How to use Cement in a sentence
I poured cement in the hole he dug under the hen house.
There are cement and shipbuilding works.
Their lovemaking seemed to cement what was between them.
After copies of such reliefs have been taken in gypsum, cement, statuary pasteboard, fossil dust mixed with vegetable oil, or some other suitable material, they are painted.
The mineral wealth of the Cyclades has hitherto been much neglected; iron ore is exported from Seriphos, manganese and sulphur from Melos, and volcanic cement (pozzolana) from Santorin.Advertisement
This cement mass is heightened at many places so as to make platforms and supports for huts.
Each opens in a vas deferens which bears three diverticula or vesiculae seminales, and three pairs of cement glands also are found which pour their secretions through a duct into the vasa deferentia.
He shoved the door open with all his might, revealing the steely skies of winter and the grey cement curb outside.
Several marble quarries are worked in the neighbourhood, and there are some large cement factories.
Charlevoix is an important hardwood lumber port, and the principal industries are the manufacture of lumber and of cement; fishing (especially for lake trout and white fish); the raising of sugar beets; and the manufacture of rustic and fancy wood-work.Advertisement
Hannibal is the trade centre of a rich agricultural region, and has an important lumber trade, railway shops, and manufactories of lumber, shoes, stoves, flour, cigars, lime, Portland cement and pearl buttons (made from mussel shells); the value of the city's factory products increased from $2,698,720 in 1900 to $4,442,099 in 1905, or 64.6%.
Other important manufactures are iron and steel, slaughtering and meat-packing products, boots and shoes, cigars, furniture, men's clothing, hosiery and knit goods, jute and jute goods, linen-thread, malt liquors, brick, cement, barbed wire, wire nails and planing-mill products.
The depressions between the ridges are not filled up with cement.
In 1890 Portland cement works were built, and there is a large trade in timber.
But of late years the beauties of the Rhine have become sadly marred; the banks in places, especially between Coblenz and Bonn, disfigured by quarrying, the air made dense with the smoke of cement factories and steam-tugs, commanding spots falling a prey to the speculative builder and villages growing into towns.Advertisement
These separators are carefully protected by non-conducting cement and wood lagging, and are closed at the top to prevent loss of heat; and they will run for many hours without requiring to be changed, the duration of the run depending on the quality of the liquor treated and amount of impurities therein.
Limestone and clay suitable for making Portland cement are also found in Ulster county and elsewhere, and the production of this increased from 65,000 Barrels in 1890 to 2,290,955 barrels in 1908.
Marble and cement stones occur in many places.
The concrete consisted of I cement, 2 sand and 3 to 4 broken stone.
It is then assumed that the quantity of sand and cement should be equal to the voids.Advertisement
When mixed the concrete is carried at once to the position required, and if the matrix is quick-setting Portland cement this operation must not be delayed.
There are deposits of clay and limestone in the surrounding country, and cement is manufactured in the vicinity of the city.
The death dealer emerged from the hall running between the two wings, the trembling form of Lankha held under one arm like a bag of cement.
The slits may be cut out of tin-plate, and half covered by mica or " microscopic glass," held in position by a little cement.
Among its other industrial products are glass, paper, cement, cotton goods, chemicals and gunpowder.Advertisement
Machinery, cement, cordage, wire ropes, tobacco, leather, &c. are manufactured.
The precipitation is carried out in tanks or vats made with"wooden sides and a cement bottom.
The solution may be directly precipitated with copper, the copper passing into solution as copper sulphate, and the silver separating as a mud, termed " cement silvers" Or the silver sulphate may be separated from the solution by cooling and dilution, and then mixed with iron clippings, the interaction being accompanied with a considerable evolution of heat.
The city is in the Kansas-Oklahoma oil and gas field, and is surrounded by a fine farming and dairying region, in which special attention is given to the raising of small fruit; oil, gas, cement rock and brick shale are found in the vicinity.
Among, the city's manufactures are refined oil, Portland cement, vitrified brick and tile, glass, asphalt, ice, cigars, drilling machinery, and flour.
Among the leading products are those of the furnaces, foundries and machine shops, flour and grist mills, planing mills, creameries, bridge and iron works, publishing houses and a packing house; and brick, tile, pottery, patent medicines, furniture, caskets, tombstones, carriages, farm machinery, Portland cement, glue, gloves and?hosiery.
Terrigenous Deposits (formed in deep or shallow water close to land) by a calcareous cement.
The church key reminds him that "it is my sin that locks his handes," and the stones of the floor are patience and humility, while the cement that binds them together is love and.
It is entirely constructed of granite blocks, without cement, and consists of six arches of various sizes, with a total length of 616 feet and a height of about 1 9 0 ft.
More than thirty mineral substances are obtained in commercial quantities from the mines, quarries and wells of New York, but of the total value of the mineral products in 1908 ($45,6 6 9, 861), nearly six-sevenths was' represented by clay products ($8,929,224), pig iron ($15,879,000), stone ($6,157,279), cement ($ 2, 2 54,759), salt ($2,136,738), petroleum ($2,071,533), and sand and gravel ($1,349,163).
The rock was found in much greater quantities at Rosendale, in Ulster county, in 1823, and the amount of this cement produced by New York rose to 4,689,167 barrels in 1899; the state is still the chief producer but only 947,929 barrels were made in 1908.
In the neighbourhood of Glens Falls are valuable quarries of black marble and limestone, and lime, plaster and Portland cement works.
These can be sunk to almost any depth or brought up to any height, and are filled with Portland cement concrete.
There are ship and boat building yards, engineering works, lead and copper smelting works, cement works and brick and tile works.
Cement deposits were discovered in the Black Hills region in 1876 and in the same year the first quartz mill was set up in Deadwood.
In 1889 a cement plant was built at Yankton, and it is still worked although the output is small.
North of the city on the Milwaukee river are extensive cement works.
The London Clay is much used for bricks, coarse pottery and Roman cement.
Among the principal modern industries are paper-making, carried on on the banks of the Darent, Medway, Cray and neighbouring streams; engineering, chemical and other works along the Thames; manufactures of bricks, tiles, pottery and cement, especially by the lower Medway and the Swale.
Two marriages were designed to cement this alliance.
The surface is formed of cement moulded over metal gimmel-work, and arranged to form ledges and boulders, peaks and escarpments, and faced with coloured sand and paint.
It is an important steamboat station for both passenger and cargo traffic, and besides manufactures of cement, dyes and soap, has a considerable trade in the wines of the district.
The manufacture of cement was begun in 1829 at Shippingport, a suburb of Louisville, whence the natural cement of Kentucky and Indiana, produced within a radius of 15 m.
In 1905 the value of natural cement manufactured in the state (according to the United States Geological Survey) was only $83,000.
The manufacture of Portland cement is of greater importance.
Other industries are the making of furniture, machinery, cigars and cement.
This cement is nothing else than the actual life of the sacred and kindred animal, which is conceived as residing in its flesh, but specially in its blood, and so, in the sacred meal, is actually distributed among all the participants, each of whom incorporates a particle of it with his own individual life."
In the East, even now, one who wishes to create a blood tie between himself and his followers and cement them to himself, makes under his left breast an incision from which they each in turn suck his blood.
Wellhausen remarks,' a better cement that the bread, because through the drinking of it the very blood of Jesus coursed through the veins of the disciples, and that is why more stress is laid on it than on the bread.
Of building-stone, clay, cement, lime, sand and salt, the countrys supply was estimated by the National Conservation Commission of 1908 to be ample.
The third or last molar tooth of both jaws is of great size, and presents a structure at first sight unlike that of any other mammal, being composed of numerous (22-25) parallel cylinders or columns, each with pulp-cavity, dentine and enamel-covering, and packed together with cement.
Bridgwater has a considerable coasting trade, importing grain, coal, wine, hemp, tallow and timber, and exporting Bath brick, farm produce, earthenware, cement and plaster of Paris.
The older shipyards have been considerably extended, and shipbuilding is actively carried on, especially by the Orlando yard which builds large ships for the Italian navy, while new industries - namely, glass-making and copper and brass-founding, electric power works, a cement factory, porcelain factories, flour-mills, oil-mills, a cotton yarn spinning factory, electric plant works, a ship-breaking yard, a motorboat yard, &c. - have been established.
The principal industries are the smelting of zinc and the manufacture of cement, rolled zinc, bricks, sulphuric acid and clocks; in 1905 the city's factory products were valued at $3,158,173.
The principal industries of Hull are iron-founding, shipbuilding and engineering, and the manufacture of chemicals, oil-cake, colours, cement, paper, starch, soap and cotton goods; and there are tanneries and breweries.
The hard transparent resins, such as the copals, dammars, mastic and sandarach, are principally used for varnishes and cement, while the softer odoriferous oleo-resins (frankincense, turpentine, copaiba) and gum-resins containing essential oils (ammoniacum, asafoetida, gamboge, myrrh, scammony) are more largely used for therapeutic purposes and incense.
These improvements comprise a series of inner breakwaters and piers and an outer breakwater of stone and cement, 4 m.
The prosperity of the town depends on the important works in its vicinity, including powder works, paper mills, and engineering, iron, chemical and cement works.
Greenhithe, on the banks of the Thames, has large chalk quarries in its neighbourhood, from which lime and cement are manufactured.
The principal industries are stonequarrying and the manufacture of cement.
The city is pleasantly situated in an agricultural region, and there are large deposits of cement and of fire-brick clay in the vicinity.
There is a large cement factory outside the town.
Pennsylvania has extensive areas of limestone rock suitable for making cement, and in Northampton and Lehigh counties enormous quantities of it are used in this industry.
Natural-rock cement was first made in the state soon after the discovery, in 1831, of deposits of cement rock near Williamsport, Lycoming county, and the industry was greatly promoted in 1850 when the vast deposits in the lower Lehigh Valley were discovered and large quantities of cement were required in the rebuilding of the Lehigh Canal.
Competition produced in Lehigh county the first successful Portland cement plant in the United States in 1870.
The production of natural-rock cement was 608,000 barrels in 1896 and only 252,479 barrels (valued at $87,192) in 1908.
The silk and cement industries are confined largely to the eastern cities and boroughs; the coke, tin and terne-plate, and pickling industries to the western; and the construction and repair of railway cars to Altoona, Meadville, Dunmore, and repair of railway cars to Altoona, Meadville, Dunmore, Chambersburg, Butler and Philadelphia.
During his reign the Tibetans obtained their first knowledge of arithmetic and medicine from China; the prosperity and pastoral wealth of the country were so great that " the king built his palace with cement moistened with the milk of the cow and the yak."
To these is added water, which combining chemically with the cement conglomerates the whole mixture into a solid mass, and forms a rough but strong artificial stone.
The matrix is the lime or cement, whose chemical action with the added water causes the concrete to solidify; and the aggregate is the broken stone or hard material which is embedded in the matrix.
The matrix most commonly used is Portland cement, by far the best and strongest of them all.
The subject of its manufacture and examination is a most important and interesting one, and the special article dealing with it should be studied (see Cement).
Here it will only be said that before using Portland cement very careful tests should be made to ascertain its quality and condition.
It has been to a great extent superseded by Portland cement, on account of the much greater strength of the latter, though lime concrete is still used in many places for dry foundations and small structures.
Other matrices are slag cement, a comparatively recent invention, and some other natural and artificial cements which find occasional advocates.
It should be free from dirt - that is to say, free from clay or soft mud, for instance, which prevents the cement adhering to its particles, or again from sewage matter or any substance which will chemically destroy the matrix.
Experience shows that, although spherical pebbles are to be avoided, Portland cement adheres tightly to smooth flint surfaces, and that rough stones often give a less compact concrete than smooth ones on account of the difficulty of bedding them into the matrix when laying the concrete.
In mixing concrete there is always a tendency for the stones to separate themselves from the sand and cement, and to form "pockets" of honeycombed concrete which are neither water-tight nor strong.
In proportioning the quantities of matrix to aggregate the ideal to be aimed at is to get a concrete in which the voids or air-spaces shall be as small as possible; and as the lime or cement is usually by far the most expensive item, it is desir able to use as little of it as is consistent with strength.
When natural flint gravel containing both stones and sand is used, it is usual to mix so much gravel with so much lime or cement.
A common way of doing this is first to choose a proportion of sand to cement, which will probably vary from i to i up to 4 to i.
Moreover, the volume of sand and cement together is generally assumed to be equal to that of the sand alone, as the cement to a large extent fills up voids in the sand.
There are several weak points in this reasoning, and a more accurate way of determining the best proportions is to try different mixtures of cement, stones and sand, filling them into different pails of the same size, and then ascertaining, by weighing the pails, which mixture is the densest.
The amount required to combine chemically with the cement is about 16% by weight, but in practice much more than this is used, because of loss by evaporation, and the difficulty of ensuring that the water shall be uniformly distributed.
In these cases the concrete should be allowed to take all it can, but an excess of water which would flow away, carrying the cement with it, should be avoided.
In hand mixing it is usual to measure out from gauge boxes the sand, stones and cement or lime in a heap on a wooden platform.
Sometimes rough concrete is rendered over with a plaster of cement and sand after the shutters have been removed, but this is liable to peel off and should be avoided.
In this case very great care has to be taken to prevent the cement from being washed away from the other constituents when passing through the water.
The safe tensile strength of Portland cement concrete would be something like one-tenth of its compressive strength, and might be far less.
In regard to durability good Portland cement concrete is one of the most durable materials known.
Good Portland cement is so much stronger than any lime that there are few situations where it is not cheaper as well as better to use the former, because, although cement is the more expensive matrix, a smaller proportion of it will suffice for use.
Portland cement concrete, on the other hand, may be used without fear in sea-water, provided that certain reasonable precautions are taken.
Considerable alarm was created about the year 1887 by the failure of two or three large structures of Portland cement concrete exposed to seawater, both in England and other countries.
Indeed, no Portland cement is free from the liability to be decomposed by sea-water, and on a moderate scale this action is always going on more or less.
But to ensure the permanence of structures in sea-water the great object is to choose a cement containing as little lime and alumina as possible, and free from sulphates such as gypsum; and more important still to proportion the sand and stones in the concrete in such a way that the structure is practically non-porous.
On the other hand, if the concrete is rough and porous the sea-water will gradually eat into the heart of the structure, especially in a case like a dam, where the water, being higher on one side than the other, constantly forces its way through the rough material, and decomposes the Portland cement it contains.
Care must be taken in their selection, however, as certain colouring matters such as red lead are destructive to the cement.
At one time Portland cement concrete was considered to be lacking in fireproof qualities, but now it is regarded as one of the best fire-resisting materials known.
The matrix should be Portland cement, and the nature of the aggregate is important.
The concrete itself should always be the very best quality, and Portland cement should be used on account of its superiority to all others.
But, generally speaking, in steel concrete the cost of the cement is but a small item of the whole expense, and it is worth while to be generous with it.
If it is used in piles or structures where it is likely to be bruised the proportion of cement should be increased.
The mixing and laying should all be done very thoroughly; the concrete should be rammed in position, and any old surface of concrete which has to be covered should be cleaned and coated with fresh cement.
Three old cruisers," Iphigenia," Thetis "and" Intre p id "(all built about 1891), filled with cement, were to enter the harbour and be sunk at the entrance to the ship canal to Bruges.
Its chief industries are iron foundries, machine shops, salt works and breweries - other articles of manufacture being bricks and cement.
Stone copings are best, but they are costly, and Portland cement is sometimes substituted.
The pathways should be paved with tiles, brick or stone, or made of concrete and cement, and the surface should be gently rounded so that the water required for evaporation may drain to the sides while the centre is sufficiently dry to walk upon; they should also have brick or stone edgings to prevent the water so applied soaking away at the sides and thus being wasted.
The shelves should be of slate a, a, supported by iron uprights b, b, each half having a front ledge of bricks set on edge in cement c, c. The slabs of slate forming the shelves should not be too closely fitted, as a small interval will prevent the accumulation of moisture at the bottom of the bed.
Other articles of manufacture are leather, tobacco, porcelain, cement, spirits, lead pencils (Nuremberg), plate-glass, sugar, matches, aniline dyes, straw hats and baskets.
In the Carboniferous Limestone series, the purer kinds of limestone are used for the manufacture of lime, bleaching powder and similar products, also as a flux in the smelting of iron; some of the less pure varieties are used in making cement.
Kingston's principal manufactures are tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, street railway cars and boats; other manufactures are Rosendale cement, bricks, shirts, lace curtains, brushes, motor wheels, sash and blinds.
Other notable branches of manufacturing industry, besides those already named, are flour-mills, jute, hosiery, lace, paper, cement, hats, haberdashery, machinery, tobacco, soap and candle factories, iron and steel works, distilleries, breweries, potteries, vinegar, chocolate, varnish, furniture, clothing and brickworks.
There are cement factories in the town, and calcium carbide is an important article .of export.
There is good farming land in the vicinity and Alpena has lumber and shingle mills, pulp works, Portland cement manufactories and tanneries; in 1905 the city's factory products were valued at $2,905,263.
In 1906 the commerce of the port, chiefly in lumber, cement, coal, cedar posts and ties, fodder and general merchandise, was valued at $3,018,894.
The fact that his daughter Louise was the consort of Leopold I., king of the Belgians, had brought him into intimate and cordial relations with the English court, which did much to cement the entente cordiale with Great Britain.
It has manufactures of wire, leaden pipes and other metal goods, cement, sugar, &c.
Down these holes cement grout was injected under high pressure on the system of Mr Kinipple.
Besides chemical manufactures, there are chalk, lime, cement and brick works and a shipbuilding yard.
The total mineral output of Ontario, including building materials and cement, is larger than that of any other province of the dominion, and as more careful exploration is carried on in the northern parts, no doubt many more deposits of value will be discovered.
Cement works have acquired an extension previously unknown, more than thirty firms being now engaged in that branch of industry.
French had done little to cement the Franco-Austrian alliance, which since 1763 had been practically non-existent; nor was it now the mainspring of his attitude towards revolutionary France.
The principal industries are planing mills and cement works, cheese factories and distilleries.
Exports of less value, but worthy of special notice, are vegetables and wool, bones and tallow, also dairy machinery, and finally cement, the production of which is a growing industry.
The industries are iron and brass founding, brewing, and the manufacture of shoes, paper, cement and Turkish fezes.
The mixture of the lime and active silica or silicate is a pozzuolanic cement.
The product termed slag cement sets slowly, but ultimately attains a strength scarcely inferior to that of Portland cement.
In fact, ordinary pozzuolanic cement made on the spot where it is to be used may be regarded as a better kind of common mortar having hydraulic qualities.
Some of these naturally possess a composition differing but little from that of the mixture of raw materials artificially prepared for the manufacture of Portland cement itself.
Next in antiquity to hydraulic lime is Roman cement, prepared by heating an indurated marl occurring naturally in nodules.
With the growth of engineering in the early part of the 19th century arose a great demand for hydraulic cement.
Among those who experimented in this direction was Joseph Aspdin, of Leeds, who added clay to finely ground limestone, calcined the mixture, and ground the product, which he called Portland cement.
The only connexion between Portland cement and the place Portland is that the cement when set somewhat resembles Portland stone in colour.
True, it is possible to manufacture Portland cement from Portland stone (after adding a suitable quantity of clay), but this is merely because Portland stone is substantially carbonate of lime; any other limestone would serve equally well.
Although Portland cement is later in date than either Roman cement or hydraulic lime, yet on account of its greater industrial importance, and of the fact that, being an artificial product, it is of approximately uniform composition and properties, it may conveniently be treated of first.
The greater part of the Portland cement made in England is manufactured on the Thames and Medway.
Thorough grinding and mixing are of the utmost importance, as otherwise the cement ultimately produced will be unsound and of inferior quality.
It is an important part of the manufacture, because the finished cement should be as fine and "floury" as possible.
Many different forms of kiln are used for burning Portland cement.
The methods of burning cement described above are obsolescent.
They are being replaced by the rotatory process, so called because the cement is burned in rotating cylinders instead of in R fixed kilns.
The material is then in a partially burnt and slightly sintered state, but it is not fully clinkered and would not make Portland cement.
The rotatory system presents many advantages and is rapidly replacing the older methods of cement making.
Another method of making Portland cement which has been proposed and tried with some success consists in fusing the raw materials together in an apparatus of the type of a blast furnace.
The high temperature necessary to fuse cement clinker makes this process difficult to accomplish commercially, but it has many inherent merits and may be the process of the future, displacing the rotatory method.
Portland cement clinker, however produced, is a hard, rock-like substance of semi-vitrified appearance and very dark colour.
The Cement product from a well-run rotatory kiln is all evenly burnt Ce, and properly vitrified; that from an ordinary fixed kiln c/;raker.
Nothing is added during or after grinding save a small amount (I to 2%) of calcium sulphate in the form either of gypsum or of plaster of Paris, which is sometimes needed to make the cement slower-setting.
The composition of Portland cement varies within comparatively narrow limits, and for given raw materials the variations are tending = to become smaller as regularity and skill in manufacture Compost increase.
All such variations are permissible provided that the quantity of silica and alumina is sufficient to saturate the whole of the lime and to leave none of it in a "free" condition, likely to cause the cement to expand after setting.
Other things being equal, the higher the percentage of lime within the limits indicated above the stronger is the cement, but such highly limed cement is less easy to burn than cement containing about 62% of lime; and unless the burning is thorough and the raw materials are intimately mixed, the cement is apt to be unsound.
Although the ultimate composition of cement, that is, the percentage of each base and acid present, can be accurately determined by analysis, its proximate composition, i.e.
As the outcome of these inquiries it has been established that tricalcium silicate 3CaO S10 2 is the essential constituent of Portland cement.
The remaining silicates and aluminates present, and ferric oxide and magnesia, if existing in the moderate quantities which are usual in Portland cement of good quality, are of minor importance and may be regarded as little more than impurities.
The silicates and aluminates of which Portland cement is composed are believed to exist not as individual units but as solid solutions of each other, these solid solutions taking the form of minerals recognizable as individuals.
Celite is little affected by water, and has but small influence on the setting; alite is decomposed and hydrated, this action constituting the main part of the setting of Portland cement.
It is generally admitted that the aluminate is the chief agent in the first setting of the cement, and that its ultimate hardening and attainment of strength are due to the tricalcium silicate.
The function of the ferric oxide present in ordinary cement is little more than that of a flux to aid the union of silica, alumina and lime in the clinker; its role in the setting of the cement is altogether secondary.
In fact, excellent Portland cement can be prepared from materials free from iron.
Such cement, if free also from manganese, is white, and its manufacture has been proposed for exterior decorative use.
Magnesia, if present in Portland cement in quantity not exceeding 5%, appears to be inert, but there is evidence that in larger proportion, e.g.
In so-called natural cement which is comparatively lightly burnt, the magnesia appears to be inert, and as much as 20 to 30% may be present.
Another constituent of Portland cement which influences 1 V ..
It has a remarkable retarding effect on the hydration of the calcium aluminate, and consequently on the setting of the cement; thus it is that a little gypsum is often added to convert a naturally quick-setting cement into one which sets slowly.
It will be observed that in the hydration of tricalcium silicate, the main constituent of Portland cement, a large portion of the lime appears as calcium hydroxide, i.e.
It is evident that this will form a pozzuolanic cement if a suitable silicious material such as trass is added to the cement.
The ultimate product when set may be regarded as a mixed Portland and pozzuolanic cement.
The quality of Portland cement is ascertained by its analysis and by determining its specific gravity, fineness, mechanical strength Tesfing.
A cement not perfectly sound will give low results in the hot test, and a cement of indifferent soundness will crack and go to pieces.
The test is admittedly severe, but can be passed without difficulty by cement made with proper care and skill.
Cement for all important work is submitted to a rigorous system of testing and analysis before it is accepted and used.
Hydraulic Lime is a cement of the Portland as distinct from the pozzuolanic class.
It contains but little alumina and oxide of iron, which are the constituents generally necessary to bring about the union of silica and lime to form a cement, but in spite of this the silica is so finely divided and so well distributed that it unites readily with the lime when the limestone is burned at a sufficiently high temperature.
English hydraulic limes are of a different class; they contain a good deal of alumina and ferric oxide, and in composition resemble somewhat irregular Portland cement.
The product may then be regarded as a cement of the Portland class mixed with slaked lime.
When gauged with water and made into a mortar it sets slowly, but ultimately becomes almost as strong as Portland cement.
A case in point is the employment of hydraulic lime in place of Portland cement as grouting outside the cast-iron tubes used for lining tunnels made by the shield system.
Roman Cement is another cement of the Portland class which came into use shortly before the manufacture of artificial Portland cement was attempted.
The high percentage of alumina causes the cement to be quick-setting, and it becomes hard in about five minutes.
Passow Cement is a recent product which is in a class by itself.
It is made by granulating blast furnace slag of suitable composition and finely grinding the product, either alone or with an admixture of about To% of Portland cement clinker.
The particular method of granulating slag for Passow cement produces a material which sets per se and attains a strength comparable with that of Portland cement.
Passow cement has been successfully made from slag of different compositions in Germany, England and America.
No doubt in times of remote antiquity it was found that the jointing of masonry which was to be immersed required the use of a cement indifferent to the action of water.
The cement, on which alone freight is to be reckoned, converts these from loose incoherent material into a solid stone.
Thus it comes about that the largest use of cement is for manufacturing concrete for dock and harbour work, and for the making of foundations.
It is also employed for the building of light bridges, floors, and pipes constructed of cement mortar disposed round a skeleton of iron rods.
Such composite structures take advantage at once of the high tensile strength of iron and of the high compressive strength of cement mortar.
In this case the action of the water is checked by the film of carbonate of lime which eventually forms on the surface of calcareous cement.
This, together with the compactness of the mortar, hinders the ingress and egress of water, and prevents the dissolution and ultimate destruction of the cement.
But where the concrete or mortar is not well made and is porous, the continual passage of water through it will gradually break up and dissolve away the calcareous constituents of the cement until its strength is utterly destroyed.
This destructive action is increased if the water contains sulphates or magnesium salts, both of which act chemically on the calcareous constituents of the cement.
There are various minor external causes for the failure and ultimate destruction of cement mortar and concrete, but their discussion is a matter for the specialist.
Failure from inherent vice in the cement has been already touched on; it can always be traced to want of skill and care in manufacture.
They include plaster of Paris, Keene's cement and many variants of these two types.
This may be almost chemically pure, when it is generally used for Keene's cement; or it may contain smaller or greater quantities of impurities, in which case it is suitable for the preparation of cements of the plaster of Paris class.
The mode of preparation is to calcine the gypsum at temperatures which depend on the class of cement to be produced.
If a cement of the Keene's cement class is to be prepared the temperature used is higher, e.g.
Keene's cement and its congeners are made in fixed kilns so constructed that only the gaseous products of combustion come into contact with the gypsum to be burnt, in order to avoid contamination with the ash of the fuel.
The principles which govern the preparation and setting of the other class of calcium sulphate cements, that is, cements of the Keene class, are not fully understood, but there is a fair amount of knowledge on the subject, both empirical and scientific. The essential difference between the setting of Keene's cement and that of plaster of Paris is that the former takes place much more slowly, occupying hours instead of minutes, and the considerable heating and expansion which characterize the setting of plaster of Paris are much less marked.
The quantity of these materials is so small that analyses of Keene's cement show it to be almost pure anhydrous calcium sulphate, and make it difficult to explain what, if any, influence these minute amounts of alum and the like can exert on the setting of the cement.
It seems probable that the effect of the salts is inconsiderable, and that the governing condition is the temperature at which the cement has been burnt.
The setting of Keene's cement takes place by the same sort of process which has been described for the setting of plaster of Paris, the chief differences being that the substance dissolved is anhydrous calcium sulphate and that the operation takes a longer time.
A similar cement is a mixture of dried fresh curd with i nth of its weight of quicklime and a little camphor; it is made into a paste with water when employed.
A cement for Derbyshire spar and china, &c., is composed of 7 parts of rosin and i of wax, with a little plaster of Paris; a small quantity only should be applied to the surfaces to be united, for, as a general rule, the thinner the stratum of a cement, the more powerful its action.
For small articles, shellac dissolved in spirits of wine is a very convenient cement.
Mahogany cement, for filling up cracks in wood, consists of 4 parts of beeswax, i of Indian red and yellowochre to give colour.
Cutler's cement, used for fixing knife-blades in their hafts, is made of equal parts of brick-dust and melted rosin, or of 4 parts of rosin with i each of beeswax and brick-dust.
Japanese cement, for uniting surfaces of paper, is made by mixing rice-flour with water and boiling it.
Jewellers' or Armenian cement consists of isinglass with mastic and gum ammoniac dissolved in spirit.
Gold and silver chasers keep their work firm by means of a cement of pitch and rosin, a little tallow, and brick-dust to thicken.
Here are found immense platforms built of large cut stones fitted together without cement.
These are built in courses of large flat stones fitted together without cement, the walls being about 5 ft.
Then come establishments for making tobacco, gloves, chocolate, artificial manure, cement, varnish, chemicals and pottery.
The cement deposits are also of value, natural cement being valued at $118,221 and Portland cement at $2,461,494 in 1906.
Henry was then particularly anxious to cement his alliance with Francis I., and gain his co-operation as far as possible in the object on which he had secretly set his heart - a divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
The industries of Straubing are tanning and brewing, the manufacture of bricks and cement, and trade in grain and cattle.
These cisterns are bell-shaped or bottle-shaped excavations, with a narrow circular shaft in the top, hollowed in the rock and lined with cement.
Attempts have been made to use it in the manufacture of Portland cement, but without much success.
The anodes are made of retort-carbon or other chlorine-resisting material, and they are mounted in cells which serve as diaphragms. The material of these cells is usually cement, mixed with certain soluble salts which impart sufficient porosity to the material.
The female constructs on a stone a series of cells, built of cement, which she compounds of particles of earth, minute stones and her own saliva.
Each cell is provided with a store of honey and pollen beside which an egg is laid; and after eight or nine cells have been successively built and stored, the whole is covered by a dome-like mass of cement.
The exact dates of the stages in this development cannot be fixed, for strangely enough few inscriptions of any length have been found at Petra, 4 perhaps because they have perished with the stucco or cement which was used upon many of the buildings.
Luneburg owes its importance chiefly to the gypsum and lime quarries of the Kalkberg, which afford the materials for its cement works, and to the productive salt-spring at its base which has been known and used since the 10th century.
The stone was cut into huge blocks which are fitted together with great accuracy without the use of cement.
Deposits of true chalk are utilized in the manufacture of Portland cement for local markets.
The city has large cement works, foundries and machine shops (stone-working machinery being manufactured), and the repair shops of the Southern Indiana railway.
The industries include shipbuilding, oil and glass mills, and manufactures of chemicals, cement, nickel goods and machinery.
Its mineral baths are frequented in summer; and the volcanic pozzolana earth (also found near Rome), used now as in Roman times for making cement and concrete, derives its name from the place.
The metal so obtained is known as " cement " copper.
The principal exports are grain, live stock and fruit; cement, coal, iron, machinery, flour, raw cotton and hides are imported.
Ironfounding, shipbuilding and wool-spinning are also carried on, and the manufactures include machinery, tobacco, fishing-nets, chicory, soap, cement and beer.
Among other industries may be mentioned the earthenware works at Hoganas at the north end of the Sound, the cement works of Lomma in this vicinity, and the pottery works of Rorstrand in, and Gustafsberg near, Stockholm; where beautiful ware is produced.
The town has trade in bricks, lime and cement.
Among the city's manufactures are flour and grist mill products, pianos and cement plaster.
The manufactures of Heidelberg include cigars, leather, cement, surgical instruments and beer, but the inhabitants chiefly support themselves by supplying the wants of a large and increasing body of foreign permanent residents, of the considerable number of tourists who during the summer pass through the town, and of the university students.
It is stated to form with alum-water a size or cement highly offensive to vermin, and with two parts of wheaten flour the material for a strong bookbinder's paste.
Other industries are the manufacture of clothing, cement, bricks, motor-cars, soap, paper, beer, sugar, spirits and cycles.
Marl is found in the south part of the state; limestone most largely in the north part of the lower peninsula, and the east part of the upper peninsula; and the production of Portland cement increased rapidly from 77,000 barrels in 1898 to 3,572,668 in 1907.
In Warren and Sussex counties are abundant materials for the manufacture of Portland cement, an industry that has attained importance since 1892; in the value of its product in 1907 ($4,73 8, 5 16) New Jersey was surpassed only by Pennsylvania.
In 1909, 2041 ships of 2,710,691 tons (1,153,564 being British) entered at Vigo; the imports in that year, including tin and tinplate, coal, machinery, cement, sulphate of copper and foodstuffs, were valued at £481,752; the exports, including sardines, mineral waters and eggs, were valued at 554,824.
Among the city's manufactures are iron bridges, carriage-bodies, flour and cement.
The industries, in addition to shipbuilding and the preservation of fish, include the manufacture of tobacco, cement, macaroni and similar preparations, and flour.
East Chicago is industrially virtually a part of "Greater" Chicago; among its manufactures are iron and steel, cement, lumber, boilers, hay presses, chains, chemicals and foundry products.
The bases are either grouted with cement, or bolted to the foundations, but where cast column bases rest on masonry piers or footings any considerable grouting is not advisable.
The cap stones should always be brought to the most accurate bed possible, with grouting used as a thin cement and not as a backer.
Steelwork that has to come in contact with brickwork or concrete should not be painted, but should receive a wash of cement as the brickwork or concrete-work proceeds.
In all cases it is customary to fill on top of the arches with a strong Portland cement concrete to a uniform level, generally the top of the deepest beam; the floor filling is constructed and carried to this level immediately upon the completion of each tier of beams, for the purpose not only of stiffening the frame laterally, and of adding to its stability by the imposition of a static load, but also to afford constantly safe and strong working platforms at regular and convenient intervals for use throughout the entire period of the construction.
Lime-kilns and the manufacture of cement, and smelting and iron works are carried on in the environs.
There are unlimited supplies of clay, shale and limestone, the three essential constituents of Portland cement, and the manufacture of this, begun in 1902, at once assumed important proportions.
Among the products of local industry are leather, tobacco, cement, beer, aerated waters, lime, candles and soap. Fishing is carried on, and there are steam saw-mills and flour-mills.
The imports include wheat flour, rice, barley, prepared foods, sugar, coal, kerosene, beer, wines and liquors, railway equipment, machinery and general hardware, fence wire, cotton and other textiles, drugs, lumber, cement, paper, &c., while the exports comprise coffee, bananas, hides and skins, tobacco, precious metals, rubber, cabinet woods, divi-divi, dye-woods, vegetable ivory, Panama hats, orchids, vanilla, &c.
There is a large Portland cement factory here.
Here the growth of the legend can be traced, for the place is now called the "kneading-place" (Ma`jan), where the cement for the Ka`ba was prepared.
In the construction of the Vyrnwy masonry dam Portland cement concrete was used in the joints.
It has been shown that the best hydraulic lime, or volcanic puzzuolana and lime, if properly ground while slaking, and otherwise treated in the best-known manner, as well as some of the so-called natural (calcareous) cements, will yield results certainly not inferior to those obtained from Portland cement.
So-called " natural cement " has been used, except during frosty weather, when Portland cement was substituted on account of its more rapid setting.
The masonry is described by Mr Schuyler as " a rough uncut granite ashlar, with a hearting of rough rubble all laid in cement mortar and gravel."
This, if the dam had been thoroughly well constructed, either with hydraulic lime or Portland cement mortar, would have been easily borne.
It is known that more or less leakage took place through the dam, and to moderate this the water face was from time to time coated and repaired with cement.
There is some roofing slate along the Rogue river, natural cement, nickel ore, bismuth and wolframite in Douglas county, gypsum in Baker county, fire-clay in Clatsop county, borate of soda on the marsh lands of Harney county, infusorial earth and tripoli in the valley of the Deschutes river, chromate of iron in Curry and Douglas counties, molybdenite in Union county, bauxite in Clackamas county, borate of lime in Curry county, manganese ore in Columbia county, and asbestos in several of the southern and eastern counties.
There are large railway workshops; and the principal branches of industry are the making of locomotives, carriages, tools and machinery, jewelry, furniture, gloves, cement, carpets, perfumery, tobacco and beer.
Marls adapted to the manufacture of Portland cement are found along the Ohio river, and in the lake region in the north.
In 1905 and 1906 Indiana ranked third among the states in the production of Portland cement, which in 1908 was 6,478,165 barrels, valued at $5,386,563 - an enormous advance over 1903, when the product was 1,077,137 barrels, valued at $1,347,797.
The production of natural rock cement, chiefly in Clark county, is one of the two oldest industries in the state, but in Indiana as elsewhere it is falling off - from an output in 1903 of about 1,350,000 barrels to 212,901 barrels (valued at $240,000) in 1908.
There are marbles in Osage and other counties, shell marble in Montgomery county, white limestone in Chase county, a valuable bandera flagstone and hydraulic cement rock near Fort Scott, &c. The limestones produced in 1908 were valued at $403,176 and the sandstones at $67,950.
Among others are the manufacture of cigars, cement pipes, iron-ware and machines, alabaster ware, shoes, leather, &c., cabinet-making, brewing, granite quarrying and working, tile-making, and sawand corn-milling.
It is also the seat of considerable dyeworks, bleachworks, chemical and woolle i factories, and produces leather and straps, cement, small vehicles, wire-woven goods, carpets, beer and bricks.
As a manufacturing centre it ranked in 1905 second in the state, the chief products being iron, steel, bricks, flour, cement, silk and leather; there is also a large dyeing and cleaning establishment.
The leaftobacco market is the largest in the world, most of the leaf-tobacco produced in Kentucky, which in 1900 was 34.9% of the entire crop of the United States, being handled in Louisville; the city's trade in whisky, mules and cement 1 is notably large, and that in pork, wheat, Indian corn, coal and lumber is extensive.
Colonel William Preston, county surveyor of Fincastle county, within which the 2000-acre tract lay, refused to approve Captain Bullitt's survey, and had the lands resurveyed in the following year, nevertheless the tract was conveyed in December 1773 by Lord Dunmore to his friend Dr John Connolly, a native of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, who had served in the British army, as commander of Fort Pitt (under Dunmore's appointment), was an instigator of Indian troubles which culminated in the Battle of Point Pleasant, and was imprisoned from 1775 until nearly the close of the War of American Independence for attempting under Dunmore's instructions to organize the "Loyal Foresters," who 1 Louisville cement, one of the best-known varieties of natural cement, was first manufactured in Shipping Port, a suburb of Louisville, in 1829 for the construction of the Louisville & Portland Canal; the name is now applied to all cement made in the Louisville District in Kentucky and Indiana.
There is a large Portland cement factory just outside the city.
Finding, however, that it was advisable to cement the ties between the empire and the papacy, John gave unhesitating support to Lambert in preference to Arnulf, and also induced the council to determine that henceforth the consecration of the popes should take place only in the presence of the imperial legates.
The commerce of Boulogne consists chiefly in the importation of jute, wool, woven goods of silk and wool, skins, threads, coal, timber, and iron and steel, and the exportation of wine, woven goods, table fruit, potatoes and other vegetables, skins, motor-cars, forage and cement.
Thenceforth this bounty was in reality very much what Demades afterwards called it, - the cement (KOXXa) of the democracy.
Other mineral products of this region are iron, limestone, cement rock, fire-brick clay, coal, slate and marble.
This is made by fixing a thin crystalline plate between two glass prisms turned in opposite directions by a cement of the same refractive index as the glass.
These prisms have the advantage of economy of material and of a greater field than the ordinary Nicol's prism, but a difficulty seems to be experienced in finding a suitable permanent cement.
The principal imports are cotton goods, food-stuffs (flour, rice, sugar, provisions), timber, tobacco, spirits (in large quantities), iron and machinery, candles, cement and perfumery.
The enamelled surface is infolded in a complex manner (a modification of that found in other perissodactyles), the folds extending quite to the base of the crown, and the interstices being filled and the surface covered with a considerable mass of cement, which binds together and strengthens the whole tooth.
Cement is manufactured.
Dirschau has railway workshops and manufactories of sugar, agricultural implements and cement.
The walls and ceilings are finished off with a smooth coating of hard cement and the floors are protected by cement or asphalt, according to the nature of the traffic on them.
The imports are largely cotton goods, provisions, timber and cement; the exports gum, raw cotton, ivory, sesame, durra, senna, coffee (from Abyssinia), goat skins, &c. Forty miles north of Port Sudan is Mahommed Gul, the port for the mines of Gebet, worked by an English company.
The uncoloured portions are the dentine or ivory, the shaded parts the cement filling the cavities and surrounding the exterior.
In Merychippus, on the other hand, the milk-molars have short crowns, without any cement in the hollows, thus resembling the permanent molars of the under-mentioned genus Anchitherium.
In all the dentition is of the hypsodont type, with the hollows of the cheek-teeth filled by cement, the premolars molariform, and the first small and generally deciduous.
Made from clay, ceramics or refractory concrete consisting of pumice or kiln burnt aggregate bonded with high alumina cement.
As to the left SRs, they did cement an uneasy alliance with the Bolsheviks.
Asbestos cement One of the most common uses of asbestos cement One of the most common uses of asbestos in the home is in asbestos cement products.
Fiber cement ridge tiles tend to be screwed along the outside edges into the top battens on each roof slope.
You can cement up with a scrubbing brush on the external side, then clean off with a rag.
In geology, the cement of breccias and conglomerates is usually silica, iron oxides or calcite (mineral calcium carbonate ).
The guide cannula will be held firmly in place using dental cement and protected by a stainless steel ring.
Vertebroplasty involves injecting special cement into the spine to strengthen it and reduce pain.
Most artificial joints (prostheses) are fixed into the bone with acrylic cement.
Any holes in your wet suit can be fixed using commercial wet suit cement.
And while his invention, Portland cement, is seldom celebrated in the same breath as steam power or the.. .
Cathodoluminescence micrograph of zoned calcite cement in thin section, Pwll y Cwm Oolite, Lower Carboniferous, Baltic Quarry, South Wales.
Moisture content When new, fiber cement sheeting has a relatively high moisture content.
Where there is plenty of quartz cement it produces hard sandstones and conglomerates.
Processes and fuels used to produce cement clinker are characterized prior to a summary of regional trends in cement production.
It was originally built for grinding cement clinker the cement made from the chalky mud dredged from the river bed.
Composition was assumed to be of a neat natural cement with an inherent brown mineral coloration.
The company now has 25 trading subsidiaries, producing a range of engineering products from cement cooling machines to dockside cranes.
Back problems, cement dermatitis, vibration white finger and deafness can ruin people's lives and force them out of their chosen profession.
A cement mixer blocked the driveway to her left.
Not having to explain and feeling empathetic with the other person or group helps to cement a sense of belonging.
We then departed with our host family for an evening that helped to cement the bond between three European cultures.
In June 1999, it was put in an automatic PID loop to control the cement fineness by adjusting the separator speed.
Conventional houses are built on concrete foundations with brick walls joined together by cement.
He saw again the old geezer gasping, clutching his chest, dropping to the cement floor.
For crack width between 1.0 - 3.0 mm cement grout can be injected instead of epoxy resins.
Fiber cement slate But, I hear you say, what about fiber cement slates and resin slates that are not laminar stone?
You shouldn't mix lime render and cement render.
The inner and outer contours of the cement mantles was traced from CT scans and the thickness and cross-sectional area determined.
These include cement manufacture, paper manufacture, iron and steel manufacture and refractory processes.
Where any are found, they must be sealed with either cement or flexible mastic depending on the size of the hole.
This would commonly be fixed to the bone using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.
For example, the early stages of cement hydration and the surface mineralogy of reservoir rocks are currently under investigation.
They must be cemented in place side to side through the wall and ramming cement mix to fill around and above them.
A moment later, the cement mixer crashes to the ground in the spot where she was standing.
Pointing is sometimes carried out in cement mortar rather than the original lime mortar.
Cement bonded particleboard Wood particles bonded together with either Portland or magnesite cement.
The cement and gypsum plaster was hacked off to allow the cob and stone walls to breathe.
This can, to some extent be corrected using a rasp to remove any extra bone, or with extra cement to fill gaps.
His idea of lime render may actually be a cement render with some lime in it.
The most usual way in which these problems manifest themselves is when the cement render becomes detached from the wall in areas.
The ideal solution would be to strip off all the cement rendering.
The procedure is basically the same as that for asbestos cement roofing.
I have just had a new sand and cement screed installed and I want to fix large terracotta floor tiles.