People ceased to kill one another, and this event was accompanied by its justification in the necessity for a centralization of power, resistance to Europe, and so on.
The centralization of the cotton market in Liverpool fixed firmly the system of buying through brokers, for the Liverpool importer, or his broker, was in no sense a professional adviser to the spinners, informally pledged to advance the latter's interests, as the old Manchester dealers had been.
But centralization remained very great.
This was an important stage in the history of the centralization of canon law; the collection was officially received by the Frankish Church, imposed by the council of Aix-la-Chapelle of 802, and from that time on' was recognized and quoted as the liber canonum.
Great diversity prevailed everywhere, and we should not be surprised to find some different fact or custom in every lordship. Anglo-Norman feudalism attained a logical completeness and a uniformity of practice which, in the feudal age proper, can hardly be found elsewhere through so large a territory; but in Anglo-Norman feudalism the exception holds perhaps as large a place as the regular, and the uniformity itself was due to the most serious of exceptions from the feudal point of view - centralization under a powerful monarchy.
followed in the footsteps of his father, seeking to preserve peace in foreign relations, and continuing in home affairs, though in a much milder form, the policy of centralization and Russification which had characterized the previous reign.
In order to meet the universal discontent and the financial difficulties constitutional government was introduced; a parliament was established in which all races of the empire were represented, and in place of centralized despotism was established Liberal centralization under Schmerling and the German Liberals.
This centralization involved the removal of the local priests and a modification of ritual and legal observance.
The legs, wings and other organs of the trunk receive their nerves from the thoracic and abdominal ganglia, and the fusion of several pairs of these ganglia may be regarded as corresponding to a centralization of individuality.
Sidlo, "Centralization in Ohio Municipal Government," in the American Political Science Review for November 1909.
The new system of centralization has already been referred to.
This centralization of power (Synoecism), to which many Greek peoples never attained, laid the first foundations of Athenian greatness.
There are two excellent secondary accounts: Samuel P. Orth, The Centralization of Administration in Ohio, in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, xvi.
Mr. Harding based his campaign chiefly upon criticism of the Wilson administration, denouncing especially the excessive power that, as he maintained, had been exercised by the executive as a result of war centralization; he demanded as speedy as possible a return to normal conditions, political and industrial.
There was, in a word, co-ordination rather than subordination; nor did the kings ever attempt to embark on a policy of centralization.
About 1885 began an immense development of centralization (the tendency having been evident many years before this).
By this last the centralization of receipts and expenditure and the movement of funds in the provinces were to be confided to the Imperial Ottoman Bank, which extended and perfected its own organization for the purpose.
When conditions so changed that government could free itself from its dependence on the baron, feudalism disappeared as the organization of society; when a professional class arose to form the judiciary, when the increased circulation of money made regular taxation possible and enabled the government to buy military and other services, and when better means of intercommunication and the growth of common ideas made a wide centralization possible and likely to be permanent.
The control which he began in this way to exercise, both in Italy and in the provinces, over the "municipia" and "liberae civitates," by means of agents entitled (then or later) "correctores civitatium liberarum," was carried continually farther and farther by his successors, and at last ended in the complete centralization of the government.
The system thus established proved to be very unsatisfactory, and a new school law in 1875 brought about a greater degree of uniformity and centralization through its provisions for the appointment of a state superintendent of free schools and a state board of education.
Centralization was again secured, in 1888, by the passage of a law reorganizing and increasing the powers of the state board of education.
There is comparatively little in the political institutions of Iowa dissimilar to those of other states of the Union; they show in recent years a tendency toward greater centralization - in boards, however, rather than in individual officers.
Bowman, The Administration of Iowa, a Study in Centralization (New York, 1903), an able presentation of the present administrative system in the light of its historical development; William Salter, Iowa, the first Free State in the Louisiana Purchase (Chicago, 1905); B.
The school system is not one of marked state centralization - as contrasted, e.g.
The English Benedictines never advanced farther along the path of centralization; up to their destruction this polity remained in operation among them, and proved itself by its results to be well adapted to the conditions of the Benedictine Rule and life.
Fairlie, The Centralization of Administration in New York State (New York, 1898); Annual Reports of the State Board of Charities (Albany, 1867 sqq.); Annual Reports of the State Education Department (Albany, 1904 sqq.); and Sidney Sherwood, History of Higher Education in the State of New York (Washington, 1900), Circular of Information No.
Their object had been to purify the Church of medieval accretions, and to restore the primitive model in the light of the new learning; the idea of rival " churches," differing in their fundamental doctrines and in their principles of organization, existing side by side, was as abhorrent to them as to the most rigid partisan of Roman centralization.
While the Boeotians, unlike the Arcadians, generally acted as a united whole against foreign enemies, the constant struggle between the forces of centralization and disruption perhaps went further than any other cause to check their development into a really powerful nation.
In Spain was produced a fairly strong itself, as it had done in the East, around the religious centralization around the Visigothic king and the metropolitan of Toledo.
Although, among other obstacles, the popes of the 12th century had experienced some difficulty in subduing the inhabitants of the city, which was the seat and centre of the of the Christian world, their monarchy did not cease to gain in authority, solidity and prestige, and the work of centralization, which was gradually making them masters of the whole ecclesiastical organism, was accomplished steadily and without serious interruption.
The bishops resisted centralization.
By its exaggerated methods of centralization the papal monarchy had absorbed within itself all the living forces of the religious world and suppressed all the liberties in which the Church of old had lived.
The history of the papacy from 1590 to 1870 falls into four main periods: (i) 1590-1648; territorial expansion, definitely checked by the peace of Westphalia; (2) 1648-1789; waning prestige, financial embarrassments, futile reforms; (3) 1789-1814; revolution and Napoleonic reorganization; (4) 1814-1870; restoration and centralization.
This centralization was, however, for the time not so much legal as doctrinal.
- Though it has been relieved of the functions allotted to the Congregations of cardinals, the old machinery of the ecclesiastical administration has not been abolished; and the process of centralization which has been accentuated in the course of the last few centuries, together with the facility of communication, ensured for them a fresh activity, new offices having even been added.
As a preliminary step William aimed at a centralization of the powers of government in the United Provinces in his own person.
the priests of the local sanctuaries who had lost their old perquisites by the centralization of worship. In Ezekiel as in the Law of Holiness there is no mention of tithes; he proposes to support all public worship from the proceeds of a general tax (xlv.
The field of state rights had not increased, while centralization has slowly but surely taken place.
This centralization is shown not only by the increased power and activity of the Federal government as compared with the state governments, but in the change in popular opinion indicated by the use of the terms National,.
the Fowler secured; and, as the experience of Otto himself showed, there would have been chances of much greater centralization.
were the most ardent advocates of centralization.
The Poles wished to gain as much autonomy as they could for their own province, but they had no interest in opposing the centralization of other parts; they were satisfied if Austria would surrender the Ruthenes to them.
The party of centralization was then the Liberal German party, supported by a few Italians and the Ruthenes, and as years went by it was to become the National German party.
But the general conclusion seems to be that these changes were always in the direction of further centralization, increasing the power of the chief ministers and their offices, bringing all more directly under the control of the Crown, and in some cases limiting the powers and appropriating the funds of local municipalities.
As against the Church of Rome, with its system of rigid centralization, the Anglican Church represents the principle of local autonomy, which it holds to be once more primitive and more catholic. In this respect the Anglican communion has developed on the lines defined in her articles at the Reformation; but, though in principle there is no great difference between a church defined by national, and a church defined by racial boundaries, there is an immense difference in effect, especially when the race - as in the case of the English - is itself ecumenical.
the vuvoucr.vµos, whether by this we understand the political centralization of Attica at Athens or a local union of previously separate settlements on the site of Athens.
Thus the promotion of the interests of the capital and the centralization of the public and commercial life of the country have formed an integral part of the policy of the state since the restoration of the constitution.
When it is remembered that the ideal of both the authorities and the people is the ultimate monopoly of the home market by Hungarian industry and trade, and the strengthening of the Magyar influence by centralization, it is easy to understand the progress of Budapest.
We need not here do more than allude to the centralization of Jewish ideas and aspirations in Jerusalem, especially in the holy rock on which tradition (and probably textual corruption) have placed the scene of Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac, and over which the Most Holy Place of the Temple stood.
It is, however, unquestionably true, that as a startling protest against measures" to silence,"in Jefferson's words," by force and not by reason the complaints or criticisms, just or unjust, of our citizens against the conduct of our agents,"they served, in this respect, a useful purpose; and as a counterblast against Hamiltonian principles of centralization they were probably, at that moment, very salutary; while even as pieces of constitutional interpretation it is to be remembered that they did not contemplate nullification by any single state, and, moreover, are not to be judged by constitutional principles established later by courts and war.
As already indicated, the local cults in the important centres of the south and north maintained themselves despite the tendency towards centralization, and while the cults themselves varied according to the character of the gods worshipped in each centre, the general principles were the same and the rites differed in minor details rather than in essential variations.
This state of affairs was defined and developed in the course of centuries, till it produced the present state of centralization, according to a law which can equally be observed in other societies.
There he repaired the evils of the Albigensian war and made a first attempt at administrative centralization, thus preparing the way for union with the crown.
Not favouring the creation of a strong national government he declined to attend the Annapolis Convention in 1786, but in the following year, when the assembling of the Constitutional Convention was an assured fact, although he opposed the purpose for which it was called, he accepted an appointment as one of the Massachusetts delegates, with the idea that he might personally help to check too strong a tendency toward centralization.
Yet more extreme measures tending to centralization were introduced by the emperor Joseph, who refused to be crowned at Prague as king of Bohemia.
While Hungary now obtained complete independence, the new constitution of 1867, which applied only to the German and Slavic parts of the Habsburg empire, maintained the system of centralization and attempted to maintain the waning German influence.
In the Church, as in other societies, it has happened that the unwritten customary law has undergone a gradual diminution in importance, as a consequence of centralization and the accumulation of written laws; nowadays it need not be reckoned with, save in cases where local customs are involved.
Peter, whose legislative and disciplinary power, by a process of centralization, underwent a slow but uninterrupted development.
In Spain the case, on the contrary, is that of a strong centralization round the see of Toledo.
This centralization, in its turn, has greatly increased the tendency towards unity and uniformity, which have reached in the present practice of the Roman Church a degree never known before, and considered by some to be excessive.
The priestly regulations affecting altars are of a very elaborate nature, and are framed with a single eye to the essential theory of later Hebrew worship - the centralization of all worship at one shrine.
The Jacobins perpetuated in a new form the old centralization of power to which France was accustomed.
They had colonized the west in the viking times; they had " fought at Hafursfirth," helping their stay-at-home kinsmen against the centralization of the great head-king, who, when he had crushed opposition in Norway, followed up his victory by compelling them to flee or bow to his rule.
The history of the Serbs during the first five centuries after their arrival in their present country was a struggle between the attempts at union and centralization of the Zhupaniyas into one state under one government, and the resistance to such union and centralization, a struggle between the centripetal and the centrifugal political forces.
The aim which the emperor had in view was, by a concentration of power which should make him "the beneficent motive force of the whole social order" (constitution of the 14th of January 1852; administrative centralization; subordination of the elected assemblies; control of the machinery of universal suffrage) to unite all classes in "one great national party" attached to the dynasty.
Thanks to the political and religious unity which a common worship of the emperor and of Rome gave them, thanks to administrative centralization tempered by a certain amount of municipal autonomy, Gaul prospered throughout three centuries.
work of centralization, and Pippin had only to maintain it.
His increased power came rather from moral value, from the prestige attaching to one who had given proof of it, than from actual authority over men or centralization; this is shown by the division between the Empire and feudalism.
Charles himself in his government preferred to restore the ancient Empire by vigorous personal action, rather than to follow old imperial traditions; he introduced cohesion into his palace, and perfect centralization into his official administration, inspiring his followers and servants, clerical and lay, with a common and determined zeal.
The Roman tradition which made the will of the sovereign law, gradually propagated by the teaching of Roman lawthe law of servitude, not of libertyand already proclaimed by the jurist Phi]ippe de Beaumanoir as superior to the customs, had been of immense support to the interest of the state and the views of the monarchs; and finally the Capets, so humble of origin, had created organs of general administration common to all in order to effect an administrative centralization.
Monarchic centralization, interrupted for the moment by the war, took up with fresh vigour its attacks upon urban liberties, especially in the always more independent south.
Italy not only gave him a taste for art and letters, but furnished him with an arsenal of despotic maxims. Yet his true masters were the jurists of the southern universities, passionately addicted to centralization and autocracy, men like Duprat and Poyet, who revived the persistent tradition of Philip the Fairs legists.
Thanks to their action, feudalism was attacked in its landed interest in the person of the constable de Bourbon; feudalism in its financial aspect by the execution of superintendent Semblancay and the special privileges of towns and provinces by administrative centralization.
In one respect, indeed, the system of the old monarchy remained intact; the tradition of centralization established by Louis XIV.
One thing only is established, and this may be said to have been the real effect of the False Decretals, namely, the powerful impulse which they gave in the Frankish territories to the movement towards centralization round the see of Rome, and the legal obstacles which they opposed to unjust proceedings against the bishops.
The political as well as the administrative life of the country was absolutely in the hands of the wire-pullers in Madrid; and their local agents, the governors, the mayors and the electoral potentates styled los Caciques, were all creatures of the minister of the interior at the head of Castilian centralization.
In letters of 1779-1780' he correctly diagnoses the ills of the Confederation, and suggests with admirable prescience the necessity of centralization in its governmental powers; he was, indeed, one of the first, if not to conceive, at least to suggest adequate checks on the anarchic tendencies of the time.
Towards the end of Villele's ministry, when there was a movement of public opinion in favour of extending municipal liberties, he undertook the defence of the threatened system of centralization, and composed, in answer to Raynouard, an Histoire critique du pouvoir municipal depuis l'origine de la monarchic jusqu'a nos jours (1828).
The decade of greatest absolute increase in the value of manufactures was that ending in 1900, the value of manufactured products in that year being $352,284,116, an increase of $104,487,742 over that of 1890.1 The general tendency was towards the centralization of industry, the number of establishments in the leading industries increasing less than 5%, while the capital and the value of the products increased respectively 33.5% and 42%.
Mass centralization and a center of gravity are further enhanced by locating the muffler below the engine.
A certain dogmatic development is not denied, nor an evolution in the direction of a centralization in the hands of the pope of the exercise of his powers as primate; it is merely required that this evolution should be well understood and.
With the vast extension of the colonial empire in tropical countries in the last quarter of the 19th century the evils of the system of assimilation, involving also intense centralization, became obvious.
At first a part of the population were content with Austrian rule, which provided an honest and efficient administration; but the rigid system of centralization which, while allowing the semblance of local autonomy, sent every minute question for settlement to Vienna; the severe police metho4ls; the bureaucracy, in which the best appointments were usually conferred on Germans or Slays wholly dependent on Vienna, proved galling to the people, and in view of the growing disnffection the country was turned into a vast armed camp. In Modena Duke Francis proved a cruel tyrant.
The friends of individual liberty and local government naturally found in the assumption by the central government of even the minimum of its granted powers constant stimulus to their fears (see Democratic Party); while the financial measures of Hamilton - whose wish for extreme centralization was nowise satisfied by the government actually created in 1787 - were calculated to force an immediate and firm assumption by that government, to the limit, of every power it could be held to possess.
The constitution is republican and modelled on the Constitution of the United States, with some marked differences of greater centralization, due to colonial experience under the rule of Spain, notably as regards federalism; the provinces of the island being less important than the states of the American Union.
unwisely imprisoned in 1919-20, and who now swept the boards in Croatia with a Republican and Federalist programme and induced his party of 50 to absent itself from the Constituent: (2) the Croat and Slovene clericals, who strongly opposed centralization, and (3) the 58 Communists, led by a small group of extreme theorists, but owing their strength to the subversive elements in the Backa, Macedonia and Montenegro and the secret aid of the Carlists in Vienna and Budapest.
For the first time in history the idea of centralization was introduced into politics; the Tiglathpileser conquered provinces were organized under an elaborate bureaucracy at the head of which was the king, each district paying a fixed tribute and providing a military contingent.
As government weakened after the strong days of Charlemagne, and disorder, invasion, and the difficulty of intercommunication tended to throw the locality more and more upon its own resources, the officer who had once been the means of centralization, the count, found success in the effort for independence which even Charlemagne had scarcely overcome.
But after the middle of the 3rd century diocesan episcopacy began to make its appearance here and there, and became common in the 4th century under the influence of the general tendency toward centralization, the increasing power of city bishops, and the growing dignity of the episcopate (cf.
They even extended the limits of Roman imperialism by converting the pagans of the Baltic to Christianity, and further reinforced the work of ecclesiastical centralization by enlisting in their service a force which had recently come into existence and was rapidly becoming popular - the mendicant orders, and notably the Dominicans and Franciscans.
The unparalleled spread of ultramontane ideas (see Ultramontanism) brought about a centralization of authority at Rome such as would have appalled the 18th century.
Since 1927, the law has provided for the centralization of vital records in Florida.
Furthermore, the centralization of the food production process increases the likelihood of widespread outbreaks of food-borne pathogens, such as E. coli.
They brought to the support of that instrument "the areas of intercourse and wealth" (Libby), the influence of the commercial towns, the greater planters, the army officers, creditors and property-holders generally, - in short, of interests that had felt the evils of the weak government of the Confederation, - and alsc of some few true nationalists (few, because there was as yet no general national feeling), actuated by political principles of centralization independently of motives of expediency and self-interest.
First we have the attempt at the autocratic centralization of the whole monarchy under Bach; the personal influence of the emperor is seen in the conclusion of the Concordat with Rome, by which in 1855 the work of Joseph II.
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