The typical members of the group are the cuscuses (Phalanger), ranging from the Moluccas and Celebes to New Guinea, in which the males are often different in colour from the females.
America), the four-day week of the Chibchas, the five-day week of Persia, Malaysia, Java, Celebes, New Guinea and Mexico; in ancient Scandinavia a five-day period was in use, but markets were probably unknown.
Then, of forms which are but weakly represented, we have the otherwise abundant thrushes (Turdidae), and, above all, the woodpeckers (Picidae), of which only very few species, out of 400, just cross the boundary and occur in Lombok, Celebes or the Moluccas, but are unknown elsewhere in the region."
The influence of the Australian realm is indicated by a Megapode in Celebes, another in Borneo and Labuan, and a third in the Nicobar islands (which, however, like the Andamans, belong to the Indian province), but there are no cockatoos, these keeping strictly to the other side of Wallace's line, whence we started on this survey of the world's avifauna.
Modern science, however, has indicated a line of physical separation along the channel between Borneo and Celebes, called the Straits of Macassar, which follows approximately 120° E., to the west dl which the flora.
Of Celebes less is known than of Borneo, which it resembles in condition and natural characteristics.
Celebes, Papua, and the other islands east of Java beyond Wallace's line, fall within the Australian region.
The occurrence of mammals of the Marsupial order in the Molucca Islands and Celebes, while none have been found in the adjacent islands of Java and Borneo, lying on the west of Wallace's line, or in the Indian region, shows that the margin of the Australian region has here been reached.
The same conclusion is indicated by the absence from the Moluccas and Celebes of various other Mammals, Quadrumana, Carnivora, Insectivora and Ruminants, which abound in the western part of the Archipelago.
A peculiar form of baboon, Cynopithecus, and the singular ruminant, Anoa, found in Celebes, seem to have no relation to Asiatic animals, and rather to be allied to those in Africa.
The raja of Achin, in northern Sumatra, is said to have been converted as early as 1206, while the Bugis people in Celebes are supposed not to have become Mahommedans until 1495.
The best cotton cloths are those manufactured by the Bugis people in Celebes, and the batek cloths which come from Java and are stamped with patterns.
The sarong is of Celebes manufacture and made of cotton, to the surface of which a high polish is imparted by friction with a shell.
The kris most prized by the Malays are those of Bugis (Celebes) manufacture, and of these the kind called tuasek are of the greatest value.
Politically Sumbawa, with its four independent states, belongs to the confederated states of the government of Celebes and its dependencies, a situation to be explained by the fact of the old supremacy of the Macassaresi over Sumbawa, Flores and Sumba.
With Mahommedan peoples it is sufficient for a woman to cover her face; the Chinese women would think it extremely indecent to show their artificially compressed feet, and it is even improper to mention them to a woman; in Sumatra and Celebes the wild tribes consider the exposure of the knee immodest; in central Asia the finger-tips, and in Samoa the navel are similarly regarded.
Neither group is represented in Australasia; Celebes being the eastern limit of the Bovidae.
The group is represented throughout the Old World as far east as Celebes, and has one living North American representative.
They consist of the Sirani or Christian descendants of the Portuguese, of Malays, with a Papuan element, Galela men from the north of Halmahera, immigrants from Celebes, with some Chinese and Arabs.
The China Sea on the north has a maximum depth of 2715 fathoms off the Philippines, the Sulu Basin reaches 2550 fathoms, and the Celebes Basin 2795 fathoms. Some of the channels between the islands are of very great depth, Macassar Strait exceeding 1000 fathoms, the Molucca Passage exceeding 2000 fathoms, and the Halmahera Trough sinking as deep as 2575 fathoms. The deepest of all is the Banda Basin, a large area of which lies below 2500 fathoms and reaches 3557 fathomsin the Kei Trench.
Thus in the Malay Sea the various minor seas or basins are homothermic below the depth of the rim, at the temperature prevailing at that depth in the open ocean: in the China Sea below 875 fathoms with 36.5° F.; in the Sulu Sea (depth 2550 fathoms) below 400 fathoms with 50 5° F.; in the Celebes Sea below 820 fathoms with 38.6° F.; in the Banda Sea below 902 fathoms with 37.9° F.
BONI (Bone), a vassal state of the government of Celebes, Dutch East Indies, in the south-west peninsula of Celebes, on the Gulf of Boni.
Boni was once the most powerful state of Celebes, all the other princes being regarded as vassals of its ruler, but its history is not known in detail.
In 1860 a new prince, owning allegiance to the Dutch, was set up. As in other native states in Celebes, succession to the throne in the female line has precedence over the male line.
Similar constructions have been described by travellers, among the Dyaks of Borneo, in Celebes, in the Caroline Islands, on the Gold Coast of Africa, and in other places.
It includes the Sunda Islands, the Moluccas, New Guinea, and the Philippine Islands, but excludes the Andaman-Nicobar group. The equator passes through the middle of the archipelago; it successively cuts Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes and Halmahera, four of the most important islands.
Sumatra is about equal in extent to Great Britain; Java, Luzon, and Celebes are each about the size of Ireland.
Running south-east through Sumatra, east through Java and the southern islands to Timor, curving north through the Moluccas, and again north, from the end of Celebes through the whole line of the Philippines, they follow a line roughly resembling a horseshoe narrowed towards the point.
The islands are often described as of two groups, Java and Madura forming one, and the other consisting of Sumatra, Borneo, Riouw-Lingga Archipelago, Banka, Billiton, Celebes, Molucca Archipelago, the small Sunda Islands, and a part of New Guinea-the Outposts as they are collectively named.
Though the Portuguese traders frequented the coast of Java, they annexed no territory either there or in Sumatra; but farther east they founded numerous forts and factories, notably in Amboyna, the Banda Island, Celebes and Halmahera.
The extension of Dutch political power - notably in Java, Sumatra, Celebes, the Moluccas, Borneo, the Sunda Islands and New Guinea - proceeded simultaneously with the reform movement, and from time to time involved war with various native states.
The produce of the Eastern Islands is also collected at its ports for re-exportation to India, China and Europe - namely, gold-dust, diamonds, camphor, benzoin and other drugs; edible bird-nests, trepang, rattans, beeswax, tortoiseshell, and dyeing woods from Borneo and Sumatra; tin from Banka; spices from the Moluccas; fine cloths from Celebes and Bali; and pepper from Sumatra.
Wallace has well remarked that the portion of the earth's surface which contains the largest number of parrots, in proportion to its area, is undoubtedly that covered by the islands extending from Celebes to the Solomon group. "The area of these islands is probably not one-fifteenth of that of the four tropical regions, yet they contain from one-fifth to onefourth of all the known parrots" (Geogr.
This family consists of the single species Cyclestheria hislopi (Baird), reported from India, Ceylon, Celebes, Australia, East Africa and Brazil..
Amongst the islands of the Malay Archipelago are a number of enclosed areas - the Sulu, Celebes, Java, Banda and Arafura seas.
- Dibamus novae-Guineae of New Guinea, the Moluccas, Celebes and the Nicobar Islands.
Celebensis of Celebes and S.
Is represented in all the three great continents of the Old World, and extends as far east as Flores and Celebes, the skull is swollen and convex, the spines are cylindrical, and the tail is short and covered with spines and slender-stalked open quills.
MOLUCCAS, or Spice Islands, a name which in its wider sense includes all the islands of the Malay Archipelago between Celebes on the W., New Guinea on the E., Timor on the S., and the open Pacific Ocean on the N.
MACASSAR (MAKASSAR, MANGKASAR), the capital of a district of the same name in the island of Celebes, Dutch East Indies, and the chief town of the Dutch government of Celebes.
It stands on the west coast of the southern peninsula of the island, near the southern extremity of the Macassar Strait, which separates Celebes from Borneo.
In the Archipelago most of the work has naturally been in the hands of the Netherlands Missionary Society (1812) and other Dutch agencies, who at first were not encouraged by the colonial government, but have since done well, especially in the Minahassa district of Celebes (r50,000 members) and among the Bataks of Sumatra (Rhenish Mission).
In Celebes and the Moluccas the work is now under the Colonial State Church.
BABIRUSA (" pig-deer"), the Malay name of the wild swine of Celebes and Buru, which has been adopted in zoology as the scientific designation of this remarkable animal (the only representative of its genus), in the form of Babirusa alfurus.
It was circumnavigated by one of their vessels in 1525, and the general outline of the coasts is correctly given in their maps at a time when separate portions of Celebes, such as Macassar and Menado, are represented as distinct islands.
By the Celebes Sea and the coastal waters of Borneo.
Submarine mountain ranges connect not only the islands within the archipelago, but also the archipelago itself with Borneo and Celebes, so that only shallow channels connect the interior waters with the Pacific Ocean and the China Sea.
Their zoological relationships are probably with Celebes and with Australia.
Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Banka and Billiton, with their adjacent islands - and the Little Sunda Islands, of which the more important are Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba and Timor.
These mountain systems are homologous in structure with those, not of Celebes or of Halmahera, but of Malacca, Banka and Billiton.
The most important numerically are the Dyaks, the Dusuns and Muruts of the interior, the Malays, among whom must be counted such Malayan tribes as the Bajaus, Ilanuns, &c., the Bugis, who were originally immigrants from Celebes, and the Chinese.
After Magellan's death, his comrades sailed from the Moluccas across the Celebes into the Sulu Sea, and were the first white men who are known to have visited Brunei on the north-west coast of Borneo, where they arrived in 1522.
Mundy, Narrative of Events in Borneo and Celebes (London, 1848); F.
SULA ISLANDS (Sulla, Xulla; Dutch Soela), a chain of islands forming a prolongation of the eastern peninsula of Celebes and the Banggai Islands, Dutch East Indies.
The natives of Taliabu are allied to those of the Banggai Islands and the eastern peninsula of Celebes; but immigrant Malays are the principal inhabitants.
Thus, the species inhabiting Sumatra, Java and Borneo are almost always much smaller than the closely allied species of Celebes and the Moluccas; the species or varieties of the small island of Amboyna are larger than the same species or closely allied forms inhabiting the surrounding islands; the species found in Celebes possess a peculiar form of wing, quite distinct from that of the same or closely allied species of adjacent islands; and, lastly, numerous species which have tailed wings in India and the western islands of the Archipelago, gradually lose the tail as we proceed eastward to New Guinea and the Pacific.
ANOA, the native name of the small wild buffalo of Celebes, Bos (Bubalus) depressicornis, which stands but little over a yard at the shoulder, and is the most diminutive of all wild cattle.
Four species of the genus are now recognized, whose range includes the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes and some of the Philippines.
To this residency also belong the state of Banggai in East Celebes, and the Banggai Islands.
He visited Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, the Moluccas, Timor, New Guinea and the Aru and Ke Islands.
The Oriental Borneo and Bali are respectively divided from Celebes and Lombok by a narrow belt of sea known as "Wallace's Line," on the opposite sides of which the indigenous mammalia are as widely divergent as in any two parts of the world.
They range all over India and Ceylon, thence northward to Tibet, and eastwards to China, Japan, Formosa, Borneo, Sumatra and Java; while by some naturalists the black ape of Celebes (Cynopithecus ',tiger) is included in the same genus.