How to use Centres in a sentence

centres
  • This angle, therefore, divided by the magnifying power of the telescope gives the real angular distance of the centres of a double star.

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  • The principal centres of the system are Buenos Aires, Rosario and Bahia Blanca, with La Plata as a secondary centre to the former, and from these the lines radiate westward and northward.

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  • Haute-Vui of population is the attraction of great centres.

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  • Another group in the north of France has its centres at Lille, Tourcoing, Roubaix, St Quentin and Amiens.

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  • Each arrondissement is divided into sousarrondissements, having their centres in the great commercial ports, but this arrangement is purely for the embodiment of the men of the Inscription Maritime, and has nothing to do with the dockyards as naval arsenals.

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  • France is divided into sixteen academies or educational districts, having their centres at the seats of the universities.

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  • The bureaux de bien- Total in 0cc faisance in the larger centres are aided by unpaid workers (commissaires or dames de charit), and in the big towns by paid inquiry officers.

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  • The two chief seats of his worship were Ur in the S., and Harran considerably to the N., but the cult at an early period spread to other centres, and temples to the moon-god are found in all the large cities of Babylonia and Assyria.

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  • Below 500 fathoms the western centres of maximum disappear, and higher temperatures occur in the eastern Atlantic off the Iberian peninsula and north-western Africa down to at least 1000 fathoms; at still greater depths temperature gradually becomes more and more uniform.

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  • Helmond is one of the industrial centres of the province, and possesses over a score of factories for cotton and silk weaving, cotton printing, dyeing, iron founding, brewing, soap boiling and tobacco dressing, as well as engine works and a margarine factory.

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  • In some cases the exchanges are connected together directly; but when the volume of traffic is not sufficient to warrant the adoption of such a course connexions between two exchanges are made through junction centres to which both are connected.

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  • Particulars of calls are now passed between trunk centres to a great extent over telegraph circuits superposed upon the trunk lines.

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  • The number of trunk wire centres open on the 31st of March 1907 was 533, and the total number of trunk circuits was 2043, containing about 73,000 m.

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  • The industry centres chiefly in Piedmont (province of Novara), Venetia (province of Vicenza), Tuscany (Florence), Lombardy (Brescia), Campania (Caserta), Genoa, Umbria, the Marches and Rome.

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  • Milan and Genoa are the principal centres, and also the government military pharmaceutical factory at Turin.

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  • Although in some industrial centres the working-class movement has assumed an importance equal to that of other countries, there is no general working-class organization comparable to the English trade unions.

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  • They act also as employment burcaux, and are often centres of political propaganda.

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  • This led to deficiencies in the supply of coal to the manufacturing centres, and to some diversion elsewhere of shipping.

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  • A network of party policy embraces and dominates the burghs of Italy, bringing the most distant centres into relation, and by the very division of the country augmenting the sense of nationality.

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  • Young Italy spread to all centres of Italian exiles, and by means of literature carried on an active propaganda in Italy itself, where the party came to be called Ghibellini, as though reviving the traditions of medieval anti-Papalism.

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  • The strike spread to nearly all the industrial centres, although in many places it was limited to a few trades.

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  • Amber was carried to Olbia on the Black Sea, Massilia on the Mediterranean, and Hatria at the head of the Adriatic; and from these centres it was distributed over the Hellenic world.

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  • This mattel- is bound up with the centres of origin and with the past migrations of species; and such questions are usually treated as a part of floristic plant geography.

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  • They are more easily seen, when the nucleus is about to undergo mitosis, at the ends of the spindle, where they form the centres towards which the radiating fibres in.

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  • From all centres the leading motives of exploration were probably the same - commercial intercourse, warlike operations, whether resulting in conquest or in flight, religious zeal expressed in pilgrimages or missionary journeys, or, from the other side, the avoidance of persecution, and, more particularly in later years, the advancement of knowledge for its own sake.

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  • After two successful voyages, Eudoxus, impressed with the idea that Africa was surrounded by ocean on the south, left the Egyptian service, and proceeded to Cadiz and other Mediterranean centres of trade seeking a patron who would finance an expedition for the purpose of African discovery; and we learn from Strabo that the veteran explorer made at least two voyages southward along the coast of Africa.

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  • The cartilage is shaded and dotted, and the bony centres are light and striated.

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  • The city's central geographical position, its extensive' railway connexions, and its proximity to important coal-fields have combined to make it one of the principal industrial centres of the Middle West.

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  • Another English company has constructed motor roads in the Liberian hinterland to connect centres of trade with the St Paul's river.

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  • By means of his sons and his deputies (or viceroys) and by his system of matrimonial alliances he gave Athens a widespread influence in the centres of commerce, and brought her into connexion with the growing sources of trade and production in the eastern parts of the Greek world.

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  • This was owing to the fact that large numbers of the men engaged in agricultural pursuits during the summer temporarily move every year into the large industrial centres for the winter.

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  • The two principal mining centres of European Russia are the Urals, Ekaterinoslav, Kharkov and the Don Cossacks territory.

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  • Chelyabinsk was linked by a transverse line with the middle Urals railway, which connects Perm, the head of navigation in the Volga basin, with Tyumen, the head of navigation on the Ob and Irtysh, passing through Ekaterinburg and other mining centres of the middle Urals.

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  • Under the disguise of doctors, midwives, school teachers, governesses, factory hands or common labourers, they sought to make proselytes among the peasantry and the workmen in the industrial centres by revolutionary pamphlets and oral explanations.

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  • This rate increases as the distance increases, but not in equal proportion; while the rates from large trade centres to other trade centres at a great distance are not higher than those to intermediate points somewhat less remote; if the law permits, there is a tendency to make them actually a little lower.

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  • The sides of the square are 6 in., and the centres AA are taken at 2 in.

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  • These intersections determine the centres of the semicircles CC which form the ends of the respective knuckles.

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  • According to the light railway commissioners, experience satisfied them (a) that light railways were much needed in many parts of the country and that many of the lines proposed, but not constructed, were in fact necessary to admit of the progress, and even the maintenance, of existing trade interests; and (b) that improved means of access were requisite to assist in retaining the population on the land, to counteract the remoteness of rural districts, and also, in the neighbourhood of industrial centres, to cope with the difficulties as to housing and the supply of labour.

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  • Semites and Egyptians, Peruvians and Aztecs, slew human victims; Africa, especially the West Coast, till recently saw thousands of human victims perish annually; in Polynesia, Tahiti and Fiji were great centres of the rite - in fact, it is not easy to name an area where it has not been known.

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  • It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.

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  • Storehouses of food were established at various centres and a system of food-drafts was devised whereby relatives and friends could send relief where it was needed.

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  • The cotton mills are mostly in the Piedmont Plateau Region; durham|Durham, Durham county, and Winston, Forsyth county, are leading centres of tobacco manufacture; and High Point (pop. in 1900, 4163) in Randolph is noted for its manufacture of furniture.

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  • Its main centres were at Edessa and Nisibis, but it was the literary language of practically all the Christian writers in the region east of Antioch, as well as of the Christian subjects of the Persian empire.

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  • In politics these races have been less successful in modern times, but the Semitic states of Babylonia and Assyria were once the principal centres for the development and distribution of civilization.

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  • During the middle ages the Friday market and fair in Whit week, granted by the first charter, were centres for the sale of yarn and cloth called "Dunsters," made in the town.

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  • As the last capital of the ancient Hindu dynasty of the Cholas, and in all ages one of the chief political, literary and religious centres of the south, the city is full of interesting associations.

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  • The population mainly centres around Dunkeld, Pitlochry and Blair Atholl.

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  • An intermediate step between Anu viewed as the local deity of Erech (or some other centre), Bel as the god of Nippur, and Ea as the god of Eridu is represented by the prominence which each one of the centres associated with the three deities in question must have acquired, and which led to each one absorbing the qualities of other gods so as to give them a controlling position in an organized pantheon.

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  • The summingup of divine powers manifested in the universe in a threefold division represents an outcome of speculation in the schools attached to the temples of Babylonia, but the selection of Anu, Bel and Ea for the three representatives of the three spheres recognized, is due to the importance which, for one reason or the other, the centres in which Anu, Bel and Ea were worshipped had acquired in the popular mind.

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  • The dioceses were now mapped out into several archdeaconries (archidiaconatus), which corresponded with the political divisions of the countries; and these defined spheres, in accordance with the prevailing feudal tendencies of the age, gradually came to be regarded as independent centres of jurisdiction.'

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  • Centres at which higher agricultural education is given are, however, numerous.

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  • The county councils also expend sums varying at their own discretion on instruction in dairy-work, poultry-keeping, farriery and veterinary science, horticulture, agricultural experiments, agricultural lectures at various centres, scholarships at, and grants to, agricultural colleges and schools; the whole amount in 1904-1905 reaching £87,472.1 The sum spent by individual counties varies considerably.

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  • He spent lavishly on public buildings at home and in the older centres of Hellenism, like Athens.

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  • The chief interest of the place centres in its brine springs which are largely impregnated with carbonic acid gas and oxide of iron, and are efficacious in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs, in liver and stomach disorders and women's diseases.

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  • Pedal centres in the form of ganglionated cords; kidney provided with a ureter; viviparous; fluviatile.

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  • Pallial cavity transformed into a lung; pedal centres concentrated; a deep pedal groove.

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  • They are all pelagic, the foot being entirely transformed into a pair of anterior fins; eyes are absent, and the nerve centres are concentrated on the ven tral side of the oesophagus.

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  • The demonstration which it affords of the extreme shortening of the Euthyneurous visceral nerve-loop is most instructive and valuable for comparison with and explanation of the condition of the nervous centres in Cephalopoda, as also of some Opisthobranchia.

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  • There have now been recognized in the collections at Cairo, Florence, London, Paris and Bologna several Egyptian imitations of the Aegean style which can be set off against the many debts which the centres of Aegean culture owed to Egypt.

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  • These centres of renovation are called imaginal disks or folds.

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  • With regard to the internal organs, we need only say that transformation occurs in an essentially similar manner, by means of a development from centres distributed in the various organs.

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  • Moreover, the author goes on to remark that in adult birds trace of the origin of the sternum from five centres of ossification is always more or less indicated by sutures, and that, though these sutures had been generally regarded as ridges for the attachment of the sternal muscles, they indeed mark the extreme points of the five primary bony pieces of the sternum.

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  • Geoffroy here maintained that the five centres of ossification existed in the duck just as in the fowl, and that the real difference of the process lay in the period at which they made their appearance, a circumstance which, though virtually proved by the preparations Cuvier had used, had been by him overlooked or misinterpreted.

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  • Cuvier seems to have acquiesced in the corrections of his views made by Geoffroy, and attempted no rejoinder; but the attentive and impartial student of the discussion will see that a good deal was really wanting to make the latter's reply effective, though, as events have shown, the former was hasty in the conclusions at which he arrived, having trusted too much to the first appearance of centres of ossification, for, had his observations in regard to other birds been carried on with the same attention to detail as in regard to the fowl, he would certainly have reached some very different results.

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  • The principal theory which he hence conceived himself justified in propounding was that instead of five being (as had been stated) the maximum number of centres of ossification in the sternum, there are no fewer than nine entering into the composition of the perfect sternum of birds in general, though in every species some of these nine are wanting, whatever be the condition of development at the time of examination.

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  • These nine theoretical centres or " pieces " L'Herminier deemed to be disposed in three transverse series (rangees), namely the anterior or " prosternal," the middle or " mesosternal " and the posterior or " metasternal " - each series consisting of three portions, one median piece and two side-pieces.

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  • In the Gallinae the five well-known pieces or centres of ossification are said to consist of the two side-pieces of the second or middle series, and the three of the posterior.

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  • As regards the ducks, L'Herminier agreed with Cuvier that there are commonly only two centres of ossification - the side-pieces of the middle series; but as these grow to meet one another a distinct median " noyau," also of the same series, sometimes appears, which soon forms a connexion with each of them.

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  • The sternum has no keel, and ossifies from lateral and paired centres only; the axes of the scapula and cora.coid have the same general direction; certain of the cranial bones have characters very unlike those possessed by the next order - the vomer, for example, being broad posteriorly and generally intervening between the basisphenoidal rostrum and the palatals and pterygoids; the barbs of the feathers are disconnected; there is no syrinx or inferior larynx; and the diaphragm is better developed than in other birds.'

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  • Its damasks and other silk stuffs with patterns of extraordinary beauty surpassed in variety and splendour those of the other chief centres of silk-weaving, such as Florence and Genoa.

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  • T he great manufacturing centres are Cleveland, Cincinnati, Youngstown, Toledo, Columbus, Dayton and Akron, and in 1905 the value of the products of these cities amounted to 56.7% of that for the entire state.

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  • There were four main centres.

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  • In theatrical matters Boston is now one of the chief American centres.

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  • The historical interest of the place centres in its proximity to the castle of Dinefawr, now commonly called Dynevor, which was originally erected by Rhodri Mawr or his son Cadell about the year 876 on the steep wooded slopes overhanging the Towy.

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  • Financial assistance and assurances as to sales and prices have been given liberally by the association where they are needed; ginning and buying centres have been established; experts have been engaged to distribute seed and afford instruction; and some land has been acquired for working under the direct management of the association.

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  • Were there numerous important centres the bad fortune of one would be more adequately offset by the good fortune of another.

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  • Oil fields are being continually opened up in other parts of the world, and whilst America still maintains her position as the largest petroleum producer, the world's supplies are now being derived from a steadily increasing number of centres.

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  • On the one hand they led to the establishment of emporia in the East - for instance, Acre, and after the fall of Acre Famagusta, both in their day great centres of Levantine trade.

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  • The Jews are found mainly in the larger centres of population.

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  • Flourishing centres of industry are found along the numerous river arms, including Maasluis, Vlaardingen, Schiedam, Rotterdam, Gorinchem, and Dordrecht.

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  • The bulk lead really excellent lives in monasteries, which are centres of education and poor-relief; while others go out to visit the poor as Gurus or teachers.

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  • It later became one of the chief centres of the Reformation movement in Switzerland, so that the bishop retired in 1525 to Porrentruy, where he resided till 1792, finally settling at Soleure in 1828, the bishopric having been wholly reorganized since 1814.

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  • This village (pop. 3435) is one of the richest lead-mining centres in Europe.

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  • But in so welding together the scattered centres and binding them to the papacy, Boniface seems to have been actuated by simple zeal for unity of the faith, and not by a conscious political motive.

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  • It seems inconceivable, however, that any other site should have been preferred by the primitive settlers to the Acropolis, which offered the greatest advantages for defence; the Pnyx, owing to its proximity to the centres of civic life, can never have been deserted, and that portion which lay within the city walls must have been fully occupied when Athens was crowded during the Peloponnesian War.

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  • We may therefore regard the nitrogen atoms as occupying the centres of a cubic space lattice composed of iodine atoms, between which the hydrogen atoms are distributed on the tetrahedron face normals.

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  • In the course of time the centres of radiation of all these groups had imposed upon them ornate rose dei venti, or windroses, such as may still be seen upon our compass-cards.

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  • He laboured much to bring about the reunion of the Oriental Churches with the see of Rome, establishing Catholic educational centres in Athens and in Constantinople with that end in view.

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  • The principal centres from which the supply was furnished to Egypt, Turkey, Arabia, and Persia were three in number.

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  • Certain convents became centres of Joachimism.

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  • Three-fourths of all are in the jurisdictions of Cienfuegos, Cardenas, Havana, Matanzas and Sagua la Grande, which are the great sugar centres of the island (three-fourths of the crop coming from Matanzas and Santa Clara provinces).

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  • Batabano and Caibarien are centres of the sponge fisheries.

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  • Daiquiri, near Oriente, and mines near Nipe, on the north coast, are the chief centres of production.

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  • Berlin, Leipzig, Frankfort and the industrial centres on the Rhine were the chief scenes of his activity.

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  • In Jerusalem, Tyre, and other centres also, orthodoxy was re-established.

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  • The chief centres of export are Adrianople (more than half), Constantinople and Smyrna, the others being Brusa, Beirut, Ismid, Mytilene and Salonica.

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  • The deserters from Cicala's army, distributed in armed bands throughout Asia Minor, had become centres round which all the elements of discontent gathered, and formed the mainstay of the Jellali sectaries who, at this time, rose in insurrection and ravaged Anatolia.

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  • Montlucon and Commentry are ironworking centres.

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  • The whole plan is drawn from three centres, the outer portion of the curves being arcs of a larger circle than the one used for the central portion; the complete circle of the orchestra is marked by a sill of white limestone, and greatly enhances the effect of the whole.

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  • The valley portion is level and contains several settlement centres, the largest of which, a busy industrial village (manufactures of cotton and paper), bears the same name as the township, and is on a branch of the Boston and Albany railroad.

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  • Aix-la-Chapelle, Bonn and Ziilpich were their principal centres, and they even advanced southward as far as Metz, which appears to have resisted their attacks.

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  • It is regularly built and contains few buildings of architectural interest, but is a flourishing and important commercial town, not merely owing to its own manufactures (which are miscellaneous) but for the products of the district, and one of the greatest railway centres in Italy.

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  • Tyumen (29,651) in West Siberia, head of Siberian navigation; Barnaul (29,850), capital of the Altai region; Krasnoyarsk (33337) and Tobolsk (21,401), both mere administrative centres; Biysk (17,206), centre of the Altai trade; Khabarovsk (15,082), administrative centre of the Amur region; Chita (11,480), the capital of Transbaikalia; Nikolsk (22,000); Irbit (20,064); Kolyvan (11,703), the centre of the trade of southern Tomsk; Yeniseisk (11,539), the centre of the gold-mining region of the same name; Kurgan (10, 579), a growing town in Tobolsk; and Minusinsk (10,255), in the southern part of .the Yeniseisk province, trading with north-west Mongolia.

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  • In the Far East the chief trade centres are Vladivostok and Nikolayevsk on the Amur, with Khabarovsk and Blagovyeshchensk, both on the same river.

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  • By means of the Grand Junction and Oxford canals especially, constant communication is maintained between the Thames and the great industrial centres of England.

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  • By the American photographs the distances between the centres of Venus and the sun, and the angles between the line adjoining the centres and the meridian, could be separately measured and a separate result for the parallax derived from each.

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  • It follows that between two neighbouring magnets, the poles of which are regarded as centres of force, there must always be four forces in action.

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  • The poles at the ends of an infinitely thin uniform magnet, or magnetic filament, would act as definite centres of force.

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  • It " floats " between the prosomatic nerve centres and the alimentary canal.

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  • A very remarkable feature in Limulus, first described by Owen, is the close accompaniment of the prosomatic nerve centres and nerves by arteries, so close indeed that the great ganglion mass and its out-running nerves are actually sunk in or invested by ch.

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  • Scorpio certainly comes nearer to Limulus in the high development of its arterial system, and the intimate relation of the anterior aorta and its branches to the nerve centres and great nerves, than does any other Arthropod.

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  • Robert was in a good position to obtain information, for the Mont St Michel was one of the four great centres of pilgrimage in Europe.

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  • The lateness of its arrival in the West was due to the fact that its centres of influence were not in immediate contact with Greek and Roman civilization.

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  • In the Boer War of1899-1902Winburg was one of the Boer centres in the guerrilla fighting which followed the fall of Pretoria.

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  • Brazil is lamentably deficient in steamship communication considering its importance in a country where the centres of population are separated by such distances of coasts and river.

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  • The coastwise service centres at Rio de Janeiro, from which port the Lloyd Brazileiro sends steamers regularly south to Montevideo, and north to Para and Manaos, calling at the more important intermediate ports.

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  • The name doctor scholasticus was applied originally to any teacher in such an ecclesiastical gymnasium, but gradually the study of dialectic or logic overshadowed the more elementary disciplines, and the general acceptation of " doctor " came to be one who occupied himself with the teaching of logic. The philosophy of the later Scholastics is more extended in its scope; but to the end of the medieval period philosophy centres in the discussion of the same logical problems which began to agitate the teachers of the 9th and 1 oth centuries.

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  • Pigs are reared in large quantities all over the country, but the principal centres for distribution are Debreczen, Gyula, Bares, Szeged and Budapest.

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  • Thus the Kumanian colonists, mostly pagans, whom he settled in vast numbers on the waste lands, threatened to overwhelm the Christian population; while the numerous strongholds, which he encouraged his nobles to build as a protection against future Tatar invasions, subsequently became so many centres of disloyalty.

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  • He also appointed Hungarian consuls in foreign trade centres, and established a system of protective tariffs.

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  • Instincts, or the inherited structural mechanisms. of the nervous centres, are in antagonism to the results of the reasoning process, which are not capable of hereditary transmission.

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  • Stops, each occupying one-eighth of the width, and with centres situated at the points of trisection, answer well the required purpose.

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  • To assume a cylindrical form of primary wave would be justifiable only when there is synchronism among the secondary waves issuing from the various centres.

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  • Besides Pretoria and the towns in the Witwatersrand district, there are few urban centres of any size.

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  • The chief centres of the fields are Lydenburg, Pilgrims Rest and Spitzkop. The total output of the Lydenburg fields up to the end of 1908 is estimated at 1,200,000 oz.

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  • There are a number of flour mills and jam factories in various centres.

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  • He withdrew all his detached garrisons except in the most important Concentra centres, and set himself to make his railway communication Policy.

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  • It is one of the chief centres in France for wool combing and spinning, and produces a great variety of cloths.

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  • His home appears to have been at Samosata.2 By the beginning of the 4th century much progress had been made with the organization of the Christian church not only within the Roman district of Mesopotamia, but also to the east and south-east within the Sasanian Empire, round such centres as Seleucia-Ctesiphon on the Tigris (near Baghdad), Karka de-Beth Selokh (modern Kerkuk) and Beth Lapat or Gundeshabhor (in the modern province of Luristan).

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  • The chief historical interest of the town centres round the socalled "Fishguard Invasion" of 1797, in which year on the 2 2nd of February three French men-of-war with troops on board, under the command of General Tate, an Irish-American adventurer, appeared off Carreg Gwastad Point in the adjoining parish of Llanwnda.

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  • Spires (Speyer) is the seat of government, and the chief industrial centres are Ludwigshafen on the Rhine, which is the principal river port, Landau, and Neustadt, the seat of the wine trade.

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  • Magdeburg is one of the most important railway centres in northern Germany; and the Elbe, besides being bridged - it divides there into three arms - several times for vehicular traffic, ' See Der Bau des Elbe-Trave Canals and seine Vorgeschichte (Lubeck, 1900).

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  • To replace this cellular destruction there has been a demand for reinforcements on the home centres of the polymorpho-nuclear leucocytes - the bone marrow.

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  • The district was one of the chief centres of the Methodist revival of the 18th century, the first synod of the Calvinistic Methodists being held in 1743 at Watford farm close to the town, from which place George Whitefield was married at Eglwysilan church two years previously.

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  • Waller (1816-1870), who tracked the line of nervous strands by experimental sections, and showed that when particular strands are cut off from their nutritive centres the consequent degeneration follows the line of the separated strands.

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  • Some of the most successful of the advances of medicine as a healing art have followed the detection of syphilitic disease of the vessels, or of the supporting tissues of nervous centres and of the peripheral nerves; so that, by specific medication, the treatment of paralytic, convulsive, and other terrible manifestations of nervous disease thus secondarily induced is now undertaken in early stages with definite prospect of cure.

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  • Instruction for teachers is provided in pupil teachers' centres (preparatory), and in residential and day training colleges.

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  • Fashionable society takes its pastimes at such centres as the grounds of the Hurlingham and Ranelagh clubs, at Fulham and Barnes respectively, where polo and other games are played; and Rotten Row, the horse-track in Hyde Park, is the favourite resort of riders.

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  • There are, however, several large breweries, among which that of Messrs Barclay & Perkins, on the riverside in Southwark, may be mentioned; engineering works are numerous in East London by the river, where there are also shipbuilding yards; the leather industry centres in Bermondsey, the extensive pottery works of Messrs Doulton are in Lambeth, there are chemical works on the Lea, and paper-mills on the Wandle.

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  • Unlike many capitals of Europe which have shifted their centres the city of London in spite of all changes and the continued enlargement of the capital remains the centre and head-quarters of the business of the country.

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  • In 1905 the value of the factory product was $5,231,084, Newport ranking third among the manufacturing centres of the state.

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  • Lorraine and Normandy appear to have been the most important centres.

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  • In England the chief centres of the industry were Bristol, Birmingham, London, Manchester, Newcastle, Stourbridge and York.

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  • There were several towns but no large trade centres.

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  • When the body is floating freely like a ship, the equilibrium of this liquid thrust with the weight of the ship requires that the weight of water displaced is equal to the weight of the ship and the two centres of gravity are in the same vertical line.

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  • Thus for m =2, the spheres are orthogonal, and it can be verified that a13 a2 3 aY3 i f /' = ZU (I - 13 - 7.2 3 + 3) ' (8) where a l, a2, a =a l a 2 /J (a 1 2 +a 2 2) is the radius of the spheres and their circle of intersection, and r 1, r 2, r the distances of a point from their centres.

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  • The motion of these cylinders across the line of centres is the equivalent of a line doublet along each axis.

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  • There may be the folk-right of West and East Saxons, of East Angles, of Kentish men, Mercians, Northumbrians, Danes, Welshmen, and these main folk-right divisions remain even when tribal kingdoms disappear and the people is concentrated in one or two realms. The chief centres for the formulation and application of folkright were in the 10th and iith centuries the shire-moots, while the witan of the realm generally placed themselves on the higher ground of State expediency, although occasionally using folkright ideas.

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  • Lorenzo, during whose rule Florence had become one of the greatest centres of art and literature in Europe, died in 1492.

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  • Labour disturbances are frequent, for, like Barcelona, Alcoy has become one of the centres of socialistic and revolutionary agitation, while preserving many old-fashioned customs and traditions, such as the curious festival held annually in April in honour of St George, the patron saint of the town.

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  • The centres of population are Noumea (Numea), the capital, on a fine harbour of the west coast near the southern extremity of the island, with 7000 inhabitants; Bourail, an agricultural penitentiary (1800); La Foa, in the centre of the coffee plantations; Moindu, St Louis and St Vincent.

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  • It has long ranked as one of the great centres of Chinese commerce and Chinese learning.

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  • It is to be observed that she appears far more conspicuously in the Apolline myths than in those which grew round the great centres of Artemis worship, the reason being that the idea of Apollo and Artemis as twins is one of later growth on Greek soil.

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  • The Gara coast was visited by the Bents, who went inland from Dhafar, one of the centres of the old frankincense trade, to the crest of the plateau.

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  • Similar rocks are also found in the Cordillera Negra, but the volcanic centres appear to have been in the Sierra Nevada.

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  • Universities and colleges were founded in Peru soon after the conquest, and Lima, Cuzco, Arequipa and Chuquisaca (now the Bolivian town of Sucre) became centres of considerable intellectual activity.

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  • There were 1508 elementary schools and 862 scholastic centres in 1906.

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  • Indeed the prime value of the Shepherd is the light it casts on Christianity at Rome in the otherwise obscure period c. I10-140, when it had as yet hardly felt the influences converging on it from other centres of tradition and thought.

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  • The Slavonic heroic saga of Russia centres round Vladimir of Kiev (980-1015), the first Christian ruler of that country, whose personality is eclipsed by that of Ilya (Elias) of Mourom, the son of a peasant, who was said to have saved the empire from the Tatars at the urgent request of his emperor.

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  • These prisms may be combined with concave lenses, which correct the myopia, or, since a concave lens may be considered as composed of two prisms united at their apices, the same effect may be obtained by making the distance between the centres of the concave lenses greater than that between the centres of the pupils.

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  • Where, on the other hand, there is no tendency to squinting, care must be taken in selecting spectacles that the distances between the centres of the glasses and the centres of the pupils are quite equal, otherwise squinting, or at any rate great fatigue, of the eyes may be induced.

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  • The legislature migrated from county to county up to 1854, and there continued to be two centres of government until 190o.

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  • Commercial interests have been almost entirely destroyed, partly because of the abolition of the slave trade and partly because of the embargo and the war of 1812, but mainly because the cities of the state are unfavourably situated to be the termini of interstate railway systems. Providence, owing to its superior water-power facilities, has therefore become one of the leading manufacturing centres of New England, whereas Newport is now known only as a fashionable summer resort.

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  • From the skill of Fra Giocondo, Verona was for many years one of the chief centres in which the most refined and graceful forms of the early Renaissance were developed.

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  • Always a place of great trading importance, long the place of election for the German kings, and until 1866, together with Hamburg, Bremen and Lubeck, one of the four free cities of Germany, it still retains its position as one of the leading commercial centres of the German empire.

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  • Frankfort has long been famous as one of the principal banking centres of Europe, and is now only second to Berlin, in this respect, among German cities, and it is remarkable for the large business that is done in government stock.

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  • Tradition centres rather upon the fox (kitsune) and the badger (mujina), which are credited with supernatural powers, the former being worshipped as the messenger of the harvest god, while the latter is regarded as a mischievous rollicker.

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  • They were established by the abbeys, the nobles and the crown, frequently by two of these authorities in co-operation, and were intended to serve as defensive posts and centres of population for sparsely-inhabited districts.

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  • Norway and Switzerland have become important producers of chemicals, and pastoral districts such as those in which Niagara or Foyers are situated manufacturing centres.

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  • The state is well served with railways, the capital, Monterrey, being one of the most important railway centres in northern Mexico.

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  • For the decoration of the palace and other monuments built by them, eminent artists were gathered from northern France and Flanders, and during this period the town became one of the great intellectual centres of France.

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  • Other centres began to feel the need of similar organs of opinion.

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  • This is one of the principal centres of the timber export trade, having saw-mills, planing-mills and wood-pulp works.

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  • The capital of the district is Gmunden, and other places of importance are Ischl, Hallstatt and Ebensee (7656), which are important salt-mining centres.

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  • Khokand is one of the most important centres of trade in Turkestan.

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  • He procured the election of his son Andrew as prince of Pskov, and a powerful minority of the citizens of the republic of Novgorod held the balance in his favour against the Muscovite influence, but his ascendancy in both these commercial centres was at the best precarious.

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  • Coulomb proved that this mechanical force varies inversely as the square of the distance between the centres of the spheres.

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  • A very small sphere is said then to possess a charge of one electrostatic unit of quantity, when it repels another similar and similarly electrified body with a force of one dyne, the centres being at a distance of one centimetre, provided that the spheres are in vacuo or immersed in some insulator, the dielectric constant of which is' taken as unity.

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  • If the two small conducting spheres are placed with centres at a distance d centimetres, and immersed in an insulator of dielectric constant K, and carry charges of Q and Q' electrostatic units respectively, measured as above described, then the mechanical force between them is equal to QQ'/Kd 2 dynes.

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  • The worship centres round certain numina, the spirits indwelling in the sacred places of the original round hut in which the family lived.

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  • With the beginning of exchange commercial centres spring up, situated on navigable streams and especially at points where land and water journeys are broken.

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  • With the growth of manufactures, industrial centres spring up where the division of labour can be fully provided for.

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  • In colonial times Maracaibo had a famous Jesuits' college (now gone) and was one of the educational centres of Spanish America; the city now has a national college and a nautical school.

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  • Maracaibo is chiefly known, however, as one of the principal commercial centres and shipping ports on the northern coast of South America.

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  • Reichenberg is one of the most important centres of trade and industry in Bohemia, its staple industry being the cloth manufacture.

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  • The city possesses five gates, two on the northern face, the Kutab-chak near the north-east angle of the wall, and the Malik at the re-entering angle of the Ark-i-nao; and three others in the centres of the remaining faces, the Irak gate on the west, the Kandahar gate on the south and the Kushk gate on the east face.

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  • Controversy centres round a very long and singular undated epistle called "The Glasgow Letter" or "Letter II."

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  • Newton defined the diameter of a curve of any order as the locus of the centres of the mean distances of the points of intersection of a system of parallel chords with the curve; this locus may be shown to be a straight line.

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  • But Machiavelli's public career was virtually closed; and the interest of his biography still centres in his literary work.

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  • The consistent opposition of the retail traders in large urban centres other than the large stores, and of the country shopkeeper generally, has been sufficient to secure the refusal of the postmaster-general to the proposed scheme, but a commencement was made in 1908 for orders not exceeding X20 between the United Kingdom and Egypt, Cyprus and Malta, and certain British post offices in Turkey and Tangier.

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  • Here, in order to fulfil the purposes of the previous models, the distance of the centres of the lenses from each other should only slightly exceed the tangent of sun's diameter X focal length of lenses.

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  • The optical centres of the segments would also remain at the same distance from the eye-piece at all angles of separation.

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  • Dawes found the best method for the purpose in question was to limit the aperture of the object-glass by a diaphragm having a double circular aperture, placing the line joining the centres of the circles approximately in the position angle under measurement.

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  • The principal field is that of the lower Rhine and Westphalia, which centres in the industrial region of the basin of the Ruhr, a right-bank tributary of the Rhine.

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  • In the other chief industrial region of Germany, in Saxony, Zwickau and Lugau, are important mining centres.

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  • Bourges and Vierzon are metallurgical and engineering centres.

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  • Their centres s l, s2, are held respectively by the pieces A, B, which together form a sliding pair.

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  • The largest centres of industry are Sioux City, Davenport, Dubuque,Des Moines,Burlington and Council Bluffs.

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  • Thus the contribution to the total impulsive pressure exerted on the area dS in time dt from this cause is mu X udtdS X (11 3 m 3 /,r 3)e hm (u2+v2+w2 )dudvdw (I o) The total pressure exerted in bringing the centres of gravity of all the colliding molecules to rest normally to the boundary is obtained by first integrating this expression with respect to u, v, w, the limits being all values for which collisions are possible (namely from - co too for u, and from - oo to + oo for v and w), and then summing for all kinds of molecules in the gas.

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  • Sigurd acquired great fame and riches by slaying the dragon Fafnir, but the chief interest of the story centres round his connexion with the court of the Burgundian king Gunnar (Gunther).

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  • Since 1876 it has been one of the most important oil centres of the state, and it has been connected by pipe lines with cities along the Atlantic coast; petroleum refining is an important industry.

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  • Doubtless the king's sore financial needs had much to do with the dissolution of the abbeys and the plundering of the shrines, but there is no reason to suppose that he was not fully convinced that the monks had long outlived their usefulness and that the shrines were centres of abject superstition and ecclesiastical deceit.

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  • Haverhill, Marlboro and Boston, in the order named, being the principal centres.

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  • The third industry in 1905 was that of foundry and machine-shop products ($58,508,793), of which Boston and Worcester are the principal centres.

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  • Nantucket and New Bedford were the centres of the whaling trade, which, for the ' In 1905 Massachusetts produced 60'7% of the writing paper manufactured in the country.

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  • The general result has been that centres of population, especially where the foreign element is large, usually vote for licence, while those in which native population predominates, as well as the smaller towns, usually vote for prohibition.

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  • Boston and Cambridge remain leading publishing centres to-day.

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  • It is necessary to realize Gaza's position and its links with trading centres, since conditions in the comparatively small and halfdesert land of Judah depended essentially upon its relations with the Edomites and Arabian tribes on the south-east and with the Philistines on the west.

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  • These monasteries became centres of civilizing influences by the method of presenting object-lessons in organized work, in agriculture, in farming, in the arts and trades, and also in.

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  • But the influence of Cluny, even on monasteries that did not enter into its organism, was enormous; many adopted Cluny customs and practices and moulded their life and spirit after the model it set; and many such monasteries became in turn centres of revival and reform in many lands, so that during the 10th and 11th centuries arose free unions of monasteries based on a common observance derived from a central abbey.

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  • From these two centres, and from later settlements, arose the "Plantations" of the English, which gradually increased to the number of thirteen and were destined to become the United States of America.

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  • But all that we can safely say as to locality is that the community here represented seems to have been isolated, and out of touch with the larger centres of Christian life.

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  • It is a question of some interest from what centre or centres these various expeditions were made.

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  • The strongholds of these heretical opinions were the great towns, the centres of civilization, because there the growing sentiment of municipal independence, and the rise of a burgher class through commerce, created a spirit of criticism which was dissatisfied with the worldly lives of the clergy and their undue influence in affairs.

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  • Everywhere, and especially in the district round Toulouse, heretics were keenly prosecuted, and before the continued zeal of persecution the Waldenses slowly disappeared from the chief centres of population and took refuge in the retired valleys of the Alps.

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  • The interest of the place centres in the castle dominating the town, which was built in the 11th century by William of Argues; his nephew, William the Conqueror, regarding it as a menace to his own power, besieged and occupied it.

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  • By means of a well-organized chain of tabulating centres, the preliminary totals, by sexes, of the 294 millions enumerated in 1901 were given to the public within a fortnight of the census, and differed from the final results by no more than 94,000, or 03%.

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  • The theorems are of use, not only for finding the volumes or areas of solids or surfaces of revolution, but also, conversely, for finding centroids or centres of gravity.

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  • They underwent great extension owing to the Evangelical Revival, and became largely centres of evangelistic activity (Dale, p. 593 ff.).

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  • Thus it happens that from Buffalo to New York City there is a chain of busy manufacturing centres along the natural highway followed by the Erie Canal and the Hudson river.

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  • Hostility to free silver and " Bryanism " in the large financial and industrial centres put the state strongly in the Republican column in the elections of 1896, 1900, 1904 and 1908.

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  • His home was one of the centres of the vigorous literary and artistic life for which at that time Dusseldorf was renowned.

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  • From these points as centres, circles are drawn in succession, each with radius greater than the last by a fixed amount, say 4 or 5 mm.

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  • The manufacture of cottons, and on a smaller scale of woollens, is special to Alsace, the chief centres of the industry being Mulhausen, Colmar and the valleys of the Vosges.

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  • These are all centres of fine agricultural regions.

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  • If r, r i be the radii of two spheres, d the distance between the centres, and 0 the angle at which they intersect, then d2=r2+ r12 2rr l cos ¢ hence 2rr 1 cos =d2r2 - r22.

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  • Two spheres intersect in a plane, and the equation to a system of spheres which intersect in a common circle is x 2 + y 2 + z 2 +2Ax -fD = o, in which A varies from sphere to sphere, and D is constant for all the spheres, the plane yz being the plane of intersection, and the axis of x the line of centres.

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  • In Portugal, provision has been made for the creation in important industrial centres, on the application of the administrative corporations, of boards of conciliation (decrees of the 14th of August 1889, and the 18th of May 1893).

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  • The span to the centres of the end uprights is 820 ft.; width between centres of main uprights at bed-plate 100 ft., and between centres of main members at end of centilevers 20 ft.

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  • If A t A, are the cross sections of the tension and compression flanges or chords, and h the distance between their mass centres, then on the assumption that they resist all the direct horizontal forces the total stress on each flange is Ht=H,=M/h and the intensity of stress of tension or compression is f t = M/Ath, f c = M/Ach.

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  • The earliest centres of his cult were Arcadia, where Mt.

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  • It is one of the largest distributing centres in the country for coal, which is received by lake, and stored in enormous coal docks for transshipment by rail throughout the west and north-west.

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  • It is one of the principal coal centres of the state, Higginsville (pop. in 1900, 2791), about 12 m.

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  • The remaining four, Borowast Lest, Estre Lest, Limowast Lest and Wiwart Lest, existed at least as early as the 9th century, and were apparently named from their administrative centres, Burgwara (the burg being Canterbury), Eastre, Lymne and Wye, all of which were meeting places of the Kentish Council.

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  • It is one of the chief centres of the Copts.

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  • The chief manufacturing centres are Fargo and Grand Forks.

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  • In central Siam, after Bangkok and Ayuthia, places of importance on the Menam Chao Phaya are Pak-Nam at the river mouth, the seat of a governor, terminus of a railway and site of modern fortifications; Paklat, the seat of a governor, a town of Mohns, descendants of refugees from Pegu; Nontaburi, a few miles above Bangkok, the seat of a governor and possessing a large market; Pratoomtani, Angtong, Prom, Inburi, Chainat and Saraburi, all administrative centres; and Lopburi, the last capital before Ayuthia and the residence of kings during the Ayuthia period, a city of ruins now gradually reawakening as a centre of railway traffic. To the west of the Menam Chao Phaya lie Suphanburi and Ratburi, ancient cities, now government headquarters; Pechaburi (the Piply of early travellers), the terminus of the western railway; and Phrapatoom, with its huge pagoda on the site of the capital of Sri Wichaiya, a kingdom of 2000 years ago, and now a place of military, agricultural and other schools.

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  • This is one of the chief manufacturing centres in the United Kingdom, and the name arises from the effect of numerous collieries and furnaces, which darken the face of the district, the buildings and the atmosphere.

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  • Among the numerous branches of industry there are several characteristic of certain individual centres.

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  • The holiness of Israel centres in the sanctuary, and round the sanctuary stand the priests, who alone can approach the most holy things without profanation, and who are the guardians of Israel's sanctity, partly by protecting the one meeting-place of God and man from profane contact, and partly as the mediators of the continual atoning rites by which breaches of holiness are expiated.

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  • Of German towns in Czechoslovakia (most of them with a considerable Czechoslovak minority), Liberec (Reichenberg), and Jablonec (Gablonz), are important industrial centres.

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  • In large industrial centres there are also industrial courts to deal with disputes between employers and workpeople.

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  • The university of Jena, led by Matthias Flacius, was the headquarters of the stricter Lutherans, while Wittenberg and Leipzig were the centres of the Philippists or followers of Melanchthon.

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  • These had already been installed at Poltusk, and were permitted, after the diet rose, to found establishments in the dioceses of Posen, Ermeland and Vilna, which henceforth became centres of a vigorous and victorious propaganda.

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  • The four centres of Polish literature, which, in spite of the attempts which have been made to denationalize the country, is fairly active, are Cracow, Posen, Lemberg and Warsaw.

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  • With regard to situation, the ideal would be to have the collection placed in the open country, far from centres of population.

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  • Iannina had previously been one of the chief centres of the Thessalian grain trade; it now exports little except cheese, hides, bitumen and sheepskins to the annual value of about £120,000; the imports, which supply only the local demand for provisions, textile goods, hardware, &c., are worth about double that sum.

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  • The interest here centres in the rivalry between Tristan and Lancelot, alike as knights and lovers, and in the later redaction, ascribed to Helie de Borron, the story is spun out to an interminable length.

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  • The city is one of the most important insurance centres in the United States.

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  • In 1879 Moody opened the Northfield seminary for young women, at Northfield, Mass., and in 1881 the adjacent Mount Hermon school for boys; in each a liberal practical education centres about Bible training; the boys do farm-work and the girls house-work.

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  • The largest secondary centres are Cumberland, Hagerstown and Frederick the total value of whose factory products in 1905 was less than $10,000,000.

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  • In medieval times Romsey had a considerable share of the woollen trade of Hampshire, but by the end of the 17th century this manufacture began to decline, and the introduction of machinery and the adoption of steam led to its subsequent transference to the northern coal centres.

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  • Auray is one of the chief centres in France for oyster-breeding, and carries on boat-building and sardine-fishing.

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  • High temperature in the depth may be taken to mean descending water, just as high atmospheric pressure means descending air, and hence it would seem that the slow vertical movement of water in the Pacific reproduces to some extent the phenomena of the " doldrums " and " horse latitudes," with this difference, that the centres of maximum intensity lie off the east of the land instead of the west as in the case of the continents.

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  • The surface circulation of the Pacific is, on the whole, less active than that of the Atlantic. The centres of the rotational movement are marked by " Sargasso Seas " in the north and south basins, but they are of small extent compared with the Sargasso Sea of the North Atlantic. From the known peculiarities of the distribution of temperature, it is probable that definite circulation of water is in the Pacific confined to levels very near the surface, except in the region of the Kuro Siwo, and possibly also in parts of the Peruvian Current.

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  • The Suceava department (named after Suceava or Suciava, its former capital, now Suczawa in Bukowina) is densely forested; its considerable timber trade centres in Falticheni.

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  • He also re-colonized Siberia, which had been slipping from the grasp of Muscovy, and formed scores of new settlements, including Tobolsk and other large centres.

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  • To judge from analogous instances of a double nomenclature, the two names revert to two different centres for the cult of a storm-god, though it must be confessed that up to the present it has been impossible to determine where these centres were.

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  • This step, however, failed to satisfy most of the society's supporters in Scotland, who proceeded to form themselves into independent organizations, grouped for the most part round centres at Edinburgh and Glasgow.

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  • Outside the United Kingdom it has its own agencies or secretaries in twenty-seven of the chief cities of the world, and maintains depots in zoo other centres.

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  • Thus all recent discovery tends to carry the centres of origin and of dispersal of all animal types farther and farther back in geological time.

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  • This line of hypothesis and demonstration is typical of the palaeogeographic methods generally - namely, that vertebrate palaeontologists, impressed by the sudden appearance of extinct forms of continental life, demand land connexion or migration tracts from common centres of origin and dispersal, while the invertebrate palaeontologist alone is able to restore ancient coast-lines and determine the extent and width of these tracts.

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  • With this has been connected the theory of " centres of origin " or of the geographic regions *here the chief characters of great groups have been established.

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  • Among invertebrates Barrande's doctrine of centres of origin was applied by Hyatt to the genesis of the Arietidae (1889); after studying thousands of individuals from the principal deposits of Europe he decided that the cradles of the various branches of this family were the basins of the CSte d'Or and southern Germany.

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  • Similarly, among vertebrates the method of restoring past centres of origin, largely originating with Edward Forbes, has developed into a most distinct and important branch of historical work.

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  • Successive discoveries have revealed certain grand centres, such as (1) the marsupial radiation of Australia, (2) the littleknown Cretaceous radiation of placental mammals in the northern hemisphere, which was probably connected in part with the peopling of South America, (3) the Tertiary placental radiation in the northern hemisphere, partly connected with Africa, (4) the main Tertiary radiation in South America.

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  • Among still other causes are great bulk, which proves fatal under certain new conditions; relatively slow breeding; extreme specialization and development of dominant organs, such as horns and tusks, on which for a time selection centres to the detriment of more useful characters.

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  • Mexico in this wide sense is of high interest to the anthropologist from the several native American civilizations which appear within its limits, and which conveniently if loosely group themselves round two centres, the Mexican proper and the Central American.

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  • Towns, which were to some extent founded after the conquest as centres of civilization for the Indians, were governed by civic officials appointed in the first instance by the governor of the province, but subsequently as a rule purchasing their posts.

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  • All these were found amongst the great mass of papyri acquired by the Egyptian Exploration Fund from the ruins of Oxyrhynchus, one of the chief early Christian centres in Egypt, situated some 120 m.

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  • Washington, who was wisely anxious to concentrate attack on one or other of the centres of British power in Virginia or New York, had to wait till the arrival of Grasse before he could see his ideas applied.

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  • Under the patronage of his great-grandson, the last earl of Hereford (who lived in great splendour at the castle), the town became one of the chief centres of trade in South Wales, and a sixteen days' fair, which he granted, still survives as a hiring fair held in November.

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  • A parallel case to Automatic Writing is the action of the speech centres, resulting in the production of all kinds of utterances from trance speeches in the ordinary language of the speaker to mere unintelligible babblings.

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  • The tail has large black spots near the root, some with light centres, and from about midway of its length to the tip it is ringed with black.

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  • At any rate by the end of the 1st century of the principate municipia are numerous in the western as well as the eastern half of the Empire, and the towns are everywhere centres of Roman influence.

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  • The chief feature in the religious life of the towns was the important position they occupied as centres for the cult of the emperor.

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  • Caesar-worship as an organized cult developed spontaneously in many provincial towns during the reign of Augustus, and was fostered by him and his successors as a means of promoting in these centres of vigour and prosperity a strong loyalty to Rome and the emperor, which was one of the firmest supports of the latter's power.

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  • By the organization of the order on these lines Augustus secured the double object of maintaining Caesar-worship in all the most vigorous centres of provincial life, and attracting to himself and his successors the special devotion of the industrial class which had its origin in the municipia of the Roman Empire, and has become the greatest political force in modern Europe.

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  • The development of this free industrial class is the chief feature of the municipia considered as centres of industry and handicraft.

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  • The old town centres in the Plaza del Mercado, from which narrow and tortuous lanes radiate in various directions; the new one dates, from about the middle of the 18th century, and its streets are wide and straight.

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  • Tens of thousands of clay tablets, systematically arranged on shelves, contained the classics of the Babylonian literature for which his scribes ransacked and copied the treasures of all then known centres of literary life.

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  • The parallel ranges extend east and west with a slight southerly curve towards their centres.

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  • Retalhuleu, among the southern foothills of the Sierra Madre, is one of the centres of coffee production, and is connected by rail with the Pacific port of Champerico, a very unhealthy place in the wet season.

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  • It is a livestock market, and one of the chief centres in the United States for the manufacture of saddlery and leather goods, and of cotton-gin machinery.

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  • It was chiefly the mineral wealth of the Cordilleran region, first developed on the far Pacific slope, and later in many parts of the inner mountain ranges, that urged pioneers across the dry plains into the apparently inhospitable mountain region; there the adventurous new-corners rapidly worked out one mining district after another, exhausting and abandoning the smaller camps to early decay and rushing in feverish excitement to new-found river fields, but establishing important centres of varied industries in the more important mining districts.

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  • Although of reduced strength in the summer, they still suffice to dominate weather changes; it is during the approach of a low pressure centre that hot southerly winds prevail; they sometimes reach so high a temperature as to wither and blight the grain crops; and it is almost exclusively in connection with the cloudy areas near and south-east of these cyclonic centres that violent thunderstorms, with their occasional destructive whirling tornadoes, are formed.

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  • The great growth of urban centres has been a result of industrial expansion since that time.

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  • The same years, however, made apparent a rapid fall, general and marked, yet possibly only temporary, in the rate at which such urban centres, as well as larger ones, had been gaining upon the rural districts; this reaction being most pronounced in the South and least so in the North Atlantic states, whose manufacturing industries are concentrated in dense centres of population.

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  • The median age of the population of cities of 25,000 or more inhabitants was 355 years greater than that of the inhabitants of smaller urban centres and rural districts, owing probably in the main to the movement of middle-aged native and foreign adults to urban centres, and the higher birth-rate of the rural, districts.

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  • Newburyport in the early part of the 18th century was one of the most prosperous commercial centres in New England.

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  • Few great towns in Italy were without their Benedictine convent, and they quickly rose in all the great centres of population in England, France and Spain.

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  • It may be readily shown that the external and internal centres are the points where the line joining the centres of the two circles is divided externally and internally in the ratio of their radii.

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  • The circle on the line joining the internal and external centres of similitude as diameter is named the " circle of similitude."

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  • It may be shown to be the locus of the vertex of the triangle which has for its base the distance between the centres of the circles and the ratio of the remaining sides equal to the ratio of the radii of the two circles.

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  • With a system of three circles it is readily seen that there are six centres of similitude, viz.

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  • The collinear centres are the three sets of one external and two internal centres, and the three external centres.

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  • In the case of two non-intersecting circles it may be shown that the radical axis has the same metrical relations to the line of centres.

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  • To construct circles coaxal with the two given circles, draw the tangent, say XR, from X, the point where the radical axis intersects the line of centres, to one of the given circles, and with centre X and radius XR describe a circle.

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  • Then circles having the intersections of tangents to this circle and the line of centres for centres, and the lengths of the tangents as radii, are members of the coaxal system.

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  • In the case of non-intersecting circles, it is seen that the minimum circles of the coaxal system are a pair of points I and I', where the orthogonal circle to the system intersects the line of centres; these points are named the " limiti,ng points."

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  • The centres of circles forming a coaxal system are collinear 2.

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  • Clearinghouses have been established in the chief commercial centres.

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  • In connexion with the public elementary schools throughout Canada, where the principles of agriculture are taught to some extent, manual training centres, provided out of funds supplied by the same public-spirited donor, are now maintained by local and provincial public school authorities.

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  • Secondary education is provided for by high schools and collegiate institutes in all towns and cities, and by large residential institutions at various centres, conducted on the principle of the English public schools.

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  • The towns of Freiburg, Rastatt, Offenburg and Lahr, which lie under the western declivities, are the chief centres for the productions of the interior.

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  • The station is fitted with an extensive suite of offices for the interchange of postal traffic, the chief mails to and from Ireland and Scotland being stopped here and arranged for various distributing centres.

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  • In 1895 it was demonstrated that Alabama pig-iron could be sent to Liverpool and sold cheaper than the English product, and Birmingham (Alabama) came consequently to rank next to Middlesborough and Glasgow among the world centres of the pig-iron trade.

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  • The interest of the place centres in its abbey, which since 1804 has been utilized and abused as a central house of detention for convicts.

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  • The great monastery of Rossikon, which is said to number about 3000 inmates, has been under a Russian abbot since 1875; it is regarded as one of the principal centres of the Russian politico-religious propaganda in the Levant.

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  • During the reigns of Federigo and Guidubaldo, Urbino was one of the foremost centres of activity in art and literature in Italy.

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  • Throughout the whole of the 16th century the state of Urbino was one of the chief centres for the production of majolica, especially the towns of Gubbio and Castel Durante.

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  • Silk in the raw and thrown state absorbs a large amount of moisture, and may contain a percentage of water without being manifestly damp. As it is largely sold by weight it becomes necessary to ascertain its condition in respect of absorbed water, and for that purpose official conditioning houses are established in all the considerable centres of silk trade.

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  • St Etienne and St Chamond are important centres for the ribbon trade.

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  • Other principal centres of the silk trade in Rhenish Prussia are Viersen, Barmen, Elberfeld and Muhlheim.

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  • Silk spinning has chiefly developed in the Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire and Staffordshire textiles centres.

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  • Lorentz, and leave no manner of doubt that the radiating centres are negative electrons.

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  • He not only agrees with Laplace and Lyell about the evolution of the solar system, but also supposes that the affinities, pointed out by Lothar Meyer and Mendeleeff, between groups of chemical elements prove an evolution of these elements from a primitive matter (prothyl) consisting of homogeneous atoms. These, however, are not ultimate enough for him; he thinks that everything, ponderable and imponderable or ether, is evolved from a primitive substance, which condenses first into centres of condensation (pyknatoms), and then into masses, which when they exceed the mean consistency become ponderables, and when they fall below it become imponderables.

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  • His final view was that certain actions of the divine substance are during consciousness gifted with knowledge of themselves as active centres, but during unconsciousness are non-existent.

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  • But, in thus adapting to his own purposes the Leibnitzian analysis of material into immaterial, he drew his own conclusions according to his own metaphysics, which required that the supposed centres of force are not Leibnitzian " monads," nor Herbartian " reals," nor divine modifications such as Lotze afterwards supposed, but are elements of a system which in outer aspect is bodily and in inner aspect is spiritual, and obeying laws of spirit.

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  • Hence his personal or pluralistic idealism is the view that the world is a plurality of many coexisting and interacting centres of experience, while will is the most fundamental form of experience.'

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  • But, at least in the south, market centres had sprung up, town life was beginning, houses of a better type were perhaps coming into use, and the southern tribes employed a gold coinage and also a currency of iron bars or ingots, attested by Caesar and by surviving examples, which weigh roughly, some two-thirds of a pound, some 21 lb, but mostly I g lb.

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  • The chief of these seem to be cantonal capitals, probably developed out of the market centres or capitals of the Celtic tribes before the Roman conquest.

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  • Thus driven from the centres of Romanized life, from the region of walled cities and civilized houses, into the hills of Wales and the north-west, the provincials underwent an intelligible change.

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  • These officials seem to have been located in royal villages (cyninges tun, villa regalis) or fortresses (cyninges burg, orbs regis), which served as centres and meeting-places (markets, &c.) for the inhabitants of the district, and to which their dues, both in payments and services had to be rendered.

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  • Of the two great centres of legends, Thebes with its Cadmean population figures as a military stronghold, and Orchomenus, the home of the Minyae, as an enterprising commercial city.

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  • By this time, however, the great Celtic movement towards the south-east had probably begun, so that the Teutonic peoples were now cut off from direct communication with the centres of southern civilization.

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  • C is compensated by permanent magnets athwartships and horizontal; D by masses of soft iron on both sides of the compass, and generally in the form of cast-iron spheres, with their centres in the same horizontal plane as the needles; E is usually too small to require correction; A is fortunately rarely of any value, as it cannot be corrected.

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  • However, as time went on, certain Churches became powerful centres of Christianity, and even when they did not come into conflict with her, their very existence tended to diminish the prestige of the Roman Church.

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  • After the period of the persecutions had passed by, the great ecclesiastical capitals Carthage, Alexandria, Antioch and Constantinople, as secondary centres of organization and administration, drew to themselves and kept in their hands a share in ecclesiastical affairs.

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  • The two great centres of production are Oldham, in which American cotton is chiefly, though not exclusively, spun, and Bolton, which spins the finer counts from Egyptian or Sea Island cotton.

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  • Recovery from these disasters was retarded by the permanent diversion of trade to new centres like Leipzig and St Petersburg, and by a state of unsettlement due to the government's disregard of its guarantees to its Protestant subjects.

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