Cellulose Sentence Examples
The wall of the tube is very thin and delicate, and does not seem to be composed of cellulose or any modification of it.
In this process cellulose (in the form of sawdust) is made into a stiff paste with a mixture of strong caustic potash and soda solution and heated in flat iron pans to 20o-250 C. The somewhat dark-coloured mass is lixiviated with a small amount of warm water in order to remove excess of alkali, the residual alkaline oxalates converted into insoluble calcium oxalate by boiling with milk of lime, the lime salt separated, and decomposed by means of sulphuric acid.
An animal may be defined as a living organism, the protoplasm of which does not secrete a cellulose cell-wall, and which requires for its existence proteid material obtained from the living or dead bodies of existing plants or animals.
The wall consists of a basis of cellulose, and in some cases readily breaks up into a definite number of plates, fitting into one another like the plates of the carapace of a tortoise; it is, moreover, often finely sculptured or coarsely ridged and flanged.
With reference to their chemical physiology, the gelatinization of the cell-wall, which is so marked a feature, is doubtless attributable to the occurrence along with cellulose of pectic compounds.Advertisement
The other industries of the town, notably dyeing, stuff-printing and stamping, are very considerable, and there are also engineering and machine shops, chemical, cellulose, soap, and other factories, breweries, distilleries and tanneries.
But all cells which are permanent tissue-elements of the plantbody possess, in addition, a more or less rigid limiting membrane or cell-wall, consisting primarily of cellulose or some allied substance.
The peculiar substance called callose, chemically allied to cellulose, is frequently formed over the surface of the perforated end-walls.
Cellulose, the material of which vegetable cell-walls are almost universally composed, at any rate in their early condition, is known to occur, though only seldom, among animal organisms. Such forms as Volvox and the group of the Myxomycetes have been continually referred to both kingdoms, and their true systematic position is still a subject of controversy.
It is probable that most, if not all, the metabolic changes which take place in a cell, such as the transformation of starch, proteids, sugar, cellulose; and the decomposition -of numerous other organic substances which would otherwise require a high temperature or powerful reagents is also due to their activity.Advertisement
Cell Membrane.The membrane which surrounds the protoplasts in the majority of plants is typically composed of cellulose, together with a number of other substances which are known as pectic compounds.
They can be distinguished by their insolubility in cupramfnonia, which dissolves cellulose, and by their behaviour towards stains, some of which stain pectic substances but not cellulose.
In the Fungi it is usually composed of a modified form of cellulose known as fungus cellulose, which, according to Mangin, consists of callose in combination either with cellulose or pectic compounds.
Both cuticularized and suberized membranes are insoluble in cuprammonia, and are colored yellow or brown in a soltition of chlor-iodide of zinc. It is probable that the corky or suberized cells do not contain any cellulose (Gilson, Wisselingh); whilst cuticularized cells are only modified in their outer layers, cellulose inner layers being still recognizable.
The suberized and cuticularized cell-walls appear to contain a fatty body called suberin, and such cell-walls can be stained red by a solution of alcanin, the lignified and cellulose membranes remaining unstained.Advertisement
According to Lecointe, the young wall consists partly of cellulose and partly of a substance which is not cellulose, the latter existing in the form of slight depressions, which mark the position of the future pores.
They are present from the beginning of the development of the cell-wail, and arise from the spindle fibres, all of which may be continued as connecting threads (endosperm of Tamus communis), or part of them may be overlaid by cellulose lamellae (endosperm of Lilium Martagon), or they may be all overlaid as in pollen mother-cells and pollen grains of Helleborus foetidus.
It appears to be synthesized in the plant tissues from carbon dioxide and water, formaldehyde being an intermediate product; or it may be a hydrolytic product of a glucoside or of a polysaccharose, such as cane sugar, starch, cellulose, &c. In the plant it is freely converted into more complex sugars, poly-saccharoses and also proteids.
Crum was probably the first to recognize that some hydrogen atoms of the cellulose had been replaced by an oxide of nitrogen, and this view was supported more or less by other workers, especially Hadow, who appears to have distinctly recognized that at least three compounds were present, the most violently explosive of which constituted the main bulk of the product commonly obtained and known as guncotton.
The smallest empirical formula for cellulose (q.v.) may certainly be written C6H1005.Advertisement
The constitution of guncotton is a difficult matter to investigate, primarily on account of the very insoluble nature of cellulose itself, and also from the fact that comparatively slight variations in the concentration and temperature of the acids used produce considerable differences in the products.
The products of the action of nitric acid on cellulose are not nitro compounds in the sense that picric acid is, but are nitrates or nitric esters.
Cellulose sulphates are one, and possibly the main, cause of instability in guncotton, and it is highly desirable that they should be completely hydrolysed and removed in the washing process.
Strong or weak solutions of these substances also decompose it, producing some alkali nitrate and nitrite, the cellulose molecule being only partially restored, some quantity undergoing oxidation.
It is now known to have nothing in common with vegetable cellulose, but is regarded as one of the many albuminoid substances existing in the body under pathological conditions.Advertisement
These are peculiar bodies which are found in the prostate, in the central nervous system, in the lung, and in other localities, and which get their name from being very like starch-corpuscles, and from giving certain colour reactions closely resembling those of vegetable cellulose or even starch itself.
Kellner, who in 1886 patented the use of cathode (caustic soda) and anode (chlorine) liquors in the manufacture of cellulose from wood-fibre, and has since evolved many similar processes, has produced an apparatus that has been largely used.
The industries of Konigsberg have made great advances within recent years, notable among them are printing-works and manufactures of machinery, locomotives, carriages, chemicals, toys, sugar, cellulose, beer, tobacco and cigars, pianos and amber wares.
Filtration in the chemical laboratory is commonly effected by the aid of a special kind of unsized paper, which in the more expensive varieties is practically pure cellulose, impurities like feric oxide, alumina, lime, magnesia and silica having been removed by treatment with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids.
Coloured and white paper, ready-made clothing, cellulose, tobacco, lime and liqueurs are the chief manufactures, while a considerable export trade is done down the Main in wood, cattle and wine.
The wall of the hyphae of the fungus give in the young state the ordinary reactions of cellulose but older material shows somewhat different reactions, similar to those of the so-called fungus-cellulose.
While the fundamental constituent is a cellulose in many Mucorini and other Phycomycetes, in others bodies like pectose, callose, &c., commonly occur, and Wisselingh's researches show that chitin, a gluco-proteid common in animals, forms the main constituent in many cases, and is probably deposited directly as such, though, like the other substances, it may be mixed with cellulose.
If a thin cellulose membrane is interposed between the lamellae, the hyphae nevertheless turn chemotropically from the one lamella to the other and pierce the cellulose membrane in the process.
The mature pollengrain is, like other spores, a single cell; except in the case of some submerged aquatic plants, it has a double wall, a thin delicate wall of unaltered cellulose, the endospore or intine, and a tough outer cuticularized exospore or extine.
When it persists as a massive element of the seed its nutritive function is usually apparent, for there is accumulated within its cells reserve-food, and according to the dominant substance it is starchy, oily, or rich in cellulose, mucilage or proteid.
Valoniaceae and The thallus is of more varied structure in this group than in any Dasycladaceae are partially septate, but elsewhere no cellulose partiother.
The formation of living substance is a process of building up from simple or relatively simple materials; the construction of its cellulose framework and supporting substance is done by the living substance after its own formation is completed, and is attended by a partial decomposition of such living substance.
The oldest and perhaps most reasonable idea represents guncotton as cellulose trinitrate, but this has been much disputed, and various formulae, some based on cellulose as C, 2 H200 10, others on a still more complex molecule, have been proposed.
Among the enzymes already extracted from fungi are invertases (yeasts, moulds, &c.), which split cane-sugar and other complex sugars with hydrolysis into simpler sugars such as dextrose and levulose; diastases, which convert starches into sugars (Aspergillus, &c.); cytases, which dissolve cellulose similarly (Botrytis, &c.); peptases, using the term as a general one for all enzymes which convert proteids into peptones and other bodies (Penicillium, &c.); lipases, which break up fatty oils (Empusa, Phycomyces, &c.); oxydases, which bring about the oxidations and changes of colour observed in Boletus, and zymase, extracted by Buchner from yeast, which brings about the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbondioxide.
The only weakness these creatures had was their inability to digest cellulose.
Interceed absorbable adhesion barrier is composed of oxidized regenerated cellulose.
The most obvious distinction is that the animal cell-wall is either absent or composed of a nitrogenous material, whereas the plant cell-wall is composed of a carbohydrate material - cellulose.
Both the oxide and hydroxide dissolve in ammonia to form a beautiful azure-blue solution (Schweizer's reagent), which dissolves cellulose, or perhaps, holds it in suspension as water does starch; accordingly, the solution rapidly perforates paper or calico.
Such cellulose is gradually reconverted into water and carbon dioxide, but for some time nothing positive was known as to the agents which thus break up the paper, rags, straw, leaves and wood, &c., accumulating in cesspools, forests, marshes and elsewhere in such abundance.
The work of van Tieghem, van Senus, Fribes, Omeliansky and others has now shown that while certain anaerobic bacteria decompose the substance of the middle lamella - chiefly pectin compounds - and thus bring about the isolation of the cellulose fibres when, for instance, flax is steeped or " retted," they are unable to attack the cellulose itself.
There exist in the mud of marshes, rivers and cloacae, &c., however, other anaerobic bacteria which decompose cellulose, probably hydrolysing it first and then splitting the products into carbon dioxide and marsh gas.
We have thus an explanation of the occurrence of marsh gas and sulphuretted hydrogen in bogs, and it is highly probable that the existence of these gases in the intestines of herbivorous animals is due to similar putrefactive changes in the undigested cellulose remains.
It is found among the products formed in the destructive distillation of wood, sugar, cellulose, &c., and for this reason it is always present in crude wood spirit, from which the greater portion of it may be recovered by fractional distillation.
Sometimes the burner-gas is employed directly for the sake of the SO 2 which it contains, principally in the manufacture of" sulphite cellulose "from wood.
In these forms the chitinous lining of the tubes is thickened by a closeset spiral ridge similar to the spiral thickening of the cellulose wall of the spiral vessels of plants.
The body is bounded by a firm pellicle, often supplemented by an armour (" lorica ") of cuticular cellulose plates, with usually a marked longitudinal groove from which the anterior flagellum springs, and an oblique or spiral transverse groove for the second flagellum.
They also suggest that at some point in the past, the distant ancestors of modern humans were able to break down cellulose too.
Such enzymes include cellulases for cellulose, amylases for starch and proteinases for proteins.
For example, the enzyme cellulase breaks down cellulose, an insoluble polymer, which makes up a major part of plant tissues.
This waste contains cellulose a plant material which the body cannot digest.
I am using microcrystalline cellulose, a major pharmaceutical excipient, in various forms of soft solid.
It all depends.. ... Cotton is in fact fibers of pure cellulose.
Aqueous carboxymethyl cellulose solutions are used, occasionally with the inclusion of bovine serum.
Today the standard is methyl cellulose or some variation thereof.
They may be coated to increase their storage life, using maize protein or vegetable cellulose.
Rayon (Viscose) is derived from plant cellulose, and this natural origin makes the fabric soft and breathable.
Regenerated cellulose was the original industry standard but Professor Courtney started his research career by developing synthetic membranes based on vinyl copolymers.
These ions are harmful to organic substrates, such as paper, because they catalyze the oxidative degradation of cellulose and other organic materials.
However, as the name indicates, cellulosic feedstocks are high in cellulose, and cellulose cannot be fermented.
Despite overwhelming interest, scientists know relatively little about how plant cells synthesize individual cellulose fibers.
The cell wall is approximately 50% cellulose fibrils.
The six accompanied illustrations, Figures (1) to (6 ), show a further selection of cellulose lacquer rock peels.
The panels have high thermal performance, with cellulose insulation (recycled newspaper) well exceeding Building Regulations.
Stained cellulose lacquer peel, examined under PPL illumination.
Wood is made from cellulose fibers that are bound together by a material called lignin.
This is usually cellulose nitrate dissolved in organic solvents.
This image was derived from an unstained cellulose lacquer peel, from the Jurassic, Kimmeridge Clay, Maple Ledge Shales.
It is part of a stained cellulose lacquer rock peel.
Objectives The primary objective is to explore the safety of 13% of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) as a vaginal microbicide.
The new cellulose insulation can both absorb and release water vapor without significant loss of thermal resistivity.
Apart from over spray the worst problem with spraying in a confined space, like a garage, is the fumes from cellulose thinners.
A concentrated solution of zinc chloride converts starch, cellulose and a great many other organic bodies into soluble compounds; hence the application of the fused salt as a caustic in surgery and the impossibility of filtering a strong ZnC1 2 solution through paper (see Cellulose).
Another objection was that even if bacteria obtained access through the stomata, they could not penetrate the cell-walls bounding the intercellular spaces, but certain anaerobic forms are known to ferment cellulose, and others possess the power of penetrating the cell-walls of living cells, as the bacteria of Leguminosae first described by Marshall Ward in 1887, and confirmed by Miss Dawson in 1898.
Select maple mahogany shaded back and sides, cellulose bound top, rosewood bridge fitted with compensating saddle.
Here we have images of Dinoflagellate 5 cysts from a stained cellulose lacquer peel.
Imitation tortoiseshell is likely to be cellulose nitrate (which smells of camphor).
Purified wood pulp, which is almost pure cellulose, is regenerated in the form of synthetic fibers or sheets.
Some people prefer blowing cellulose insulation into an attic.
There are basically two types of blown attic insulation, cellulose and fiberglass, and there are advantages and disadvantages to both.
Both cellulose and fiberglass have comparable R-Factor ratings, with cellulose coming in slightly ahead of fiberglass.
Typically made from recycled newsprint, cellulose insulation is a safe product that is also relatively eco-friendly.
Another possible disadvantage of cellulose is that it is a paper product, so it's potentially flammable.
When making a choice, it's hard not to be swayed by the advantages of cellulose insulation.
As you may be able to guess from the name, this collection is distributed from France and the key feature of this style lies in its cellulose acetate frame.
Cellulose has an affinity for acid stains, pectic substances for basic stains.
On its thoroughness depends the removal of small quantities of products other than the nitrates, for instance, some sulphates and products from impurities contained in the original cellulose.
The nitrated product retains the outward form of the original cellulose.
Alkali sulphohydrates reduce guncotton, or other nitrated celluloses, completely to cellulose.
The name "amyloid " was applied to it by Virchow on account of the blue reaction which it gives occasionally with iodine and sulphuric acid, resembling that given with vegetable cellulose.
On its return to Barnt Green, John Glenn effected a complete repaint at home, using cellulose.
Similar to batt and rolls, loose fill uses fiber glass, rock and slag wool, or cellulose pieces that are blown into the attic space using a large flexible hose attached to a pump blower.
The cellulose is then loaded into the blowing machine.
Generally, however, modern hot dog casings are made from synthetic cellulose.
Decorate a box or a cellulose sponge with frosting to make it look like a cake and leave it out where the object of your prank will see it.
Even more stunning is the fact that the frames' temples are made of a hypo-allergic substance called Cellulose Propionate.
Cellulose acetate is actually a derivative of cotton, thus this set of eyewear remains natural, with a slightly warm feel to the touch.
Zyl is a type of plastic that is a combination of zylonite and cellulose acetate.
Carbohydrates-Compounds, such as cellulose, sugar, and starch, that contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and are a major part of the diets of people and other animals.
They are also offered in a variety of plastics, including acrylic, epoxy, cellulose acetate, cellulose propionate, polyamide, and nylon, and in different colors, shapes, and levels of resistance to breakage.
The most important polysaccharides are glycogen, which is stored in the liver, and cellulose (starch).
The most common ingredient is psyllium husks, followed by the plant starch cellulose.
Country Life Maxi-Hair Tablets - Also designed for hair, nails, and skin, this multivitamin blend contains magnesium, cellulose, and other nutrients.
The active ingredient in Unifiber is cellulose powder.
Terms such as modified starches, dextrins, cellulose, gums, and olestra are commonly found in food ingredient lists.
It is made up of a type of cellulose and acetic acid bacteria.
These strings are called 'mother,' and are actually a cellulose made up of Acetobacter.
Other industries are the manufacture of cellulose, artificial manure, flour and malt; and there are saw-mills, iron foundries and breweries in the town.
In addition to being the principal emporium for the Austrian traffic on the Elbe, Tetschen has a considerable industry, its products comprising chemicals, oil, soap, cotton stuffs, plaster of Paris, glazed and coloured paper, cellulose, beer, flour and preserved fish.
In recent years the growth of the leaf under cloth tents has greatly increased, as it has been abundantly proved that the product thus secured is much more valuable - lighter in colour and weight, finer in texture, with an increased proportion of wrapper leaves, and more uniform qualities, and with lesser amounts of cellulose, nicotine, gums and resins.
The enormous masses of cellulose deposited annually on the earth's surface are, as we know,!