Century Sentence Examples

century
  • We're living in the 21st century, Mary.

    1586
    469
  • After a century, electricity was still being generated.

    763
    333
  • He was born in Ireland in the eighteenth century.

    662
    291
  • As for time; it could have been a year or a century ago.

    436
    239
  • A century later, machines entered the scene.

    384
    189
  • We have enough to be concerned with today's problems without having to clutter my mind about the happenings of a century ago.

    159
    90
  • About a century later the manor was acquired by the Basset family.

    90
    55
  • In the succeeding century it was connected with Carthage by a great highway.

    90
    55
  • The first fifteen years of the nineteenth century in Europe present an extraordinary movement of millions of people.

    63
    30
  • The last century Ouray sold flesh, this century it's tee shirts.

    81
    49
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  • If we live in the Nineteenth Century, why should we not enjoy the advantages which the Nineteenth Century offers?

    69
    43
  • It has been general since the 9th century.

    22
    5
  • In the century leading up to its extermination, smallpox killed about 500,000,000 people.

    29
    14
  • From the beginning of the 18th century the greater number of the Presbyterian congregations became practically independent in polity and Unitarian in doctrine.

    16
    4
  • During the 18th century Irish Presbyterianism became infected with Arianism.

    14
    3
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  • Early in the 18th century Antoine Court made marvellous efforts to restore Presbyterianism.

    10
    2
  • The frescoes are interesting works of the early 13th century.

    10
    2
  • The very fact that the nineteenth century has not produced many authors whom the world may count among the greatest of all time does not in my opinion justify the remark, "There may come a time when people cease to write."

    26
    18
  • Their signature oyster loaves have been popular for nearly a century.

    12
    4
  • We don't know what Bird Song was at the turn of the century, just that there was a building or some sort on this site.

    17
    10
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  • It was given about the end of the 18th century as based on some experiments, but with a footnote stating that little reliance could be placed on it.

    8
    1
  • It is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until the middle of the 6th century, when it was captured by Totila after a long siege.

    8
    1
  • In the 15th century power was at last concentrated in the Baglioni family, who, though they had no legal position, defied all other authority.

    8
    1
  • Could you have imagined a store like this if you lived a century ago?

    33
    26
  • Just half a century ago, Americans on average spent more than 20 percent of their income on food.

    14
    7
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  • Then there can be a week, a month, a year, a decade, and a century without war.

    47
    40
  • Dean tried to picture the bustling town of a century past, at one time home to a dozen saloons, four restaurants, a newspaper, nearly three hundred houses and more than a thousand inhabitants.

    18
    12
  • It was opened to foreign trade towards the latter end of the 18th century.

    10
    4
  • Nine of these Puritan Presbyterian churches were established on Long Island between 1640 and 1670 - one at Southampton and one at Southold (originally of the Congregational type) in 1640, one at Hempstead about 1644, one at Jamaica in 1662, and churches at Newtown and Setauket in the next half century; and three Puritan Presbyterian churches were established in Westchester county, New York, between 1677 and 1685.

    8
    2
  • The quarterly conference held four times a century with the highest ranking station commanders was coming up soon, and he had more pressing issues to resolve before it launched.

    22
    17
  • Right now I don't give a damn about what happened a century ago and I'm in no position to make judgments of a situation I know so little about.

    22
    17
  • He wore bathing trunks, a Phillies baseball cap and a t-shirt with the imprint "Eastern PA Century Bicycle Tour" and a date four years earlier.

    21
    16
  • In the wars against the English in the 14th and 15th centuries and the religious wars of the 16th century the town had its full participation; and in 1665 it acquired a terrible notoriety by the trial and execution of many members of the nobility of Auvergne who had tyrannized over the neighbouring districts.

    9
    4
  • Giovanni Evangelista, which was founded along with the Benedictine monastery in 981, but as a building dates from 1510, and has a façade erected by Simone Moschino early in the 17th century.

    8
    3
  • It is this district that from the end of the 13th century was called the Dauphine d'Auvergne.

    8
    3
  • The earliest recorded count of Dammartin was a certain Hugh, who made himself master of the town in the 10th century; but his dynasty was replaced by another family in the 11th century.

    7
    2
  • Pietro, from the 7th century onwards, were also exhibited.

    9
    4
  • San Pietro de' Cassinensi (outside the Porta Romana) is a basilica with nave and aisles, founded in the beginning of the i 1th century by San Pietro Vincioli on the site of a building of the 6th century, and remarkable for its conspicuous spire, its ancient granite and marble columns, its walnut stall-work of 1535 by Stefano de' Zambelli da Bergamo, and its numerous pictures (by Perugino, &c.).

    8
    3
  • Angelo, with sixteen antique columns in the interior, probably dates from the middle of the 6th century.

    7
    2
  • He says the count was the last representative but one of the great century, and that it is his own turn now, but that he will do all he can to let his turn come as late as possible.

    14
    9
  • At the end of the eighteenth century there were a couple of dozen men in Paris who began to talk about all men being free and equal.

    13
    8
  • At the beginning of the 19th century it did not contain 20,000 inhabitants, and its real advance began with the reigns of Kings Frederick and William I., who exerted themselves in every way to improve and beautify it.

    14
    10
  • It was not completed, however, till the 19th century, when the west portal and towers and two bays of the nave were added, according to the plans of Violletle-Duc. The fine stained glass of the windows dates from the 13th to the 15th centuries.

    7
    3
  • Among the old houses one, dating from the 16th century, was the birthplace of Blaise Pascal, whose statue stands in a neighbouring square.

    7
    3
  • The present name, derived from Clarus Mons and originally applied only to the citadel, was used of the town as early as the 9th century.

    7
    3
  • Towards the end of the 12th century the town was in the hands of the Servian prince Stephen Nemanya, who there received hospitably the German emperor Frederic Barbarossa and his Crusaders.

    6
    2
  • The fiction of Belisarius wandering as a blind beggar through the streets of Constantinople, which has been adopted by Marmontel in his Belisaire, and by various painters and poets, is first heard of in the 10th century.

    7
    3
  • There is some reason to hope that the day of these misconceptions is passed; although there is also some reason to fear that on other grounds the present era may be known to posterity as an era of instrumentation comparable, in its gorgeous chaos of experiment and its lack of consistent ideas of harmony and form, only to the monodic period at the beginning of the 17th century, in which no one had ears for anything but experiments in harmonic colour.

    5
    1
  • I understand opportunities were limited a century ago but surely she could have been a school teacher or office clerk or something above a brothel prostitute.

    17
    14
  • Christianity was introduced in the 5th century, and Aran soon became one of the most famous island-resorts of religious teachers and ascetics.

    8
    5
  • It has also been conferred during the closing years of the 19th century by letters patent on other cities - Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Sheffield, Leeds, Cardiff, Bradford, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Belfast, Cork.

    4
    1
  • Against this work and the Ethics of Spinoza the orthodox Cartesians (who were in the majority), no less than sceptical hangers-on like Bayle, raised an all but universal howl of reprobation, scarcely broken for about a century.

    4
    1
  • Gyula-Fehervar is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and has a fine Roman Catholic cathedral, built in the 1 nth century in Romanesque style, and rebuilt in 5443 by John Hunyady in Gothic style.

    4
    1
  • The bishopric was founded in the 1th century by King Ladislaus I.

    4
    1
  • A great and widespread revival marked the opening years of the century, resulting in marvellous increase of zeal and numbers.

    6
    3
  • The actual building dates from the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century, and contains a fine library with a collection of rare manuscripts and incunabula; near it is the small and old town of Tepl (pop. 2789).

    5
    2
  • The use of cranes is of great antiquity, but it is only since the great industrial development of the 19th century, and the introduction of other motive powers than hand labour, that the crane has acquired the important and indispensable position it now occupies.

    4
    1
  • It is clear, however, that the Celtic and Etruscan elements together occupied the greater part of the district between the Apennines and the Alps down to its Romanization, which took place gradually in the course of the 2nd century B.C. Their linguistic neighbors were Ligurian in the south and south-west, and the Veneti on the east.

    4
    1
  • Lombardy was, roughly speaking, divided between two parties, the one headed by Pavia professing loyalty to the empire, the other headed by Milan ready to oppose its claims. The municipal animosities of the last quarter of a century gave substance to these factions; yet neither the imperial nor, the anti-imperial party had any real community of interest with Frederick.

    4
    1
  • For a century, from Maximian to Maximus (286-388), it was (except under Julian, who preferred to reside in Paris) the administrative centre from which Gaul, Britain and Spain were ruled, so that the poet Ausonius could describe it as the second metropolis of the empire, or "Rome beyond the Alps."

    3
    0
  • Let us now pass to the French writers of the 18th century.

    3
    0
  • The question of human development which Holbach touched on was one which occupied many minds both in and out of France during the 18th century, and more especially towards its close.

    3
    0
  • The notion that all the kinds of animals and plants may have come into existence by the growth and modification of primordial germs is as old as speculative thought; but the modern scientific form of the doctrine can be traced historically to the influence of several converging lines of philosophical speculation and of physical observation, none of which go further back than the 17th century.

    3
    0
  • Schweidnitz, dating from about the 11th century, received civic rights in 1250.

    5
    3
  • See James Mackintosh, Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy (Edinburgh, 1832); and specially Sir Leslie Stephen, English Thought in the 18th Century, iii.

    5
    3
  • The Servians having, in the beginning of the 19th century, successfully cleared Servia of Turks, were emboldened to attack Nish in 1809, but were repulsed with great loss.

    5
    3
  • It is impossible to say who were the first discoverers of Australia, although there is evidence that the Chinese had some knowledge of the continent so far back as the 13th century.

    5
    3
  • The oak-panelled hall and the principal rooms are of the 15th century.

    4
    2
  • In the 16th century instrumentation was, in its normal modern sense, non-existent; but in a special sense it was at an unsurpassable stage of perfection, namely, in the treatment of pure vocal harmony.

    4
    2
  • In the 17th century the use of instruments became a necessity; but there were at first no organized ideas for their treatment except those which were grounded on their use as supporting and imitating the voice.

    4
    2
  • Choral writing itself has become different from what it was in the 16th century.

    4
    2
  • The genius of the modern pianoforte is to produce richness by depth and variety of tone; and players who cannot find scope for such genius in the real part-writing of the 18th century will not get any nearer to the 18th-century spirit by sacrificing the essentials of its art to an attempt to imitate its mechanical resources by a modern tour de force.

    4
    2
  • The almshouse established in 1592 by Sir John Hawkins for decayed seamen and shipwrights is still extant, the building having been re-erected in the 19th century; but the fund called the Chatham Chest, originated by Hawkins and Drake in 1588, was incorporated with Greenwich Hospital in 1802.

    3
    1
  • These tribal dynasties of Rajputs were gradually supplanted by the Moslem invaders of the 11th century and weakened by internal feuds.

    4
    2
  • At the beginning of the 16th century the Rajput power began to revive, only to be overthrown by Baber at Fatehpur Sikri in 1527.

    4
    2
  • By the end of the century nearly the whole of Rajputana had been virtually subdued by the Mahrattas.

    5
    3
  • This area was termed " a bow " as early as the 8th century B.C., but the usage was much earlier.

    5
    3
  • The industrial and commercial progress of Cartagena was much hindered, during the first half of the 19th century, by the prevalence of epidemic diseases, the abandonment of the arsenal, and rivalry with the neighbouring port of Alicante.

    5
    3
  • The bishop's manor was alienated in 1550 to Sir Andrew Dudley, but West Teignmouth remained with the dean and chapter until early in the 19th century.

    4
    2
  • The Saturday market, which was held up to the 19th century, is mentioned in 1220, and was confirmed by royal charter in 1253, together with a fair at Michaelmas.

    4
    2
  • Cuyaba was founded in 1719 by Paulista gold hunters, and its goldwashings, now apparently exhausted, yielded rich results in the 18th century.

    4
    2
  • In the struggle between France and Austria from the 17th century onwards the Breisgau frequently changed masters.

    4
    2
  • It was only at the close of the 19th century that the true cause of malariathe conveyance of the infection by the bite of the Malaria..

    4
    2
  • Early in the 10th century the papacy fell into the hands of a noble family, known eventually as the counts of Tusculum, who almost succeeded in rendering the office hereditary, and in uniting the civil and ecclesiastical functions of the city under a single member of their house.

    4
    2
  • It still needed nearly a century of struggle to render the burghers independent of lordship, with a fully organized commune, self-governed in its several assemblies.

    4
    2
  • For the sake of clearness, we have anticipated the course of events by nearly a century.

    4
    2
  • The most marked proof of the change which came over Italy towards the middle of the I4th century is furnished by the companies of adventure.

    4
    2
  • Therefore, after the middle of the century, this profession fell into the hands of natives.

    4
    2
  • Sorau is said to have existed in 840, and to have belonged to the abbey of Fulda till the 12th century.

    3
    1
  • Towards the end of the 3rd century, the inroads of the Franks having been repelled by the emperor Probus, the city rapidly acquired wealth and importance.

    3
    1
  • According to Flint, 4 there were four men who in this and the preceding century seized and made prominent this idea, namely, Bodin, Bacon, Descartes and Pascal.

    4
    2
  • But a little consideration showed that, though Lamarck had seized what, as far as it goes, is a true cause of modification, it is a cause the actual effects of which are wholly inadequate to account for any considerable modification in animals, and which can have no influence at all in the vegetable world; and probably nothing contributed so much to discredit evolution, in the early part of the 29th century, as the floods of easy ridicule which were poured upon this part of Lamarck's speculation.

    3
    1
  • But first we must go further back, from Shakespeare at the end of the sixteenth century to Plato around 370 BC.

    10
    8
  • Your father, a man of the last century, evidently stands above our contemporaries who so condemn this measure which merely reestablishes natural justice.

    13
    11
  • Is the ferment of the peoples of the west at the end of the eighteenth century and their drive eastward explained by the activity of Louis XIV, XV, and XVI, their mistresses and ministers, and by the lives of Napoleon, Rousseau, Diderot, Beaumarchais, and others?

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  • Historic establishments abound, not the least of which are the bars and taverns frequented by patrons for more than a century.

    7
    5
  • Guests can also wander through the town and enjoy the ambiance of a century gone by.

    7
    5
  • Down to the close of the 17th century it was of some importance as a naval station.

    7
    6
  • There is no existing MS. of Propertius older than the 12th century.

    7
    6
  • By the close of the 17th century there were three frontier "generalates" - Carlstadt, Warasdin and Petrinia.

    7
    6
  • A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.

    7
    6
  • In the 9th century the Bulgarians became masters of Naissus, but had to cede it to the Hungarians in the iith century, from whom the Byzantine emperor Manuel I.

    5
    4
  • Nishapur was an important place during the 5th century, for Yazdegerd II.

    4
    3
  • And the algebraists or arithmeticians of the 16th century, such as Luca Pacioli (Lucas de Borgo), Geronimo or Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), and Niccola Tartaglia (1506-1559), had used geometrical constructions to throw light on the solution of particular equations.

    3
    2
  • It has existed in France since the 17th century.

    2
    1
  • Landsberg was the capital of a small margraviate of this name, ruled in the 12th century by a certain Dietrich, who built the town.

    5
    4
  • Simon then constructed a new citadel, north of the Temple, to take the place of the Acra, and established in Judaea the Asmonean dynasty, which lasted for nearly a century, when the Roman republic began to make its influence felt in Syria.

    4
    3
  • In the 6th century the emperor Justinian erected a magnificent basilica at Jerusalem, in honour of the Virgin Mary, and attached to it two hospitals, one for the reception of pilgrims and one for the accommodation of the sick poor.

    4
    3
  • About the middle of the 12th century the country was subdued by the duke of Saxony, Henry the Lion, who founded a bishopric at Ratzeburg, and after Henry's fall in 1180 it formed part of the smaller duchy of Saxony, which was governed by Duke Bernhard.

    4
    3
  • These ruins, for which the name Kizil minare or Chihil menare (" the forty columns or minarets "), can be traced back to the 13th century, are now known as Takhti Jamshid (" the throne of Jamshid ").

    4
    3
  • This fruitful region, however, was covered with villages till the frightful devastations of the 18th century; and even now it is, comparatively speaking, well cultivated.

    4
    3
  • Ouseley points out that this castle was still used in the 16th century, at least as a state prison.

    4
    3
  • It is a military station, and was founded towards the close of the 11th century.

    4
    3
  • At the verge of the rock on the western side is the old baronial castle, erected by King John in 1185, which was the residence of the bishops till the 14th century.

    4
    3
  • The eighty-one canons which were adopted reflect with considerable fulness the internal life and external relations of the Spanish Church of the 4th century.

    4
    3
  • Nonnus, the Greek poet, was born at Panopolis at the end of the 4th century.

    4
    3
  • It was long believed that work done against such forces was lost, and it was not till the r9th century that the energy thus transformed was traced; the conservation of energy has become the master-key to unlock the connexions in inanimate nature.

    4
    3
  • Down to the closing decades of the 19th century hydraulic power was practically the only system available for working cranes from a power station.

    3
    2
  • From the 11th to the 14th century it belonged to Pisa, and in 1399 came under the dukes of Piombino.

    3
    2
  • The fruit of his policy, which made of Rome a counterpoise against the effete empire of the Greeks upon the one hand and against the pressure of the feudal kingdom on the other, was seen in the succeeding century.

    4
    3
  • Within the cities and upon the open lands the Italians, in this and the next century, doubled, trebled and quadrupled their numbers.

    4
    3
  • At the end of this century and a half, five principal powers divided the peninsula; and their confederated action during the next forty-five years (1447-1492) secured for Italy a season of peace and brilliant pro,sperity.

    4
    3
  • Venice, however, in the 14th century took her place at last as an Italian power on an equality at least with the very greatest.

    4
    3
  • Whatever parts the Italians themselves played in the succeeding quarter of a century, the game was in the hands of French, Spanish and German invaders.

    4
    3
  • Venice rapidly declined throughout the 17th century.

    4
    3
  • Moved partly by external influences and partly by a slow internal reawakening, the people was preparing for the efforts of the I9th century.

    4
    3
  • Thus, after a struggle of more than half a century, ix spite of apparently insuperable obstacles, the liberation an the unity of Italy were accomplished.

    3
    2
  • Early in the 13th century Uzhitse was the seat of St Sava, the first archbishop, and the patron saint of Servia.

    2
    1
  • E.S.E., there is a 13th-century church, dedicated to St Aril, who, according to tradition, was martyred in the 9th century by unconverted Serbs.

    3
    2
  • His difficulty consisted in the fact that, like all Anglicans of the 16th century, he recognized no right of private judgment, but believed that the state, as represented by monarchy, parliament and Convocation, had an absolute right to determine the national faith and to impose it on every Englishman.

    3
    2
  • Magna Carta throws much light on the condition of England in the early 13th century.

    3
    2
  • Andaman first appears distinctly in the Arab notices of the 9th century, already quoted.

    3
    2
  • The age of this building is very uncertain; it has been assigned to dates ranging from the 1st to the 4th century A.D.

    3
    2
  • The vaulting of the nave and aisles and the beautiful cloisters were added in the 13th century.

    3
    2
  • Close by are the Steipe or Rotes Haus, formerly the town hall, of the 15th century, and the Frankenturm or propugnaculum, of the 10th century, said to be the oldest stone domestic building in Germany.

    3
    2
  • It dates from the 2nd century, and was the family monument of the Secundini.

    3
    2
  • In the latter half of the 16th century the direction of education fell into the hands of the Jesuits.

    2
    1
  • Supported by the great authority of Haller, the doctrine of evolution, or development, prevailed throughout the whole of the 18th century, and Cuvier appears to have substantially adopted Bonnet's later views, though probably he would not have gone all lengths in the direction of " emboitement."

    2
    1
  • Thus in the end of the 17th century the seed was sown which has at intervals brought forth recurrent crops of evolutional hypotheses, based, more or less completely, on general reasonings.

    2
    1
  • Corstopitum ceased to exist early in the 5th century, and the site was never again occupied.

    1
    0
  • It would seem that up to the 4th century of our era the Sinhalese had written exclusively in their own tongue; that is to say that for six centuries they had studied and understood Pali as a dead language without using it as a means of literary expression.

    2
    1
  • In Burma, on the other hand, where Pali was probably introduced from Ceylon, no writings in Pali can be dated before the nth century of our era.

    2
    1
  • In Alexandria about the middle of the 3rd century it was already 1 M von Rohr, Zeitschr.

    2
    1
  • Some Churches still continued the three weeks' fast, but by the middle of the 5th century most of these divergences had ceased and the usages of Antioch-Constantinople and Rome-Alexandria had become stereotyped in their respective spheres of influence.

    2
    1
  • It was introduced into France in 1749, and appears to have been grown in Germany and Britain soon after the middle of the last century, if not earlier.

    1
    0
  • It is said by Alton to have been introduced into Britain about the end of the 17th century.

    1
    0
  • Thus various parts of criminals, such as the thigh bone of a hanged man, moss grown on a human skull, &c., were used, and even the celebrated Dr Culpeper in the 17th century recommended " the ashes of the head of a coal black cat as a specific for such as have a skin growing over their sight."

    1
    0
  • In the 6th century Alexander of Tralles used colchicum for gout, iron for anaemia, and rhubarb in liver weakness and dysentery.

    1
    0
  • In the 19th century the word chymist became altered to chemist, although the original spelling is still continued to a small extent.

    1
    0
  • Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley's comparison of the church and chamber pitches of Orlando Gibbons (vide Ellis's lecture) clearly shows the minor third in Great Britain in the first half of the 17th century.

    0
    0
  • This lowering tendency towards the low church pitch, and the final adoption of the latter as a general mean pitch throughout the 18th century, was no doubt influenced by the introduction of the violin, which would not bear the high tension to which the lutes and viols had been strained.

    0
    0
  • Since the 5th century it has been the seat of an archbishop, who has now fifteen suffragans.

    0
    0
  • The people of the interior are mostly of the old Iranian stock, and there are also a few nomads of the Turkish Baharlu tribe which came to Persia in the lath century when the province was subdued by a Turkish chief.

    0
    0
  • The struggle between ethical religion and the current worship became acute toward the end of the 7th century.

    0
    0
  • It contains some fine tapestry and portraits, and the Lee Pennyfamiliar to readers of Sir Walter Scott's Talisman-which was brought from Palestine in the 14th century by the Crusading knight, Sir Simon Lockhart.

    0
    0
  • The drying-up process has been comparatively rapid since the middle of the 19th century, a town which in 1850 was on the southern margin of the lake being in 1905 over 20 m.

    0
    0
  • He was the foremost Jewish figure of the 18th century, and to him is attributable the renaissance of the House of Israel.

    0
    0
  • Mendelssohn was the first great champion of Jewish emancipation in the 18th century.

    0
    0
  • In the first part of the lath century, the criticism of Jewish dogmas and traditions was associated with a firm adhesion to the older Jewish mode of living.

    0
    0
  • The word appears in French as pirate for a liquid measure as early as the 13th century.

    0
    0
  • During the first half of the 19th century civil war and despotic government seriously restricted the natural growth of the country, but since the definite organization of the republic in 1860 and the settlement of disturbing political controversies, the population had increased rapidly.

    0
    0
  • Another disturbing influence has been the high protective tariffs, adopted during the closing years of the century, which increased the costs of living more rapidly than the wages for labour, and compelled thousands of immigrants to seek employment elsewhere.

    0
    0
  • The development of the pastoral industry of Argentina from that time to the end of the century was remarkable.

    0
    0
  • Manufacturing enterprise in Argentina, favoured by the protection of a high tariff, made noticeable progress in the national capital during the closing years of the last century, especially in those small industries which commanded a secure market.

    0
    0
  • Thus at the opening of the 17th century, after many adventurous efforts, and the expenditure of many lives and much treasure, the Spaniards found themselves securely established on the river Plate, and had planted a number of centres of trade and colonization in the interior.

    0
    0
  • In 1665 the relaxation of this system was brought about by the continual remonstrances of the people, but for more than a century afterwards (until 1776) the policy of exclusion was enforced.

    0
    0
  • The birth- Basses-Al rate markedly decreased during the 19th century; Basses-Py despite an increase of population between 1801 and Belfort, 1

    0
    0
  • The capital value of land, which greatly decreased during the last twenty years of the i9th century, is estimated at 3,120,000,000, and that of stock, buildings, implements, &c., at 340,000,000.

    0
    0
  • Iron.The iron-mines of France are more numerous than its coalmines, but they do not yield a sufficient quantity of ore for the needs of the metallurgical industries of the country; as will be seen in the table below the production of iron in France gradually increased during the 19th century; on the other hand, a decline in prices operated against a correspondingly marked increase in its annual value.

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    0
  • Metallurgy.The average production and value of iron and steel manufactured in France in the last four decades of the I 9th century is shown below Cast Iron.

    0
    0
  • It is only from the middle of the I9th century that close attention has been.

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    0
  • Cellular imprisonment was, however, partially adopted for persons awaiting trial., Central prisons, in which prisoners lived and worked in association, had been in existence from the commencement of the i9th century.

    0
    0
  • It is collected in accordance with a register of property (cadastre) drawn up for the most part in the first half of the 19th century, dealing with every piece of property in France, and giving its extent and value and the name of the owner.

    0
    0
  • Public Debt.The national debt of France is the heaviest of any country in the world., Its foundation was laid early in the 15th century, and the continuous wars of succeeding centuries, combined with the extravagance of the monarchs, as well as deliberate disregard of financial and economic conditions, increased it at an alarming rate.

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    0
  • It became an important Seljuk town, and late in the 14th century passed into Ottoman hands.

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    0
  • The defences of the place are now solely confined to the island of Danholm, known down to the 13th century as Strehla or Strehlo, lying in the Sound.

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    0
  • It was one of the five Wendish towns whose alliance extorted from King Eric of Norway a favourable commercial treaty in 1284-1285; and in the 14th century it was second only to Lubeck in the Hanseatic League.

    0
    0
  • After the peace of Westphalia Stralsund was ceded with the rest of Western Pomerania to Sweden; and for more than a century and a half it was exposed to attack and capture as the tete - de - pont of the Swedes in continental Europe.

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    0
  • The Loyalty group was discovered at the beginning of the 19th century, and Dumont d'Urville laid down the several islands in his chart.

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    0
  • The islands were discovered early in the 26th century by Spaniards, who gave them their present name.

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    0
  • In the 3rd century we find it issuing coins with an Oscan legend, but in 211 B.C. it shared the fate of Capua.

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    0
  • In the neighbourhood are the ruins of Law Castle, Crosbie Castle and Portincross Castle, the last, dating from the 13th century, said to be a seat of the Stuart kings.

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    0
  • Their produce has gradually decreased since the 17th century, and is now unimportant, but sulphate of copper, iron pyrites, and some gold, silver, sulphur and sulphuric acid, and red ochre are also produced.

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    0
  • It is found in European streams, and is caught by anglers, being also a favourite in aquariums. The well-known and important industry of "Essence Orientale" and artificial pearls, carried on in France and Germany with the crystalline silvery colouring matter of the bleak, was introduced from China about the middle of the 17th century.

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    0
  • The Kalmucks and Circassians of the Kuban attacked it repeatedly in the r 7th century, so that it had to be fortified by a strong earthen and palisaded wall, traces of which are still visible.

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    0
  • In England this power was frequently employed during the 18th century and was confirmed by the Post Office Act of 1837; its most notorious use being, perhaps, the opening of Mazzini's letters in 1844.

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    0
  • Their approximate form was only arrived at by excavations made during the later years of the 19th century.

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    0
  • After the restoration of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah, a considerable number of Jews returned to the city, but we know practically nothing of its history for more than a century until, in 332 B.C., Alexander the Great conquered Syria.

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    0
  • There are portions probably of the 12th and 13th centuries, but the bulk of the building is of the 17th century, and considerable additions, including the tower and spire, were made in the 19th.

    0
    0
  • This appears actually to be the case in the period of the First Dynasty of Babylon and also in the 7th century in Assyria, where early Babylonian customs were kept up conservatively.

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    0
  • From this town we have a very interesting though brief inscription dating probably from early in the 3rd century B.C.; it is cut upon a small bronze plate (now in the Naples Museum), which must have once been fixed to some votive object, dedicated to the god Declunus (or the goddess Decluna).

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  • C.; and many of whom were conquered by the Samnites about a century or more earlier.

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    0
  • The Maclaurins acquired the district as early as the 9th century and occupied it for several hundred years until ousted by the Macgregors, a neighbouring clan, who had repeatedly raided their lands, and in 1558 slew the chief and many of his followers.

    0
    0
  • Gabriel Bethlen was certainly one of the most striking and original personages of his century.

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    0
  • It was found in some abundance at the end of the 18th century in the copper mines of the St Day district in Cornwall, and has since been found at a few other localities, for example, at Konigsberg near Schemnitz in Hungary, and in the Tintic district in Utah.

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    0
  • But among the Greeks themselves the two works of Pheidias which far outshone all others, and were the basis of his fame, were the colossal figures in gold and ivory of Zeus at Olympia and of Athena Parthenos at Athens, both of which belong to about the middle of the 5th century.

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    0
  • Much more satisfactory as evidence are some 5th century torsos of Athena found at Athens.

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    0
  • The Béarnaise family named Besiade moved into the province of Orleanais in the 17th century, and there acquired the estate of Avaray.

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    0
  • It was continued by Mademoiselle de Montpensier in the latter half of the 17th century, and restored by Louis Philippe who, in 1843 and 1845, received Queen Victoria within its walls.

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    0
  • His sister's son, John of Burgundy, count of Nevers, now received the countship, which passed through heiresses, in the 15th century, to the house of Cleves, and to that of Lorraine-Guise.

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    0
  • The title of count of Eu was revived in the 19th century in favour of the eldest son of the duke of Nemours, second son of King Louis Philippe.

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    0
  • The picturesque fortifications also by which the city is surrounded remain almost unaltered as they were in the 15th century.

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    0
  • In the 5th century the three cities were enrolled in the Delian League, and democracies became prevalent.

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    0
  • In the 4th century its political development was arrested by constant struggles between oligarchs and democrats, who in turn brought the city under the control of Sparta (4 12 -395, 39 1 -37 8), of Athens (395-39 1, 37 8 -357), and of 'the Carian dynasty of Maussollus (357-340).

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    0
  • Though Rhodes continued a free town for another century, its commercial prosperity was crippled and a series of extensive earthquakes after A.D.

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    0
  • Up to the end of the 19th century, little was thought of any locally-raised or locally-provided defensive forces, the mother-country being relied upon.

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    0
  • Numerically the flocks of Australia represent one-sixth of the world's sheep, and in just over half a century (1851-1905) the exports of Australian wool alone reached the value of £650,000,000.

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    0
  • As early as the beginning of the 9th century Ameland was a lordship of the influential family of Cammingha who held immediately of the emperor, and in recognition of their independence the Amelanders were in 1369 declared to be neutral in the fighting between Holland and Friesland, while Cromwell made the same declaration in 1654 with respect to the war between England and the United Netherlands.

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    0
  • In the beginning of the 18th century Wangeroog comprised eight times its present area.

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    0
  • The origin of his family has been traced back as far as the end of the 14th century.

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    0
  • From the middle of the 18th century the ancestors of Ferdinand de Lesseps followed the diplomatic career, and he himself occupied with real distinction several posts in the same calling from 1825 to 1849.

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    0
  • But when the Panama "scandal" has been forgotten, for centuries to come the traveller in saluting the statue of Ferdinand de Lesseps at the entrance of the Suez Canal will pay homage to one of the most powerful embodiments of the creative genius of the 19th century.

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    0
  • The parish church of St Mary Magdalene was rebuilt, in 1726-1729, near the site of the old one dating from before the 12th century.

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    0
  • Woolwich seems to have been a small fishing village until in the beginning of the 16th century it rose into prominence as a dockyard and naval station.

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    0
  • The two first of these three are handsome suspension bridges; the third, an iron structure, replaced a wooden bridge of many arches which was closed in 1881, after standing a little over a century.

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    0
  • The sources of our knowledge of the country down to the 8th century are Caesar's De Bello Gallico, iv., the history of Velleius Paterculus, ii.

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    0
  • Of this period scarcely any record remains, but when at the end of the 3rd century the Franks began to swarm over the Rhine into the Roman lands, the names of the old tribes had disappeared.

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    0
  • Towards the end of the century, Charlemagne, himself a Netherlander by descent and ancestral possessions, after a severe struggle, thoroughly subdued the Frisians and Saxons, and compelled them to embrace Christianity.

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    0
  • Three years later, however, Godfrey was murdered, and although the raids of the Northmen did not entirely cease for upwards of another century, no further attempt was made to establish a permanent dynasty in the land.

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    0
  • Little is known about the Netherland towns before the 12th century.

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    0
  • In the north also the 13th century was rich in municipal charters.

    0
    0
  • In the northern Netherlands generally up to the end of the 14th century the towns had no great political weight; their importance depended upon their river commerce and their markets.

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    0
  • Thus at the close of the 14th century, despite the constant wars between the feudal sovereigns who held sway in the Netherlands, the vigorous municipal life had fostered industry and commerce, and had caused Flanders in particular to become the richest possession in the world.

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    0
  • Its foundation dates from the year 1030, while the nave is Romanesque of the middle of the 12th century, with much pointed work.

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    0
  • The transept was added in the 13th century.

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    0
  • There are several old pictures of merit, and the shrine of St Eleuthere, the first bishop of Tournai in the 6th century, is a remarkable product of the silversmith's art.

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    0
  • These were removed to Paris, and when Napoleon was crowned emperor a century and a half later he chose Childeric's bees for the decoration of his coronation mantle.

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    0
  • The Pont des Trous over the Scheldt, with towers at each end, was built in 1290, and among many other interesting buildings there are some old houses still in occupation which date back to the 13th century.

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    0
  • In the 5th century the Franks seized Tournai, and Merovaeus made it the capital of his dynasty.

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    0
  • In the early 16th century Tournai was an English possession for a few years and Henry VIII.

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    0
  • Such a motive weighed much with Hobbes and with the French materialists of the 18th century, such as La Mettrie and d'Holbach.

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    0
  • Its princes maintained themselves until the close of the 16th century.

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    0
  • Towards the end of the 11th century, when the tide of Norman invasion swept upwards along the Wye valley, the district became a lordship marcher annexed to that of Brecknock, but was again severed from it on the death of William de Breos, when his daughter Matilda brought it to her husband, Roger Mortimer of Wigmore.

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    0
  • Although the first definite endeavour to locate the Golden Chersonese thus dates from the middle of the 2nd century of our era, the name was apparently well known to the learned of Europe at a somewhat earlier period, and in his Antiquities of the Jews, written during the latter half of the 1st century, Josephus says that Solomon gave to the pilots furnished to him by Hiram of Tyre commands " that they should go along with his stewards to the land that of old was called Ophir, but now the Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch gold."

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    0
  • After the decline of the power of Rome, the dominant force in Asiatic commerce and navigation was Persia, and from that time onward, until the arrival of the Portuguese upon the scene early in the 16th century the spice trade, whose chief emporia were in or near the Malay Peninsula, was in Persian or Arab hands.

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  • To the north-east of Marienbad lies the small watering-place of KOnigswart; near it is a castle belonging since 1618 to the princes of Metternich, which contains an interesting museum, created by the famous Austrian statesman in the first part of the 19th century.

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    0
  • According to Japanese annals they were discovered towards the close of the 16th century, and added to the fief of a Daimyo, Ogasawa Sadayori, whence the name Ogasawarajima.

    0
    0
  • This hierarchical tie was soon snapped, but the Hellenizing influence continued to work, and bore its most abundant fruit in the 5th century.

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    0
  • Moreover, Simeon had many imitators, well authenticated Pillar-hermits being met with till the 6th century.

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    0
  • In the early years of the 20th century the town was much decayed, numerous ruins of castles, palaces and churches indicating its former importance.

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    0
  • Gondar was a small village when at the beginning of the 16th century it was chosen by the Negus Sysenius (Seged I.) as the capital of his kingdom.

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    0
  • First mentioned in 1155, Byelaya Tserkov was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of the 13th century.

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    0
  • As such, it was considered to represent the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th Century.

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    0
  • His ritual and mysteries (Sacra Savadia) gained a firm footing in Rome during the 2nd century A.D., although as early as 139 B.C. the first Jews who settled in the capital were expelled by virtue of a law which proscribed the propagation of the cult of Jupiter Sabazius.

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    0
  • A still older road ran along the foot of the Volscian mountains past Cora, Norba and Setia; this served as the post road until the end of the 18th century.

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    0
  • The theory, as expressed in legal phrase by St Cyprian in the 3rd century, was that the apostolic power of delegated sovereignty from the Lord, alike legislative and judicial, was held in joint-tenancy by the whole body of Catholic bishops.

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    0
  • On the revival of the Western Empire, however, Charlemagne, in the beginning of the 9th century, under the mistaken belief that he was following the authority of Constantine I.

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    0
  • It should be remembered that, from the latter part of the 3rd century, the leading bishops had generally been trained in secular learning.

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    0
  • In Africa in the beginning of the 5th century Apiarius, a priest who had been deposed by the bishop of Sicca for immorality, and whose deposition had been affirmed by the " provincial synod," instead of further appealing to a general synod of Africa, carried his appeal to Pope Zosimus.

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    0
  • The story of the administrative development of the Church in the 5th century is mainly the story of the final emergence and constitution of the great " patriarchates," as authorities superior to metropolitans and provincial synods.

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    0
  • With the later 9th century we enter upon a new epoch, and by the time of Gregory VII., in the 11th century, the tribunals have fallen into the hands of a regular class of canonists who are in fact professional church-lawyers in orders.

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    0
  • When peculiars were abolished (vide infra) the dean of Arches disappeared, and his title, in the 19th century, was erroneously given to the official principal.

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    0
  • Fournier (p. 219) says that in France it was not till the 17th century that there grew up a custom of having different officials for the metropolitan, one for him as bishop, a second as metropolitan, and even a third as primate, with an appeal from one to the other, and that it was an abuse due to the parlements which strove to make the official independent of the bishop. In England there has been, for a long time, a separate diocesan court of Canterbury held before the " commissary."

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    0
  • This writer traces their origin to the 14th century; but the procedure does not seem to have become regularized or common till the reigns of Louis XII.

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    0
  • A royal writ of the 16th century cited by Covarruvias (c. xxxv.) prohibits execution of the sentence of a Spanish court Christian pending an appeal to the pope.

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    0
  • In the 13th century it was recognized that a " clerk " for felony was subject only to ecclesiastical trial and punishment; punishment which might involve lifelong imprisonment.

    0
    0
  • But they sat again for this purpose under Mary and Elizabeth and (save between 1640 and 1661) continued regular criminal sessions till towards the end of the 17th century as continuously and constantly as the king's courts (op. cit.).

    0
    0
  • With the Reformation in the 16th century, Church courts properly speaking disappeared from the non-episcopal religious communities which were established in g Holland, in the Protestant states of Switzerland and of Germany, and in the then non-episcopal countries of Denmark and Norway.

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    0
  • Consistories and synods have till near the end of the 18th century.

    0
    0
  • The germ of this dealing with a major causa may be found in the practice of the Arian emperors in the 4th century.

    0
    0
  • The cause of Ignatius and Photius was dealt with in the 9th century by various synods; those in the East agreeing with the emperor's view for the time being, while those in the West acted with the pope.

    0
    0
  • The empire of Russia has in the matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction partly developed into other forms, partly systematized 4th century and later Byzantine rules.

    0
    0
  • It contains a valuable collection of archives, from the 13th century onwards.

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    0
  • It is mentioned so early as the 7th century and in 868 Baldwin of the Iron Arm, first count of Flanders, who had been entrusted by Charles the Bald with the defence of the northern marches, built a castle here against the Normans raiding up the Scheldt.

    0
    0
  • Of these risings the most notable was that, in the earlier half of the 14th century, against Louis de Crecy, count of Flanders, under the leadership of Jacob van Artevelde (q.v.).

    0
    0
  • Thus far the constitution of the city had been wholly aristocratic; in the 13th century the patricians seem to have been united into a gild (Commans-gulde) from whose members the magistrates were chosen.

    0
    0
  • During the 19th century its prosperity rapidly increased.

    0
    0
  • The political factor was the rise during the 7th century B.C. of the Kosala power.

    0
    0
  • It receives the support of Mahanama, the author of the Great Chronicle, who wrote in Ceylon in the 5th century A.D.

    0
    0
  • He shows that in the 3rd century B.C. the language used throughout northern India was practically one, and that it was derived directly from the speech of the Vedic Aryans, retaining many Vedic forms lost in the later classical Sanskrit.

    0
    0
  • The most famous of these was Buddhaghosa, from Behar in North India, who studied at the Minster in the 5th century A.D., and wrote there all his well-known works.

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    0
  • About a century before this the Dipa-vamsa, or Island Chronicle, had been composed in Pali verse so indifferent that it is apparently the work of a beginner in Pali composition.

    0
    0
  • The celebrated Gascoigne's powder, which was sold as late as the middle of the 19th century in the form of balls like sal prunella, consisted of equal parts of crabs' eyes," the black tips of crabs' claws, Oriental pearls, Oriental bezoar and white coral, and was administered in jelly made of hart's horn, but was prescribed by physicians chiefly for wealthy people, as it cost about forty shillings per ounce.

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    0
  • A beautiful house of the 16th century belonged to one Thomas Rogers, whose daughter was mother of John Harvard, the founder of Harvard College, U.S.A. Among public buildings are the town hall, originally dated 1633, rebuilt 1767, and altered 186 3; market house, corn exchange and three hospitals.

    0
    0
  • The subject was practically dormant for nearly a century and a half, largely owing to the dominance of classificatory botany under the in.fluen.ce of Linnaeus.

    0
    0
  • Shakespeares reference in King Lear (Act iii., Sc. iv.) may be quoted as evincing acquaintance with mildew in the 17th century, as also the interesting Rouen law of Loverdo (1660).

    0
    0
  • During the 18th century more academic treatment of the subject began to replace the scattered notes.

    0
    0
  • It is sufficient to note here that cells were first of all discovered in various vegetable tissues by Robert Hooke in 1665 (Micrographia); Malpighi and Grew (1674-1682) gave the first clear indications of the importance of cells in the building up of plant tissues, but it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that any insight into the real nature of the cell and its functions was obtained.

    0
    0
  • This point of view was further developed in the following century by Caspar Friedrich Wolff (Theorici generationis, 1759), who first followed the development of the members at the growing-point of the stem.

    0
    0
  • This system of geography founded a new epoch, and the book - translated into English, Dutch and French - was the unchallenged standard for more than a century.

    0
    0
  • Both branches, although enriched by new facts, remained stationary so far as method is concerned until nearly the end of the 18th century.

    0
    0
  • The change which took place during the 19th century in the substance and style of geography may be well seen by comparing the eight volumes of Malte-Brun's Geographic universelle (Paris, 1812-1829) with the twenty-one volumes of Reclus's Geographic universelle (Paris, 1876-1895).

    0
    0
  • Before the 14th century B.C. the warrior kings of Egypt had carried the power of their arms southward from the delta of the Nile wellnigh to its source, and eastward to the confines of Assyria.

    0
    0
  • Herodotus (himself a notable traveller in the 5th century B.C.) relates that the Egyptian king Necho of the XXVIth Dynasty (c. 600 B.C.) built a fleet on the Red Sea, and confided it to Phoenician sailors with the orders to sail southward and return to Egypt by the Pillars of Hercules and the Mediterranean sea.

    0
    0
  • From the 9th to the 13th century intelligent Arab travellers wrote accounts of what they had seen and heard in distant lands.

    0
    0
  • The earliest Arabian traveller whose observations have come down to us is the merchant Sulaiman, who embarked in the Persian Gulf and made several voyages to India and China, in the middle of the 9th century.

    0
    0
  • This voyage of the middle of the 9th century deserves to be held in happy memory, for it unites the first Norwegian polar explorer with the first English collector of travels.

    0
    0
  • From the 8th to the 11th century a commercial route from India passed through Novgorod to the Baltic, and Arabian coins found in Sweden, and particularly in the island of Gotland, prove how closely the enterprise of the Northmen and of the Arabs intertwined.

    0
    0
  • In the end of the 9th century Iceland was colonized from Norway; and about 985 the intrepid viking, Eric the Red, discovered Greenland, and induced some of his Icelandic countrymen to settle on its inhospitable shores.

    0
    0
  • Italians continued to make important journeys in the East during the 15th century.

    0
    0
  • In the 15th century the time was approaching when the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope was to widen the scope of geographical enterprise.

    0
    0
  • The discoveries of Columbus awakened a spirit of enterprise in Spain which continued in full force for a century; adventurers flocked eagerly across the Atlantic, and discovery followed Sp aniards discovery in rapid succession.

    0
    0
  • In the same year Alonso de Ojeda, accompanied by Juan de la Cosa, from whose maps we learn much of the discoveries of the 16th century navigators, and by a Florentine named Amerigo Vespucci, touched the coast of South America somewhere near Surinam, following the shore as far as the Gulf of Maracaibo.

    0
    0
  • The most valuable work on Africa about this time is, however, that written by the Moor Leo Africanus in the early part of the 16th century.

    0
    0
  • The French followed closely on the track of John Cabot, and Norman and Breton fishermen frequented the banks of Newfoundland at the beginning of the 16th century.

    0
    0
  • The Portuguese, in the early part of the 17th century (1578-1640), were under the dominion of Spain, and their enterprise was to some extent damped; but their missionaries extended geographical knowledge in Africa.

    0
    0
  • Two English missions sent by Warren Hastings to Tibet, one led by George Bogle in 1774, and the other by Captain Turner in 1783, complete Tibetan exploration in the 18th century.

    0
    0
  • Arabia received very careful attention, in the 18th century, from the Danish scientific mission, which included Carsten Niebuhr among its members.

    0
    0
  • Lacerda left a valuable record of his adventurous journey; but with Mungo Park and Lacerda the history of African exploration in the 18th century closes.

    0
    0
  • The great geographical event of the century, as regards that continent, was the measurement of an arc of the So meridian.

    0
    0
  • The British and French governments despatched several expeditions of discovery into the Pacific and round the world during the 18th century.

    0
    0
  • The 18th century saw the Arctic coast of North America reached at two points, as well as the first scientific attempt to reach the North Pole.

    0
    0
  • The most important Arctic work in the 18th century was performed by the Russians, for they succeeded in delineating the whole of the northern coast of Siberia.

    0
    0
  • But in the 19th century and after exploring work was so generally and steadily maintained in all directions, and was in so many cases narrowed down from long journeys to detailed surveys within relatively small areas, that i t becomes desirable to cover the whole period at one view for certain great divisions of the world.

    0
    0
  • At the close of the 19th century there were upwards of loo such societies in the world, with more than 50,000 members, and over 150 journals were devoted entirely to geographical subjects.'

    0
    0
  • The red type is peculiar to America, inhabiting every climate from polar to equatorial, and containing representatives of many stages of culture which had apparently developed without the aid or interference of people of any other race until the close of the 15th century.

    0
    0
  • The older navigation by utilizing the power of the wind demands a very intimate knowledge of these conditions, and it is probable that a revival of sailing ships may in the present century vastly increase the importance of the study of maritime meteorology.

    0
    0
  • So it seems that the dynasty, which more than half a century later succeeded in throwing off the Assyrian yoke and founded the Median empire, was derived from this Dayukku, and that his name was thus introduced into the Median traditions, which contrary to history considered him as founder of the kingdom.

    0
    0
  • The English and the Sicilian settlements form the main Norman history of the II th century.

    0
    0
  • The 10th century is the time of the settlement of the Northmen in Gaul, and of the change in religion and language of which the softening of the name is the outward sign.

    0
    0
  • By the end of the 12th century the Normans in England might fairly pass as Englishmen, and they had largely adopted the use of the English language.

    0
    0
  • In the 12th century three languages were certainly spoken in London; yet London could not call itself the "city of threefold speech," as Palermo did.

    0
    0
  • French documents are unknown till the days of French fashion had come in, that is, till deep in the 13th century.

    0
    0
  • Thus, while the institutions of England in the 12th century were English with very considerable Norman modifications, the architecture of England in that century was Norman with a very slight English modification.

    0
    0
  • The D e Mohun family were overlords of the town from 1086 to the 14th century, when they were followed by the Luttrells, who are the present owners.

    0
    0
  • It is possible that Minehead had a corporate existence during the 15th century, as certain documents executed by the portreeve and burgesses at that date are preserved, but no record of the grant of a charter has been found.

    0
    0
  • This condition being unfulfilled, the charter lapsed in the reign of James I., and an attempt to obtain its renewal in the 18th century failed.

    0
    0
  • In the central square stands one of the finest belfries of northern France, a square structure surmounted by a wooden campanile, dating from the 14th century.

    0
    0
  • St Vaast, the principal church of Bethune, belongs to the 16th century.

    0
    0
  • The town, which dates from the rlth century, was governed by its own lords till 1248, after which date it passed through the ownership of the counts of Flanders, the dukes of Burgundy, and the sovereigns of Austria and Spain.

    0
    0
  • Molsheim was known in the 9th century as Molleshem, and formerly was the seat of a famous Jesuit college, which in 1702 was removed to Strassburg and united with the university of that city.

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  • He determined the course which Roman literature followed for more than a century after his time.

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  • Primary instruction is nominally obligatory; nevertheless at the beginning of the 10th century nearly half the population over six years of age was illiterate.

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  • It has a town hall with handsome rooms, a library, a gymnasium, a lyceum, elementary schools, an arsenal, and eleven churches, the finest of which is St Martin's, of the 15th century, with many excellent paintings and a tower 300 ft.

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  • Clemente, reconstructed in the beginning of the 12th century.

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  • The device of hereditary coat-armour, a growth of the 12th century, did much to define and mark out the noble class throughout Europe.

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  • In the 18th century the nobility of France and the nobility of Poland alike answered to the very strictest definition of nobility; but the political positions of the two were as broadly contrasted as the positions of any two classes of men could be.

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  • It does not seem to be older than the first half of the 17th century.

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  • It is certain that he was a secular priest, and that he composed his history in the latter part of the 14th century; and it is probable that he was a chaplain in the cathedral of Aberdeen.

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  • These materials were used by a continuator who wrote in the middle of the 15th century, and who is identified with Walter Bower,' abbot of the monastery of Inchcolm.

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  • Versions of it appeared in German, French, Italian, Spanish and Greek before the end of the 15th century.

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  • Calicut is of considerable antiquity; and about the 7th century it had its population largely increased by the immigration of the Moplahs, a fanatical race of Mahommedans from Arabia, who entered enthusiastically into commercial life.

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