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causes

causes Sentence Examples

  • What causes a parent to love one child more than another?

  • There again, it's hard to say whether they die from natural causes or attacks by predators.

  • This causes them to be drawn to those flowers in their search of pollen.

  • But Julie doesn't know you're sessions are by phone or what causes the terrible dreams, does she?

  • The process causes physical difficulty and effort.

  • People did things differently—spanking was more acceptable then, but now we know hitting causes anger and rebellion.

  • Happiness causes her pain, the tumor to grow and eventually, death.

  • I cannot be certain what the result might be if you tried to kill yourself or if you died of unnatural causes.

  • "Unnatural causes," she repeated.

  • It brings the authorities into the picture in case Shipton does show up and causes trouble.

  • Maybe the deer had died of natural causes.

  • If Ed had died of natural causes, he would have been saddened, but this was different.

  • Driven to our causes.

  • The mechanical laws, to which external things were subject, were conceived as being valid only in the inorganic world; in the organic and mental worlds these mechanical laws were conceived as being disturbed or overridden by other powers, such as the influence of final causes, the existence of types, the work of vital and mental forces.

  • Final causes, vital and mental forces, the soul itself can, if they act at all, only act through the inexorable mechanism of natural laws.

  • The freshly-expressed yeast juice causes concentrated solutions of cane sugar, glucose, laevulose and maltose to ferment with the production of alcohol and carbon dioxide, but not milk-sugar and mannose.

  • The prevailing winds in this region, which the sea traverses longitudinally, are westerly, but the sea itself causes the formation of bands of low barometric pressure during the winter season, within which cyclonic disturbances frequently develop, while in summer the region comes under the influence of the polar margin of the tropical high pressure belt.

  • Christian approved a plan by which a formal state church should be established in Denmark, all appeals to Rome should be abolished, and the king and diet should have final jurisdiction in ecclesiastical causes.

  • Changes in the height or construction of buildings, and a greater readiness to make claims on insurance offices, may be contributory causes.

  • But the causes that changed the character of the advocatus operated also in the case of the vidame.

  • But the lowness of stature extends to the lower animals - cattle, horses, donkeys, &c. - and this may indicate that climatic causes have some part in the matter also, though Sergi denies this.

  • In Germany the concessions made to the pope and the reservations maintained by him in the matter of taxes and benefices were deemed excessive, and the prolonged discontent which resulted was one of the causes of the success of the Lutheran Reformation.

  • The first law affirms that every body, so far as it is altogether unaffected by extraneous causes, always perseveres in the same state of motion or of rest; and the second law that simple or elementary motion is always in a straight line.'

  • antecedents, but not strictly causes) of the mental action, and sacrifices the independence of man to the omnipotence of God.

  • Sc. 4) causes the queen to remonstrate, in reply to her lady's suggestion of a game at bowls to relieve her ennui, "'Twill make me think the world is full of rubs, and that my fortune runs against the bias."

  • The tower is still standing and is remarkable for its increase in size as it rises, which causes it to rock in a strong wind.

  • He introduced into medical theory the four causes of the Peripatetic system.

  • In toxic doses podophyllin causes intense enteritis, with all its characteristic symptoms, and severe depression, which may end in death.

  • Stimulated by such causes and obtaining formal permission from the Persian government, they would arise as a new Israel and enter on a new phase of national life and divine revelation.

  • This steam condensing adds to the water in the pipe and naturally causes an overflow, which is led back to the boiler and re-used.

  • A coupling collar, tapped in the same manner, is screwed on, and causes the conical edge to impress itself tightly on the flat end, giving a sound and lasting joint.

  • On the west the shore is perfectly flat, so that a slight rise in the water causes the inundation of a considerable area - a fact not without its influence on the estimates made at varying periods as to the size of the lake.

  • The flood water brought down by the Shari in December and January causes the lake to rise to a maximum of 24 ft., the water spreading over low-lying ground, left dry again in May or June.

  • The north wind usually terminates with a thunderstorm or with a pampero, a cold south-west wind from the Andes which blows with great violence, causes a fall in temperature of 15° to 20°, and is most frequent from June to November - the southern winter and spring.

  • In the Andean region, a dry, hot wind from the north or north-west, called the Zonda, blows with great intensity, especially in September - October, and causes much discomfort and suffering.

  • Causes of friction still remained, but they did not develop into open quarrels, for Mitre was content to leave Urquiza in his province of Entre Rios, and the other administrators (caudillos) in their several governments, a large measure of autonomy, trusting that the position and growing commercial importance of Buenos Aires would inevitably tend to make the federal capital the real centre of power of the republic. In 1865 the Argentines were forced into war with Paraguay through the overbearing attitude of the president Francisco Solano Lopez.

  • According to Suidas, Dinarchus wrote 160 speeches; and Dionysius held that, out of 85 extant speeches bearing his name, 58 were genuine,-28 relating to public, 30 to private causes.

  • In every case of death from disease or unknown causes sorcery was suspected and an inquest held, at which the corpse was asked by each relative in succession the name of the murderer.

  • Mr Stuart did not finish his task on this occasion, on account of indisposition and other causes.

  • They first brought the products and arts of the Orient into western Europe; and in the Netherlands, by the impulse that they gave to commerce, they were one of the primary causes of the rise of the chartered towns.

  • The various forms into which materialism may be classified correspond to the various causes which induce men to take up materialistic views.

  • The business of the scientist is to explain everything by the physical causes which are comparatively well understood and to exclude the interference of spiritual causes.

  • The chief complaint which Europeans make concerning it is the extreme humidity, which causes the heat to be more oppressive than is the case where the air is dry.

  • The homestead of a householder or head of a family to the value of $500 is, so long as it continues to be used as the homestead, exempt from levy or attachment other than upon causes existing at the time it was acquired and for taxes.

  • External facts are not the causes of mental states, nor are mental states the causes of physical facts.

  • The dry wind from the Sahara called harmattan, which carries great quantities of fine red sand, causes a fall of temperature in the (European) summer.

  • If the wind blows into the mouth of a tube it causes an increase of pressure inside and also of course an equal increase in all closed vessels with which the mouth is in airtight communication.

  • In all cases there is a general tendency for other forms of energy to be transformed into heat on account of the friction of rough surfaces, the resistance of conductors, or similar causes, and thus to lose availability.

  • A good example of a fairly typical case is afforded by Heterodera schachtii, which attacks beetroot and causes great loss to the Continental sugar manufacturers.

  • The depression of a second key causes the first key to be raised.

  • cut off, sets up an induced current of high tension, which causes a spark to jump across the contact points of the relay, and by oxidizing them makes it necessary for them to be frequently cleaned.

  • galvanometer coil so that the influence of the latter causes the mirror (through the action of the magnetic needle) to be turned through a small angle in one direction or the other according to the direction of the current through the coil.

  • The ink is electrified by a small induction electrical machine E placed on the top of the instrument; this causes it to fall in very minute drops from the open end of the siphon tube upon the brass table or the paper slip passing over it.

  • In what is known as the " hybrid " form of recorder the permanent magnets are provided with windings of insulated copper wire; the object of these windings is to provide a means of " refreshing " the magnets by means of a strong current temporarily sent through the coils when required, as it has been found that, owing to magnetic leakage and other causes, the magnets tend to lose their power, especially in hot climates.

  • Another reason assigned by the committee appointed by the Treasury in 1875 " to investigate the causes of the increased cost of the telegraphic service since the acquisition of the telegraphs by the state " is the loss on the business of transmitting Press messages, which has been estimated as at least £300,000 a year.

  • Statistical Society (September 1872, March 1881); Report of a Committee appointed by the Treasury to investigate the causes of the increased cost of the Telegraphic Service, &c. (1875); Reports of the Postmaster-General for 1895, &c.; Journ.

  • Marconi causes the spark balls to move rapidly past each other or causes a studded disk to move between the spark balls.

  • The single-wire earthed circuits used in the early days of telephony were subject to serious disturbances from the induction caused by currents in neighbouring telegraph and electric light wires, and from the varying potential of the earth due to natural or artificial causes.

  • variation in resistance of the transmitter spoken into causes a variation of the pressure at the line terminals of the impedance coils, and since those terminals are common to the two circuits the variable E.M.F.

  • The supervisory lamp associated with the peg in the wanted subscriber's jack glows from the time that the peg is inserted until the subscriber responds, when it darkens, in which condition it remains until the subscriber restores the receiver to the hook and causes the lamp to light up again.

  • As the cost of the service varies in proportion to the amount of use, the toll rate is more scientific, and it has the further advantage of discouraging the unnecessary use of the instrument, which causes congestion of traffic at busy hours and also results in lines being " engaged " when serious business calls are made.

  • The principal causes are the growth of population, and the over-supply of and low rates of remuneration for manual labor in various Italian provinces.

  • The insufficiency of rolling stock, and especially of goods wagons, is mainly caused by delays in handling traffic consequent on this or other causes, among which may be mentioned the great length ofthe single lines south of Rome.

  • It should also here be noticed that the changes introduced into the holding of the fiefs, whether by altering their boundaries or substituting Frankish for Lombard vassals, were chief among the causes why the feudal system took no permanent hold in Italy.

  • One of the causes of ill-feeling was the university question; the Austrian government had persistently refused to create an Italian university for its Italian subjects, fearing lest it should become a hotbed of irredentism, the Italianspeaking students being thus obliged to attend the GermanAustrian universities.

  • He was the first of his class who endeavoured to trace the causes of events, instead of contenting himself with a bare statement of facts.

  • " Things in themselves " - whether defined by Kant, illogically enough, as causes of sensations, or again defined by him as the ultimate realities towards which thought vaguely points - in either case, " things in themselves " are unattainable by any definite knowledge.

  • He was even more definitely opposed to " final causes " than Francis Bacon, who excluded them from science but admitted them to theology.

  • Trace out the clue of causation to the end, says Hegel in effect, and it introduces you, not to a single first cause beyond nature, but to the totality of natural process - a substance, as it were, in which all causes inhere.

  • Unfortunately, however, the method of agreement is liable to be baffled by " plurality of causes."

  • The Ontological argument is omitted; but we have already observed that there is a discussion of divine ' Paul Janet's Final Causes seems to follow Mill in this (" the fact of Finality "), but without naming him.

  • In " Some Causes of Belief," he tries, standing outside the psychological process, to show how beliefs grow up under every kind of influence except that of genuine evidence.

  • In France, Paul Janet (Final Causes, Eng.

  • The causes which led to the grant of Magna Carta are described in the article on English History.

  • So much for the general causes.

  • (After Kleinenberg, from Gegenbaur.) access of water to the contents; when the cnidocil is stimulated it sets in action a mechanism or perhaps a series of chemical changes by which the plug is dissolved or removed; as a result water penetrates into the capsule and causes its contents to swell, with the result that the thread is everted violently.

  • Creation is the act by which God passes through the primordial causes, or universal ideas, into the region of particular things (processio), in order finally to return to himself (reversio).

  • The order of the inorganic world is explained by properly physical causes.

  • So far as the evolution of the solar system is concerned, Kant held these mechanical causes as adequate.

  • Experience forbids our excluding organic activity from natural causes, also our excluding intelligence from purposeful (zwecktdtigen) causes; hence experience forbids our defining the fundamental force or first cause out of which living creatures arose.'

  • This, he says, must not be conceived as resulting from the action of external causes, but is due to a natural disposition (Anlage).

  • Des causes preparees par sa Sagesse font developper de toutes parts les Germes.

  • Recherches sur les causes des principaux faits physiques, par J.

  • In the Origin of Species, and in his other numerous and important contributions to the solution of the problem of biological evolution, Darwin confined himself to the discussion of the causes which have brought about the present condition of living matter, assuming such matter to have once come into existence.

  • The older advocates of evolution sought for the causes of the process exclusively in the influence of varying conditions, such as climate and station, or hybridization, upon living forms. Even Treviranus has got no further than this point.

  • But the causes and conditions of variation have yet to be thoroughly explored; and the importance of natural selection will not be impaired, even if further inquiries should prove that variability is definite, and is determined in certain directions rather than in others, by conditions inherent in that which varies.

  • Enough, however, has already been done to show the vast importance of the method in grouping and codifying the empirical facts of life, and in so preparing the way for the investigation of ultimate " causes."

  • Here it is used, in the limited sense defined by an American Court, as " the authority by which judicial officers take cognizance of and decide causes."

  • Saints Ambrose and Augustine both spent days in deciding temporal causes.

  • in the West expressly provided that bishops were not to be permitted to be judges (that is, of course, in temporal causes), save by the consent of the parties.

  • and Theodosius I., took a great step forward, by which the bishop ceased to be a mere legally indicated arbitrator by consent in secular causes, and became a real judge.

  • For some time it was considered that he was a mere office-holder dependent on the will of the bishop with a jurisdiction merely " vicarial "; but by the 13th century it was settled that he held a " benefice " and that his jurisdiction over causes was ordinary and independent of the bishop (Van Espen, pars i.

  • (f) From the bishop, or his official, appeal lay to the metropolitan, who again could hear causes by his official.

  • (h) Several attempts were made by metropolitans and their officials to take causes arising in the dioceses of their comprovincials in the first instance and not by way of appeal.

  • forbad the parlements to give judgment themselves in causes upon an appel comme d'abus.

  • Causes could even be evoked to Rome before any judgment and there heard in first instance (Van Espen, pars iii.

  • They were expressed to have not merely appellate but original jurisdiction over causes (iii.

  • Dr Maitland (essay on" The Universal Ordinary ") thinks, but without very much foundation, that great numbers especially of the more important causes were tried before these delegates; although the records have largely perished, since they were the records of courts ' which were dissolved as soon as their single cause had been decided.

  • In Belgium causes appealed to Rome had to be committed to local delegates (Van Espen, pars iii.

  • c. 12 recites that the hearing of appeals was an usurpation by the pope and a grievous abuse, and proceeds to take away the appeal in matrimonial, testamentary and tithe causes, and to hinder by forbidding citation and process from Rome, all original hearings also.

  • In 1438 the council of Basel took away all papal original jurisdiction (save in certain reserved cases - of which infra), evocation of causes to Rome, appeals to Rome omisso medio, and appeals to Rome altogether in many causes.

  • All causes, except the " greater," were to be terminated in the country where the proper cognizance would lie (Migne, op. cit.

  • " Greater causes " came in France to be restricted to criminal prosecutions of bishops.

  • " Causes majeures "; Dict.

  • The only original jurisdiction left to the pope was in the case of the matrimonial causes of princes.

  • Examples are the causes of Louis XII.

  • " Causes ").

  • This right and duty became a jurisdiction in all testamentary causes.

  • The Constitutions of Clarendon provided that these causes should be heard only in the king's court (c. 1).

  • Testamentary causes at first were subject to the concurrent jurisdiction of the spiritual and secular courts.

  • c. 12) takes away appeals to Rome in causes testamentary and matrimonial and in regard to right of tithes, oblations and obventions.

  • A final appeal is given to the archbishop of the par- tical/uris- ticular province; but in causes touching the king a final appeal is given to the Upper House of Convocation of the province.

  • The subject matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction has been gradually reduced in England, &c., by various causes.

  • Matrimonial matters and those relating to wills and succession (called in Scotland " consistorial " causes) were in 1563 taken from the old bishops' courts and given to " commissaries " appointed by the crown with an appeal to the court of session, which by act 1609, c. 6, was declared the king's great consistory.

  • The government in some cases recognized these tribunals as capable of judging ecclesiastical causes (Migne, ubi sup.).

  • In Spain causes of nullity and divorce a thoro, in Portugal causes of nullity between Catholics, are still for the court Christian.

  • In 1831 the pope enacted that in all the dioceses of the then Pontifical States, the court of first instance for the criminal causes of ecclesiastics should consist of the ordinary and four other judges.

  • Ecclesiastical jurisdiction on the civil side for the trial of causes soon disappeared.

  • Civil jurisdiction in causes appears to have been given up early (Cornelius, Svenska Kirkaus Historia, Upsala, 18 75, pp. 146, 186, 189, 285).

  • In the Roman communion in England and the United States, there are commissions of investigation appointed to hear in first instance the criminal causes of clerks.

  • In some " missionary" dioceses, the metropolitan, qua metropolitan, has a separate commission of investigation, to try the criminal causes of clerks, sentence being passed by himself of his vicar-general (ib.

  • That original jurisdiction he reserves exclusively to himself in causes majoribus (ib.

  • These are (1) causes relating to elections, translations and deprivations of, and criminal prosecutions against, bishops, and (2) the matrimonial cases of princes (Taunton, op. cit.

  • The spiritual courts in the East have permanently acquired jurisdiction in the matrimonial causes of baptized persons; the Mahommedan governments allowing to Christians a personal law of their own.

  • Certain religious houses, however, had their own final tribunals and were " peculiars," exempt from any diocesan or patriarchal jurisdiction for at least all causes relating to Church property (ib.

  • The subject matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Russia during the whole patriarchal period included matrimonial and testamentary causes, inheritance and sacrilege, and many questions concerning the Church domains and Church property, as well as spiritual offences of clergy and laity (ib.).

  • Causes could be evoked to the tsar himself, " when any partiality of the judges in any affair in which they themselves were interested was discovered" (ib.).

  • There remain to the spiritual courts in Russia the purely ecclesiastical discipline of clerks and laity and matrimonial causes.

  • All matrimonial causes are heard by the secular tribunals (Lehr, op. cit.

  • It states the original and exclusive causes of deposition.

  • Each bishop is assisted by at least two officers with judicial or quasi-judicial powers, the " archimandrite " who adjudicates upon causes of revenue and the archdeacon who adjudicates on questions between deacons (op. cit.

  • Matrimonial causes in Servia are of ecclesiastical cognizance (Lehr, op. cit.

  • The publication in book form (March 20, 1852) was a factor which must be reckoned in summing up the moving causes of the war for the Union.

  • These causes produced similar results in different parts of Greece.

  • The vascular supply of the leaf (leaf-trace) consists of a single strand only in the haplostelic and some of the more primitive siphonostelic forms. In the microphyllous groups Leaf.trace of Pteridophytes (Lycopodiales and Equisetales) in and Petlolar which the leaves are small relatively to the stem, the Strands, single bundle destined for each leaf is a small strand whose departure causes no disturbance in the cauline stele.

  • In the megaphyllous forms, on the other hand, (Ferns) whose leaves are large relatively to the stem, the departure of the correspondingly large trace causes a gap (leaf-gap) in the vascular cylinder, as already described.

  • On stimulation these cells part with their water, the lower side of the organ becomes flaccid and the weight of the leaf causes it to fall.

  • 41UT6V, plant), comprises our knowledge of the symptoms, course, causes and remedies of the maladies which threaten the life of plants, or which result in abnormalities of structure that are regarded, whether directly injurious or not to life, as unsightly or undesirable.

  • The epidemic nature of wheat-rust was known to Aristotle about 350 B.C., and the Greeks and Romans knew these epidemics well, their philosophers having shrewd speculations as to causes, while the people held characteristic superstitions regarding them, which found vent in the dedication of special festivals and deities to the pests.

  • The study of causes or agencies inducing disease (Aetiology).

  • Our perceptions differentiate but imperfectlysymptonis which are due to very different causes and reactions, probably because the organization of the plant is so much less highly specialized than that of higher animals.

  • The causes of disease may be provisionally classified somewhat as follows, but it may he remarked at the outset that no one of these proximal causes, or agents, is ever solely responsible; and it is very easy to err in attributing a diseased condition to any of them, unless the relative importance of primary and subordinate agencies is discoverable.

  • It is customary to speak of the disastrous effect, of cold winds, snow, hail and frost, lightning, &c., under the heading of atmospheric influences, which only shows once more how impossible it is to separate causes individually.

  • Pythium, which causes the damping off of seedlings, reducing them to a putrid mass in a few hours, and Phytophthora, the agent of the potato disease.

  • Some very curious details are observable in these cases of malformation, For instance, the Aecidium eta/mum first referred to causes the new shoots to differ in direction, duration and arrangement, and even shape of foliage leaves from the normal; and the shoots of Euphorbia infected with the aecidia of Uromyces Pisi depart so much from the normal in appearance that the attacked plants have been taken for a different species.

  • Plcotrachelus causes the invaded Pilobolus to swell up, and changes the whole course of its cell metabolism, and similarly with Plasmodiophora in the roots of turnips, and many other cases.

  • It may be that in particular cases particular modes of cultivation disfavour the host; or that the soil, climate or seasons do so; but overwhelming evidence exists to show that the principal causes of epidemics reside in circumstances which favor the spread, nutrition and reproduction of the pest, and the lesson to be learnt is, that precautions against the establishment of such favoring conditions must be sought.

  • Diseases am] SymptomsThe symptoms of plant diseases are, as already said, apt to be very general in their nature, and are sometimes so vaguely defined that little can be learned from them as to the causes at work.

  • Spotted Leaves, &c.Discoloured spots or patches on leaves and other herbaceous parts are common symptoms of disease, and often furnish clues to identification of causes, though it must be remembered that no sharp line divides this class of symptoms from the preceding.

  • The dying back of twigs may be brought about by many causes.

  • In many cases, however, monstrosities of flowers have been shown to be due to the irritating action of minute insects or Fungi, and others are known which, although induced by causes unknown to us, and regarded as internal, would not be likely to survive in the wild condition.

  • Moreover, we have good reasons for inferring that different constellations of external causes may determine whether the internal physiological disturbances induced by a given agent shall lead to pathological and dangerous variations, or to changes which may be harmless or even advantageous to the plant concerned.

  • Again, the well-known action of earthworms may be said to be a biological work; but the resulting aeration of the soil causes edaphic differences; and earthworms are absent from certain soils, such as peat.

  • The, fferent facies are possibly related to slight differences in a merally uniform habitat: it is unscientific to regard them as se to chance; still, in the majority of cases, the causes of the iferent facies have not been demonstrated.

  • These changes may be brought about by external causes, such as the attacks of insects or of fungi, alterations in external conditions, &c., or by some unexplained internal disturbance of the morphological equilibrium.

  • Factors in Evo/ution.Evolution in the race involves progressive differentiation in the individual; hence the causes of evolution and of differentiation must be the same.

  • 1.), and Nageli, who attributes variation to causes inherent in the idioplasm, and has elaborately worked out the view in his Abstammungslehre.

  • The problem, then, which plantdistribution presents is twofold: it has first to map out the earths surface into regions or areas of vegetation, and secondly to trace the causes which have brought them about and led to their restriction and to their mutual relations.

  • We arrive thus at the essential aim of geographical botany, which, as stated by Schimper, is an inquiry into the causes of differences existing among the various floras.

  • The rules for composition there laid down are, perhaps, somewhat pedantic. His philosophical writings were La Morale d'Epicure tiree de ses propres ecrits (1758), and the Histoire des causes premieres (1769).

  • His Histoire des causes premieres was among the first attempts at a history of philosophy, and in his work on Epicurus, following on Gassendi, he defended Epicureanism against the general attacks made against it.

  • The method included a recognition of the causes and effects of phenomena as well as the mere fact of their occurrence, and for the first time the importance of the vertical relief of the land was fairly recognized.

  • Gregory, " The Plan of the Earth and its Causes," Geog.

  • The geological structure and the mineral composition of the rocks are often the chief causes determining the character of the land forms of a region.

  • land of their birth, when not compelled or induced by powerful external causes to seek a new home.

  • The minor subdivisions into provinces, counties and parishes, or analogous areas, may also be related in many cases to natural features or racial differences perpetuated by historical causes.

  • He was a member of the commission for ecclesiastical causes, and although afterwards he claimed that he had used all his influence to dissuade James from removing the tests, and in other ways illegally favouring the Roman Catholics, he signed the warrant for the committal of the seven bishops, and appeared as a witness against them.

  • Meditating, it is probable, emigration upon his release, he turned his attention while in prison to colonial subjects, and acutely detected the main causes of the slow progress of the Australian colonies in the enormous size of the landed estates, the reckless manner in which land was given away, the absence of all systematic effort at colonization, and the consequent discouragement of immigration and dearth of labour.

  • The red blood-corpuscles are invariably oval disks, with a central nucleus which causes a slight swelling; hence they are oval and biconvex.

  • end through the agency of man or through so-called natural causes.

  • When inhaled, the powder causes violent sneezing, similar to that produced by veratrine itself, which is, as already stated, a constituent of the corm.

  • Two causes may be assigned for this fact.

  • But, as far as outward circumstances are concerned, we may say that the same effect has been brought about by different and almost opposite causes.

  • This legal theory worked together with other causes to wipe out all practical distinction between the conquerors and the conquered in a wonderfully short time.

  • The strain on the log-ship when the log-line is nipped, causes the peg to be withdrawn from it, and the log-ship is readily hauled in.

  • Its nature may differ widely according to the causes which have led to the establishment of the distinction between family and family in each particular case.

  • But, close as the likeness is, it is merely a superficial likeness, because it is the result of opposite causes working in opposite directions.

  • If the later nobilitas of Rome had established an assembly in which every one who had the jus imaginum had a vote and none other, that would have been a real parallel to the shutting of the Venetian Great Council; for it would have come about through the working of causes which are essentially the same.

  • In England indeed a variety of causes hindered nobility or gentry from ever obtaining the importance which they obtained, for instance, in France.

  • The presence of a Stylops causes derangement in the body of its host, and can be recognized by various external signs.

  • steppes, their desiccation, the consequence of the above causes, is in rapid progress.'

  • The first of these, based on the English model, are the courts of the elected justices of the peace, with jurisdiction over petty causes, whether civil or criminal; the second, based on the French model, are the ordinary tribunals of nominated judges, sitting with or without a jury to hear important cases.

  • The acting justice sits normally alone to hear causes in his canton of the peace (uchastok), but, at the request of both parties to a suit, he may call in an honorary justice as assessor or substitute.

  • The rapid melting of the snow at the same time causes the rivers to swell, and renders a.

  • This may be explained by a variety of causes, of which the chief is the maintenance by the Slays down to a very late period of gentile or tribal organization and gentile marriages, a fact vouched for, not only in the pages of the Russian chronicler Nestor, but still more by visible social evidences, the gens later developing into the village community, and the colonization being carried on by large co-ordinated bodies of people.

  • A dispute between Selinus and Segesta (probably the revival of a similar quarrel about 454, when an Athenian force appears to have taken part 2) was one of the causes of the Athenian expedition of 415 B.C. At its close the former seemed to have the latter at its mercy, but an appeal to Carthage was responded 1 The plant was formerly thought to be wild parsley.

  • The inspector, after making his investigation, is required to make a report to the Board of Trade as to the causes of the accident and the circumstances attending the same, with any observations on the subject which he deems right, and the Board " shall cause every such report to be made public in such manner as they think expedient."

  • P Y of risk, it has during recent years come to notice that the number of casualties among railway servants is still unduly great, and in 1899 a Royal Commission was appointed to investigate the causes of the numerous accidents, fatal and nonfatal, to railway men.

  • This preferential and discriminating policy, combined with other causes which cannot here be discussed, resulted in 'the Granger legislation of.

  • Accidents to passengers other than those caused by collisions or derailments of trains are very largely due to causes which it is fair to class either as unavoidable or as due mainly to the fault or carelessness of the victim himself.

  • The roadway, tracks and rolling stock are so well maintained that those causes which lead to the worst derailments have been eliminated almost completely, and the record of serious collisions has been reduced nearly to zero by the universal use of the block system and by systematic precautions at junctions.

  • From this and all other causes, the number of trainmen killed in the year ending June 30, 1909, was about 8 in t000.

  • The high and heavy cars, the high speeds, the severe weather in the northern states in winter, the fluctuating nature of the business, resulting often in the employment of poorly qualified men and in other irregularities, are among the causes of this state of things.

  • Its powers have been exercised with the greatest caution, yet with consistent firmness; and the publicity which has been given to the true and detailed causes of scores and scores of railway accidents by the admirable reports of the Board of Trade inspectors has been a powerful lever in improving the railway service.

  • Other causes 5 863 5 836 Total of passengers 107 3,388 125 3,502 Servants:- II.

  • (b) From other causes .

  • Other causes 204 6,251 241 5,215 Total of passengers.

  • Other causes 1, 93646, 9272, 7 16 49,526 Total of servants.

  • 373 2 2063 113 200 3845 2263 Other causes.

  • The average length Table Xii.-Detail Causes Of Certain Accidents -continued.

  • Of train men (including engine-drivers and firemen), one out of 125 employed was killed (all causes), and one in eight injured.

  • The totals of passengers killed and injured in train accidents are not separated from those killed and injured from other causes, but ratios are given showing that for four years no passengers were killed in this class.

  • (4) Resistance due to miscellaneous causes.

  • A side wind causes excessive flange friction on the leeward side of the train, and increases the tractive resistances therefore very considerably, even though its velocity be relatively moderate.

  • The first two causes have attracted many inquirers; but it is the last that has chiefly given to modern spiritualism its religious aspect.

  • Yet, if there is not a mass of scientific evidence, there are a number of witnesses - among them distinguished men of science and others of undoubted intelligence --who have convinced themselves by observation that phenomena occur which cannot be explained by known causes; and this fact must carry weight, even without careful records, when the witnesses are otherwise known to be competent and trustworthy observers.

  • In like manner (2) the officiant prepared himself for his task; but in his case the natural sanctity of the priest relieved him of the necessity of undergoing all that the common man had to pass through; in fact, this was one of the causes which brought him into existence, the other being the need of a.

  • of causes which have not yet been fully investigated, the theory which is first found in Cyprian became the dominant belief of Western Christendom.

  • The process of transference was facilitated by two potent causes: (a) Both Canaanite and Hebrew spoke a common language; (b) the name Baal is not in reality an individual proper name like Kemosh (Chemosh), Ramman or Hadad, but is, like El (Ilu)" god," an appellative meaning " lord," " owner " or " husband."

  • There were various causes which combined to enhance the importance of the written Torah (the " instruction " par excellence communicated by God through Moses).

  • From his own account, however, it appears that other and deeper causes produced this discontent.

  • Chelsum returned to the attack in 1785 (A Reply to Mr Gibbon's Vindication), and Sir David Dalrymple (An Inquiry into the Secondary Causes, &c.) made his first appearance in the controversy in 1786.

  • He did not penetrate into the deeper causes underlying the revolutions and palace intrigues.

  • The account of the causes of the expansion of Christianity is chiefly to be criticized for its omissions.

  • The " black mouse " or Carson field mouse (Microtus montanus) is found throughout Nevada, as well as in Utah, north-eastern California, and eastern Oregon; it multiplies rapidly under favourable conditions, and at times causes serious injury to crops.

  • The melting of the mountain snow-caps in the spring causes severe freshets, which in turn are followed by long seasons of drought at a time when water is most needed for agricultural purposes.

  • In any case the association of Poseidon, representing the fertilizing element of moisture, with Demeter, who causes the plants and seeds to grow, is quite natural, and seems to have been widespread.

  • In fact a little consideration of the theory of probabilities will show it to be infinitely probable that such an object should really have some movement of rotation, no matter by what causes the nebula may have originated.

  • The suggested causes are (I) reduction of insects by drainage, (2) reduced population, (3) the use of quinine.

  • Since thermochemical measurements of this type may be frequently performed with an error due to other causes of much less than i per cent., the error introduced by either of these assumptions is the chief cause of uncertainty in the method.

  • One drawback of Thomsen's notation is that the nature of the final system is not indicated, although this defect in general causes no ambiguity.

  • 70), it will be seen that the recurrence of similar causes leads to a similarity in the contemporary literary productions (with a reshaping of earlier tradition), the precise date of which depends upon delicate points of detail and not upon the apparently obvious historical elements.

  • Minor offences (1rX17gµeVillaTa) and civil causes are tried by courts of first instance in each of the five departments.

  • There are 26 justices of peace, to whose decision are referred slight contraventions of the law (lrraLQµara) and civil causes in which the amount claimed is below 600 francs.

  • In consequence, however, of the frequent violence of the southwesterly gales and other causes, the communication ceased in the middle of the 19th century, and the artificial harbour designed by John Rennie has gradually fallen into decay.

  • The Mayas have left no r cord of their institutions or of the causes of their decline, beyond what may be deduced from their ruined structures.

  • A divorce may be granted only to one who has lived for at least one year in the state; among the recognized causes for divorce are desertion for two years, cruelty, insanity or physical incapacity at time of marriage, habitual drunkenness or excessive use of opium or other drugs, and the conviction of either party of felony.

  • Out of this Nothing or incomprehensible essence the world of ideas or primordial causes is eternally created.

  • Lubbock's experiments of inLlucing ants to seek objects that had been removed show that they are guided by scent rather than by sight, and that any disturbance of their surroundings often causes great uncertainty in their actions.

  • From such causes the physical conditions of a large part of Asia, and the history of its population, have been very greatly influenced by the occurrence of the mass of mountain above de Iiima- scribed, which includes the Himalaya and the whole tayan elevated area having true physical connexion with that boundary.

  • There are, it is true, mountain ranges which are formed of folded beds; but in many cases the direction of the chains is different from that of the folds, so that the ranges must owe their elevation to other causes; and the folds, moreover, are of ancient date, for the most part Archaean or Palaeozoic. The configuration of the region is largely due to faulting, trough-like or tray-like depressions being formed, and the intervening strips, which have not been depressed, standing up as mountain ridges.

  • Besides the three chief regions into which the mainland is thus seen to be divided, attention should be drawn to the festoons of islands which border the eastern side of the continent, and which are undoubtedly due to causes similar to those which produced the folds of the folded belt.

  • The great summer heat, by expanding the air upwards, disturbs the level of the planes of equal pressure, and causes an outflow of the upper strata from the heated area.

  • causes an accumulation of air over the cold area, The diminution of barometric pressure which takes place all over Asia during the summer months, and the increase in the winter, are hence, no doubt, the results of the alternate heating and cooling of the air over the continent.

  • Largely owing to his efforts, causes of quarrel between Great Britain and France in Tahiti, over the marriage of Isabella II.

  • The former is divided into four parts, Ontosophy, Cosmosophy, Theosophy, Psychosophy, supplemented by a treatise on ethics and a dissertation on first causes.

  • describes him as judex ordinarius, and he possesses in his own right the powers of visitation, of holding courts and imposing penalties, of deciding in matrimonial causes and cases of disputed jurisdiction, of testing candidates for orders, of inducting into benefices.

  • The clergy having thus another authority, and one moreover more canonical, to appeal to, the power of the archdeacons gradually declined; and, so far as the Roman Catholic Church is concerned, it received its death-blow from the council of Trent (1564), which withdrew all matrimonial and criminal causes from the competence of the archdeacons, forbade them to pronounce excommunications, and allowed them only to hold visitations in connexion with those of the bishop and with his consent.

  • The king has been held responsible for the fall of Spain, which was, however, due in the main to internal causes beyond the control of the most despotic ruler, however capable he had been.

  • The two most prominent causes assigned for the depression were bad seasons and foreign competition, aggravated by the increased cost of production and the heavy losses of live stock.

  • Labour difficulties, low prices of produce, bad seasons and similar causes provided inducements for leaving the land in grass for two years, or over three years or more, before breaking it up for wheat.

  • Mill's subscription to the election expenses of Bradlaugh, and his attitude towards Governor Eyre, are generally regarded as the main causes of his defeat in the general election of 1868.

  • The plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar, Herbst) in America causes endless harm in plum orchards; curculios in Australia ravage the vines and fruit trees (Orthorrhinus klugii, Schon, and Leptops hopei, Bohm, &c.).

  • Another group of Hymenoptera occasionally causes much harm in fir plantations, namely, the Siricidae or wood-wasps, whose larvae burrow into the trunks of the trees and thus kill them.

  • The most destructive locust is the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), which causes wholesale destruction in the East.

  • No general rules, applicable to all times, can be laid down as to what not only be prepared to take account of the physical features of the world, the general structure and organization of the industry and commerce of different states, the character of their administration and other important causes of economic change.

  • But at any moment special causes may bring into the field of economic inquiry whole departments of life which have hitherto been legitimately ignored.

  • To quote from a useful work (National Education: a Symposium, 1901), " the commercial supremacy of England was due to a variety of causes, of which superior intelligence, in the ordinary business sense, was not the most important.

  • (7) That the wages assessments group themselves round certain short periods, coincident in many instances with high prices, increase of poverty, and other causes of exceptional action.

  • Although economic motives have become more complex, they have just as much and no more to do with general economic reasoning and analysis than the causes of death with the normal expectation of life, or domestic ideals with the birth-rate.

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