Centuries sentence example
If his family had lived in the United States for centuries, why didn't they learn to speak proper English?
All kinds of artists have come and gone in the last four centuries, popular in their time but forgotten now.
Women have had centuries of...
She's had centuries of learning to control it because ultimately she is the one who will suffer for any poor decisions.
Mother's about two thousand years old; but she carelessly lost track of her age a few centuries ago and skipped several hundreds.Advertisement
However, once inside, the two seem centuries apart.
Madeleine belongs to the 18th and 19th centuries.
In the 10th century Buddhism, which had existed for centuries in Cambodia, began to become powerful and to rival Brahmanism, the official religion.
The officers of the Church during the first few centuries of its existence were content to officiate in the dress of civil life, though their garments were expected to be scrupulously clean and of decent quality.
Centuries ago, North America saw a shortage of small coins, so large ones were cut into bits to circulate as small change.Advertisement
St Pourgain-sur-Sioule has a large church, dating from the 11th to the 18th centuries.
They are an agricultural people, but made a gallant resistance to the Spaniards for nearly two centuries.
The church of St Etienne dates from the 15th century, that of St Maurice from the 12th, 15th and 16th centuries.
Souvigny possesses the church of a famous Cluniac priory dating from the 11th-12th and 15th centuries, and containing the splendid tombs (15th century) of Louis II.
The castle of Bourbon l'Archambault, which belonged to the dukes of Bourbon, dates from the 13th and 15th centuries.Advertisement
Near the upper Orkhon was the permanent camp of Karakorum, from the 8th century down to the end of the 13th the centre of the Mongol power, especially under the sway of Jenghiz Khan and his son Ogotai or Ogdai in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Some centuries before the Christian era, immigrants from the east coast of India began to exert a powerful influence over Cambodia, into which they introduced Brahmanism and the Sanskrit language.
The peach has not, it is true, been found wild in China, but it has been cultivated there from time immemorial; it has entered into the literature and folk-lore of the people; and it is designated by a distinct name, "to" or "tao," a word found in the writings of Confucius five centuries before Christ, and even in other writings dating from the 10th century before the Christian era.
Those who were thus excluded from the tribes and centuries had no vote, were incapable of filling Roman magistracies and could not serve in the army.
For the next four centuries he acted through water-bailiffs, till in 1771 a committee of the Corporation of London took over the work.Advertisement
During the last two centuries deduction has gone steadily out, and psychology come in.
The Château du Milieu (1lth to 15th centuries) comprises the keep, the Pavillon de 1'Horloge and the Grand Logis, in the principal apartment of which the first meeting between Joan of Arc and Charles VII.
Throughout the 12th and 13th centuries the castle was strengthened and enlarged under successive earls palatine of Pembroke, who made this fortress their chief seat.
The statements in ancient authorities as to the changes in the number of the equites during the regal period are very confusing; but it is regarded as certain that Servius Tullius found six centuries in existence, to which he added twelve, making,' eighteen in all, a number which remained unchanged throughout the republican ' period.
The earlier centuries were called sex suiragia (" the six votes"); and at first consisted exclusively of patricians, while those of Servius Tullius were entirely or far the most part plebeian.Advertisement
Until the reform of the comitia centuriata (probabl' during the censorship of Gaius Flaminius in 220 B.C.; *see Comitia),` the equites had voted first, but after that time this privilege was transferred to tine cenfury selected by lot from the centuries of ' the equites and the first class.
The equites then voted with the first class, the distinction between the sex suffrakia and the other centuries being abolished.
These equites equo private had no vote in the centuries, received pay in place of the aes equestre, and did not form a distinct corps.
In theory, the twelve plebeian centuries were open to all freeborn youths of the age of seventeen, although in practice preference was given to the members of the older families.
At the beginning of the republican period, senators were included in the equestrian centuries.
Prolonged service abroad possessed little attraction for the pick of the Roman youth, and recruiting for the cavalry from the equestrian centuries was discontinued.
The term equites, originally confined to the purely military equestrian centuries of Servius Tullius, now came to be applied to all who possessed the property qualification of 400,000 sesterces.
With them, as with the bulk of the Christians of the 1st and 2nd centuries, apocryphal books as such were highly esteemed.
But the high position which apocryphal books occupied in the first two centuries was undermined by a variety of influences.
Sepolcro, a circular church with ornamentation in brick and an imitation of opus reticulatum, should probably be attributed to the 6th or 7th centuries.
The picture gallery is equally important in its way, affording a survey both of the earlier Bolognese paintings and of the works of the Bolognese eclectics of the 16th and 17th centuries, the Caracci, Guido Reni, Domenichino, Guercino, &c. The primitive masters are not of great excellence, but the works of the masters of the 15th century, especially those of Francesco Francia (1450-1517) and Lorenzo Costa of Ferrara (1460-1535), are of considerable merit.
In the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries its possession was disputed by French and Spaniards.
Ahvaz reached the height of its prosperity in the 12th and 13th centuries and is now a collection of wretched hovels, with a small rectangular fort in a state of ruin, and an Arab population of about 400.
It suffered much during the wars of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries.
Picturesquely situated on the slope of a hill, the town has remains of ramparts of the 12th and 13th centuries, with ditches hewn in the rock, and several medieval buildings.
Of these the chief is the parish, once collegiate, church of the 12th and 13th centuries.
A fine belfry (12th, 13th and 15th centuries) commanding the town is built on the terrace, beneath which are hollowed in the rock the oratory and hermitage of St Emilion, and adjoining them an ancient monolithic church of considerable dimensions.
Remains of a monastery of the Cordeliers (15th and 17th centuries), of a building (13th century)known as the Palais Cardinal, and a square keep (the chief relic of a stronghold founded by Louis VIII.) are also to be seen.
It attained no importance, however, for nearly two centuries.
The question was a complicated one involving the historical survey of Dutch and Portuguese exploration and control in the far interior of Guiana during two centuries; and it was not until 1904 that the king of Italy gave his award, which was largely in favour of the British claim, and grants to British Guiana access to the northern affluents of the Amazon.
But notwithstanding the attractions of the abbey and the neighbouring chase, the royal palace continued for centuries to be within the fortress,.
In the i 5th and 16th centuries the celebrations consisted of bull-fights.
Few memorials of the Roman era 2 or of the first centuries of Christianity have been preserved (except the legend of St Ansanus), and none at all of the interval preceding the Lombard period.
During the 12th and 13th centuries there were continued disturbances, petty wars, and hasty reconciliations between Florence and Siena, until in1254-1255a more binding peace and alliance was concluded.
Nevertheless it retained a separate administration for more than two centuries, until the general reforms of the grand-duke Pietro Leopoldo, the French domination, and finally the restoration swept away all differences between the Sienese and Florentine systems of government.
Tong church, of fine early Perpendicular work, contains a remarkable series of ornate tombs, mainly of the 15th and 16th centuries, to members of the Vernon and Stanley families, former owners of the castle.
Several styles are represented in its architecture which for the most part is the work of the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries; the eastern apse and the tower date from the reign of Louis XV.
During the succeeding centuries it was several times destroyed and rebuilt.
A market town since the 14th century, Korsor has ruins of an old fortified castle, on the south side of the channel, dating from the 14th and 17th centuries.
After the centuries of intellectual darkness which followed upon the closing of the philosophical schools in Athens (529),(529), and the death of Boetius, the last of the ancient philosophers, the first symptoms of renewed intellectual activity appear contemporaneously with the consolidation of the empire of the West in the hands of Charlemagne.
The name doctor scholasticus was applied originally to any teacher in such an ecclesiastical gymnasium, but gradually the study of dialectic or logic overshadowed the more elementary disciplines, and the general acceptation of " doctor " came to be one who occupied himself with the teaching of logic. The philosophy of the later Scholastics is more extended in its scope; but to the end of the medieval period philosophy centres in the discussion of the same logical problems which began to agitate the teachers of the 9th and 1 oth centuries.
The immediate influence of Erigena's system cannot have been great, and his works seem soon to have dropped out of notice in the centuries that followed.
The two systems were nothing more as yet than two different ways of interpreting a phrase of Porphyry, and they remained unnoticed in the for nearly two centuries not so much for its dialectics S' and philosophy as for its humanistic culture.
The next centuries show that peculiar combination of logic and theology which is the mark of Scholasticism, especially in the period before the r3th century.
His destructive criticism thus tended to reintroduce the dualism between faith and reason which Scholasticism had laboured through centuries to overcome, though Scotus himself, of course, had no such sceptical intention.
Occam, who is still a Scholastic, gives us the Scholastic justification of the spirit which had already taken hold upon Roger Bacon, and which was to enter upon its rights in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The 14th and 15th centuries were the great age of German mysticism, and it was not only in Germany that the tide set this way.
The state-maintained gymnasia are mostly of recent foundation, but some schools maintained by the various churches have been in existence for three, or sometimes four, centuries.
Esztergom, Stephen's favourite residence, was the capital, and continued to be so for the next two centuries.
The Magna via Colomanni Regis was in use for centuries after his death.
During the long reign of Sigismund (1387-1437) Hungary was brought face to face with the Turkish peril in its most threatening shape, and all the efforts of the king were directed Turkish Turks crossed the Hellespont from Asia Minor and p began that career of conquest which made them the terror of Europe for the next three centuries.
For many centuries algebra was confined almost entirely to the solution of equations; one of the most important steps being the enunciation by Diophantus of Alexandria of the laws governing the use of the minus sign.
The name l'arte magiore, the greater art, is designed to distinguish it from l'arte minore, the lesser art, a term which he applied to the modern arithmetic. His second variant, la regula de la cosa, the rule of the thing or unknown quantity, appears to have been in common use in Italy, and the word cosa was preserved for several centuries in the forms toss or algebra, cossic or algebraic, cossist or algebraist, &c. Other Italian writers termed it the Regula rei et census, the rule of the thing and the product, or the root and the square.
A period of mathematical stagnation then appears to have possessed the Indian mind for an interval of several centuries, for the works of the next author of any moment stand but little in advance of Brahmagupta.
When the Moorish empire began to wane the brilliant intellectual gifts which they had so abundantly nourished during three or four centuries became enfeebled, and after that period they failed to produce an author comparable with those of the 7th to the 11th centuries.
His travels and mercantile experience had led E t u eopre him to conclude that the Hindu methods of computing were in advance of those then in general use, and in 1202 he published his Liber Abaci, which treats of both algebra and arithmetic. In this work, which is of great historical interest, since it was published about two centuries before the art of printing was discovered, he adopts the Arabic notation for numbers, and solves many problems, both arithmetical and algebraical.
Mathematics was more or less ousted from the academic curricula by the philosophical inquiries of the schoolmen, and it was only after an interval of nearly three centuries that a worthy successor to Leonardo appeared.
The chief ancient buildings of Gandia are the Gothic church, the college, founded by San Francisco de Borgia, director-general of the order of Jesus (1510-1572), and the palace of the dukes of Gandia - a title held in the i 5th and 16th centuries by members of the princely house of Borgia or Borja.
During this and the following centuries the country was governed by kings who claimed to be descendants of Alexander the Great.
Certainly, in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Church of England, while rigorously enforcing the episcopal model at home, and even endeavouring to extend it to Presbyterian Scotland, did not regard foreign non-episcopal Churches otherwise than as sister communions.
The Ville Haute, which is reached by staircases and steep narrow thoroughfares, is intersected by a long, quiet street, bordered by houses of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries.
Despite the different traditions of culture due to the rival ecclesiastical influence of Rome and Byzantium, a sense of kinship had survived throughout centuries of separation, and was strengthened by continual migration.
The most ready means of noting the progress of zoology during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries is to compare the Aristotle's classificatory conceptions of successive naturalists classifi- with those which are to be found in the works of cation.
What the Northmen were to the Western powers in the 8th and 9th the Wends were to the Scandinavian lands in the 11th and 12th centuries.
So persistently does the human ear rebel against the division of the tetrachord into two greater tones and a leimma or hemitone, as represented by the fractions 9, 9, 26, that, centuries before the possibility of reconciling the demands of the ear with those of exact science was satisfactorily demonstrated, the Aristoxenian school advocated the use of an empirical scale, sounding pleasant to the sense, in preference to an unpleasing tonality founded upon immutable proportions.
To meet this exigency, Zarlino proposed that for the lute the octave should be divided into twelve equal semitones; and after centuries of discussion this system of "equal temperament" has, within the last thirty-five years, been universally adopted as the best attainable for keyed instruments of every description.3 Again, Zarlino was in advance of his age in his classification of the ecclesiastical modes.
The existence of a tradition in the last three centuries before Christ as to the authorship of any book is (to those acquainted with the habits of thought of that age) of but little critical moment; the Sopherim, i.e.
The same thing is seen from the fact that the heresy of the Marcionites was already showing itself in this district, for (in Tixeront's words) " heresies, in the first centuries at feast, only spread in already constituted Christian communities."
Sahdona, who was a monk in the Nestorian monastery of Beth `Abhe (the same to which Thomas of Marga belonged two centuries later) and afterwards a bishop early in the 7th century, wrote a biography of and a funeral sermon on his superior Mar Jacob who founded the monastery, and also a long treatise in two parts on the monastic life, of which all that survives has been edited by P. Bedjan (Paris, 1902).
During these later centuries their propaganda embraced all Armenia.
The Hittite warriors upon north Syrian sculptures (Zenjirli, perhaps ' all to 9th centuries) have a short-sleeved tunic which ends above the knees, and this type of garment recurs over a large area with numerous small variations (with or without girdle, slits at the neck, or bordering).
Banbury cakes, consisting of a case of pastry containing a mixture of currants, have a reputation of three centuries' standing.
Till this period the greater part of Annam had been occupied by the Chams, a nation of Hindu civilization, which has left many monuments to testify to its greatness, but the encroachment of the Annamese during the next six centuries at last left to it only a small territory in the south of the country.
In the 15th and 16th centuries the town was a leading seat of the salt industry ("salt to Dysart" was the equivalent of "coals to Newcastle"), but the salt-pans have been abandoned for a considerable period.
The most important codfishery in the world is that which has been prosecuted for centuries on the Newfoundland banks, where it is not uncommon for a single fisherman to take over Soo of these fish in ten or eleven hours.
The transepts, added in the 13th and, 4th centuries (before 1370), have picturesque brick façades, with fine terra-cotta ornamentation.
The so-called Campo Santo, close to the baptistery, contains a mosaic pavement with emblematic figures belonging probably to the 8th and 9th centuries, and running under the cathedral.
Both honours were taken from it to be given to Santiago de Cuba; and for two centuries after this Baracoa remained an obscure village, with little commerce.
Asclepiades had many pupils who adhered more or less closely to his doctrines, but it was especially one of them, Themison, who gave permanence to the teachings of his master by framing out of them, with some modifications, a new system of medical doctrine, and founding on this basis a school which lasted for some centuries in successful rivalry with the Hippocratic tradition, which, as we have seen, was up to that time the prevailing influence in medicine.
Soranus is known by a work, still extant in the Greek original, on the diseases of women, and also by the Latin work of Caelius Aurelianus, three centuries later, on acute and chronic diseases, which is based upon, if not, as some think, an actual translation of, the chief work of Soranus, and which is the principal source of our knowledge of the methodic school.
The methodic school lasted certainly for some centuries, and influenced the revival of medical science in the middle ages, though overshadowed by the greater reputation of Galen.
Unfortunately it was neither this nor his zeal for research that chiefly won him followers, but the completeness of his theoretical explanations, which fell in with the mental habits of succeeding centuries, and were such as have flattered the intellectual indolence of all ages.
For some centuries the methodic school was popular at Rome, and produced one physician, Caelius Aurelianus, who must be pronounced, next to Celsus, the most considerable of the Latin medical writers.
In the first place the 15th and 16th centuries were notable for the outbreak of certain epidemic diseases, which were unknown to the old physicians.
In the military history of all these centuries constant allusion is made to the Rhine, its passages and its fortresses.
Our sole information concerning his life is found in the brief summary of Jerome, written more than four centuries after the poet's death.
Jerome followed, often carelessly, the accounts contained in the lost work of Suetonius De Viris Illustribus, written about two centuries after the death of Lucretius; and, although it is likely that Suetonius used the information transmitted by earlier grammarians, there is nothing to guide us to the original sources.
They remained essentially unchanged for centuries, and the Locrians subsequently enjoyed a high reputation as upholders of the law.
No perfectly satisfactory traces can be found of the use of incense in the ritual of the Christian Church during the first four centuries.'
And less than two centuries afterwards we read an order in one of the capitularies of Hincmar of Reims, to the effect that every priest ought to be provided with a censer and incense.
Cyprus was for centuries famous for their manufacture, and they were still known in the middle ages by the names of pastils or osselets of Cyprus.
In the 17th and 18th centuries it was a favourite duellingground, and in the present day it is not infrequently the scene of political and other popular demonstrations (as is also Trafalgar Square), while the neighbourhood of Marble Arch is the constant resort of orators on social and religious topics.
The Thames formed the natural barrier on the south, but the Romans do not appear to have been content with this protection, for they built a wall here in addition, which remained for several centuries.
If what is here suggested really occurred it may be that this separation of London from the surrounding country originated the remarkable position of London with its unparalleled privileges, which were continued for many centuries and kept it not only the leader among cities but distinct from all others.
In London the Saxon stood outside the government for centuries, and the acceptance of the Roman survival explains much that is otherwise unintelligible.
He died on the 30th of April 693, a day which was kept in memory in his cathedral for centuries by special offices.
For many centuries this district between London and Westminster was a kind of " no man's land " having certain archaic customs. Gomme in his Governance of London (1907) gives an account of the connexion of this with the old village of Aldwich, a name that survived in Wych Street, and has been revived by the London County Council in Aldwych, the crescent which leads to Kingsway.
It was not until two centuries afterwards that the second Cistercian house in the immediate neighbourhood of London was founded.
On their return after many centuries of exile most of them settled in the neighbourhood of Aldgate and Aldersgate.
Although for several centuries attempts had been made in favour of building houses with brick or stone, yet the carpenters continued to be the chief housebuilders.
The Bills of Mortality of the 16th and 17th centuries are of more value, and they have been considered and revised by such able statisticians as John Graunt and Sir William Petty.
Population was practically stationary for centuries owing to pestilences and the large proportion of deaths among infants.
Government We know little of The government of London during the Saxon period, and it is only incidentally that we learn how the Londoner had become possessed of special privileges which he continued to claim with success through many centuries.
Several instances of this are recorded in the 13th and 14th centuries.
In the same year he removed his residence from Ava, which, with brief interruptions, had been the capital for four centuries, to the new city of Amarapura, " the City of the Immortals."
Charles Winston, after prolonged study of the coloured windows of the 13th, 14th and i 5th centuries, convinced himself that no approach to the colour effect of these windows could be made with glass which is thin and even in section, homogeneous in texture, and made and coloured with highly refined materials.
In the first centuries of our era the art of glassmaking was developed at Rome and other cities under Roman rule in a most remarkable manner, and it reached a point of FIG.
Edward Dillon (Glass, 1902) has very properly laid stress on the importance of the enamelled Saracenic glass of the r3th, 14th and r 5th centuries, pointing out that, whereas the Romans and Byzantine Greeks made some crude and ineffectual experiments in enamelling, it was under Saracenic influence that the processes of enamelling and gilding on glass vessels were perfected.
During the 16th and 17th centuries Venice exported a prodigious quantity of mirrors, but France and England gradually acquired knowledge and skill in the art, and in 1772 only one glass-house at Murano continued to make mirrors.
The efforts made in France, Germany and England, in the 17th and 18th centuries, to improve the manufacture of glass in those countries had a very injurious effect on the industry of Murano.
Under the Tahirids of Khorasan, the Saffarids of Seistan and the Samanids of Bokhara, it flourished for some centuries in peace and progressive prosperity; but during the succeeding rule of the Ghaznevid kings its metropolitan character was for a time obscured by the celebrity of the neighbouring capital of Ghazni, until finally in the reign of Sultan Sanjar of Mer y about 1157 the city was entirely destroyed by an irruption of the Ghuzz, the predecessors, in race as well as in habitat, of the modern Turkomans.
Four times was Herat sacked by Turkomans and Usbegs during the centuries which intervened between the Timuride princes and the rise of the Afghan power, and it has never in modern times attained to anything like its old importance.
The lycee and the hospital have chapels of the 17th and 16th centuries respectively.
In the 5th and following centuries the north portion was Teutonized, first by the Ostrogoths, mainly by the Baiouarii, but the Teutonic Langobardi who pressed up from the south became Romanized themselves, so that the double character of the inhabitants of the land appears quite early.
During the three centuries that have elapsed between Vieta's day and our own several changes of opinion have taken place on this subject, till the principle has at last proved so far victorious that modern mathematicians like to make homogeneous such equations as are not so from the beginning, in order to get values of a symmetrical shape.
Among its principal buildings are the castle, several Roman Catholic (from the 13th and 14th centuries) and Lutheran churches, a Franciscan monastery (founded 1634), the town-hall, and the mint where the celebrated Kremnitz gold ducats were formerly struck.
In the 5th century B.C. a Greek colony was founded here and remained independent for three centuries, when it became part of the kingdom of the Bosporus, and subsequently tributary to Rome.
In the first three centuries of the Christian era Hippo was one of the richest cities in Roman Africa; but its chief title to fame is derived from its connexion with St Augustine, who lived here as priest and bishop for thirty-five years.
Bona (Arabic annaba, " the city of jujube trees"), which has passed through many vicissitudes, was built by the Arabs, and was for centuries a possession of the rulers of Tunis, who built the Kasbah in 1300.
The Charost branch of the family gave France a number of generals during the 17 th and 18th centuries.
The Gothic cathedral (now Protestant), dating from the 13th and 14th centuries, is remarkable for the majestic impression made by the great height of the interior, with its slender columns and lofty, narrow aisles.
His prince, abating those points which are purely Italian or strongly tinctured with the author's personal peculiarities, prefigured the monarchs of the 16th and 17th centuries, the monarchs whose motto was L'e'tat c' est moil His doctrine of a national militia foreshadowed the system which has given strength in arms to France and Germany.
There is in truth a something crude, unsympathetic, cynical in his mental attitude toward human nature, for which, even after the lapse of more than three centuries, we find it difficult to make allowance.
Though for many centuries they have thus been treated as separate compositions, we have abundant evidence that they were anciently regarded as forming but one book, and a careful examination proves that together with the book of Chronicles they constitute one single work.
National traditions extending over centuries were grouped round Charlemagne, his father Pippin, and his son Louis.
Historical tradition was already dim when the hypothetical and much discussed cantilenae, which may be taken to have formed the repository of the national legends from the 8th to the 10th century, were succeeded in the 11th and the early 12th centuries by the chansons de geste.
A closer investigation of the numerous long, narrow banks which lie off the Flemish coast and the Thames estuary shows that they are composed of fragments of rock abraded and transported by tidal currents and storms in the same way that the chalk and limestone worn off from the eastern continuation of the island of Heligoland during the last two centuries has been reduced to the coarse gravel of the off-lying Dune.
For more than two centuries Bruno received scarcely the consideration he deserved.
But the name and the figure which it suggested occupied so prominent a place in the mind of Europe for two or three centuries that a real history could hardly have a stronger claim to exposition.
Prophecies current among the Christians in Syria of the destruction of Mahomet's sect after six centuries of duration added to the excitement attending these rumours.
This personage was a prince of the Khitai or Khitaian dynasty of Liao, which had reigned over northern China and the regions beyond the Wall during a great part of the 10th and 11th centuries, and from which came the name Khitai (Cathay), by which China was once known in Europe and still is known in Russia.
Among the other interesting churches of the department, that at St Satur has a fine choir of the 14th and 15th centuries; those of Dun-sur-Auron, Plaimpied, Aix d'Angillon and Jeanvrin are Romanesque in style, while Aubigny-Ville has a church of the 12th, 13th and 15th centuries and a château of later date.
The chief buildings are the church of St Pierre (15th and 16th centuries), which has an imposing tower and rich interior decoration; a hotel de ville of the 18th century; and the Bailliage (16th century), a small building in the Renaissance style.
The difficulty is further diminished when it is proved, as it can be proved, 2 that the modes of energy represented in the atomic spectrum acquire energy so slowly that the atom might undergo collisions with other atoms for centuries before being set into oscillations which would possess an appreciable amount of energy.
The elder Franklin was born at Ecton in Northamptonshire, England, where the strongly Protestant Franklin family may be traced back for nearly four centuries.
For some centuries the term was applied to the northern kingdom, as distinct from Judah, although the feeling of national unity extended it so as to include both.
It has also been given as a votive offering to a church, and has soon afterwards followed they were buried out of sight for safety, where they were eventually discovered absolutely unharmed centuries afterwards.
No traces of this Persian translation can now be found, but nearly two centuries later, Abdallah-ibn-Mokaffa translated the Persian into Arabic; and his version, which is known as the "Book of Kalilah and Dimna," from the two jackals in the first story, became the channel through which a knowledge of the fables was transmitted to Europe.
In the second quarter of the 10th century Fulk the Red had already usurped the title of count, which his descendants kept for three centuries.
For the loth, I 1 th and 12th centuries especially, there are some important texts dealing entirely with Anjou.
For the loth, 1 1th and 12th centuries, a good summary will be found in Kate Norgate, England under the Angevin Kings (2 vols., London, 1887).
Unfortunately this crude solution of the problem proved too much; for conditions were no worse immediately before the revolt than they had been for centuries, and German complaints of papal tyranny go back to Hildegard of Bingen and Walther von der Vogeiweide, who antedated Luther by more than three centuries.
He exhibits the great achievements of the latter part of the 15th and the early portion of the r6th centuries; the art and literature, the material prosperity of the towns and the fostering of the spiritual life of the people.
In this manner Martin Luther, with the hearty sympathy of a considerable number of his countrymen, publicly proclaimed and illustrated his repudiation of the papal government under which western Europe had lived for centuries.
As one traces the vicissitudes of the papacy during the two centuries from Boniface VIII.
Nevertheless, permanent if partial dissolution was at hand, for no one of the perils which the popes had seemingly so successfully overcome had failed to weaken the constitution of their empire; and it is impossible to comprehend 'its comparatively sudden disintegration without reckoning with the varied hostile forces which were accumulating and combining strength during the 14th and 15th centuries.
Moreover, it should be noted that Campeggio's diplomacy was really the beginning of an effective betterment of the old Church, such as had been discussed for two or three centuries.
The Church and the civil government had been closely associated with one another for centuries, and the old system was perpetuated in the Protestant states.
The first parliament of the reign swept away almost all the species of treasons created during the previous two centuries, the heresy acts, including the Six 1547- Articles, all limitations on printing the Scriptures in 1553.
Thus during the reign of Edward we have not only the foundations of the Anglican Church laid, but there appears the beginning of those evangelical and puritanical sects which were to become the " dissenters " of the following centuries.
His ideal was to restore the conditions which he supposed prevailed during the first three centuries of the Church's existence; but the celebrated Ecclesiastical Ordinances adopted by the town in 1541 and revised in 1561 failed fully to realize his ideas, which find a more complete exemplification in the regulations governing the French Church later.
It prepared the way for the dogmatic formulation of the plenitude of the papal power three centuries later by the council of the Vatican.
During the 17th and, 8th centuries and during the period of the Napoleonic wars the history of these lands was very similar to that of the other small estates of Germany.
After the original and exclusively English immigration from 1620 to 1640 there was nothing like regular foreign immigration until the 19th century; and it was a favourite assertion of Dr Palfrey that the blood of the fishing folk on Cape Cod was more purely English through two centuries than that of the inhabitants of any English county.
Lowell are two on " New England two Centuries Ago " and " Witchcraft."
For four or five centuries it became the entrepot of trade between India, Arabia and Upper Egypt.
Jewish catacombs with inscriptions in Hebrew, Greek and Latin show the importance of the Jewish population here in the 4th and 5th centuries after Christ.
Of the churches, that of Notre-Dame (12th and 14th centuries) is remarkable for the possession of a fine altarpiece of the early 16th century, composed of wooden panels painted by Jean Bellegambe, a native of Douai.
Houses of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries are numerous.
Although the Purasati appear after the 15th-14th centuries, now illuminated by the Amarna tablets, their own history is perhaps earlier.
The culture appears to find Carian and Lydian parallels, and has been ascribed provisionally to the 13th - Ioth centuries.
For the first four or five centuries of Benedictine history there was no organic bond between any of the monasteries; each house formed an independent autonomous family, managing its own affairs and subject to no external authority or control except that of the bishop of the diocese.
But the influence of Cluny, even on monasteries that did not enter into its organism, was enormous; many adopted Cluny customs and practices and moulded their life and spirit after the model it set; and many such monasteries became in turn centres of revival and reform in many lands, so that during the 10th and 11th centuries arose free unions of monasteries based on a common observance derived from a central abbey.
Tables, knives, forks and other prandial apparatus were as lacking as they were in the palaces of kings a few centuries before.
Abandoned since 495 - for Kasyapa was eventually slain during a battle fought in the plain beneath - it has, on the whole, well withstood the fury of tropical storms, and is now used again to gain access to the top. When rediscovered by Major Forbes in 1835 the portions of the gallery where it had been exposed for so many centuries to the south-west monsoon, had been carried away.
But the retention of the story without modification may imply a continuous recognition through some centuries of the idea that Yahweh revealed his will to nations other than Israel.
Throughout the 9th and 10th centuries, as the life-benefices of the later Carolingian kings were gradually transformed into hereditary fiefs, the insecurity of life and property increased, for there was no central power to curb the warring local magnates.
Among the celebrities of Saluzzo are Silvio Pellico, Bodoni, the famous printer of Parma of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and Casalis the historian of Sardinia.
The study of calcination and combustion during the 17th and 18th centuries culminated in the discovery that air consists chiefly of a mixture of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen.
Its chief buildings are the Johannisburg, built (1605-1614) by Archbishop Schweikard of Cronberg, which contains a library with a number of incunabula, a collection of engravings and paintings; .the Stiftskirche, or cathedral, founded in 980 by Otto of Bavaria, but dating in the main from the early 12th and the 13th centuries, in which are preserved various monuments by the Vischers, and a sarcophagus, with the relics of St Margaret (1540); the Capuchin hospital; a theatre, which was formerly the house of the Teutonic order; and several mansions of the German nobility.
East of the mosque, which dates from the 17th century, and just without the inner city walls, here demolished, is the Protestant cemetery of St George, used during the 17th, 18th and the greater part of the 19th centuries.
The Great Church, dedicated to St Bavo, with a lofty tower (255 ft.), is one of the most famous in Holland, and dates from the end of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries.
This Lakhmid kingdom was more or less dependent, during the four centuries of its existence, on the Sassanian empire, to which it formed a sort of buffer state towards Arabia.
It connects Dera Ismail Khan with the Gomal valley in Afghanistan, and has formed for centuries the outlet for the povindah trade.
It is, however, by no means easy to determine their original tenets, as in the 13th and 14th centuries they were a body of obscure and unlettered peasants, hiding themselves in a corner, while in the 16th century they were absorbed into the general movement of the Reformation.
Gradually, from Eratosthenes to Tycho, Hipparchus playing the most important part among ancient astronomers, the complex astrolabe was evolved, large specimens being among the chief observa tory instruments of the 15th, 16th and even 17th centuries; while small ones were in use among travellers and learned men, not only for astronomical, but for astrological and topographical purposes.
The church of St Martin (1420) contains several fine tombs of the 15th-17th centuries.
The main object was to ensure the accurate division of the people into the six main classes and their respective centuries, which were based upon considerations of combined numbers and wealth.
After the invention of printing a very considerable mass of literature concerning this subject was produced during the 16th and 17th centuries.
A considerable amount of literature pro and con was devoted to this controversy in the 17th and 18th centuries.
This system of divination has the charm of simplicity and definiteness, as an application of the "doctrine of signatures" which formed so extensive an element in the occult writings of the past six centuries.
Like the graining or " milling " on the edge of many coins, the inscriptions were intended to put a stop to the practice of clipping and filing coins, which was prevalent in the 16th and 17th centuries.
It persisted in the main during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, and only faded before the growing influence of metropolitan or diocesan bishops in the 4th century.
The gulf between the " laity " and " clergy " went on widening during the 5th and 6th centuries; and the people, stripped of their old prerogatives (save in form here and there), passed into a spiritual pupillage which was one distinctive note of the medieval Church.
It took part in the movements in South Germany during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Herzl believed that the humanitarian hopes which inspired men at the end of the 18th and during the larger part of the 19th centuries had failed.
Climbing the high mountain that overhangs the town, he established on the summit the monastery with which his name has ever since been associated, and which for centuries was a chief centre of religious life for western Europe.
In this guise he passed into European worship in the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D.
That Abyssinia was peopled from South Arabia is proved by its language and writing; but the difference between the two languages is such as to imply that the settlement was very early and that there were many centuries of separation, during which the Abyssinians were exposed to foreign influences.
The territory of Schwiebus originally belonged to the principality of Glogau, and in the 16th and 17th centuries was a bone of contention between the electors of Brandenburg and the emperors.
The project itself is nearly four centuries old; for a century Great Britain and the United States had been sometimes in friendly, sometimes in acrimonious dispute as to how this was to be accomplished; the French undertook the work and failed.
In Paris, too, at this time he made a whimsical but pleasant friendship. Marie de Jars de Gournay (1565-1645), one of the most learned ladies of the 16th and 17th centuries, had conceived such a veneration for the author of the Essays that, though a very young girl and connected with many noble families, she travelled to the capital on purpose to make his acquaintance.
The editions of Montaigne in France and elsewhere, and the works upon him during the past three centuries, are innumerable.
Five centuries later Lauenburg was incorporated with Hanover, and Wittenberg is the nucleus of modern Saxony, the name being thus transferred from the west to the east of Germany.
The town was for several centuries an episcopal see.
The cathedral, remarkable in having three towers over the transept, one of which is surmounted by a fine spire, dates from the 14th and 15th centuries.
In the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries it was remarkably long and narrow.
The stole of the deacons is mentioned so early as the 4th and 5th centuries, the first instance being in the 22nd canon of the council of Laodicea, where it is mentioned specifically as the insignia of a deacon.
Mosul has for several centuries been a centre of Catholic missionary activity, the Dominicans especially, by the foundation of schools and printing-offices, having made a marked impression upon an intelligent and teachable population.
Babylonian influence, as is now well known, was strongly felt for many centuries in Canaan, and even the cuneiform script was in common use among the high officials of the country.
Many bridges so constructed have stood for centuries.
During the 16th and the 17th centuries its German educational establishments enjoyed a wide reputation.
Personal experience of the inconveniences and dangers of the prevailing system of preferment, the so-called myestnichestvo, or rank priority, which had paralysed the Russian armies for centuries, induced him to propose its abolition, which was accomplished by Tsar Theodore III.
In the 18th and 19th centuries the abbey was used as a prison for political offenders, serving this purpose until 1863, when an extensive restoration, begun in 1838, was resumed.
Scavi, 1904, 65), and a Greek necropolis of the 6th and 5th centuries B.C. has been found to the south-east (ibid.
The struggle for religious freedom has suffered no intermission since the beginning of the Reformation; and the result is that to-day its recognition is considered one of the most precious trophies won in the evolution of modern civilization; nor can these changes be reversed, for they stand in the closest connexion and reciprocity one with another, and represent the fruits of centuries of co-operation on the part of the European peoples.
Frequent references to the parish church of Stoke are found during the 14th and 15th centuries.
It was religion which first induced ladies, in the earlier centuries of Christianity, to take up the care of the sick as a charitable duty.
The volatile oils have for centuries been regarded as of value in disorders of the reproductive organs, and the reputation of myrrh in this connexion is simply a survival of this ancient but ill-founded belief.
For some centuries afterwards Rome remained unmolested by northern barbarians.
It was largely manufactured in the 15th and 16th centuries, and the industry has been revived in modern times with success.
They became virtually merged in the European series, stamped with official recognition over two centuries ago.
Many such, of the 14th and 15th centuries, have been recovered from the Thames.
Nearly all the French cathedrals of the 12th and 13th centuries exhibit on their portals a species of rural calendar, in which each month and sign has its corresponding labour.
The fusion of races may be said to have begun then, for it was during the succeeding centuries that the kings of Swankalok-Sukhotai gradually assumed Lao characteristics, and that the Siamese language, written character and other racial peculiarities were in course of formation.
During the 15th and 16th centuries Siam was frequently invaded by the Burmese and Peguans, who, attracted probably by the great wealth of Ayuthia, besieged it mote than once without success, the defenders being aided by Portuguese mercenaries, till about 1555, when the city was taken and Siam reduced to dependence.
For centuries she had been distracted by wars with Cambodians, Peguans and Burmans, but the incorporation of Lower Cochin China, Annam and Tongking by the French, and the annexation of Lower and Upper Burma successively by the British, freed her from all further danger on the part of her old rivals.
The current Siamese characters are derived from the more monumental Cambodian alphabet, which again owes its origin to the alphabet of the inscriptions, an offshoot of the character found on the stone monuments of southern India in the 6th and 8th centuries.
The Hanseatic and Flemish merchants largely increased its prosperity, but on the withdrawal of the Hanseatic League about 1470 and the break-up of the gild system Boston's prosperity began to wane, and for some centuries it remained almost without trade.
The order is recognized in the canons of the councils of Nicaea (325) and Chalcedon (451), and is frequently mentioned in the writings of Chrysostom (some of whose letters are addressed to deaconesses at Constantinople), Epiphanius, Basil, and indeed most of the more important Fathers of the 4th and 5th centuries.
They belong to the 3rd-2nd centuries B.C. A tomb outside the town of the 6th century s.c., discovered in 1898, consisted of a round underground chamber, roofed with gradually projecting slabs of stone.
In the 12th and 13th centuries it enjoyed free institutions; in 1361 it fell under the power of Florence.
The foundation of botanic gardens during the 16th and 17th centuries did much in the way of advancing botany.
The Philippine Islands which had been for several centuries a Spanish possession, passed in 1898 by conquest to the United States of America.
In 1602 the Dutch East India Company was incorporated, and for nearly two centuries this organization played the chief part in the history of the archipelago.
In the next two centuries Brussels grew in size and importance, and its trade gilds were formed on lines similar to those of Ghent.
The secret of the enthusiasm of the masses for the analogous expression Theotokos is to be sought not so much in the Nicene doctrine of the incarnation as in the recent growth in the popular mind of notions as to the dignity of the Virgin Mary, which were entirely unheard of (except in heretical circles) for nearly three centuries of the Christian era.
He came of a family of small farmer proprietors, who had held land during three centuries.
Its principal building is the church of St Etienne, of the 16th and 17th centuries, which contains some fine stained glass.
The hillock on which it rises was no doubt the site of earlier churches, but the present Transitional building dates only from the 12th and 13th centuries, while its portico was built in the 18th century, after the model of the Pantheon at Rome.
The first foe without was the family of the counts of the Genevois (the region south of the city and in the neighbourhood of Annecy), who were also "protectors" (advocati) of the church of Geneva, and are first heard of in the 11th and 12th centuries.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, while the Romanist majority of the Swiss cantons steadily refused to accept Geneva as even a subordinate member of the Confederation, the city itself was distracted on several occasions by attempts of the citizens, as a whole, to gain some share in the aristocratic government of the town, though these attempts were only partially successful.
His work was continued in the 5th century by Philostorgius, Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret, and in later centuries by Theodorus Lector, Evagrius, Theophanes and others.
In the 14th century Nicephorus Callisti undertook a complete church history which covers in its extant form the first six centuries.
Local histories containing more or less ecclesiastical material were written in the 6th and following centuries by Jordanes (History of the Goths), Gregory of Tours (History of the Franks), Isidore of Seville (History of the Goths, Vandals and Suevi), Bede (Ecclesiastical History of England), Paulus Diaconus (History of the Lombards), and others.
Polemic interest led a number of Lutheran scholars of the 16th century to publish the Magdeburg Centuries (1 559 ff.), in which they undertook to show the primitive character of the Protestant faith in contrast with the alleged corruptions of Roman Catholicism.
Other notable Roman Catholic historians of the 17th and 18th centuries were Natalis Alexander, Bossuet, Tillemont, Fleury, Dupin and Ceillier.
Thenceforth for centuries it was not only the chief religious, but also the chief civilizing, force at work in the occident.
The assertion of the deity of the Son incarnate in Christ raised another problem which constituted the subject of dispute in the Christological controversies of the 4th and following centuries.
In the 5th and 6th centuries Egypt and Palestine had been the classic lands of monks and monasteries.
Under the Empire the ecumenical council had been looked upon as the highest representative organ of the Catholic Church; but the earlier centuries of the middle ages witnessed the convocation of no ecumenical councils.
Aristotelian dialectics had always been taught in the schools; and reason as well as authority had been appealed to as the foundation of theology; but for the theologians of the 9th and 10th centuries, whose method had been merely that of restatement, ratio and auctoritas were in perfect accord.
In the 11 th and 12th centuries the chivalry of Spain and southern France took up the struggle with the Moors as a holy war.
The Protestant St Janskerk, a Gothic building of the 13th and i 5th centuries, with a fine tower, was formerly the baptistery of the cathedral.
Some of its constituent territories, however, notably Bohemia and the lands of the Bohemian crown (Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia) enjoyed, up to the year 1620, many centuries of independent existence and played an important, sometimes a dominating, part in the political and religious history of central Europe.
Their presence is largely the result, firstly of a colonization which was favoured by the Bohemian kings and princes of the 12th and 13th centuries, and secondly of a policy of Germanization pursued by the Habsburg rulers from the date of the battle of the White Mountain in 1620 (when the Czechs lost their independence) up till the very close of the World War.
It is well built, and boasts of a fine old Gothic parish church, dating from the 14th and 15th centuries, opposite which a statue was erected in 1889 to the memory of the famous Minnesinger, Walther von der Vogelweide, who, according to some accounts, was born (c. 1170) at a farm above Waidbruck, to the north of Botzen.
In the 7th to 8th centuries Botzen was held by a dynasty of Bavarian counts.
It has a citadel of the 15th and 16th centuries which has often served as a state prison and is now used as a reformatory for girls.
The new town extends to the south, the old town with its wide but irregular streets and its old mansions dating from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries lies to the north.
The cathedral of St Sauveur, which dates from the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, is situated in this portion of Aix.
In the 17th and 18th centuries the town was the seat of the intendance of Provence.
The medieval church had spanned the centuries by supposing that Christ's death was continuous down through the age in the sacrifice of the Mass; Protestant theology had nothing equivalent.
He proposed to supply the lack by the theory that justification is a real work done in the individual by the same Christ who died so many centuries ago.
One of the earliest instances of this spirit is afforded by the book of Agrippa of Nettesheim centuries.
Here the Lechici, as they called themselves (a name derived from the mythical patriarch, Lech), seemed to have lived for centuries, in loosely connected communities, the simple lives of huntsmen, herdsmen and tillers of the soil, till the pressure of rapacious neighbours compelled them to combine for mutual defence.
The paucity and taciturnity of our sources make it impossible to give anything like an adequate picture of Old Poland during the first four centuries of its existence.
The pick of the feudal chivalry composed their ranks; with all Europe to draw upon, their resources seemed inexhaustible, and centuries of political experience made them as formidable in diplomacy as they were valiant in warfare.
Two centuries of Jagiellonic rule made Poland great despite her grave external difficulties.
So successful was their prudential abstention that no regular war occurred between Turkey and Poland during the two centuries of their sway.
His chief works are History of the Polish People from the Earliest Times to the year 1763 (1854), History of Poland in the 18th and igth Centuries (1866), and History of Poland from the time of the Partition (1868), which he carried down to the year 1832.
Owing to the great beauty of the flowers they have been favourites in European gardens for two or three centuries, and have been crossed and recrossed till it has become almost impossible to refer the plants to their original types.
Completely ruined by the Mongol prince Batu in 1240, it remained deserted for more than two centuries.
Many colonial Roman coins of the 3rd and 4th centuries, and silver dirhems, stamped at Samarkand, Balkh, Merv, &c., were also found in 1869.
He regarded the acquisition of knowledge as an end in itself, and in consequence he gained a wider outlook on the aims of scientific inquiry than had been enjoyed by his predecessors for many centuries.
But whatever may have been his reasons, he ultimately became the leader of those who were energetically opposed to any addition to, or more stringent definition of, the powers which the Papacy had possessed for centuries.
This can best be shown by a few quotations from eminent and orthodox churchmen during those centuries.
The remains proved it to belong to the 5th and 6th centuries.
Although known for centuries, they have seldom been mentioned by writers on playing-cards, and the rules have for the most part been handed down orally.
By these ranges it is forced due south for 500 m., forming the boundary between the provinces of Shansi and Shensi, until it finds an outlet eastwards at Tung Kwan - a pass which for centuries has been renowned as the gate of Asia, being indeed the sole commercial passage between central China and the West.
Two critical editions of the Iliad and Odyssey were produced by his successor, Aristarchus, who was librarian until 1 4 6 B.C. and was the founder of scientific scholarship. His distinguished pupil, Dionysius Thrax (born c. 166 B.C.), drew up a Greek grammar which continued in use for more than thirteen centuries.
In Italy a decline in the knowledge of Greek in the 5th and 6th centuries led to an estrangement between the Greek and Latin Churches.
The year 690 is regarded as the date of the temporary extinction of Greek in Italy, but, in the first quarters of the 8th and the 9th centuries, the iconoclastic decrees of the Byzantine emperors drove many of the Greek monks and their lay adherents to the south of Italy, and even to Rome itself.
During the two centuries after John the Scot, the study of Greek declined in France.
Before touching on the salient points in the subsequent centuries, in connexion with the leading nations of Europe, we may briefly note the cosmopolitan position of Erasmus (1466-1536), who, although he was a native of the Netherlands, was far more closely connected with France, England, Italy, Germany and Switzerland, than with the land of his birth.
These, which are described in separate articles, helped to maintain the tradition of an earthly paradise which had become associated with the myth of Atlantis; and all except Avalon were marked in maps of the 14th and 15th centuries, and formed the object of voyages of discovery, in one case (St Brendan's island) until the 18th century.
The island was variously identified with America, Scandinavia, the Canaries and even Palestine; ethnologists saw in its inhabitants the ancestors of the Guanchos, the Basques or the ancient Italians; and even in the 17th and 18th centuries the credibility of the whole legend was seriously debated, and sometimes admitted, even by Montaigne, Buffon and Voltaire.
It is related that Zobeideh, the wife of Harun-al-Rashid, founded the town in 791 after recovering there from fever, but the earlier chronicles give no support to this statement, and it is nowhere recorded that Zobeideh ever visited Azerbaijan, and the name Tabriz was known many centuries before her time.
The Ghadamsi merchants have been known for centuries as keen and adventurous traders, and their agents are to be found in the more important places of the western and central Sudan, such as Kano, Katsena, Kanem, Bornu, Timbuktu, as well as at Ghat and Tripoli.
From time immemorial, indeed, this coast has had an evil reputation among mariners, quite apart from the pirates who for centuries made it the base of their depredations.
The Roman town was founded in the reign of Augustus, and it flourished for two centuries before it disappeared from history.
For the most part, the Arab tribes have been reluctant to avail themselves of their new powers, and where they have done so the hasty reversal of the traditions of centuries has proved demoralizing to the natives, without any sufficient equivalent in the way of healthy French colonization.
The different order of the books in the English Bible is due to the fact that when the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek between the 3rd and 1st centuries B.C., the Hebrew tripartite division was disregarded, and the books (including those now known as the " Apocrypha ") were grouped mostly by subjects, the historical books being placed first (Genesis - Esther), the poetical books next (Job - Song of Songs), and the prophetical books last (Isaiah - Malachi).
Beginning with Amos and Hosea, they form a series which was not completed till more than three centuries had passed away.
The position of Christian (and Jewish Alexandrian) scholars was considerably worse; for, with rare exceptions, down to the 5th century, and practically without exception between the 5th and 15th centuries, their study was exclusively based on translations.
Still there are not lacking in the early centuries A.D.
Unfortunately this great work proved too voluminous to be preserved entire; and in the form in which it was fragmentarily preserved, it even largely enhanced the critical task of later centuries.
At first, and indeed down to the middle of the 17th century, Jewish traditions and methods in the study of Hebrew dominated Christian scholars; but in the 17th and 18th centuries the study of other Semitic languages opened up that comparative linguistic study which was systematized and brought nearer to perfection in the 19th century (which also witnessed the opening up of the new study of Assyrian) by scholars such as Gesenius, Ewald, Olshausen, Renan, Noldeke, 'Stade and Driver.
Even in the 16th and 17th centuries scholars like Grotius and Michaelis met with violent opposition for the same cause.
Some important contributions towards a right critical method of using the material collected have been made - in particular by Lagarde, who has also opened up a valuable line of critical work, along which much remains to be done, by his restoration of the Lucianic recension, one of the three great recensions of the Greek text of the Old Testament which obtained currency at the close of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th centuries A.D.
Except by the obviously absurd assumption of the infallibility of copyists for the centuries before c. 300 B.C., we cannot escape the conclusion that errors lurk even where no variants now exist, and that such errors can be corrected, if at all, only by conjectural emendation.
Von Soden's analysis of numbers, contents and date may be tabulated as follows, but it must be remembered that it reckons many small fragments as separate MSS., especially in the earlier centuries.
Quentin has produced some interesting but not convincing evidence to show that the MS. was used in Lyons in the 12th century, and Rendel Harris at one time thought that there were traces of Gallicism in the Latin, but the latter's more recent researches go to show that the corrections and annotations varying in date between the 7th and 12th centuries point to a district which was at first predominantly Greek and afterwards became Latin.
When, therefore, the breach came, and the struggle between reformers and conservatives within the undivided Church was transformed into a struggle between Protestants and Romanists, it was inevitable that the authority which in the previous centuries had been ascribed to the Church 1 E.g.
More important still was the growing perception of the general uniformity of nature, which had forced itself with increasing insistence upon men's minds as the study of the natural sciences progressed in the 17th and 18th centuries.
This is the question which has occupied the theologians of the 19th and 20th centuries.
What may be called the received chronology during the last two centuries has pushed the date farther back to 4 B.C. But the considerations now to be adduced make it probable that the true date is earlier still.
This literature is especially valuable because it illustrates contemporary Halaka and Haggada, and it illuminates the circle of thought with which Jesus and his followers were familiar; it thus fills the gap between the Old Testament and the authoritative Rabbinical Midrashim which, though often in a form several centuries later, not rarely preserve older material.'
Two centuries B.C. the region was occupied by the fair and blue-eyed Ussuns, who were driven away in the 6th century of our era by the northern Huns.
Spanish, with various modifications of dialect, and the introduction of many Indian words, is the principal language; and the majority of the inhabitants claim descent from the Spanish colonists - chiefly Galicians - who came hither during the 16th and subsequent centuries.
In these we are presented, in a condensed form, with an account of the people, the language and the civil and ecclesiastical history, as well as the agricultural and commercial state of Scotland during the first thirteen centuries of our era.
In the early centuries of Mahommedan rule Sogdiana was one of the most celebrated and flourishing districts of central Asia.
In their speech several hundred words persist which elsewhere have been obsolete for three centuries or occur only in dialects in England.
For a brief period, in the 7th and 8th centuries, the conquering Sla y s made it one of their Zupanates, or governments; but in the 10th century it was sacked by the Magyars, and in 1092 its territories were bestowed upon the cathedral chapter of Agram by Ladislaus I., king of Hungary.
It is situated on the Bisenzio, and is dominated by a medieval castle and surrounded by walls of the r r th and 14th centuries.
Including a greater range of time and place, the Roman foot in Italy varied during two or three centuries on an average 1/400 from the mean.
In Egypt the cubit lengthened 1/170 in some thousands of years (25, 44) The Italian mile has lengthened 1/170 since Roman times (2); the English mile lengthened about 1/300 in four centuries (31).
The English foot has not appreciably varied in several centuries (25).
Of weights there are scarce any dated, excepting coins, which nearly all decrease; the Attic tetradrachm, however, increased in three centuries (28), owing probably to its being below the average trade weight to begin with.
The Jewish and Christian thinkers of the first two centuries approach considerably nearer than Numenius to the later Neoplatonism.'
The empirical science of the Renaissance and the two following centuries was itself a new development of Platonism and Neoplatonism, as opposed to rationalistic dogmatism, with its contempt for experience.
Great attention was devoted to the methods of calculating logarithms during the 17th and 18th centuries.
The first regular catechisms seem to have grown out of the usual oral teaching of catechumens, and to have been compiled in the 8th and 9th centuries.
The pioneers of the science in the 16th and 17th centuries put forth anticipations of some of the well-known modern principles, often followed by recantations, through deference to prevailing religious or traditional beliefs.
Suggested two centuries ago by Robert Hooke, this use of fossils has in the hands of Barrande, Neumayr, the marquis de Saporta (1895), Oswald Heer (1809-1883), and an army of followers developed into a sub-science of vast importance and interest.
Offshoots of it, however, continued on into the 4th and 5th centuries.
In the interior, which is without transepts or aisles, the roodscreen and the choir-enclosure, which date from about 1500, are masterpieces of delicate sculpture; the vaulting and the walls are covered with paintings of the 15th and 16th centuries.