Caucasus sentence example

caucasus
  • Its eastern limit in Europe is a line from Konigsberg to the Caucasus; thence through China it is continued by varietal forms to Japan.
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  • Cold dry winds, often of great violence, occur in the Rhone valley (the Mistral), in Istria, and Dalmatia (the Bora), and in the western Caucasus.
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  • Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.
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  • Examples may perhaps occasionally still be found in the uninhabited forests of Hungary and Transylvania, and occasionally in Spain and Greece, as well as in the Caucasus and in some of the Swiss cantons, but the original race has in most countries interbred with the domestic cat wherever the latter has penetrated."
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  • The name Albania (in the Tosk dialect Arberia, in the Gheg Arbenia), like Albania in the Caucasus, Armenia, Albany in Britain, and Auvergne (Arvenia) in France, is probably connected with the root alb, alp, and signifies "the white or snowy uplands."
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  • He entered the engineer branch in 1838, served in the campaigns in the Caucasus, rose to be colonel, and commanded the sappers and miners at the siege of Kars in 1855.
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  • In Asia it is found on the Caucasus, but does not pass the Ural ridge into Siberia.
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  • Lofty lines of fold mountains form the " backbones " of North America in the Rocky of Mountains and the west coast systems, of South America in the Cordillera of the Andes, of Europe in the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians and Caucasus, and of Asia in the mountains of Asia Minor, converging on the Pamirs and diverging thence in the Himalaya and the vast mountain systems of central and eastern Asia.
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  • Novorossiysk is connected by rail, at the west end of the Caucasus, with the Rostov-Vladikavkaz line, and a mountain road leads from Velyaminovsk (or Tuapse) to Maikop in the province of Kuban.
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  • In 1820 he suppressed an insurrection in the Caucasus, for which service he was raised to the rank of major-general.
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  • High plateaus like that of Pamir (the " Roof of the World ") and Armenia, and lofty mountain chains like the snow-clad Caucasus, the Alai, the Tian-shan, the Sayan Mountains, exist only on the outskirts of the empire.
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  • Only in the Urals, the Caucasus, the Timan Mountains, the region of the Donets coalfield, and the Kielce Hills is there any sign of the great folding from which nearly the whole of the rest of Europe has suffered at one time or another.
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  • Over a large part of this area, however, they are concealed by the later Tertiary deposits, and they are absent over the Dnieper and Don ridge in the Yaila Mountains and in the higher parts of the Caucasus.
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  • The Eocene covers wide tracts from Lithuania to Tsaritsyn, and is represented in the Crimea and Caucasus by thick deposits belonging to the same ocean which left its deposits on the Alps and the Himalayas.
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  • Not only the higher chains of Caucasus and Yaila, but also the Donets ridge, rose above the :oo 4?.
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  • Russia in the beginning of October, and are felt on the Caucasus about the middle of November.
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  • But on the whole, the Crimean flora has little in common with that of the Caucasus.'
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  • The steppe conditions extend over the greater part of the Crimea and up to the foothills of the Caucasus.
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  • For the petroleum industry and the mining of the Caucasus region, see Caucasia.
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  • The silk-mills employ silk obtained from the Caucasus, Italy and France.
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  • In Finland the population is composed of Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Protestants; the Baltic provinces are inhabited by German-speaking, Lettspeaking and Esth-speaking Lutherans; the inhabitants of the south-western provinces are chiefly Polish-speaking Roman Catholics and Yiddish-speaking Jews; in the Crimea and on the Middle Volga there are a considerable number of Tatarspeaking Mahommedans; and in the Caucasus there is a conglomeration of races and languages such as is to be found on no other portion of the earth's surface.
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  • The non-Russian frontier provinces (okrainas) had even before been under-represented (one member for every 350,000 inhabitants, as against one for every 250,000 in the central provinces); the members returned by Poland, the Caucasus and Siberia were now reduced from 89 to 39, those from the Central Asian steppes (23) were swept away altogether; the total number of deputies was reduced from 524 to 442.
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  • The same species is found in the Caucasus and Mount Taurus, and is distinct from the ibex or bouquetin of the Alps.
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  • At Meshed i Sar, the port, or roadstead of Barfurush, the steamers of the Caucasus and Mercury Company call weekly, and a brisk shipping trade is carried on between it and other Caspian ports.
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  • Along the south coast of the Caspian this line of elevation is prolonged as the Elburz range(not to be confused with the Elburz of the Caucasus), and has its culminating point in Demavend, which rises to 19,400 ft.
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  • Below the north-east declivity of this range lies Georgia, on the other side of which province rises the Caucasus, the boundary of Asia and Europe between the Caspian and Black Seas, the highest points of which reach an elevation of nearly 19,000 ft.
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  • Ex Ploration The progress of geodetic surveys in Russia had long ago extended across the European half of the great empire, St Petersburg being connected with Tiflis on the southern slopes of the Caucasus by a direct system of triangulation carried out with the highest scientific precision.
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  • This depression is supposed to be a relic of the former post-Pliocene connexion between the Black Sea and the Caspian, and is accepted by most geographers as the natural frontier between Europe and Asia, while others make the dividing-line coincide with the principal water-parting of the Caucasus mountain system.
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  • Towards the foothills of the Caucasus they are clothed with thick forests, while in the west they merge into the steppes of south Russia or end in marshy ground, choked with reeds and rushes, in the delta of the Kuban.
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  • The orographical characteristics of the Caucasus are described in detail under that heading.
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  • The snow-clad peaks of the main Caucasus, descending by short, steep slopes, fringe the valley on the north, while an abrupt escarpment, having the characteristics of a border ridge of the Armenian highlands, fronts it on the south.
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  • The deep, short gorges and glens which seam the southern slopes of the Caucasus are inhabited by Ossetes, Tushes, Pshays and Khevsurs in the west, and by various tribes of Lesghians in the east.
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  • Mingrelia and Imeretia (valley of Rion) are the gardens of Caucasia, but the high valleys of Svanetia, farther north on the south slopes of the Caucasus mountains, are wild and difficult of access.
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  • The principal products of the soil are mentioned lower down, while the general character of the vegetation is indicated under Caucasus: Western Caucasus.
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  • Spurs from the Caucasus and from the Armenian highlands fill up the broad latitudinal depression between them.
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  • It is in this valley that the principal towns (except Vladikavkaz at the north foot of the Caucasus) of Caucasia are situated, namely, Baku (179,133 inhabitants in 1900), Tiflis (160,645 in 1897), Kutais (32,492), and the two Black Sea ports of Batum (28,512) and Poti (7666).
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  • (iv.) The highlands of Armenia are sometimes designated the Minor Caucasus, Little Caucasus and Anti-Caucasus.
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  • But to use such terms for what is not only an independent, but also an older, orographical formation than the Caucasus tends to perpetuate confusion in geographical nomenclature.
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  • The Armenian highlands, which run generally parallel to the Caucasus, though at much lower elevations (5000-6000 ft.), are a plateau region, sometimes quite flat, sometimes gently undulating, clothed with luxuriant meadows and mostly cultivable.
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  • North of the Caucasus ranges the water-divide between these two seas descends from Mount Elbruz along the Sadyrlar Mountains (11,000 ft.), and finally sinks into the Stavropol "plateau" (1600 ft.).
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  • But the main axis of the transverse upheavals would appear to be continued in a north-eastern direction in the Andi and other parallel ranges of Daghestan, as stated under Caucasus.
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  • Flora and Fauna.-Plant-life, in such a mountainous country as Caucasia, being intimately dependent upon aspect and altitude, is treated under Caucasus.
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  • The aurochs (Bos urns) appears to exist still in the forests of the western Caucasus.
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  • Numerous mineral springs (chalybeate and sulphurous) exist both north and south of the Caucasus ranges, e.g.
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  • The principal approach to Caucasia from Russia by rail is the line that runs from Rostov-on-Don to Vladikavkaz at the foot of the central Caucasus range.
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  • This railway, together with the driving roads over the Caucasus mountains via the Mamison pass (the Ossetic military road) and the Darial pass (the Georgian military road), and the route across the Black Sea to Poti or Batum are the chief means of communication between southern Russia and Transcaucasia.
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  • In 1770, during the course of a war between Russia and Turkey, the Russians crossed over the Caucasus and assisted the Imeretians to resist the Turks, and from the time of the ensuing peace of Kuchuk-kainarji the Georgian principalities looked to their powerful northern neighbour as their protector against the southern aggressors the Turks.
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  • Meanwhile the Russians had also subdued the Ossetes (1802) and the Lesghian tribes (1803) of the middle Caucasus.
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  • Nevertheless the mountain tribes who inhabited the higher parts of the Caucasus were still independent, and their subjugation cost Russia a sustained effort of thirty years, during the course of which her military commanders were more than once brought almost to the point of despair by the tenacity, the devotion and the adroitness and daring which the mountaineers displayed in a harassing guerilla warfare.
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  • After acquiring the northern edge of the Armenian plateau, partly from Persia in 1828 and partly from Turkey in 1829, Russia crushed a rising which had broken out in the Caspian coast districts of Daghestan on the north of the Caucasus.
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  • Nevertheless the spirit of resistance in these stubborn mountaineers was not finally broken until 1864, when the Russians eventually stifled all opposition in the difficult valleys and glens of the western Caucasus.
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  • In fact, nearly the whole of the region between the Caucasus and the Perso-Turkish frontier on the south, from the Caspian Sea on the one side to the Black Sea on the other, was embroiled in a civil war of the most sanguinary and ruthless character, the inveterate racial animosities of the combatants being in both cases inflamed by religious fanaticism.
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  • In Asia it occurs on the Caucasus and Ural, and in some parts of the Altaic chain.
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  • The snowclad Andi ridge, belonging to the system of transverse upheavals which cross the Caucasus, branches off the latter at Borbalo Peak (10,175 ft.), and reaches its highest altitudes in Tebulosmta (14,775 ft.) and Diklos-mta (13,740 ft.).
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  • The next most important stream, out of the great number which course down the flanks of the Caucasus and terminate in the Caspian, is the Samur.
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  • Abich (Sur la structure et la geologic du Daghestan, 1862), the successive folds of Jurassic limestones and slates, all nearly parallel to the Caucasus, which form lofty, narrow plateaus.
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  • The country is altogether difficult of access, and only one military route leads up from the river Terek, while every one of the eleven passes known across the Caucasus is a mere bridle-path.
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  • Some cotton is produced in European Russia in the southern Caucasus, but Turkestan in central Asia is by far the 1 Cotton Production 1906, U.S.A. Bureau of the Census, Bulletin No.
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  • A famous fountain in the Groznyi oil field in the northern Caucasus, which began to flow in August 1895, was estimated to have thrown up during the first three days 1,200,000 poods (over 4,500,000 gallons, or about 18,500 tons) of oil a day.
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  • As early as 1823 the brothers Dubinin erected a refinery in the village of Mosdok, and in 1846 applied to Prince Woronzoff for a subsidy for extending the use of petroleum-distillates in the Caucasus.
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  • A Russian monk named Ilarion, in the western Caucasus, had published a book, under the title of In the Mountains of the Caucasus, in which he argued that the name of God, being part of God, is divine, and therefore to be worshipped.
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  • The steepest incline outside loo fathoms is to the southeast of the Crimea and at Amastra; the incline to the greater depths is also steep off the Caucasus and between Trebizond and Batum.
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  • But, though the questions at issue between Russia and Turkey in Poland and the northern littoral of the Black Sea were thus for the time settled, the aggressive designs of Russia in the Caucasus and in Persia soon caused a renewal of anxiety at Constantinople.
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  • Passing near Mount Caucasus, they heard the groans of Prometheus and the flapping of the wings of the eagle which gnawed his liver.
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  • Very fine obsidians are also obtained in Mexico, at the Yellowstone Park, in New Zealand, Ascension and in the Caucasus.
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  • There at first he helped Denikin to maintain the independence of the Caucasus, but when the latter made a political approach towards the Entente, Enver left him, stayed for a short time in Azerbaijan, and was mixed up 1 A German version was issued in 1918.
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  • (c. 728) 2 states that Nerses, his predecessor, had chastised the sect, but ineffectually; and that after his death (c. 554) they had continued to lurk in Armenia, where, reinforced by Iconoclasts driven out of Albania of the Caucasus, they had settled in the region of Djirka, probably near Lake Van.
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  • Hindu Kush is the Caucasus of Alexander's historians.
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  • It is also included in the Paropamisus, though the latter term embraces more, Caucasus being apparently used only when the alpine barrier is in question.
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  • It was no doubt regarded (and perhaps not altogether untruly) as a part of a great alpine zone believed to traverse Asia from west to east, whether called Taurus, Caucasus or Imaus.
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  • Arrian himself applies Caucasus distinctly to the Himalaya also.
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  • The application of the name Tanais to the Syr seems to indicate a real confusion with Colchian Caucasus.
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  • It rises in the Caucasus, on the slopes of Mount Kasbek, in several head-streams, and flows north as far as Vladikavkaz, just above which it emerges from the mountains.
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  • The majority of scholars has always regarded the Hittites proper as, at any rate, non-Semitic, and some leading authorities have called them proto-Armenian, and believed that they have modern descendants in the Caucasus.
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  • The best known and longest cultivated species is the old-world grape-vine, Vitis vinifera; a variety of this, silvestris, occurs wild in the Mediterranean region, spreading eastwards towards the Caucasus and northwards into southern Germany, and may be regarded as the parent of the cultivated vine.
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  • The tide of their dominion ebbed and flowed repeatedly, but the normal Khazari may be taken as the territory between the Caucasus, the Volga and the Don, with the outlying province of the Crimea, or Little Khazaria.
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  • The southern boundary never greatly altered; it did at times reach the Kur and the Aras, but on that side the Khazars were confronted by Byzantium and Persia, and were for the most part restrained within the passes of the Caucasus by the fortifications of Dariel.
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  • Their king Joseph, in answer to the inquiry of Hasdai Ibn Shaprut of Cordova (c. 958), stated that his people sprang from Thogarmah, grandson of Japhet, and the supposed ancestor of the other peoples of the Caucasus.
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  • Simultaneously with the approach of Persia to the Caucasus the terrible empire of the Huns sprang up among the Ugrians of the northern steppes.
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  • The Khazars and their companions broke through the Persian defences of the Caucasus.
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  • The khakan and his chieftains were captured and compelled to embrace Islam (737), and till the decay of the Mahommedan empire Khazaria with all the other countries of the Caucasus paid an annual tribute of children and of corn (737861).
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  • Nevertheless, though overpowered in the end, the Khazars had protected the plains of Europe from the Mahommedans, and made the Caucasus the limit of their conquests.
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  • The kingdom dwindled rapidly to its ancient limits between the Caucasus, the Volga and the Don, whilst the Russian traders of Novgorod and Kiev supplanted the Khazars as the carriers between Constantinople and the North.
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  • He pushed his conquests to the Caucasus, and established Russian colonies upon the Sea of Azov.
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  • A remnant of the nation took refuge in an island of the Caspian (Siahcouye); others retired to the Caucasus; part emigrated to the district of Kasakhi in Georgia, and appear for the last time joining with Georgia in her successful effort to throw off the yoke of the Seljuk Turks (1089).
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  • Varro and Dionysius Afer proposed to identify the Iberians of Spain with the Iberians of the Caucasus, the one regarding the eastern, and other the western, settlements as the earlier.
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  • Between it and other ports in the Caspian communication is maintained by the mail-steamers of the Caucasus and Mercury Steam Navigation Company and many vessels of commercial firms with head offices chiefly at Baku.
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  • The roe-buck or roe-deer (Capreolus caprea, or C. capreolus) inhabits southern and temperate Europe as far east as the Caucasus, where, as in Syria, it is probably represented by another race or species.
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  • They probably represent an old population perhaps connected with some Caucasus stock; in spite of the resemblance of the name Taurisci they are not likely to be Celts.
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  • He shows instances, in documents of the 15th century, of the association of Prester John with the Caucasus.
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  • It is necessary to use geographical terms in the case of California and the North Pacific, the Caucasus or cloaca gentium of the western hemisphere, where were pocketed forty out of one hundred or more families of native tribes.
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  • As the mineral thenardite or mirabilite, which crystallizes in the rhombic system, it occurs in many parts of the world, as in Spain, the western states of North America and the Russian Caucasus; in the last-named region, about 25 m.
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  • Educated at the Nicholas Staff College, he entered the army in 1847, and distinguished himself in the Crimean war and in the Caucasus.
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  • He did duty on the staff of the army of the Caucasus for a time, and returned to Orenburg as chief of the staff.
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  • The second son, Prince Louis Napoleon, an officer in the Russian army, showed a steadier disposition, and was more favoured in some monarchist quarters; in 1906 he was made governor of the Caucasus.
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  • The species are found wild along the northern shores of the Mediterranean, in the Levant, Armenia, Caucasus, Northern Africa, Persia, and sporadically across North and Central Asia to Japan.
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  • Tabriz was for a long period the emporium for the trade of Persia on the west, but since the opening of the railway through the Caucasus and greater facilities for transport on the Caspian, much of its trade with Russia has been diverted to Astara and Resht, while the insecurity on the Tabriz-Trebizond route since 1878 has diverted much commerce to the Bagdad road.
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  • He commanded a division in the Turkish War of 1806-7, and was engaged in frequent expeditions to the Caucasus.
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  • But neither the severe climate nor the neighbourhood of wild and warlike hillmen shook their faith, and in the course of half a century, in one of the most unhealthy and unfertile localities in the Caucasus, they transformed this wilderness into flourishing colonies, and continued to live a Christian and laborious life, making friends with, instead of fighting, the hillmen.
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  • But the wealth to which they attained in the Caucasus weakened for a time their moral fervour, and little by little they began to depart somewhat from the requirements of their belief.
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  • In 1887, in the reign of the tsar Alexander III., univc°sal military service was introduced in the Caucasus; and even those for whom, as in the case of the Doukhobors, it had formerly been replaced with banishment, were called upon to serve.
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  • In confirmation of their sincerity, in the summer of 1895 the Doukhobors of the "Great Party," as they were called in distinction from the "Small Party," burnt all the arms which they, like other inhabitants of the Caucasus, had taken up for their protection from wild animals, and those who were in the army refused to continue service.
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  • They were joined in the spring of the same year by the Cyprus party, and another party of about 2000 arrived from the Caucasus.
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  • In the article Ibex mention is made of the Caucasus ibex, or tur, C. caucasica, as an aberrant member of that group; but beside this animal the Caucasus is the home of another very remarkable goat, or tur, known as C. pallasi.
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  • Many secondary ridges and spurs shoot off the main range, forming high, narrow valleys (see Caucasus).
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  • Names, more or less allied to one another, are in vogue among the peoples of the Caucasus, the Caspian Sea, Armenia and Persia, and there is a Sanskrit name and several others analogous or different in modern Indian languages.
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  • Alphonse de Candolle (Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 325) suggests that the plant originally grew wild in the countries to the south of the Caucasus and to the north of Persia.
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  • The range of the common or brown hare, inclusive of its local races, extends from England across southern and central Europe to the Caucasus; while that of the blue or mountain species, likewise inclusive of local races, reaches from Ireland, Scotland and Scandinavia through northern Europe and Asia to Japan and Kamchatka, and thence to Alaska.
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  • A third type, Prometheomys, from the Caucasus, is represented by a species of the size of a small water-rat, chestnut-brown in colour, with lighter feet, and the minute eyes covered with skin.
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  • This has also stimulated silk culture in the Caucasus, from which province it draws about one-third of its supplies.
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  • It includes the Kuba plain on the north-east slope of the Caucasus; the eastern extremity of that range from the Shad-dagh (13,960 ft.) and the Bazardyuz (14,727 ft.) to the Caspian, where it terminates in the Apsheron peninsula; the steppes of the lower Kura and Aras on the south of the Caucasus, and a narrow coast-belt between the Anti-Caucasus and the Caspian.
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  • Both slopes of the Caucasus are very fertile and well irrigated, with fine forests, fields of rice and other cereals, and flourishing gardens.
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  • In Armenia and the Caucasus the cult of such sacred trees and pillars passed without break into that of the cross, which was hallowed as follows.
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  • The Albanians of the Caucasus were also converted in the age of Gregory, early in the 4th century, and were loyal to the Armenians in the great struggle against Mazdaism in the 5th; but broke away for a time towards 600, and chose a patriarch without sending him to Armenia for ordination.
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  • In Caucasus the women made a wooden block to represent Haman, which, on being discovered by the men on their return to the synagogue, was thrown into the fire.
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  • In any case, however, the migration of these plants to the Alps must for the most part have taken place via the Arctic. The possibility of any extensive east to west migration having taken place direct from the Altai to the Alps seems excluded by the fact that 50 o ho of the arctico-altaic alpine plants are absent from the Caucasus.
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  • The former - the sole representative, in western Europe, of the antelopes - is found elsewhere only in the Pyrenees, Carpathians, Caucasus and the mountains of eastern Turkey; the latter survives only in the eastern Graian Alps.
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  • P. domestica is a native of Anatolia and the Caucasus, and is considered to be the only species naturalized in Europe.
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  • The Caucasus triangulation of 1860-1870 gave 89 ft.
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  • This basin may be, on the whole, considered as a continuation of the synclinal depression of the Manych, which stretches along the northern foot of the Caucasus from the Sea of Azov.
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  • It is separated from (3), the southern and deepest section of the Caspian, by a submarine ridge (30 to 150 fathoms of water), which links the main range of the Caucasus on the west with the Kopet-dagh in the Transcaspian region on the east.
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  • During the early Tertiary age it belonged to the Sarmatian Ocean, which reached from the middle Danube eastwards through Rumania, South Russia, and along both flanks of the Caucasus to the Aralo-Caspian region, and westwards had open communication with the great ocean, as indeed the ancient geographers Eratosthenes, Strabo and Pliny believed it still had in their day.
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  • Several plantations have been successfully put out both by the Russian government and private enterprise in the Caucasus, but it is doubtful whether they could exist long but for the high rate of duty on tea entering Russia from foreign countries.
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  • After graduating as a staff officer at St Petersburg he was sent to Turkestan in 1868 and, with the exception of an interval of two years, during which he was on the staff of the grand duke Michael in the Caucasus, remained in Central Asia until 1877.
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  • - In the 5th century B.C. Greek cities dotted the coasts of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea from Spain to Egypt and the Caucasus, and already Greek culture was beginning to pass beyond the limits of the Greek race.
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  • The Sassanid kings of Persia ruled a dominion which extended from the confines of Syria to those of India, and from the straits of Oman to the Caucasus.
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  • In 1835 he served with great gallantry in the Caucasus, and on his return to St Petersburg was rewarded with a gold sword "for valour."
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  • On the first of January 1836 he was attached to the suite of Alexander, and in 1845 was again ordered off to the Caucasus and again most brilliantly distinguished himself, especially in the attack on Shamyl's stronghold, for which he received the order of St George.
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  • From 1848 to 1856 he took a leading part in all the chief imlitary events in the Caucasus, his most notable exploits being his victory at Mezeninsk in 1850 and his operations against Shamyl at Chechen.
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  • On the 1st of January 1856 he became commander-in-chief of the Caucasian army, and, subsequently, governor of the Caucasus.
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  • Within three years of his appointment, the whole of the eastern Caucasus was subdued and the long elusive Shamyl was taken captive.
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  • Baryatinsky also conquered many of the tribes of the western Caucasus dwelling between the rivers Laba and Byelaya.
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  • Its remains lie in a valley of the Hazara country, on the chief road from Kabul towards Turkestan, and immediately at the northern foot of that prolongation of the Indian Caucasus now called Koh-i-Baba.
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  • Their historians spoke of two classes of Indians - certain mountainous tribes who dwelt in northern Afghanistan under the Caucasus or Hindu Kush, and a maritime race living on the coast of Baluchistan.
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  • In Armenia Maslama advanced even as far as the Caucasus.
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  • Mahommed (afterwards caliph), governor of Armenia and Azerbaijan (Adherbaijan), succeeded in repelling the Khazars, imposing peace on the petty princes of the eastern Caucasus, and consolidating the Arab power in that quarter.
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  • Freshficld, Travels in the Central Caucasus and Bashan (1869); Parrot, Reise zum Ararat (1834); Wagner, Reise nach dem Ararat (1848); Abich, Die Besteigung des Ararat (1849); articles "Ararat," in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, and the Encyclopaedia Biblica.
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  • It had prevailed since 17 9 8 in Georgia and the Caucasus, and in1803-1806began to spread from the north of the Caucasus into Russia, till in 1806 it was established at or near Astrakhan, and in 1807 reached Zareff, 200 m.
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  • 6 The plague remained in the Caucasus and Georgia till 1819 at least.
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  • East of Samsun, where the coast is partially protected by the Caucasus, the climate is more moderate.
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  • The scattered communities of the Uniat Armenian Church in Russia are subordinate to Latin vicars apostolic. The Uniat Armenian Church in the Caucasus, however, is under the jurisdiction of the patri archate of Cilicia.
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  • From this we may infer that they spoke a language cognate with the Scythic. The greater part of the barbarian names occurring in the inscriptions of Olbia, Tanais and Panticapaeum are supposed to be Sarmatian, and as they have been well explained from the Iranian language now spoken by the Ossetes of the Caucasus, these are supposed to be the representatives of the Sarmatae and can be shown to have a direct connexion with the Alani, one of their tribes.
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  • Its warm climate, its two hot springs (712°-82° Fahr.)and its beautiful parks make it a favourite summer resort, and give it its popular name of "the pearl of Caucasus."
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  • Taking the Kuren Dagh or Kopet Dagh to form the northern scarp of this plateau east of the Caspian, we find a prolongation of it in the highlands north of the political frontier on the Aras, and even in the Caucasus itself.
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  • Presumably they were also related to the tribes of Armenia and the Caucasus.
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  • ~ and secure its borders: and for this purpose in Asia Minor and Armenia lie subdued the mountain-tribes and advanced the frontier as far as the Caucasus; Colchis alone remaining an independent kingdom under the imperial suzerainty.
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  • He also extended his power to the Black Sea and the Caucasus; on the other hand, a siege of Edessa failed (544).
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  • A second war broke out in 577, chiefly on the question of Armenia and the Caucasus territory.
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  • Asiatic Russia of the I9th century, rides and inclusive of the Caucasus, Astrakhan and the lower Voiga, and overrunning Mesopotamia, Syria, 4 .~
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  • It occurs in northern Europe, the Caucasus, and northern Asia.
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  • Ordus, with headquarters at Erzinjan and Bagdad respectively, could be grouped as an army of the Caucasus in case of a Russian war, but were practically unavailable for Europe.
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  • On his return he was despatched by the academy to the Caucasus on an ethnographical and linguistic exploration (1807-1808), and was afterwards employed for several years in connexion with the academy's Oriental publications.
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  • On the Volga they mingled with remnants of the old Bulgarian empire, and elsewhere with Finnish stems, as well as with remnants of the ancient Italian and Greek colonies in Crimea and Caucasians in Caucasus.
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  • The mountain Tatars closely resemble those of Caucasus, while those of the steppes - the Nogais - are decidedly of a mixed origin from Turks and Mongols.
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  • In its general character and conformation the Caucasus presents a closer analogy with the Pyrenees than with the Alps.
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  • The range of the Caucasus, like that of the Pyrenees, maintains for considerable distances a high average elevation, and is not cleft by deep trenches, forming natural passes across the range, such as are common in the Alps.
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  • In both ranges, too, some of the highest summits stand on spurs of the main range, not on the main range itself; as Mont Perdu and Maladetta lie south of the main backbone of the Pyrenees, so Mount Elbruz and Kasbek, Dykh-tau, Koshtan-tau, Janga-tau and Shkara - all amongst the loftiest peaks of the Caucasus - stand on a subsidiary range north of the principal range or on spurs connecting the two.
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  • On the other hand, it is interesting to compare the arrangement of the drainage waters of the Caucasus with those of the Alps.
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  • In both orographical systems the principal rivers start nearly all together from a central nucleus, and in both cases they radiate to opposite quarters of the compass; but whereas in the Alps the Rhone and the Rhine, flowing south-west and north-east respectively, follow longitudinal valleys, and the Aar and the Ticino, flowing north-west and south-east respectively, follow transverse valleys, in the Caucasus the streams which flow south-west and north-east, namely, the headwaters of the Rion and the Terek, travel along transverse valleys, and those of the Kura and the Kuban, flowing south-east and north-west respectively, traverse longitudinal valleys.
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  • The southern exposure of this littoral region, the shelter afforded against the bitter winds of the north by the lofty Caucasus range, and the copious rainfall all combine to foster a luxuriant and abundant vegetation.
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  • A great variety of shrubs grow on these slopes of the western Caucasus, chiefly the following species, several of which are indigenous - Rhododendron ponticum, Azalea pontica, Aristotelia maqui, Agave between 1864 and 1878, and the country where they had lived remained for the most part unoccupied until after the beginning of the 10th century.
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  • But half a million of these people being Mahommedans, and refusing to submit to the yoke of Christian Russia, emigrated into Turkish territory List of Peaks in the west central Caucasus, with their altitudes, names and dates of mountaineers who have climbed them.
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  • In this section of the Caucasus the loftiest peaks do not In addition to the peaks enumerated in the table, the following also exist between Elbruz and Kasbek all exceeding 13,000 ft.
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  • The total area covered by glaciers in the central Caucasus is estimated at 625 to 650 sq.
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  • - In this sub-section, which stretches from Kasbek and the Darial gorge eastwards to the Baba-dagh in 48° 25' E., a distance of 230 m., the Caucasus attains its greatest breadth.
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  • On the north-west this rugged highland region is well defined by the distinctive transverse ridge of Andi, which to the east of Kasbek strikes off from the Caucasus range almost at right angles.
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  • In this section of the Caucasus the passes run somewhat lower than those between Elbruz and Kasbek, though still at appreciable heights, fully equal to those that lead up from the Black Sea to the valley of the Kuban in the western section of the range.
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  • The Eastern Section of the Caucasus gradually dies away east of Baba-dagh (11,930 ft.) towards the Caspian, terminating finally in the peninsula of Apsheron.
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  • In this section of the Caucasus no peak exceeds 9000 ft.
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  • A very similar change likewise becomes noticeable in the higher regions of the Caucasus Mountains upon proceeding north of the pass of Mamison, which separates the head-waters of the Rion from those of the Ardon, an important tributary of the Terek.
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  • Hydrography.-Nearly all the larger rivers of Caucasia have their sources in the central parts of the Caucasus range.
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  • The Lyakhva and Aragva, tributaries of the Kura, carry off the waters of the main range south of Kasbek, and other tributaries, such as the Yora and the Alazan, collect the surplus drainage of the main Caucasus range farther east.
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  • The other large river of this region, the Aras, has its sources, not in the Caucasus range, but on the Armenian highlands a long way south-west of Ararat.
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  • The rivers which go down from the central Caucasus northwards have considerably longer courses than those on the south side of the range, partly as a consequence of the gentler versant and partly also because of the great distances to which the steppes extend across which they make their way to the sea.
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  • 18 a Terek, has its sources, not in the main ranges of the Caucasus, but in an outlying group of mountains near Pyatigorsk, the highest summit of which, Besh-tau, does not exceed 4600 ft.
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  • Both rivers discharge their waters into the Caspian; as also does the Zumgail, a small stream which drains the eastern extremity of the Caucasus range in the government of Baku.
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  • - The general structure of the Caucasus is comparatively simple.
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  • The last phase in the history of the Caucasus was marked by the growth of the great volcanoes of Elbruz and Kasbek, which stand upon the old rocks of the central zone, and by the outflow of sheets of lava upon the sides of the chain.
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  • But a very great amount of most valuable imformation about the Caucasus is preserved in articles in encyclopaedias and scientific periodicals, especially the Izvestia and Zapiski of the Russian and Caucasian geographical societies, in P. P. Semenov's Geographical Dictionary (in Russian, 5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-1884), and in the Russkiy encyklopedicheskiy slovar (1894), and in the Kavkazskiy kalendar (annually at Tiflis).
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  • No contemporary gives the least hint of Leonardo's having travelled in the East; to the places he mentions he gives their classical and not their current Oriental names; the catastrophes he describes are unattested from any other source; he confuses the Taurus and the Caucasus; some of the phenomena he mentions are repeated from Aristotle and Ptolemy; and there seems little reason to doubt that these passages in his MSS.
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  • They usually called the place Cerchio, a corruption of the Russian name K'rtchev (whence Kerch), which appears in the 11th century inscription of Tmutarakan (a Russian principality at the north foot of the Caucasus).
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  • The wild tribes of the Caucasus were cowed by the Roman arms, and Mithradates himself fled across the Black Sea to Panticapaeum (modern Kertch).
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  • In the Montanist churches women baptized, and of this there are traces in the earliest church and in the Caucasus.
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  • As the period advanced, along the very line that had been occupied by the nummulitic sea (Tethys) the crust began to be folded up, giving rise to the Alps, Carpathians, Caucasus, Himalayas and other mountains, some of the early Tertiary marine formations being now found raised more than 16,000 ft.
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  • But the capacity of the tribes for resistance was already failing, and when at the close of the Crimean War Russia was able to employ large forces on the Caucasus, the defenders were gradually subdued, Shamyl himself being captured in 185 9.
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  • For instance, Pterocarya caucasica does not grow nearer than the Caucasus, where it is associated with the wild vine - also found at Tegelen; Magnolia Kobus is confined to the north island of Japan; another species of Magnolia cannot be identified and may be extinct.
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  • He was punished by him on some desolate hill (usually styled Caucasus) for fire-stealing, and was finally released by Heracles.
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  • Fourteen glasses A British diplomat once described how he went to the Caucasus to met some local bigwigs.
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  • All have been part of Mr. Basayev's declared goal to establish an Islamic caliphate, uniting the northern Caucasus in secession from Russia.
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  • Lesley Blanch vividly recounts the epic story of their heroic and bloody struggle and the life of a man still legendary in the Caucasus.
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  • Unfortunately, the situation in the Northern Caucasus remains tense.
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  • His archaeological work included the investigation of lake dwellings and other prehistoric structures; he went with Schliemann to Troy in 1879, fruits of the expedition being two books, ZurLandeskunde der Troas (1880) and Alt-trojanische Gr p ber and Schad (1882); in 1881 he visited the Caucasus, and on his return published Das Graberfeld von Koban im Lande der Osseten; and in 1888 he accompanied Schliemann to Egypt, Nubia and the Peloponnese.
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  • It includes the Azores and Canaries, the Mediterranean basin, northern Africa as far as the Atlas and Sahara, Asia Minor, Persia and the countries eastward as far as Sind, being bounded to the north by the mountains which run from the Caucasus to the Hindu-Kush.
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  • In consequence, however, of the mountainous character of the region, it is divided into a large number of more or less isolated districts, and there is little intercourse with the country north of the Caucasus, the passes over the range being few and difficult (see Caucasus).
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  • (See CAUCASIA and CAUCASUS.)
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  • By the Persian War, which broke out in 1826, in consequence of frontier disputes, he annexed the provinces of Erivan and Nakhichevan, and during the whole of his reign the conquest of the Caucasus was systematically carried on.
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  • (i.) The plains of Northern Caucasia, which include most of the provinces of Kuban and Terek and of the government of Stavropol, slope gently downwards from the foot of the Caucasus range towards the Kuma-Manych depression.
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  • (ii.) The Caucasus range runs from north-west to south-east from the Strait of Kerch to the Caspian Sea for a length of 900 m., with a varying breadth of 30 to 140 m., and covers a surface of 12,000 sq.
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  • (iii.) The combined valleys of the Rion and the Kura, which intervene between the Caucasus and the Armenian highlands, and stretch their axes north-west and south-east respectively, embrace the most populous and most fertile parts of Caucasia.
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  • To avoid the vengeance of the emperor, she fled with him to the court of the sultan of Damascus; but not deeming themselves safe there, they continued their perilous journey through Persia and Turkestan,round the Caspian Sea and across Mount Caucasus, until at length they settled among the Turks on the borders of Trebizond.
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  • Their home was in the spurs of the Caucasus and along the shores of the Caspian - called by medieval Moslem geographers Bahr-al-Khazar ("sea of the Khazars"); their cities, all populous and civilized commercial centres, were Itil, the capital, upon the delta of the Volga, the "river of the Khazars," Semender (Tarkhu), the older capital, Khamlidje or Khalendsch, Belendscher, the outpost towards Armenia, and Sarkel on the Don.
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  • In 1887, in the reign of the tsar Alexander III., univc°sal military service was introduced in the Caucasus; and even those for whom, as in the case of the Doukhobors, it had formerly been replaced with banishment, were called upon to serve.
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  • At Derbent, just north of 42° lat., a spur of the Caucasus approaches so close to the sea as to leave room for only a narrow passage, the Caspiae Pylae or Albanae Portae, which has been fortified for centuries.
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  • Its warm climate, its two hot springs (712°-82° Fahr.)and its beautiful parks make it a favourite summer resort, and give it its popular name of "the pearl of Caucasus."
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  • - In this sub-section, which stretches from Kasbek and the Darial gorge eastwards to the Baba-dagh in 48° 25' E., a distance of 230 m., the Caucasus attains its greatest breadth.
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  • In the south-western valleys and on the south-western slopes of the Caucasus, where a heavy rainfall is combined with a warm temperature, magnificent forests clothe the mountain-sides and dip their skirts into the waters of the Black Sea.
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  • European and Chinese merchants resided at Ardebil in the middle ages, and for a long time the city was a great emporium for central Asian and Indian merchandise, which was forwarded to Europe via Tabriz, Trebizond and the Black Sea, and also by way of the Caucasus and the Volga.
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  • He was in the Caucasus and ran away from there.
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  • This was done by the guerrillas in Spain, by the mountain tribes in the Caucasus, and by the Russians in 1812.
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  • We are also working for the resolution of frozen conflicts in the South Caucasus.
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  • Balanced cross-sections across the Caucasus: understanding the tectonic evolution of the belt.
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  • Silene Schafta - A spreading hardy plant from the Caucasus forming very neat tufts, 4 to 6 inches high, covered with large purplish-rose flowers.
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  • Mantegazzianum, from the Caucasus, which attains to 6 to 7 feet high and a diameter of 8 to 10 feet.
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  • G. orientalis is from the Caucasus, 3 to 4 feet high, with bluish-purple flowers.
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  • Persia and the Caucasus, and fitly called "paradoxical."
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  • Caucasus. L. sibirica, Fiscieri, and thyrsoidea are fine-leaved plants, and worth growing with L. macrophylla for their foliage.
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  • The plants grow in dry exposed tracts of the Caucasus and Crimea, and are hardy in this country.
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  • Colchicum Speciosum - rom the Caucasus, is large and beautiful, and valuable for the garden in autumn, where its large rosy-purple flowers appear nearly 1 foot above the ground.
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  • Named Hybrids Arenarium - A showy annual from the Caucasus, bearing purple flowers with dark spots.
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  • The plant comes from some parts of the Caucasus and from Palestine, and there are several varieties.
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  • A native of the Caucasus and Northern Persia, and though long introduced is still among the rarest of hardy flowers.
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  • Symphyandra - Campanula-like plants of not high rank, S. pendula from the rocky parts of the Caucasus, having branched pendulous stems and large cream-colored bell flowers, almost hidden in the leaves.
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  • T. latifolium is a dwarf vigorous perennial from the Caucasus, 6 to 12 inches high, with large root-leaves, and flowers something like those of Arabis albida, but larger.
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  • The actual highest summit is wholly French and is the loftiest peak in the Alps, and in Europe also, if certain peaks in the Caucasus be excluded.
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