times in the last century.
In all its main features it is essentially a modern town, and few of its principal buildings are older than the 19th century.
(1899), and The English Church in the 16th Century (1902); J.
Though the family lost most of its possessions during the Mahratta invasion in the 14th century, it never became tributary to any Malwa chief.
HERMAGORAS, of Temnos, Greek rhetorician of the Rhodian school and teacher of oratory in Rome, flourished during the first half of the 1st century B.C. He obtained a great reputation among a certain section and founded a special school, the members of which called themselves Hermagorei.
It is of course quite possible that isolated cases of officers being put to death for their faith occurred during Maximinian's reign, and on some such cases the legend may have grown up during the century and a half between Maximinian and Eucherius.
In the 9th century Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, in his work, De ordine palatii et regni, speaks of a summus cancellarius, evidently an official at the court of the Carolingian emperors and kings.
However this may be, during the 12th century the elector of Trier took the title of archchancellor for the kingdom of Arles, although it is doubtful if he ever performed any duties in connexion with this office.
1730) at Marseilles, 1853, and at Cairo; and with the commentary of Rushayyid Ghalib (19th century) at Cairo, 1893.
Golitsuin was a typical representative of Russian society of the end of the 17th century in its transition from barbarism to civilization.
Though sacked by the Goths in the 5th century, and later by the Moors, it is still surrounded by massive walls of Roman origin.
A ruined castle, near the city, recalls its strategic importance in the 8th century, when Asturias, Galicia and Leon were the headquarters of resistance to the Moors.
Astorga has been the see of a bishop since the 3rd century, and was formerly known as the City of Priests, from the number of ecclesiastics resident within its walls.
Its Gothic cathedral dates from the 15th century.
From the 4th century down to the time of the Mahommedan invasion several ecclesiastical buildings were erected on the spot, but of these no distinct traces remain.
Dill, Roman Society in the Fifth Century, and T.
The work of reclamation was removed farther eastwards to Helenaveen in the second half of the 19th century.
The church of St Just, founded in the 10th century, has good wood-carving.
An Ursuline convent, built in 1764, serves as hotel de ville and law court, and a church of the 14th century is used as a market.
Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
It is a centre of the paper-making industry, with which the town has been connected since the 14th century.
The countship of Angouleme dated from the 9th century, the most important of the early counts being William Taillefer, whose descendants held the title till the end of the 12th century.
The site of the church of St Peter has long been occupied by a parish church (there was one in the 12th century, if not earlier), but the existing building dates only from 1870.
The manor of Little Bolton seems to have been, at least from Henry III.'s reign, distinct from that of Great Bolton, and was held till the 17th century by the Botheltons or Boltons.
The cognate industry of bleaching has been carried on since early in the 18th century, and large ironworks grew up in the latter half of the 19th century.
Up to the beginning of the r9th century the market day was Monday, but the customary Saturday market gradually superseded this old chartered market.
The New Year and Whitsuntide Show fairs only arose during the 9th century.
It was not until the middle of the 18th century that experiments due to Benjamin Franklin showed that the electric phenomena of the atmosphere are not fundamentally different from those produced in the laboratory.
But we know that the pressure of the barbarians began to be felt seriously in the later part of the 2nd century, and after long struggles the whole or almost the whole district east of Rhine and north of Danube was lost - seemingly all within one short period - about A.D.
The earliest explicit Greek account of the Ionians is given in the 5th century by Herodotus (i.
In the 5th century the name " Ionian " was already falling into discredit.
The town was independent in the 13th century, but in 1353, owing to the dissensions of the Salvucci (Ghibellines) and Ardinghelli (Guelphs), it fell into the hands of Florence.
The famous political preacher, Henry Sacheverell, held the living early in the 18th century.
The woollen manufactures, dating from the close of the 16th century, are the most important in Scotland, though now mainly confined to the weaving of tweeds.
"Furlong" was as early as the 9th century used to translate the Latin stadium, s th of the Roman mile.
The principal building is the cathedral, a Gothic edifice begun in the 13th century.
The church of St Mary is mainly Perpendicular, and contains a Norman font and monuments of the 8th century.
The name of Mannheim was connected with its present site in the 8th century, when a small village belonging to the abbey of Lorsch lay in the marshy district between the Neckar and the Rhine.
The history of modern Mannheim begins, however, with the opening of the 17th century, when the elector palatine Frederick IV.
Towards the end of the r8th century Mannheim attained great celebrity in the literary world as the place where Schiller's early plays were performed for the first time.
Godollo is the summer residence of the Hungarian royal family, and the royal castle, built in the second half of the 18th century by Prince Anton Grassalkovich, was, with the beautiful domain, presented by the Hungarian nation to King Francis Joseph I.
Victor (rebuilt1580-1615and 1795), to which is attached an ancient baptistery (dating from the 9th century but rebuilt in the 13th).
It may confidently be dated to a period not earlier than the 14th or 15th century A.D., and attributed to the same Bantu people the remains of whose stone-fenced kraals are found at so many places between the Limpopo and the Zambezi.
Early in the 19th century the venue of the dinner, which had now become a ministerial function, was transferred to Greenwich, and though at first not always held here, was later celebrated regularly at the "Ship," an hotel of ancient foundation, closed in 1908.
GAIUS SUETONIUS PAULINUS (1st century A.D.), Roman general.
8 45, 1 333, according to whom Typhon, the "snake-footed" earth-spirit, is the god of the destructive wind, perhaps originally of the sirocco, but early taken by the Phoenicians to denote the north wind, in which sense it was probably used by the Greeks of the 5th century in nautical language; and also in Philologus, ii.
He may, in fact, be called the father of modern pathology, for his view, that every animal is constituted by a sum of vital units, each of which manifests the characteristics of life, has almost uniformly dominated the theory of disease.since the middle of the 59th century, when it was enunciated.
In the local and municipal politics of Berlin again he took a leading part, and as a member of the municipal council was largely responsible for the transformation which came over the city in the last thirty years of the 19th century.
Favoured by its proximity to two great waterways and by its two ports, Nisaea on the Saronic and Pegae on the Corinthian Gulf, Megara took a prominent part in the commercial expansion of Greece from the 8th century onwards, and for two hundred years enjoyed prosperity out of proportion to the slight resources of its narrow territory.
In the 4th century Megara recovered some measure of prosperity, but played an insignificant part in politics, its only notable move being the participation in the final conflict against Philip II.
In literature Megara figures as the reputed home of the comedian Susarion, and in the 4th century gave its name to a school of philosophy founded by Euclid.
In the 7th century he became the head of the administration and a veritable prime minister.
It has also been conferred during the closing years of the 19th century by letters patent on other cities - Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Sheffield, Leeds, Cardiff, Bradford, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Belfast, Cork.
And the algebraists or arithmeticians of the 16th century, such as Luca Pacioli (Lucas de Borgo), Geronimo or Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), and Niccola Tartaglia (1506-1559), had used geometrical constructions to throw light on the solution of particular equations.
Against this work and the Ethics of Spinoza the orthodox Cartesians (who were in the majority), no less than sceptical hangers-on like Bayle, raised an all but universal howl of reprobation, scarcely broken for about a century.
Gyula-Fehervar is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and has a fine Roman Catholic cathedral, built in the 1 nth century in Romanesque style, and rebuilt in 5443 by John Hunyady in Gothic style.
The bishopric was founded in the 1th century by King Ladislaus I.
In the 16th century, when Transylvania separated from Hungary, the town became the residence of the Transylvanian princes.
It was taken by the Turks in the 16th century, and is now noted for its sponges.
Of the church in Ostia there is no authentic record before the 4th century A.D., though there are several Christian inscriptions of an earlier date; but the first bishop of Ostia of whom we have any certain knowledge dates from A.D.
The 2nd and 3rd centuries, indeed, are the high-water mark of its prosperity: and it still possessed a mint in the 4th century A.D.
Excavations on the site of Ostia were only begun towards the close of the 18th century, and no systematic work was done until 1854, when under Pius IX.
In the centre of the area are the substructions of a temple, and on the south-east side are the remains of the theatre, built in the early imperial period, restored by Septimius Severus in 196-197 and again in the 4th or 5th century.
to the south-east is the pine forest of Castel Fusano, taking its name from a castle erected by the marchese Sacchetti in the 6th century.
His opportunity seemed to have come when, in the middle of the 16th century, the Order of the Sword broke up, and the possession of Livonia was fiercely contested between Sweden, Poland and Denmark.
The Baltic seaboard was lost to Muscovy for another century and a half.
5 The " peace of Callias " is perhaps a fiction of the 4th century orators.
Ecclesiastically the place was dependent on Altham till after the middle of the 19th century.
It has been traced certainly to the 13th, and conjecturally to the 12th century.
Another MS. of the same century has a picture - crude, but spirited - which brings us into close touch with the existing game.
Biased bowls were introduced in the 16th century.
It had been known in Scotland since the close of the 16th century (the Glasgow kirk session fulminated an edict against Sunday bowls in 1595), but greens were few and far between.
It has existed in France since the 17th century.
There is evidence of its vogue in Holland in the 17th century, for the painting by David Teniers (1610-1690), in the Scottish National Gallery at Edinburgh, is wrongly described as "Peasants playing at Skittles."
Serious efforts to organize the game were made in the last quarter of the 19th century, but this time the lead came from Australia.
We find the office mentioned in a Corcyraean inscription dating probably from the 7th century B.C., and it continued to grow more important and frequent throughout Greek history.
This was the name in common use when the Jesuits entered China towards the end of the 16th century, and began to send home accurate information about China.
Destroyed by barbarian invaders in the 7th century the town recovered its importance only in comparatively modern times.
Rulers of this name are found at Rhodes as late as the 1st century B.C. The Prytaneum was regarded as the religious and political centre of the community and was thus the nucleus of all government, and the official "home" of the whole people.
In the 13th century it became the seat of Count Gerhard of Wesemael, who surrounded it with walls and built a castle.
By the end of the 15th century it had become one of the most prosperous towns of Holland, on account of its fisheries and its cloth-trade.
Towards the end of the 17th century the fortifications were greatly strengthened by Coehoorn, and in 1725 they were further extended.
The ruined church at Longpont (13th century) is the relic of an important Cistercian abbey; Urcel and Mont-Notre-Dame have fine churches, the first entirely in the Romanesque style, the second dating from the 12th and 13th centuries, to which period the church at Braisne also belongs.
In the town hall (1507) are the library and a small museum with two pictures by the 17th century artist Caesar van Everdingen, who with his more celebrated brother Allart van Everdingen was a native of the town.
The name of Alkmaar, which means "all sea," first occurs in the 10th century, and recalls its former situation in the midst of marshlands and lakes.
In 1254 it received a charter from William II., count of Holland, similar to that of Haarlem, but in the 15th century duke Philip the Good of Burgundy made the impoverishment of the town, due to ill-government, the excuse for establishing an oligarchical regime, by charters of 1436 and 1437.
Auxiliary sources for the medieval romance-writers were: - the opuscule (4th century) known as Alexandri magni iter ad Paradisum, a fable of Eastern origin directed against ambition; the Itinerarium Alexandri (340), based partly on Julius Valerius and dedicated to Constans, son of the emperor Constantine; the letter of Alexander to Aristotle (Epist.
Syriac and Armenian versions were made in the 5th century.
In the i i th century Simeon Seth, protovestiarius at the Byzantine court, translated the fabulous history from the Persian back into Greek.
The earliest known French romance of Alexander, by Alberic of Besancon (or more properly Briancon), was, until the discovery of a fragment of ioq lines at Florence in 1852, known only through the German adaptation by Lamprecht the preacher, who wrote towards the end of the 12th century, and by the version made by a Poitevin poet named Simon in decasyllabic lines.
The French feudal romance, Li Romans d'Alexandre, was written in the 12th century by [[hero, making him especially the type of lavish generosity.
It was translated at the end of the next century into Flemish by J.
The letter from Alexander to Aristotle and his correspondence with Dindimus are found in Early English versions dating from the 11th century.
There are two considerable fragments of an English alliterative romance on the subject written in the west midland dialect, and dating from the second half of the 14th century.
The church of St Mary and St Modwen is classic in style, of the 18th century, but embodies some remains of an ancient Gothic building.
The former abbot's house at Seyney Park is a half-timbered building of the 15th century.
Burton-upon-Trent (Burhton) is first mentioned towards the close of the 9th century, when St Modwen, an Irish virgin, is said to have established a convent on the Isle of Andressey opposite Burton.
In the last quarter of the 12th century the two brothers Amalric and Guy, sons of Hugh the Brown, played a considerable part in the history of the Latin East.
Though Conrad was almost immediately assassinated, the crown did not 1 A branch of the line continued in Poitou during the 13th century, and ruled in LaMarche till 1303.
This transposition has had, as we shall see, much to do with the history of our subject, ultimately influencing the ecclesiastical chant and lasting until the 17th century of our era.
Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley's comparison of the church and chamber pitches of Orlando Gibbons (vide Ellis's lecture) clearly shows the minor third in Great Britain in the first half of the 17th century.
This lowering tendency towards the low church pitch, and the final adoption of the latter as a general mean pitch throughout the 18th century, was no doubt influenced by the introduction of the violin, which would not bear the high tension to which the lutes and viols had been strained.
Since the 5th century it has been the seat of an archbishop, who has now fifteen suffragans.
The people of the interior are mostly of the old Iranian stock, and there are also a few nomads of the Turkish Baharlu tribe which came to Persia in the lath century when the province was subdued by a Turkish chief.
394), a barbarian officer in the Roman army, at the end of the 4th century.
The struggle between ethical religion and the current worship became acute toward the end of the 7th century.
The old castle was largely rebuilt in the 19th century.
It contains some fine tapestry and portraits, and the Lee Pennyfamiliar to readers of Sir Walter Scott's Talisman-which was brought from Palestine in the 14th century by the Crusading knight, Sir Simon Lockhart.
Silver coins of Carthaea and Coressia have been found dating from the 6th century B.C.
The New Church, formerly the church of St Ursula (14th century), is the burial place of the princes of Orange.
The Old Church, founded in the 11th century, but in its present form dating from 1476, contains the monuments of two famous admirals of the 17th century, Martin van Tromp and Piet Hein, as well as the tomb of the naturalist Leeuwenhoek, born at Delft in 1632.
Of the Sarcopsyllidae the best known species is the "jigger" or "chigoe" (Dermatophilus penetrans), indigenous in tropical South America and introduced into West Africa during the second half of last century.
It was mainly accident which determined that from the 12th to the 17th century Avicenna should be the guide of medical study in European universities, and eclipse the names of Rhazes, Ali ibn al-Abbas and Avenzoar.
The 15th century has the honour of composing the great commentary on the text of the Canon, grouping around it all that theory had imagined, and all that practice had observed.
They were the king's lieutenants for judicial and administrative purposes and were established in the 12th century, either by Alexander I.
It was opened to foreign trade towards the latter end of the 18th century.
Landsberg was the capital of a small margraviate of this name, ruled in the 12th century by a certain Dietrich, who built the town.
Early in the 18th century Antoine Court made marvellous efforts to restore Presbyterianism.
From the beginning of the 18th century the greater number of the Presbyterian congregations became practically independent in polity and Unitarian in doctrine.
During the 18th century Irish Presbyterianism became infected with Arianism.
The Presbyterian Church of Wales, commonly known as the "Calvinistic Methodist," had its origin in the great evangelical revival of the 18th century.
Nine of these Puritan Presbyterian churches were established on Long Island between 1640 and 1670 - one at Southampton and one at Southold (originally of the Congregational type) in 1640, one at Hempstead about 1644, one at Jamaica in 1662, and churches at Newtown and Setauket in the next half century; and three Puritan Presbyterian churches were established in Westchester county, New York, between 1677 and 1685.
A great and widespread revival marked the opening years of the century, resulting in marvellous increase of zeal and numbers.
The frescoes are interesting works of the early 13th century.
Giovanni Evangelista, which was founded along with the Benedictine monastery in 981, but as a building dates from 1510, and has a façade erected by Simone Moschino early in the 17th century.
The fiction of Belisarius wandering as a blind beggar through the streets of Constantinople, which has been adopted by Marmontel in his Belisaire, and by various painters and poets, is first heard of in the 10th century.
of Irish Periodical Literature from the End of the 17th to the Middle of the Igth Century (2 vols., London, 1867); Francis Hardy, Memoirs of the Earl of Charlemont (2 vols., London, 1812); W.
Lecky, History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, vols.
The drying-up process has been comparatively rapid since the middle of the 19th century, a town which in 1850 was on the southern margin of the lake being in 1905 over 20 m.
He was the foremost Jewish figure of the 18th century, and to him is attributable the renaissance of the House of Israel.
Mendelssohn was the first great champion of Jewish emancipation in the 18th century.
In the first part of the lath century, the criticism of Jewish dogmas and traditions was associated with a firm adhesion to the older Jewish mode of living.
The word appears in French as pirate for a liquid measure as early as the 13th century.
During the first half of the 19th century civil war and despotic government seriously restricted the natural growth of the country, but since the definite organization of the republic in 1860 and the settlement of disturbing political controversies, the population had increased rapidly.
Another disturbing influence has been the high protective tariffs, adopted during the closing years of the century, which increased the costs of living more rapidly than the wages for labour, and compelled thousands of immigrants to seek employment elsewhere.
The development of the pastoral industry of Argentina from that time to the end of the century was remarkable.
Manufacturing enterprise in Argentina, favoured by the protection of a high tariff, made noticeable progress in the national capital during the closing years of the last century, especially in those small industries which commanded a secure market.
Thus at the opening of the 17th century, after many adventurous efforts, and the expenditure of many lives and much treasure, the Spaniards found themselves securely established on the river Plate, and had planted a number of centres of trade and colonization in the interior.
In 1665 the relaxation of this system was brought about by the continual remonstrances of the people, but for more than a century afterwards (until 1776) the policy of exclusion was enforced.
The birth- Basses-Al rate markedly decreased during the 19th century; Basses-Py despite an increase of population between 1801 and Belfort, 1
The capital value of land, which greatly decreased during the last twenty years of the i9th century, is estimated at 3,120,000,000, and that of stock, buildings, implements, &c., at 340,000,000.
The development of French coal and lignite mining in the i9th century, together with records of prices, which rose considerably at the end of the period, is set forth in the table below:
Iron.The iron-mines of France are more numerous than its coalmines, but they do not yield a sufficient quantity of ore for the needs of the metallurgical industries of the country; as will be seen in the table below the production of iron in France gradually increased during the 19th century; on the other hand, a decline in prices operated against a correspondingly marked increase in its annual value.
Metallurgy.The average production and value of iron and steel manufactured in France in the last four decades of the I 9th century is shown below Cast Iron.
The increase in production in the last twenty years of the 19th century is indicated in the following table: Average Annual Years.
It is only from the middle of the I9th century that close attention has been.
Cellular imprisonment was, however, partially adopted for persons awaiting trial., Central prisons, in which prisoners lived and worked in association, had been in existence from the commencement of the i9th century.
It is collected in accordance with a register of property (cadastre) drawn up for the most part in the first half of the 19th century, dealing with every piece of property in France, and giving its extent and value and the name of the owner.
Public Debt.The national debt of France is the heaviest of any country in the world., Its foundation was laid early in the 15th century, and the continuous wars of succeeding centuries, combined with the extravagance of the monarchs, as well as deliberate disregard of financial and economic conditions, increased it at an alarming rate.
It became an important Seljuk town, and late in the 14th century passed into Ottoman hands.
The defences of the place are now solely confined to the island of Danholm, known down to the 13th century as Strehla or Strehlo, lying in the Sound.
It was one of the five Wendish towns whose alliance extorted from King Eric of Norway a favourable commercial treaty in 1284-1285; and in the 14th century it was second only to Lubeck in the Hanseatic League.
After the peace of Westphalia Stralsund was ceded with the rest of Western Pomerania to Sweden; and for more than a century and a half it was exposed to attack and capture as the tete - de - pont of the Swedes in continental Europe.
The Loyalty group was discovered at the beginning of the 19th century, and Dumont d'Urville laid down the several islands in his chart.
The islands were discovered early in the 26th century by Spaniards, who gave them their present name.
In the 3rd century we find it issuing coins with an Oscan legend, but in 211 B.C. it shared the fate of Capua.
In the neighbourhood are the ruins of Law Castle, Crosbie Castle and Portincross Castle, the last, dating from the 13th century, said to be a seat of the Stuart kings.
Their produce has gradually decreased since the 17th century, and is now unimportant, but sulphate of copper, iron pyrites, and some gold, silver, sulphur and sulphuric acid, and red ochre are also produced.
It is found in European streams, and is caught by anglers, being also a favourite in aquariums. The well-known and important industry of "Essence Orientale" and artificial pearls, carried on in France and Germany with the crystalline silvery colouring matter of the bleak, was introduced from China about the middle of the 17th century.
not later than the earlier half of the 7th century B.C. In the next century Aegina is one of the three principal states trading at the emporium of Naucratis, and it is the only state of European Greece that has a share in this factory (Herod.
The account which Herodotus gives of the hostilities between the two states in the early years of the 5th century B.C. is to the following effect.
A fort was erected here in the 16th century to prevent the incursions of the free Cossacks and runaway serfs who gathered on the lower Volga, as also the raids of the Kalmucks and Circassians.
The Kalmucks and Circassians of the Kuban attacked it repeatedly in the r 7th century, so that it had to be fortified by a strong earthen and palisaded wall, traces of which are still visible.
In England this power was frequently employed during the 18th century and was confirmed by the Post Office Act of 1837; its most notorious use being, perhaps, the opening of Mazzini's letters in 1844.
Their approximate form was only arrived at by excavations made during the later years of the 19th century.
After the restoration of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah, a considerable number of Jews returned to the city, but we know practically nothing of its history for more than a century until, in 332 B.C., Alexander the Great conquered Syria.
Simon then constructed a new citadel, north of the Temple, to take the place of the Acra, and established in Judaea the Asmonean dynasty, which lasted for nearly a century, when the Roman republic began to make its influence felt in Syria.
In the 6th century the emperor Justinian erected a magnificent basilica at Jerusalem, in honour of the Virgin Mary, and attached to it two hospitals, one for the reception of pilgrims and one for the accommodation of the sick poor.
About the middle of the 12th century the country was subdued by the duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, who founded a bishopric at Ratzeburg, and after Henry's fall in 1180 it formed part of the smaller duchy of Saxony, which was governed by Duke Bernhard.
These ruins, for which the name Kizil minare or Chihil menare (" the forty columns or minarets "), can be traced back to the 13th century, are now known as Takhti Jamshid (" the throne of Jamshid ").
This fruitful region, however, was covered with villages till the frightful devastations of the 18th century; and even now it is, comparatively speaking, well cultivated.
We learn from Oriental writers that one of the Buyid (Buwaihid) sultans in the 10th century of the Flight constructed the great cisterns, which may yet be seen, and have been visited, amongst others, by James Morier and E.
Ouseley points out that this castle was still used in the 16th century, at least as a state prison.
It is a military station, and was founded towards the close of the 11th century.
At the verge of the rock on the western side is the old baronial castle, erected by King John in 1185, which was the residence of the bishops till the 14th century.
There are portions probably of the 12th and 13th centuries, but the bulk of the building is of the 17th century, and considerable additions, including the tower and spire, were made in the 19th.
- Although the legal basis for the final stage is found in the legislation of the time of Moses (latter part of the second millennium B.C.), it is in reality scarcely earlier than the 5th century B.C., and the Jewish theory finds analogies when developments of the Levitical service are referred to David (I Chron.
This appears actually to be the case in the period of the First Dynasty of Babylon and also in the 7th century in Assyria, where early Babylonian customs were kept up conservatively.
From this town we have a very interesting though brief inscription dating probably from early in the 3rd century B.C.; it is cut upon a small bronze plate (now in the Naples Museum), which must have once been fixed to some votive object, dedicated to the god Declunus (or the goddess Decluna).
C.; and many of whom were conquered by the Samnites about a century or more earlier.
The Maclaurins acquired the district as early as the 9th century and occupied it for several hundred years until ousted by the Macgregors, a neighbouring clan, who had repeatedly raided their lands, and in 1558 slew the chief and many of his followers.
Gabriel Bethlen was certainly one of the most striking and original personages of his century.
It was found in some abundance at the end of the 18th century in the copper mines of the St Day district in Cornwall, and has since been found at a few other localities, for example, at Konigsberg near Schemnitz in Hungary, and in the Tintic district in Utah.
But among the Greeks themselves the two works of Pheidias which far outshone all others, and were the basis of his fame, were the colossal figures in gold and ivory of Zeus at Olympia and of Athena Parthenos at Athens, both of which belong to about the middle of the 5th century.
His head was of somewhat archaic type: the Otricoli mask which used to be regarded as a copy of the head of the Olympian statue is certainly more than a century later in style.
Much more satisfactory as evidence are some 5th century torsos of Athena found at Athens.
The Béarnaise family named Besiade moved into the province of Orleanais in the 17th century, and there acquired the estate of Avaray.
JACOBUS BALDUINUS, Italian jurist of the 13th century, was by birth a Bolognese, and is reputed to have been of a noble family.
It was continued by Mademoiselle de Montpensier in the latter half of the 17th century, and restored by Louis Philippe who, in 1843 and 1845, received Queen Victoria within its walls.
His sister's son, John of Burgundy, count of Nevers, now received the countship, which passed through heiresses, in the 15th century, to the house of Cleves, and to that of Lorraine-Guise.
The title of count of Eu was revived in the 19th century in favour of the eldest son of the duke of Nemours, second son of King Louis Philippe.
The picturesque fortifications also by which the city is surrounded remain almost unaltered as they were in the 15th century.
In the 5th century the three cities were enrolled in the Delian League, and democracies became prevalent.
In the 4th century its political development was arrested by constant struggles between oligarchs and democrats, who in turn brought the city under the control of Sparta (4 12 -395, 39 1 -37 8), of Athens (395-39 1, 37 8 -357), and of 'the Carian dynasty of Maussollus (357-340).
Though Rhodes continued a free town for another century, its commercial prosperity was crippled and a series of extensive earthquakes after A.D.
Up to the end of the 19th century, little was thought of any locally-raised or locally-provided defensive forces, the mother-country being relied upon.
Numerically the flocks of Australia represent one-sixth of the world's sheep, and in just over half a century (1851-1905) the exports of Australian wool alone reached the value of £650,000,000.
It is impossible to say who were the first discoverers of Australia, although there is evidence that the Chinese had some knowledge of the continent so far back as the 13th century.
Early in the 17th century Philip III.
Ewing, Progress of Australia in the 10th Century; G.
of Radautz are situated the old monasteries of Putna and Suczawica, dating from the 15th century.
The oak-panelled hall and the principal rooms are of the 15th century.
The eighty-one canons which were adopted reflect with considerable fulness the internal life and external relations of the Spanish Church of the 4th century.
Texel was already separated from the mainland in the 8th century, but remained a Frisian province and countship, which once extended as far as Alkmaar in North Holland, until it came into the possession of the counts of Holland.
As early as the beginning of the 9th century Ameland was a lordship of the influential family of Cammingha who held immediately of the emperor, and in recognition of their independence the Amelanders were in 1369 declared to be neutral in the fighting between Holland and Friesland, while Cromwell made the same declaration in 1654 with respect to the war between England and the United Netherlands.
In the beginning of the 18th century Wangeroog comprised eight times its present area.
The origin of his family has been traced back as far as the end of the 14th century.
From the middle of the 18th century the ancestors of Ferdinand de Lesseps followed the diplomatic career, and he himself occupied with real distinction several posts in the same calling from 1825 to 1849.
But when the Panama "scandal" has been forgotten, for centuries to come the traveller in saluting the statue of Ferdinand de Lesseps at the entrance of the Suez Canal will pay homage to one of the most powerful embodiments of the creative genius of the 19th century.
The parish church of St Mary Magdalene was rebuilt, in 1726-1729, near the site of the old one dating from before the 12th century.
Woolwich seems to have been a small fishing village until in the beginning of the 16th century it rose into prominence as a dockyard and naval station.
The two first of these three are handsome suspension bridges; the third, an iron structure, replaced a wooden bridge of many arches which was closed in 1881, after standing a little over a century.
The sources of our knowledge of the country down to the 8th century are Caesar's De Bello Gallico, iv., the history of Velleius Paterculus, ii.
Of this period scarcely any record remains, but when at the end of the 3rd century the Franks began to swarm over the Rhine into the Roman lands, the names of the old tribes had disappeared.
Towards the end of the century, Charlemagne, himself a Netherlander by descent and ancestral possessions, after a severe struggle, thoroughly subdued the Frisians and Saxons, and compelled them to embrace Christianity.
Three years later, however, Godfrey was murdered, and although the raids of the Northmen did not entirely cease for upwards of another century, no further attempt was made to establish a permanent dynasty in the land.
Little is known about the Netherland towns before the 12th century.
In the north also the 13th century was rich in municipal charters.
In the northern Netherlands generally up to the end of the 14th century the towns had no great political weight; their importance depended upon their river commerce and their markets.
Thus at the close of the 14th century, despite the constant wars between the feudal sovereigns who held sway in the Netherlands, the vigorous municipal life had fostered industry and commerce, and had caused Flanders in particular to become the richest possession in the world.
Its foundation dates from the year 1030, while the nave is Romanesque of the middle of the 12th century, with much pointed work.
The transept was added in the 13th century.
There are several old pictures of merit, and the shrine of St Eleuthere, the first bishop of Tournai in the 6th century, is a remarkable product of the silversmith's art.
These were removed to Paris, and when Napoleon was crowned emperor a century and a half later he chose Childeric's bees for the decoration of his coronation mantle.
The Pont des Trous over the Scheldt, with towers at each end, was built in 1290, and among many other interesting buildings there are some old houses still in occupation which date back to the 13th century.
In the 5th century the Franks seized Tournai, and Merovaeus made it the capital of his dynasty.
French MS. early XIV Century.
of the latter half of die XV Century.
In the early 16th century Tournai was an English possession for a few years and Henry VIII.
Such a motive weighed much with Hobbes and with the French materialists of the 18th century, such as La Mettrie and d'Holbach.
Its princes maintained themselves until the close of the 16th century.
Besides this object dating from about the 3rd century B.C., according to the latest investigator, G.
St Mary's in Builth, took its name from the ancient territorial division of Buallt in which it is situated, which was, according to Nennius, an independent principality in the beginning of the 9th century, and later a cantrev, corresponding to the modern hundred of Builth.
Towards the end of the 11th century, when the tide of Norman invasion swept upwards along the Wye valley, the district became a lordship marcher annexed to that of Brecknock, but was again severed from it on the death of William de Breos, when his daughter Matilda brought it to her husband, Roger Mortimer of Wigmore.
Although the first definite endeavour to locate the Golden Chersonese thus dates from the middle of the 2nd century of our era, the name was apparently well known to the learned of Europe at a somewhat earlier period, and in his Antiquities of the Jews, written during the latter half of the 1st century, Josephus says that Solomon gave to the pilots furnished to him by Hiram of Tyre commands " that they should go along with his stewards to the land that of old was called Ophir, but now the Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch gold."
After the decline of the power of Rome, the dominant force in Asiatic commerce and navigation was Persia, and from that time onward, until the arrival of the Portuguese upon the scene early in the 16th century the spice trade, whose chief emporia were in or near the Malay Peninsula, was in Persian or Arab hands.
As early as the 3rd century B.C. Megasthenes makes mention of spices brought to the shores of the Ganges from " the southern parts of India," and the trade in question was probably one of the most ancient in the world.
The first British factory in the peninsula was established in the native state of Patani on the east coast in 1613, the place having been used by the Portuguese in the 16th century for a similar purpose; but the enterprise came to an untimely end in 1620 when Captain Jourdain, the first president, was killed in a naval engagement in Patani Roads by the Dutch.
In the 13th century the barony fell to three daughters and co-heiresses, and further subdivisions followed.
It is stated in the charter that the right to this privilege had been proved by an inquisition taken in the 14th century, and had then already been held from time immemorial.
There is documentary evidence of a castle at Nantwich in the 13th century.
The salt trade declined altogether in the 18th century, with the exception of one salt-works, which was kept open until 1856.
There was a shoe trade in the town as early as the 17th century, and gloves were made from the end of the 16th century until about 1863.
Weaving and stocking trades also flourished in the 18th century.
Hay and forage are the most important crops, and Vermont grasses for grazing have been favourably known since the close of the 18th century.
Hall, History of Eastern Vermont to the Close of the Eighteenth Century (2 vols., New York, 1858, 2nd ed., Albany, 1865); and Hiland Hall, History of Vermont from its Discovery to its Admission into the Union 1791 (Albany, 1868).
The rampart was begun by Gu606r (Godefridus), king of Vestfold, early in the 9th century.
He was the real founder of the Romantic school; to him more than to any other member of the school we owe the revolutionizing and germinating ideas which influenced so profoundly the development of German literature at the beginning of the 19th century.
Christina (martyred by drowning in the lake, according to the legend, in 278) which dates from the 11th century and contains some frescoes, perhaps of the school of Giotto.
It was discussed in the 12th century whether this sacrament is indelible like baptism, or whether it can be repeated; and the latter view, that of Peter Lombard, prevailed.
The New Mosque (Jamaa-el-Jedid), dating from the 17th century, is in the form of a Greek cross, surmounted by a large white cupola, with four small cupolas at the corners.
Algiers was a walled city from the time of the deys until the close of the 19th century.
The forts and part of the ramparts were demolished at the beginning of the 10th century, when a line of forts occupying the heights of Bu Zarea (at an elevation of 1300 ft.
Bishops of Icosium - which was created a Latin city by Vespasian - are mentioned as late as the 5th century.
The Zeirids had before that date lost Algiers, which in 1159 was occupied by the Almohades, and in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Abd-elWahid, sultans of Tlemcen.
Sofia, a circular edifice of about 760, now modernized, the roof of which is supported by six ancient columns, is a relic of the Lombard period; it has a fine cloister of the 12th century constructed in part of fragments of earlier buildings; while the cathedral with its fine arcaded facade and incomplete square campanile (begun in 1279) dates from the 9th century and was rebuilt in 1114.
The bronze doors, adorned with bas-reliefs, are good; they may belong to the beginning of the 13th century.
The interior is in the form of a basilica, the double aisles being borne by ancient columns, and contains ambones and a candelabrum of 1311, the former resting on columns supported by lions, and decorated with reliefs and coloured marble mosaic. The castle at the highest point of the town was erected in the 14th century.
To the north-east of Marienbad lies the small watering-place of KOnigswart; near it is a castle belonging since 1618 to the princes of Metternich, which contains an interesting museum, created by the famous Austrian statesman in the first part of the 19th century.
According to Japanese annals they were discovered towards the close of the 16th century, and added to the fief of a Daimyo, Ogasawa Sadayori, whence the name Ogasawarajima.
among the mendicant friars of the 13th century, among the Jansenists, the early Quakers, the converts of Wesley and Whitefield, the persecuted protestants of the Cevennes, the Irvingites.
This hierarchical tie was soon snapped, but the Hellenizing influence continued to work, and bore its most abundant fruit in the 5th century.
DEWAS, two native states of India, in the Malwa Political Charge of Central India, founded in the first half of the 18th century by two brothers, Punwar Mahrattas, who came into Malwa with the peshwa, Baji Rao, in 1728.
Moreover, Simeon had many imitators, well authenticated Pillar-hermits being met with till the 6th century.
In the early years of the 20th century the town was much decayed, numerous ruins of castles, palaces and churches indicating its former importance.
Gondar was a small village when at the beginning of the 16th century it was chosen by the Negus Sysenius (Seged I.) as the capital of his kingdom.
First mentioned in 1155, Byelaya Tserkov was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of the 13th century.
As such, it was considered to represent the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th Century.
ioo), historian of the first crusade, was born during the later part of the 11th century, and afterwards became canon and custos of the church of Aix-laChapelle.
Even in the 5th century A.D.
12, 45); though from the lips of slaves and other low persons in the plays we no doubt hear expressions which, while they are quite in keeping with the characters to whom they are allotted, would have shocked the ears of polite society in the 2nd century B.C.
(P, Loth-12th century), viz.
- The editio princeps, based mainly on a transcript of D, was printed at Venice, 1472: the first scientific text, based on B, C and D, was that of Camerarius, completed 1552, in whose steps followed Lambinus (with a commentary which is still useful), 1576; Taubmann, 1605-1621; Pareus (a meritorious edition), 1619 and 1623; Guyet, edited by Marolles, 1658; Gronovius (the "Vulgate"), 1664-1684; then, after the lapse of more than a century, came the editions of Bothe, 1809-1811; Naudet, 1830; and Weise, 1837-1848.
There was no English translation, strictly so called, of any play of Plautus in the 16th or 17th century, except that of the Menaechmi by W.
CARPOCRATES, a Gnostic of the 2nd century, about whose life and opinions comparatively little is known.
In Abulfeda's days (13th century A.D.) a very imposing temple still stood here.
Nonnus, the Greek poet, was born at Panopolis at the end of the 4th century.
The word thane was used in Scotland until the 15th century, to describe an hereditary non-military tenant of the crown.
It is this district that from the end of the 13th century was called the Dauphine d'Auvergne.
chiche beau, with same meaning), the term in Italy from the 17th century onwards for a dangler about women.
- Coco-nut palms, introduced about the beginning of the 19th century by the Portuguese, grow along the coast and for 80 m.
It was given about the end of the 18th century as based on some experiments, but with a footnote stating that little reliance could be placed on it.
The earliest recorded count of Dammartin was a certain Hugh, who made himself master of the town in the 10th century; but his dynasty was replaced by another family in the 11th century.
Pietro, from the 7th century onwards, were also exhibited.
San Pietro de' Cassinensi (outside the Porta Romana) is a basilica with nave and aisles, founded in the beginning of the i 1th century by San Pietro Vincioli on the site of a building of the 6th century, and remarkable for its conspicuous spire, its ancient granite and marble columns, its walnut stall-work of 1535 by Stefano de' Zambelli da Bergamo, and its numerous pictures (by Perugino, &c.).
Angelo, with sixteen antique columns in the interior, probably dates from the middle of the 6th century.
The large tomb of the Volumni (3rd century B.
It is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until the middle of the 6th century, when it was captured by Totila after a long siege.
In the 15th century power was at last concentrated in the Baglioni family, who, though they had no legal position, defied all other authority.
It was long believed that work done against such forces was lost, and it was not till the r9th century that the energy thus transformed was traced; the conservation of energy has become the master-key to unlock the connexions in inanimate nature.
There is some reason to hope that the day of these misconceptions is passed; although there is also some reason to fear that on other grounds the present era may be known to posterity as an era of instrumentation comparable, in its gorgeous chaos of experiment and its lack of consistent ideas of harmony and form, only to the monodic period at the beginning of the 17th century, in which no one had ears for anything but experiments in harmonic colour.
In the 16th century instrumentation was, in its normal modern sense, non-existent; but in a special sense it was at an unsurpassable stage of perfection, namely, in the treatment of pure vocal harmony.
In the 17th century the use of instruments became a necessity; but there were at first no organized ideas for their treatment except those which were grounded on their use as supporting and imitating the voice.
Choral writing itself has become different from what it was in the 16th century.
The free use of discords and of wider intervals, together with the influence of the florid elements of solo-singing, enlarged the bounds of choral expression almost beyond recognition, while they crowded into very narrow quarters the subtleties of 16th-, century music. These, however, by no means disappeared; :and such devices as the crossing of parts in the second Kyrie of Bach's B Minor Mass (bars 7, 8, 14, 15, 22, 23, 50) abundantly show that in the hands of the great masters artistic truths are not things which a change of date can make false.
The genius of the modern pianoforte is to produce richness by depth and variety of tone; and players who cannot find scope for such genius in the real part-writing of the 18th century will not get any nearer to the 18th-century spirit by sacrificing the essentials of its art to an attempt to imitate its mechanical resources by a modern tour de force.