The estimated total at a census taken in 1901 was only 2000.
The census of 1897 revealed in several provinces a remarkably low proportion of men to women.
In the census of 1901 the total Ahom population in Assam was returned at 178,049.
See Sir Richard Temple, The Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Indian Census, 1901); C. B.
The rate of increase since the previous census was 1.5% per annum, varying from 0.31 in Victoria to 2 06 in New South Wales and 6.9 in Western Australia.
This is 490,251 higher than the actual population, 32,475,253, ascertained by the census of the 10th of February 1901; the difference is due to temporary absences from their residences of certain individuals on military service, &c., who probably were counted twice, and also to the fact that 469,020 individuals were returned as absent from Italy, while only 61,606 foreigners were in Italy at the date of the census.
At the census of 1901, 48,248 aborigines were enumerated, of whom 7434 were in New South Wales, 652 in Victoria, 27,123 in South Australia, and 6212 in Western Australia.
wing table gives the area in square miles of each of the eighty-seven :s with its population according to the census returns of 1886, 1896
Pop.(1890), 8222; (1900), 10,601, of whom 3771 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 13,641.
According to the census of 1897 the number of illiterates varied from 89.2 to 44.9% of the population in the rural districts, and from 63.6 to 37.2% in the urban.
In 1903, after the census had been taken, San Ildefonso (pop. 5326) was annexed to San Miguel.
According to the first national census of 1869 the population was 1,830,214.
According to the results obtained by the census committee of 1897, working on a linguistic basis, the distribution of races was as given in the table opposite: 1 Taken as a whole, only 13% of the population of Russia lived in towns in 1897, but in the years 1857-60 less than 10% was urban.
Statistics.-Owing to the absence of a religious census in several important countries, the Jewish population of the world can only be given by inferential estimate.
Pop. (1900) 2752; (1905, state census) 533 2, of whom 2975 were foreign-born, including 1145 Finns, 676 Austrians and 325 Swedes.
The census of 1895 increased this total to 3,954,9 11, exclusive of wild Indians and a percentage for omissions customarily used in South American census returns.
The French census uses the commune as the basis of its returns, and employs the following classifications in respect to communal population: (I) Total communal population.
Pop. (1904, state census) 5222.
According to the census taken in 1881, the complete publication of which was interdicted by the Turkish authorities, the population of the island was 279,165, or 35.78 to the square kilometre.
According to the census returns of 1895, the total mileage was 496 m., representing a capital expenditure of $84,044,581 paper.
Pop. (1890) 5195; (190o) 5400 (1127 being foreign-born); (1905, state census) 5378; (1910) 544 6.
Pop. (1903) 34,454; in 1903, after the census had been taken, the municipality of San Nicolas (pop. 1903, 10,880) was added to Laoag.
Pop. (1903) 11,589; after the census enumeration, the town of Guiguinto (pop. 394 8) was annexed.
The actual (not the resident or "legal") population of Italy since 1770 is approximately given in the following table (the first census of the kingdom as a whole was taken in 1871):—
As the House would, at this ratio, have become unmanageably large, the ratio, which is first settled by Congress before apportionment, has been raised after each census, as will be seen from the accompanying table.
According to the census of 1871 there were in the city and province of Rome 474 monastic establishments (311 for monks, 163 for nuns), occupied by 4326 monks and 3825 nuns, and possessing a gross revenue of 4,780,89i lire.
There are a number of large towns in the state, but the census returns include their populations in those of the municipios (communes) to which they belong.
m., and has a population of 1,042,668 according to the census of 1908 (in 1900 it was 915,647).
The census of 1901 showed that about 83% of the whole population and more than 91% of the population over five years of age could read and write.
APPORTIONMENT BILL, an act passed by the Congress of the United States after each decennial census to determine the number of members which each state shall send to the House of Representatives.
There are also some oil 2 Persian census in - 1884; 25,28 - 4 - Males, 28,323 females.
Pop. (1890) 7557; (1900) 10,433 (of whom 1916 were foreign-born); (1910 census) 12,446.
In 181o its population was estimated at 50,000; seventy-one years later the census of 1881 gave it only 55,638.
The commissioners for the 1841 census consulted him on several points, but did not in every case follow his advice.
LEE, a township of Berkshire county, in western Massachusetts, U.S.A. Pop. (1900) 3596, (1905 state census) 3972.
The population of the empire, which was estimated at 74,000,000 in 1859, was found to be over 129,200,000 at the census of 1897, taken over all the empire except Finland.
For Flora: Maiden, Useful Native Plants of Australia (Sydney, 1889); Bentham and Mueller, Flora Australiensis (London, 1863-1878); Fitzgerald, Australian Orchids (Sydney, 1870-1890); Mueller, Census of Australian Plants (Melbourne, 1889).
The census of Western Australia included only those aborigines in the employment of the colonists; and as a large part of this, the greatest of the Australian states, is as yet unexplored, it may be presumed that the aborigines enumerated were very far short of the whole number of persons of that race in the state.
During the twenty years preceding the census of 1901 there was a fall in the death rate of 3.4 per thousand, of which, however, 1 per thousand is attributable to the decline in the birth rate, the balance being attributable to improved sanitary conditions.
Dairy industries have rapidly increased in value: in 1905 the value of butter and cheese was $6,416,434, more than any other single industry under the census classification.
Pop. (1890), 4278; (1900), 6578 (1840 being foreign-born); (1905, state census), 7 0 54: (1910) 7924.
Pop. (1890) 1623; (1900) 1 537; (1905, state census) 1684.
In the census of 1901 the population over nine years of age (both male and female) was divided as follows as regards the main professions:
AItoff, Peuples et langages de la Russie (Paris, 1906), based on the report of the Russian Census Committee of 1897.
Such statistics of the special census of manufactures (under the factory system) of 1905 as are comparable with those of 1900 show 99 factories in 1900 and 115 in 1905, an increase of 16.2%.
Such figures of the census of 1900 as are comparable with those of the special census of 1905, when only the establishments under the factory system were enumerated, show that between 1900 and 1905 the number of factories increased 9.3%; the capital, 49.8%; and the value of the products,' 40% (from $353,005,684 to $774,369,025).
Between its reports and those of the Census Bureau in census years there are sometimes great discrepancies.
These were the figures at the date of the census.
The population of Ohio in the various census years was: (1800) 45,365; (1810) 230,760; (1820) 581,434; (1830) 937,9 0 3; (1840) 1, 5 1 9,4 6 7; (1850) 1, 9 80, 3 2 9; (1860) 2, 339,5 11; (1870) 2,665,260; (1880) 3, 1 9 8,062; (1890) 3,672,316; (1900) 4,157,545; (1910) 4,767,121.
The census of 1890 increased the total.
Pop. (1900) 7061, of whom 986 were foreign-born; (1905, state census) 7197.
Pop. (1890) 9509; (1900) 12,613, of whom 1762 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 15,243.
In 1910, according to the U.S. census returns, the total population of the state reached 1,141,990.
Stevens, of the United States Army, took charge on the 29th of September 1853, and a census indicated a population of 3965, of whom 1682 were voters.
The first census, taken in 1880, showed a total population of 133,518; in 1890 there were 207,503 inhabitants - an increase in ten years of 55.41%o and at the census of 1904 there were 387,315 inhabitants, a further increase of 85.56%.
According to the 1904 census classification the " aboriginal inhabitants" numbered in that year 229,149.
Classified by occupations the census of 1904 gave the following results: dependants, mainly young children, 28.53%; agriculture, 39.51%; commercial and industrial pursuits, 7.62%; professional, 3.18%; domestic (including women living at home other than those helping in farm work), 1 5.75%.
At the census of 1904 Harrismith and Kroonstad were the only towns where the white inhabitants outnumbered the coloured population.
The cultivation of potatoes and tobacco largely increased between the census years 1890 and 1904.
Nearly 33% of the population, 127,637 persons, were returned officially at the census of 1904 as of " no religion," under which head are classed the natives who retain their primitive forms of belief, for which see Kaffirs, Bechuanas, &c.
At the census of 1904, 3 2.57% of the total population could read and write; of the whites over fifteen years old 82.63% could read and write.
- A census of the rural population was taken for the first time in 1905.
The first census of Bangkok and its suburbs was taken in 1909.
6, Quirinius was governor of Syria, and did carry out an elaborate census.
Pop. (1880) 43,278; (1890) 58,661; (1900) 78,961, of whom 5940 were foreign-born; (1910, census) 96,071.
In 1904 an official estimate made the population 2,181,415, also including the Litoral (59,784), but of course all census returns and estimates in such a country are subject to many allowances.
Pop. (1890) 7105; (1900) 7935 of whom 1345 were foreign-born; (1910 U.S. census) 9337.
Pop. (1900) 5652; (1905, state census) 5421.
end of Cape Cod, in Barnstable county, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Pop. (1890), 4642; (1900), 4247; (1910 U.S. census) 4369.
Pop. (1900) 118,421 (37,652 foreign-born); (1905, state census) 128,135; (1910) 145,986.
At any rate Alexander crucified two sons of Simon the Galilean, who had headed a revolt in the time of the census.
According to the census taken in June 1900, the population of the island was 301,273, the Christians having increased to 267,266, while the Moslems had diminished to 33,281.
Pop. (1890), 8914; (1900), 11,544, of whom 1590 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 13,374.
Pop. (1890) 3901; (1900) 5474; (1905, state census), 6489, of whom 913 were foreign-born.
Pop. (1890) 2530; (1900) 3072; (1905, state census) 6117, of whom 2755 were foreign-born, including 716 Swedes, 689 Finns, 685 Canadians, and 334 Norwegians.
Pop. (1900) 10,588, of whom 1804 were foreign-born; (1 9 10 census) 9535 It is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railways, by interurban electric railways, and by the Illinois & Michigan Canal.
The same element in the Brethren opposed a census, but according to Howard Miller's census of 1880 (Record of the Faithful) the number of Dunkers was 59,749 in that year; by the United States census of 1890 it was then 73,795; the figures for 1904 are given by Henry King Carroll in his.
Trointsky, president of the Russian Census Committee for 1897.
Pop. (1890), 7710; (1900), 11,786, of whom 29 9 8 were foreign-born; (1 9 10 census) 13,027.
The Mosaic Institute contained an agrarian law, based upon an equal division of the soil amongst the adult males, a census of whom was taken just before their entrance into Canaan.
Pop. (1910 U.S. census) 11,269.
border and Lake 1 The statistics of 1905 were taken under the direction of the United States Census Bureau, but products other than those of the factory system, such, for example, as those of the hand trades, were excluded.
Pop. (1890) S303; (1900) 4686, of whom 881 were foreign-born; (1904, state census) 4852.
Pop. (1900) 560,892, (197,129 being foreign born); (1905, state census) 595,580; (1910), 670,585.
Pop. (1890) 787; (1900) 1266; (1905, state census) 903.
Pop. (1890) 81,298; (1900) 108,027, of whom 30,802 were foreign-born, including 10,491 Irish, 5262 Italians, 4743 Germans, 3 1 93 Russians and 1376 Swedes; (1910 census) 133,605.
Some of the American ginners are very large indeed, a number (Bulletin of the Bureau of the Census on Cotton Production) being reported as containing on the average 1 156 saws with an average production of 4120 bales of cotton.
Of the countries which were prominent in the production of cotton in 1790, Brazil and Asiatic Turkey alone remain " (U.S.A. Bureau of the Census, Bulletin No 76).
The preceding table gives the quantity, value and character of the crop for each of the cotton-growing states in 1906, as reported by the Bureau of the Census.
Some cotton is produced in European Russia in the southern Caucasus, but Turkestan in central Asia is by far the 1 Cotton Production 1906, U.S.A. Bureau of the Census, Bulletin No.
Pop. (1910, census), 1.5,245.
In 1905 the census reports did not include manufactures outside the actual city limits; the total value of the factory product of the city proper in 1905 was $11,573,720; besides slaughtering and packing the other manufactures in 1905 included men's factory-made clothing (valued at $1,556,655) flour and grist-mill products (valued at $683,464), saddlery and harness (valued at $524,918), confectionery ($437,096), malt liquors ($407,054), boots and shoes ($350,384) and farm implements.
According to the state census of 1905 only 1,621,362 acres were improved; of 45,984 farms, 31,233 were worked by whites.
But the unusual severity of the winters of 1887, 1894 and 1899 (the report of the Twelfth Census which gives the figures for this year being therefore misleading) destroyed three-fourths of the orange trees, and caused an increased attention to stockraising, and to various agricultural products.
The sweet potato and pea-nut crops have also become very valuable; on the other hand the Census of 1900 showed a decline in acreage and production of cotton.
Population.-The population of Florida in 1880 was 269,493; in 1890, 391,422, an increase of 45-2%; and in 1900, 528,542, or a further increase of 35%; and in 1905, by a state census, 614,845; and in 1910, 751,139.
In 1852 Tallahassee established a public school; and in 1860 there were, according to a report of the United States census, 2032 pupils in the public schools of the state, and 4486 in " academies and other schools."
Norton's Handbook of Florida (2nd edition, New York, 1892); the volumes of the Twelfth Census of the United States (for 1900) which treat of Agriculture and Manufactures, and the Special Report on Mines and Quarries for 1902.
See John Campbell Oman, The Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of India (1903), and Indian Census Reports.
Pop. (1890) 3945; (1900) 7790, of whom a large portion were of Dutch descent; (1904, state census) 8966.
Pop. (1907 census) 12,644.
Pop. (1890), 11,414; (1900), 14,079, of whom 374 0 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 14,253; land area, 1 2.97 sq.
Pop. (1890) 23,584; (1900) 31,051, of whom 9337 were foreign-born (6690 Swedes); (1910 census) 45,401.
After the 1920 census was taken the township of Chartiers, with a pop. of 5,000, was annexed, petitions were filed for the annexation of the borough of Homestead with a pop. of 20,452, and a movement was on foot for the merger of the boroughs of Wilkensburg (24,403), Ingram (4,000), Grafton (5934) and others.
Pop. (1890) 2083; (1900) 2888; (1905, state census) 3515.
The population of Formosa, according to a census in 1904, is estimated at 3,022,687, made up as follows: aborigines 104,334, Chinese 2,860,574 and Japanese 51,770.
In 1910 the census returned the population as 1,118,012.
(ibid., 1902); Report on the Census of Porto Rico (Washington, 1900); W.
Willoughby, Insular and Municipal Finances in Porto Rico for the Fiscal Year 1902-1903, issued by the Bureau of the United States Census (ibid., 190, 5); R.
Louis district and treated as a whole in the U.S. industrial census.
In 1880 the capital invested in manufacturing industries was approximately $2,468,000; in 1890 it was $9,508,962; in 1900 it had increased to $16,045,156; and in 1905, when only establishments under the "factory system" were counted in the census, to $21,631,162.
According to Mommsen, they were persons who possessed the equestrian census, but no public horse.
The population of the Central Provinces and Berar as now defined according to the census of 1901 was 10,847,325, and is of very diverse ethical construction, having been recruited by immigration from the countries surrounding it on all sides.
Pop. (1900) 11,499, of whom 1533 were foreignborn; (1910 census) 13,J46.
Pop. of the village (1890) 7014; (1900) 5671, of whom 1092 were foreign-born; (1905, state census) 5251; of the township (1900) 8631; (1905) 8217.
Pop. (1890) 1496; (1900) 2079; (1904, state census) 2395.
There were 64,405 Kachins enumerated at the census of 1901.
- By the census of 1906 the population of Alberta was found to be 185,412.
Of manumissio justa there were four modes: (I) by adoption, rarely resorted to; (2) by testament, already recognized in the Twelve Tables; (3) by census, which was of exceptional use, and did not exist later than the time of Vespasian; and (4) by vindicta, which was the usual form.
The coloni were inscribed (adscripti) on the registers of the census as paying taxes to the state, for which the proprietor was responsible, reimbursing himself for the amount.
By the census of 1867 there was in Cuba a total population of 1,370,211 persons, of whom 764,750 were whites and 605,461 black or coloured; and of the latter number 225,938 were free and 379,5 2 3 were slaves.
Pop. (1900), 4526, of whom 1119 were foreignborn; (1910 census), 4894.
Nevertheless, in 1900 the cypress forests remained practically untouched, only slight impression had been made upon the pine areas, and the hard-wood forests, except that they had been culled of their choicest oak, remained in their primal state (U.S. census).
In 1766 an official census showed a total population of 5552.
C. Purdy), and Census of 1890 (report on transportation by T.
For population: various national censuses and Bulletins of the Bureau of Census, 1900, e.g.
The census of 1899 showed that farm lands occupied three-tenths of the total area; the cultivated area being one-tenth of the farms or 3% of the whole.
The census of 1887 showed a population of 1,631,687, that of 1899 a population of 1,572,7 9 2 (the decrease of 3.6% is explained by the intervening war); and by the census of 1 9 07 there were 2,048,980 inhabitants, 30.3% more"than in 1899.
In 1907 the census showed 56.6% (43.3 in 1899) of persons above ten years who could read.
See United States Department of War, Report on the Census of Cuba 1899 (Washington, 18 99); U.S. Bureau of the Census, Cuba: Population, History and Resources, 1907 (1909).
They teach further the solution of problems leading to equations of the first and second degree, to determinate and indeterminate equations, not by single and double position only, but by real algebra, proved by means of geometric constructions, and including the use of letters as symbols for known numbers, the unknown quantity being called res and its square census.
More steel wire, wire nails, and bolts and nuts are made here than in any other city in the world (the total value for iron and steel products as classified by the census was, in 1905, $42,930,995, and the value of foundry and machine-shop products in the same year was $18,832,487), and more merchant vessels than in any other American city.
Pop. of the township (1890) 4512; (1900) 5028; (1905, state census) 5313.
The total value of farm products for the year 1899 (census of 1900) was $161,217,304.
The federal census showed for the decades1880-1890and1890-1900an increase in the number of manufacturing establishments from 3493 in 1880 to 7505 in 1890, and 11,114 in 1900.
By the state census of 1905 the population of the principal cities was as follows: Minneapolis, 261,954; St Paul, 197,023; Duluth, 64,942; Winona, 20,334; Stillwater, 12, 435; and Mankato, 10,996; by the same census four other cities, all in the mining region in the north-east, had passed the 5000 limit, viz.
The reapportionment of congressional, senatorial and representative districts is made in the first legislative session after the state census, which has been taken in every tenth year since 1865.
By the Federal census of 1850 the territory had a population of 6077, most of whom lived east of the Mississippi, or along the Red river in the extreme north-west.
Two treaties negotiated with the Sioux by Luke Lea, commissioner, and Governor Alexander Ramsey in 1851 opened to settlement the greater part of the land within the territory west of the Mississippi, and such an unparalleled rush to the new lands took place that a census taken in 1857 showed a population of 150,037.
The state was admitted to the Union with its present boundaries on the 12th of May 1858, and the federal census of 1860 showed that the population had increased to 172,023, despite the fact that the financial panic of 18J7 had severely checked the state's growth.
The opening of the Chippewa lands in the northwest and the coming of peace marked the beginning of a new period of rapid growth, the Federal census of 1870 showing a population of 439,706, or a gain of 75.8% in five years.
The results of the census of 1905 showed the population of the city (not including the rural districts belonging to the state of Hamburg) to be 802,793.
In 1903, after the census had been taken, the population of the town was more than doubled by the addition of the municipalities of La Paz (pop. 5724), Mandurriao (pop. 4482), Molo (pop. 8551) and Jaro (pop. 10,681); in 1908 Jaro again became a separate town.
Pop. (1890) 6218, (1900) 10,541, of whom 343 2 were foreign-born, (1910 census) 12,722.
Pop. (1890), 6200; (1900) 9769, of whom 2020 were foreign-born; (1910 U.S. census) 14,532.
Pop. (1890), 1744; (1900), 1627; (1905, state census), 1522.
Pop. (1910) 8565; (1900) 6901, of whom 1923 were foreign-born; (1905; state census) 7512; area, 12 sq.
By the lex Sempronia (123 B.C.) the list was to be drawn from persons of free birth over thirty years of age, who must possess the equestrian census, and must not be senators.
Population.-According to the census of June 15 1920 the population of Latvia was less numerous and homogeneous than was anticipated in 1918, amounting in all to 1,515,815 inhabitants, of whom 1,146,554 were Letts and 355,518 belonged to other nationalities (Livonia, 477,839 Letts and 104,091 non-Letts; Courland, 404,- 159 Letts and 71,524 non-Letts; Latgalia, 264,556 Letts and 179,103 non-Letts), the non-Letts thus forming about 25% of the total population.
The census of June 1920 gave instructive figures: 69.82% able to read, children below 10 years included; 50% able to read and write.
According to the census of 1920, of 609,475 buildings in the rural districts 84,163 had been completely destroyed and 117,015 partly.
Pop. of the municipality (1900), 2 9,33 1, a large percentage being summer residents, as the census was taken late in December; (1902, municipal census), 18, 373.
m., which, at the census of 1901, had a population of 206,311, a large proportion being workers in the mills on the left bank of the Hugh.
Pop. (1890) 3459; (Igo()) 5319; (1905, state census) 5329, of whom 872 were foreign-born.
According to the census of 1890 the Indian population was 1,295,796, but so far as the migratory tribes are concerned the figures are only guesswork.
According to the census of 1872 the total population was 9,930,478, of which 1,510,806 were slaves; the race enumeration gave 3,787,289 whites, 1,959,452 Africans, 386,955 Indians, and 3,801,782 mixed bloods.
The census of the 31st of December 1900 was strikingly defective; it was wholly discarded for the city of Rio de Janeiro, and had to be completed by office computations in the returns from several states.
Not including the city of Rio de Janeiro, whose population was estimated at 691,565 in conformity with a special municipal census of 1906, the total population was 16,626,991, of which 15,572,671 were Roman Catholics, 177,727 Protestants, 876,593 of other faiths.
The census of 1890 is the last one of which complete returns are published.
The census returns are for municipalities, and not for cities proper.
The census of 1890 divided the population into 14,179,615 Roman Catholics, 1 43,743 Protestants, 3300 of all other faiths, 7257 of no religious profession, and 600,000 unchristianized Indians.
Pop. (1890) 9803; (1900) 13,103, of whom 2165 were foreign-born; (1910, census) 36,550.
At the census of 1904 the population of the province, including Zululand, was 1,108,754.2 Of this total 8.8%, or 97,109, were Europeans, 9%, or 100,918, Asiatics and the rest natives of South Africa, mainly of Zulu-Kaffir stock.
The white and Asiatic population nearly doubled in the thirteen years since the previous census, allowance being made for the Utrecht and Vryheid districts, which in 1891 formed part of the Transvaal.
The Asiatics at the 1904 census were divided into 63,497 males and 37,421 females.
The number of half-castes is remarkably small, at the census of 1904 the number of " mixed and others," which The following is the official estimate of the population on the 31st of December 1908: Europeans 91,443, natives 998,264 (including 7386 " mixed and others "), Asiatics 116,679; total 1,206,386.
At the census of 1904 the Anglicans numbered 40,880.
Twentieth-Century Impressions of Natal (London, 1906) deals with the peoples, commerce, industries and resources of the colony; the Census of the Colony of Natal, April 1904 (Maritzburg, 1905) contains a large amount of authoritative information; The Natal Almanac is a directory and yearly register published at Maritzburg.
If compared with the first general census of the country, decreed by Joseph II.
Estimates, based on a census of the tax-paying peasantry in the years 1494 and 1495, give five millions of inhabitants, a very respectable number, which explains fully the predominant position of Hungary in the east of Europe at that epoch.
At the census of 1900 fifteen towns had more than 40,000 inhabitants, namely: Budapest, 732,322; Szeged, 100,270; Szabadka (Maria-Theresiopel), 81,464; Debreczen, 72,351; Pozsony (Pressburg), 61, 537; Hodmezo-Vasarhely, 60,824; Zagrab (Agram), 61,002; Kecskemet, 56,786; Arad, 53,9 0 3; Temesvar, 53,033; Nagyvarad (Grosswardein), 47,018; Kolozsvar (Klausenburg), 46,670; Pecs (Fiinfkirchen), 42,252; Miskolcz, 40,833; Kassa, 35,856.
Races," in the article Austria), the census returns of 1880, 1890 and 1900, exhibiting the numerical strength of the different nationalities, are of great interest.
8%, the Germans 5.6% of the population according to the census of 1900.
Owing to the improvidence of the Hungarian landowners and the poverty of the peasants the soil of the country is also gradually passing into their hands.3 The Gipsies, according to the special census of 1893, numbered 2 74,94 0.
At the census of 1900 nearly 69% of the total population of the country derived their income from agriculture, forestry, horticulture and other agricultural pursuits.
The agricultural census taken in 1895 shows the great progress made in agriculture by Hungary, manifested by the increase in arable lands and the growth of the average production.
According to the agricultural census of 1895, the main varieties of land are distributed as follows: The remainder, such as barren terr tory, devastated vineyards, water and area of buildings, amounts to 5.1% of the total.
The number of persons employed in mining and smelting works was (1900 census) 70,476.
According to the census returns of 1900 in Hungary proper there were: - In many instances nationality and religious faith are conterminous.
The same year he ordered a census and a land-survey to be taken, to enable him to tax every one irrespective of birth or wealth.
The name l'arte magiore, the greater art, is designed to distinguish it from l'arte minore, the lesser art, a term which he applied to the modern arithmetic. His second variant, la regula de la cosa, the rule of the thing or unknown quantity, appears to have been in common use in Italy, and the word cosa was preserved for several centuries in the forms toss or algebra, cossic or algebraic, cossist or algebraist, &c. Other Italian writers termed it the Regula rei et census, the rule of the thing and the product, or the root and the square.
Pop. (1890) 44,654, (1900) 62,559, of whom 28,577 were foreign-born (7058 being Irish, 6999 French Canadians, 5131 English, 2465 German, 1683 English Canadian), and (1910 census) 85,892.
A census of the new State was taken in the spring of 1921, the total pop. being 12,162,900.
In 1 9 03, after the census had been taken, the neighbouring town of Maasin, with a population of 8401, was annexed to Cabatuan.
We cannot place Ariantas, who made a kind of census of the nation by exacting an arrow-head from each warrior and cast a great cauldron out of the bronze, nor Taxacis and Scopasis, the under-kings in the time of Idanthyrsus.
Pop. (1900), 4695 (702 foreign-born); (1905, state census), 5877; (1910) 6,634.
The population of the Transvaal, on the 17th of April 1904, when the first complete census of the country was taken, was 1,269,951 (including 8215 British soldiers in garrison),1 or 11.342 persons per sq.
The natives are found chiefly in Zoutpansberg district, 1 For most purposes this military element is omitted in the census returns.
where there were 314,797 at the 1904 census, and the adjoining.
Next, numerically, to the Basuto and Bechuana peoples are the tribes known collectively as Transvaal Kaffirs, of whom there were 159,860 enumerated at the 1904 census.
Among the mixed and other coloured races in the census returns figure 1592 Bushmen, 3597 Hottentots and 1147 Koranna; these people are found chiefly in the southwestern regions and are remnants of the true aboriginal population.
Of the aboriginal South Africans in the Transvaal, at the 1904 census, 77.69% were born in the Transvaal.
At the census of 1904 over 500,000 persons (excluding young children), or 37% of the population, were returned as engaged in agriculture.
At the census of 1904 over 3,032,000 fruit trees were enumerated.
At the census of 1904 the natives able to read formed less than 1 of the population.
At the same census 95% of the white population over 21 were able to read and write; of the whites between the ages of 5 and 14 59% could read and write.
In October 1896 the sanitary board census estimated the population as 107,078, of whom 50,907 were Europeans.
Leo Weinthal), The Bawenda of the Spelonken (1908); Report on the Census of 1904 (Pretoria, 1906); Reports of the South African Assoc.; Annual Reports of the Transvaal Chamber of Mines (Johannesburg); L.
Pop. (1903) 21,008, including the population (7072) of Bustos, which was annexed to Balivag in that year after the census was taken.
Pop. (1890), 10,302; (1900), 12,556, of whom 3394 were foreign-born; (1910 census), 16,267.
Pop. (1900), 24,404, of whom 4710 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 31,433.
The population of Greater London by the census of 1901 was 6,581,402.
224,275 272,207 339$24 460,000 The numbers for 1661 are those arrived at by Graunt, and they are just about half the population given authoritatively in the first census 1801 (864,845).
The first attempt at a census was in August 1631 when the lord mayor returned the number of mouths in the city of London and Liberties at 130,268, which is only about half the number given above.
This is proved by Gregory King's figures for 1696 (530,000) when compared with those of the first census for 1801 (864,035).
A corroboration is also to be found in the report of the first census for 1801, where a calculation is made of the probable population of the years 1700 and 1750.
- The total population of Burma in 1901 was 10,490,624 as against 7,722,053 in 1891; but a considerable portion of this large increase was due to the inclusion of the Shan States and the Chin hills in the census area.
The actual figures of the various religions, according to the census of 1901, are as follows: Buddhists..
The proportion was greatly reduced in the 1901 census by the inclusion of the Shan States and the Chin hills, which mostly consist of illiterates.
Only 9.4% of the people were classed as urban in the census of 1901, and a considerable proportion of this number were natives of India and not Burmese.
The total number of persons engaged in the production of textile fabrics in Burma according to the census of 1901 was 419,007.
of Reports of the 12th Census, pp. 9491000, and Special Report of Census of Manufactures (1905), Part III., pp. 8 37-935.
Pop. (1909 census) 42,779, of whom 541 were Europeans.
The town of Sibulan (pop. in 1903, 8413) was annexed to Dumaguete in 1903, after the census had been taken.
A census was taken for the first time in 1917.
Pop. (1890) 4424; (1900) 5145, of whom 965 were foreign-born; (1905, state census) 6663.
Pop. (1900) 5603, of whom 1731 were foreign-born; (1905, state census) 6808.
At the census of 1901 the population of New Caledonia numbered 51,415, consisting of 12,25 3 free Europeans (colonists, soldiers, officials), 2 9, 106 natives, io,056 convicts.
Pop. (1890) 4848; (1900) 5 9 81, including 1250 foreign-born; (1905, state census) 6879; (1910) 8066.
In 1684, under the governorship of Sir Richard Dutton, a census was taken, according to which the population then consisted of 20,000 whites and 46,000 slaves.
Pop. of the township, including the village (1900), 1615; (1905, state census) 1784.
Pop. of the village (1900) 756; (1905, state census) 966.
Pop. (1905, state census) 3438.
Pop. (1900) 6934, of whom 333 were foreign born; (1905, state census) 7727.
' Of recent introduction for the most part, consisting (census of 1906) of 81,156 Italians, 34,610 French, 10,330 Maltese, about moo Greeks and the remainder British, German, Austrian, &c. The French army of occupation (20,360 men) is not included in these figures.
Several diverse totals have been published as the result of the census taken in 1876, which is considered imperfect.
Pop. (1890) 11, 1 97; (1900) 1 3, 2 55, of whom 5970 were foreign-born; (1904, State census) 11,623.
Pop. of the county (1905 state census), 2930; (1910) 2962.
Pop. (1890) 9118; (1900) 9 488, of whom 1788 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 9866.
Pop. (1890) 44,007; (I goo) 56,383, of whom 13,470 were foreign-born, including 3696 Germans, 2458 Irish, 1661 Italians and 1165 Welsh; (1910, census) 74,419.
Pop. (1890), 17,565; (1900), 23,914, of whom 2 949 were foreign-born; (1910 census), 35,279.
The average number of employes in 1850 was 20,967; in 1890, 81,111; and in 1 The 1905 census of manufactures gives statistics only for establishments under the factory system, excluding the hand trades, and gives factory statistics for 1905 and for 1900.
When the last Federal census was taken in 1910, Providence, Pawtucket, Woonsocket and Newport, with a combined population of 341,222, had four senators, whereas the remainder of the state, with a population of 201,452, had thirty-four.
According to the Special U.S. Census of Manufactures of 1905.
Patavium acquired Roman citizenship with the rest of Gallia Transpadana in 49 B.C. Under Augustus, Strabo tells us, Patavium surpassed all the cities of the north in wealth, and in the number of Roman knights among its citizens in the census of Augustus was only equalled by Gades, which had also Soo.
It is impossible to say how much reliance may be placed on these figures, but from the 18th century, when the name of every subject had to be inscribed on the roll of a temple as a measure against his adoption of Christianity, a tolerably trustworthy census could always be taken.
But after 1872, when the census showed a total of 33,110,825, the population grew steadily, its increment between 1872 and 1898 inclusive, a period of 27 years, being 10,649,990.
The number of houses in Japan at the end of 1903, when the census was last taken, was 8,725,544, the average number of inmates in each house being thus 5.5,
-The eighth volume of the Tenth Report of the United States Census (1884) contains a statistical report on the newspaper and periodical press of America by S.
Pop. (1890), 20,798; (1900), 25,180, of whom 3 8 43 were foreign-born (1004 German, 941 English Canadian); (1910 census) 31,433.
Pop. (1890) 3305; (1900) 4500; (1905, state census) 5657, of whom 1206 were foreign-born, including 461 Norwegians, 411 Danes and 98 Swedes.
Pop. (1890) 5213; (1900) 53 2 7; (1910 U.S. census) 6928.
Pop. (1890) 14,991; (1900) 15,343, of whom 2527 were foreign-born; (1910, census) 20,497.
The city was incorporated in 1862, and according to the census of 1886 the population was 14,000, including Chinese and Indians, spread over an area of 4 sq.
A census taken in July 1896 showed a population within a radius of 3 m.
At the census of April 1904 the inhabitants of the city proper numbered 99,022, the population within the municipal area being 155,642, of whom 83,363 were whites.
A municipal census taken in August 1908 gave the following result: whites 95,162; natives and coloured 78,781; Asiatics 6780 - total 180,687.
Pop. (1890) 7016; (1900) 7987, of whom 1355 were foreign born; (1905, state census) 8497.
According to the United States census of 1900, out of 29,073,233 (1900) persons engaged in gainful occupations, 5,851,399 or 20'1%, were of foreign birth.
No record is kept of this, and we can trace it only through the census statistics of birthplace.
According to the census of 1891 not less than 55 out of the 87 departments had decreased in population; and out of the 32 that had increased, 7 showed a decrease in their rural parts when the large towns were deducted.
A census of 1 590 makes the population 30,500; in that year 3000 died of want.
In 1829 the population was 114,236; in 1836, 119,878 (inclusive of the garrison); in 18 73, 1 45, 60 5; at the census in 1901 the civil population was 184,742.
Pop. (1890), 3131; (1900), 3232; (1905, state census), 3179.
Pop. (1880) 21,915; (1890) 35, 6 37; (1900) 45,712; (1910 census) 57,730.
Pop. (1890) 6083; (1900) 6364, of whom 784 were foreign-born; (1910, U.S. census) 8317.
According to the Federal census taken in 1910 the population had increased to 21,262.
- Information about manufactures, mining and .agriculture may be found in the reports of the Twelfth Census of the United States, especially Bulletins 69 and zoo.
Pop. (1910 census) 11,955.
Pop. (1890) 4232; (1900) 4110; (1905, state census) 4073.
Pop. (1910 U.S. census) 23,481.
Traces of a somewhat similar story have also been met with among the Mongolian Tharus in northern India (Report of the Census of Bengal, 1872, p. 160), and, according to Dr Livingstone, among the Africans of Lake Ngami.
2 The statistics given in the text for 1900 from this point are for factory products and are thus comparable with those given for 1905; the special census of the latter year was limited to the manufactures under the factory system.
Their number, originally ninety-three, is determined by apportionment bills passed after the publication of each Federal census, but under the constitution it can never exceed one hundred and fifty.
According to the Department of Agriculture in 1907 the acreage was 9,160,000 and the yield 270,220,000 bushels (considerably less than the Illinois crop); the yield of oats was 168,364,170 bushels (Twelfth U.S. Census) in 18 99, 12 4,73 8, 337 bushels (U.S. Department of Agriculture) in 1902, and in 1907 the acreage and crop (greater than those of any other state) were 4,500,000 acres and 108,900,000 bushels, valued at $41,382,000 - a valuation second only to that of Illinois.
In total acreage of cereals (16,920,095 in 1899) it ranked first (Twelfth Census of the United States), and in product of cereals was exceeded by Illinois only; in acreage of hay and forage (4,649,378 in 1899) as well as in the annual supply of milk (535,872,240 gallons in 1899) it was exceeded by New York only.
The wheat crop has varied from 12,531,304 bushels in 1903, 13,683,003 bushels in 1905, 7,653,000 bushels in 1907 (according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture), to 22,769,440 bushels (Twelfth Census) in 1899.
The state census of 1905 showed a total population of 2,210,050, and the Federal census of 1910, of 2,224,771.
both those unable to read and write and those unable to write) ten years of age and over, according to the census returns of 1900, was only 2.3; of all the other states of the Union, Nebraska alone made such a good return.
- Publications of the Iowa Geological Survey (Des Moines, 1868) Iowa Weather and Crop Service (Des Moines, 1889); U.S. Census; F.
Pop. (1891) 34,9 6 9; (1901) 43,344; (local census, 5909) 49,286.
In 1901 the population was 11,987; but the census is taken at a time when many of the fishermen and their families are away in the islands.
Pop. (1890) 18,060; (1900) 21,500, of whom 4577 were foreignborn; (1910 census) 28,946; land area (1906), about 6 sq.
According to the census of 1900 there were 33 incorporated cities in Massachusetts, of which 8 had between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants; 5 between 20,000 and 25,000 (Everett, North Adams, Quincy, Waltham, Pittsfield); 2 io between 25,000 and 50,000 (Holyoke, Brockton, Haverhill, Salem, Chelsea, Malden, Newton, Fitchburg, Taunton, Gloucester); 7 between 50,000 and ioo,000 (Lowell, Cambridge, Lynn, Lawrence, New Bedford, Springfield, Somerville); and 3 more than roo,000 inhabitants, viz.
In 1905, according to the state census, the population was 3,003,680, or about 7.7% more than in 1900.
3 The birth-rates every fifth (census) year up to 1895 varied for natives from 14.48 to 19.49; for foreigners from 45.87 to 66.68.
The federal census of 1900 showed that of every ioo persons employed for gain only 37.5% were of native descent (that is, had a nativeborn father).
On Minerals: U.S. Census, 1900, and U.S. Geological Survey, annual volume on Mineral Resources.
On Agriculture: U.S. Census and reports of Mass.
Census (alternating with Federal census), and reports and bulletins of the Board of Agriculture (1852) and the Agricultural College (1867), and Experiment Station (1883) at Amherst.
On Commerce and Communications: U.S. Census, 1902 (vol.
On Population: Census reports, state and Federal, publications of Bureau of Statistics of Labor, Board of Health (1869-; the Annual Report of 1896 contains an exhaustive analysis of vital statistics, 1856-1895); Board of Charity (1878-), &c. On Administration: G.
The population by the census of 1900 was 344,721 - an increase of 14,947 over the returns of 1895.
In 1887 the township was divided in population, wealth and area by the creation of the township of North Attleborough - pOp. (1890) 6727; (1900) 7253, of whom 1786 were foreign-born; (1905, state census) 7878.
Pop. of the city (1900), 15,997, of whom 4078 were foreign-born; (1910, census) 25,138; of the township, including the city (1900), 18,839; (1910), 28,836.
The population of the city at the census of 1906 was returned at 227,519.
PALMER, a township of Hampden county, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Pop. (1 9 10 U.S. census) 8610.
CENSUS (from Lat.
The census unwillingly carried out by Joab at the behest of David related exclusively to the fighting men of the community, and the dire consequences ascribed to it were quoted in reprobation of such inquiries as late as the middle of the 18th century.
The original census was ascribed to Servius Tullius, and in the constitution which goes by his name it was decreed that every fifth year the population should be enumerated along with the property of each family - land, live-stock, slaves and freedmen.
The word census, too, came to mean the property qualification of the class, as well as the process of registering the resources of the individual.
In the time of Augustus the census was extended to the whole empire.
The foundations of the census on the modern system were laid in Europe towards the middle or end of the 17th century.
Efforts have been almost unceasingly made since 1872 by statistical experts in periodical conference to bring about a general understanding, first, as to the subjects which may be considered most likely to be ascertained with approximate accuracy at a census, and secondly - a point of scarcely less importance - as to the form in which the results of the inquiry should be compiled in order to render comparison possible between the facts recorded in the different areas.
The standard set up by eminent statisticians, therefore, may be taken to represent an ideal, not likely to be attained anywhere under present conditions, but towards which each successive census may be expected to advance.
This course has been adopted in Germany, Belgium and France, and an approach to it is made in the decennial census of Canada and the United States.
A census bill, accordingly, again brought in by a private member, became law without opposition at the end of 1800, and the first enumeration under it took place in March of the following year, the operations being confined to Great Britain.
The report on this census contained a very valuable exposition of the difficulties involved in such operations and the numerous sources of error latent in an apparently simple set of questions.
The creation, in 1834, of poor law unions, and the establishment, in 1836, of civil registration districts, as a rule coterminous with them, provided a new basis for the taking of a census, and the operations in 1841 were made over accordingly to the supervision of the registrar-general and his staff.
On this occasion, the act providing for the census was interpreted to authorize the collection of details regarding accommodation in places of public worship and the attendance thereat, as well as corresponding information about educational establishments.
The census of 1871 obtained for the first time a return of persons of unsound mind not confined in asylums. During the next ten years, the separate areas for which population returns had to be prepared were seriously multiplied by the creation of sanitary districts, to the number of 966.
The necessity, for administrative or other purposes, of tabulating separately the returns for so many cross-divisions of the country constitutes one of the main difficulties of the English census operations, more particularly as the boundaries of these areas are frequently altered.
In anticipation of the census of 1891, a treasury committee was appointed to consider the various suggestions made in regard to the form and scope of the inquiry.
In the acts relating to the census from 1801 to 1851, provision for the enumeration of Scotland was made with that for England and Wales, allowance being made for the differences in procedure, which mainly concerned the agency to be employed.
In 1855, however, civil registration of births and deaths was established in Scotland, and the conduct of the census of 1861 was, by a separate act, entrusted to the registrar general of tfiat country.
The complexity of administrative areas, though far less than in England, was simplified, and the census compilation proportionately facilitated, by the passing of the Local Government Act for Scotland, in 1889.
The question was somewhat expanded at the next census, and in 1901 was brought into harmony with the similar inquiry as to Welsh and Manx.
Petty, and another in 1712, in connexion with the hearth-money, but the first attempt to take a regular census was made in 1811, through the Grand Juries.
The census of 1831 was better, but the results were considered exaggerated, owing to the system of paying enumerators according to the numbers they returned.
The census, therefore, was supplemented by a revisional inquiry three years afterwards, in order to get a good basis for the newly introduced system of public instruction.
A simultaneous and uniform census of the British empire is an ideal which appeals to many, but its practical advantages are by no means commensurate with the difficulties to be surmounted..
By prearrangement, no doubt, uniformity may be obtained in regard to most of the main statistical facts ascertainable at a census, at all events in the more advanced units of the empire, and proposals to this effect were made by the registrar-general of England and Wales in his report upon the figures for 1901.
Previous to that date, the only step towards compilation of the census results of the empire had been a bare statement of area and population, appended without analysis, comparison or comment, to the reports for England and Wales, from the year 1861 onwards.
The first enumeration of what was afterwards called Lower Canada, took place, as above stated, in 1665, and dealt with the legal, or domiciled, population, not with that actually present at the time of the census, a practice still maintained, in contrast to that prevailing in the rest of the empire.
After the British occupation, a census was taken in 1765 and 1784, and annually from 1824 to 1842, the information asked for differing from time to time.
Enumerations were conducted independently by the different states until 1871, when the first federal census was taken of the older parts of the Dominion.
Since then, the enumeration has been decennial, except in the case of the more recently colonized territories of Manitoba and the North-West, where an intermediate census was found necessary in 1885-1886.
The census of Canada is organized on the plan adopted in the United States rather than in accordance with British practice, and includes much which is the subject of annual returns in the latter country, or is not officially collected at all.
The details of deaths in the year preceding the census, for instance, are called for, there being no registration of such occurrences in the rural tracts.
A special feature in the operations is the provision, necessitated by the record of the legal population, for the inclusion in the local return of the persons temporarily absent on the date of the census, and their adjustment in the general aggregates, a matter to which considerable attention is paid.
As the sphere of the census operations in Canada has been gradually spreading from the small beginnings on the east coast to the immense territories of the north-west, so, in the island continent, colonization, first concentrated in the south-east, has extended along the coasts and thence into the interior, except in the northern region.
In 1841 a separate census was taken of New Zealand and Tasmania respectively.
In that year, moreover, Victoria, which had become a separate colony, took its own census.
From 1861 the census has been taken decennially by all the states except Queensland, where, as in New Zealand, it has been quinquennial since 1875 and 1881 respectively.
Up to and including the census of 1901 each state conducted separately its own inquiries.
The operations were improved and facilitated by means of an interstatal conference held before the census of 1891, at which a standard schedule was adopted and a series of general tables agreed upon, to be supplemented in greater detail according to the requirements of each state.
The first synchronous census of the colony, as it was then constituted, took place in 1865, on a fairly comprehensive schedule.
Ten years later the inquiry was extended to religion and civil condition, and for the census of 1891, again, a rather more elaborate schedule was used.
The next census was deferred till 1904, in consequence of the disorganization produced by the Boer war.
In Natal, indeed, where the first independent census was taken in 1891, the Kaffir population was not on that occasion enumerated at all.
In the latter, a census had been taken in 1890, in considerable detail, but that of the Transvaal, in 1896, seems to have been far from complete or accurate even in regard to the white population.
In Southern Rhodesia the white residents were enumerated in 1891, but it was not until 1904 that the whole population was included in the census.
For this reason, amongst others, no census had been taken up to 1906 of Northern Rhodesia, the British possessions and protectorates of eastern Africa, or, again, of Nigeria and the protectorates attached to the West African colonies of Gambia, Sierra Leone and Lagos.
Each of the small administrative groups here included takes its census independently of the rest, though since 1871 all take it about the date fixed for that of the United Kingdom.
No census was taken in the former, or in Jamaica and Barbados, in 1901.
Here the census is taken decennially, on the same date as in India, in consideration of the constant stream of migration between the two countries.
Between 1853 and 1881 each province conducted its own census operations independently, with little or no attempt at uniformity in date, schedule or tabulation.
In the latter year the operations were placed for the first time under central administration, and thelike procedure wasadoptedin 1891 and 1901,with such modification of detail as was suggested by the experience of the preceding census.
As it would be impossible for an enumerator to get through this task in the course of the census night for more than a comparatively small number of houses, the operation is divided into two processes.
To this army must be added the controlling agency, of at least a tenth of the above number, charged with the instruction of their subordinates, the inspection and correction of the preliminary record, and the transmission of the schedule books to the local centre after the census has been taken.
The services, too, of the educated public are often voluntarily placed at the disposal of the local authorities for the census night, with' no desire for remuneration beyond out-of-pocket expenses, and the addition, perhaps, of a personal letter of thanks from the chief official of the district.
By means of a well-organized chain of tabulating centres, the preliminary totals, by sexes, of the 294 millions enumerated in 1901 were given to the public within a fortnight of the census, and differed from the final results by no more than 94,000, or 03%.
Going outside Europe, an extreme instance of the results of combining a census with more definite administrative objects may be found in the census of China in 1711, when the population enumerated in connexion with a poll-tax and liability to military service, was returned as 28 millions; but forty years later, when the question was that of the measures for the relief of widespread distress, the corresponding total rose to 103 millions!
A census, as a special undertaking, was not, however, carried out in that country until 1749.
Amongst them was Spain, though here a trustworthy census was not obtained until 1857, or perhaps 1887.
Some of the small states of Italy, too, recorded their population in the middle of the above century, but the first general census of that country took place in 1861, after its unification.
In Austria, a census was taken in 1754 by the parish clergy, concurrently with the civil authorities and the military commandants.
The starting-point of the modern census, however, in either part of the dual monarchy, was not until 1857.
The German empire has taken its census quinquennially since its foundation, but long before 1871 a.
census at short intervals used to be taken in all the states of the Zollverein, for the purpose of ascertaining the contribution to the federal revenue, the amount of which was revisable every three years.
The last great country to enter the census field was Russia.
In 1897 a general census was taken as synchronously throughout the empire as was found possible.
The same authority, although mentioning a reported census of Norway in 1769, indicates his conviction that the first real census of that country was in 1815.
If so, the first modern census was the American census of 1790.
In connexion with the census of 1810 an attempt, perhaps the earliest in any country, was made to gather certain industrial statistics showing "the number, nature, extent, situation and value of the arts and manufactures of the United States."
The law under which the census of 1840 was taken contained a novel provision for the preparation in connexion with the census of statistical tables giving "such information in relation to mines, agriculture, commerce, manufactures and schools as will exhibit a full view of the pursuits, industry, education and resources of the country."
This was about the first indication of a tendency, which grew in strength for half a century, to load the Federal census with inquiries having no essential or necessary connexion with its main purpose, which was to secure an accurate enumeration of the population as a basis for a reapportionment of seats in the House of Representatives.
The difficulty stated in the foregoing quotation, although now mainly of historic importance, exerted great influence upon the development of the American census prior to 1900.
The pioneer work of the census of 1840 in the fields of educational statistics, statistics of occupations, of defective classes and of causes of death, suffered from numerous errors and defects.
Public discussion of them contributed to secure radical modifications of scope and method at the census of 1850.
Before the census law was passed, a census board, consisting of three members of the president's cabinet, was appointed to draft plans for the inquiry, and the essential features of its report prepared after consultation with a number of leading statisticians were embodied in the law.
The census of 1850 was taken on six schedules, one for free inhabitants, one for slaves, one for deaths during the preceding year, one for agriculture, one for manufactures and one for social statistics.
It was also the first American census to give a line of the schedule to each person, death or establishment enumerated, and thus to make the returns in the individual form indispensable for a detailed classification and compilation.
The results of this census were tabulated with care and skill, and a preliminary analysis gave the salient results and in some cases compared them with European figures.
The census of 1860 followed the model of its predecessor with slight changes.
When the time for the next census approached it was felt that new legislation was needed, and a committee of the House of Representatives, with James A.
In consequence the census of 1870 was taken with the outgrown machinery established twenty years earlier, a law characterized by Francis A.
Walker, the superintendent of the census, who administered it, as "clumsy, antiquated and barbarous."
In consequence this census marks the lowest ebb of American census work.
Since 1870 the development of census work in the United States has been steady and rapid.
The law, which had been prepared for the census of 1870 by the House committee, furnished a basis for greatly improved legislation in 1879, under which the tenth census was taken.
By this law the census office for the first time was allowed to call into existence and to control an adequate local staff of supervisors and enumerators.
The scope of the work was so extended as to make the twenty-two quarto volumes of the tenth census almost an encyclopaedia, not only of the population,but also of theproductsand resources of the United States.
Probably no other census in the world has ever covered so wide a range of subjects, and perhaps none except that of India and the eleventh American census has extended through so many volumes.
The topics usually contained in a census suffered from the great addition of other and less pertinent matter, and the reputation of the work was unfavourably affected by the length of time required to prepare and publish the volumes (the last ones not appearing until near the end of the decade), the original underestimate of the cost of the work, which made frequent supplementary appropriations necessary, the resignation of the superintendent, Francis A.
The eleventh census was taken under a law almost identical with that of the tenth, and extended through twenty-five large volumes, presenting a work almost as encyclopaedic, but much more distinctively statistical.
The popular opinion of a census, at least in the United States, depends largely upon the degree to which its figures for the population of the country, of states, and especially of cities, meet or fail to meet the expectations of the interested public. Judged by this standard, the census of 1890 was less favourably received than that of 1880.
But according to the eleventh census the decennial rate of growth of population fell suddenly from over 30%, which the figures had shown between 1870 and 1880, and in every preceding decade of the century, except that of the Civil War, to less than 25%, in spite of an immigration nearly double that of any preceding decade'.
For this change no adequate explanation was offered by the census office.