The censors, being elected on a general ticket, were always more progressive than the convention, which was chosen on the principle of equal township representation.
Propositions to establish the judiciary on a more permanent tenure were also voted down in 1814, 1822, 1857 and 1870, and the state still elects its judges for two years' terms. On its own suggestion, the council of censors was abolished in 1870 and the present method of amending the constitution was adopted.
Meader, The Council of Censors (Providence, 1899); F.
The pope appointed censors for both translations, who found the work to be replete with piety and holiness, highly useful and wholesome.
The equites were originally chosen by the curiae, then in succession by the kings, the consuls, and (after 443 B.C.) by the censors, by whom they were reviewed every five years in the Forum.
Each eques, as his name was called out, passed before the censors, leading his horse.
With the increase of the city the operation grew in importance, and was followed by an official lustruni, or purificatory sacrifice, offered on behalf of the people by the censors or functionaries in charge of the classification.
It elected the magistrates with imperium and the censors, and alone had the power of declaring war.
Under the constitution of 1790 the office of governor was restored, the executive council and the council of censors were abolished, and the bicameral legislative system was adopted.
In spite of the ring-fence of censors, and custom-house officers, there was danger Metier- of the Liberal infection spreading to Austria, with nich and disintegrating results; and the pose of the tsar as~ the con- protector of German liberties was a perpetual menace.
The examination of the books is entrusted to censors, who have to study them without prejudice; if their report is favourable, the bishop gives the imprimatur (Nos.
The peril from the infiltration of " revolutionary " ideas from without was met by the erection round the Austrian dominions of a Chinese wall of tariffs and censors, which had, however, no more success than is usual with such expedients.
In the German provinces also, in spite of Metternich's censors and police, the national movements in Germany had gained an entrance, and, as the revolution of 1848 in Vienna was to show, the most advanced revolutionary views were making headway.
About fifty censors were employed, comprising naval officers (appointed by the Admiralty), military censors (appointed by the War Office), and civilians, including ex-civil servants, barristers and journalists.
Chief Censors of both departments were appointed by the Army Council.
The size of the task may be judged from the fact that 30,000 to 50,000 telegrams passed through the hands of the censors in the United Kingdom every twenty-four hours.
These were primarily (and compulsorily) censored by military censors on the field, but they all came through the Press Bureau, which occasionally exercised a super-censorship. The methods adopted caused constant grumbling and discontent.
The censors worked under great pressure, and the complaints were due chiefly not to their decisions, but to the principles laid down by those in command at G.H.Q.
It seemed exceptional, for in addition to the usual reasons which justified the other belligerents in instituting official press bureaus and censors to control seditious utterances, the United States faced conditions unknown to them.
A dictator, as taking the place of the two consuls, had 24 fasces (including the axe even within the city); most of the other magistrates had fasces varying in number, with the exception of the censors, who, as possessing no executive authority, had none.
In 76 he was tried for his malpractices, but escaped punishment; six years later he was removed from the senate by the censors, but soon afterwards reinstated.
By way of asserting his right to resume theological disquisition, he also issued in 1798 his Strife of the Faculties, in which all the strongest points of his work on religion were urged afresh, and the correspondence that had passed between himself and his censors was given to the world.