How to use Catholics in a sentence
In his early thought he followed Averroes, but afterwards modified his views so far as to make himself acceptable to the orthodox Catholics.
There were 67,044 Baptists (2226 United Baptists, 2019 Primitive Baptists and 1513 Free Baptists); 40,011 Roman Catholics; 1 9,993 United Brethren, all of the " New Constitution "; 19,668 Presbyterians; 13,323 Disciples of Christ; 6506 Lutherans, and 5230 Protestant Episcopalians.
At the Worms conference (1540) between Catholics and Protestants he was the sole representative of the Swiss.
For the history of the definition see Vatican Council; also Papacy, Gallicanism, Febronianism, Old Catholics, &c.
Latterly certain Catholics have questioned this equality of the concordatory obligation, and have aroused keen discussion.Advertisement
He also contributed largely to the Internationale theologische Zeitschrift, a review started in 1893 by the Old Catholics to promote the union of National Churches on the basis of the councils of the Undivided Church, and admitting articles in German, French and English.
At the meeting of parliament on the 8th of January 1674, he carried a motion for a proclamation banishing Catholics to a distance of 10 m.
He urged on the bill by which Catholics were prohibited from sitting in either House of Parliament, and was bitter in his expressions of disappointment when the Commons passed a proviso excepting James, against whom the bill was especially aimed, from its operation.
He opposed the compelling of Protestant Nonconformists to take the oath required of Roman Catholics.
Pop. (1900), 141,131; (1905), 162,607 (of whom about 70,000 are Roman Catholics and 6000 Jews).Advertisement
Whilst Protestant opponents put him in the list of atheists like Vanini, and the Catholics held him as dangerous as Luther or Calvin, there were zealous adherents who ventured to prove the theory of vortices in harmony with the book of Genesis.
In addition to the encyclical letter, nineteen resolutions were put forth, and the reports of twelve special committees are appended upon which they are based, the subjects being intemperance, purity, divorce, polygamy, observance of Sunday, socialism, care of emigrants, mutual relations of dioceses of the Anglican Communion, home reunion, Scandinavian Church, Old Catholics, &c., Eastern Churches, standards of doctrine and worship. Perhaps the most important of these is the famous "Lambeth Quadrilateral," which laid down a fourfold basis for home reunion - the Holy Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself and the historic episcopate.
Resolution 67 warned Anglicans from contracting marriages, under actual conditions, with Roman Catholics.
The Annales were first published in 1554, but many important passages were omitted in this edition, as they reflected on the Roman Catholics.
They are Wesleyans or Roman Catholics.Advertisement
On the 28th of November Oates accused her of high treason, and the Commons passed an address for her removal and that of all the Roman Catholics from Whitehall.
As in the other Saxon duchies the population is almost exclusively Protestant; in 1905, 262,243 belonged to the Lutheran confession, 4845 were Roman Catholics and 1256 Jews.
It was stipulated that there was to be toleration for both Catholics and Protestants; that the Spanish king should be recognized as de jure sovereign, and the prince of Orange as governor with full powers in Holland and Zeeland.
The " malcontent " Catholics now turned for help from Matthias to the duke of Anjou, who had invaded the Netherlands with a French army and seized Mons.
Of 147,223 communicants of all churches in 1906, the largest number, 82,272, were Roman Catholics, 22,109 were Congregationalists, 17,471 Methodist Episcopalians, 8450 Baptists, 1501 Free Baptists and 5278 Protestant Episcopalians.Advertisement
The vast majority of the Europeans are Roman Catholics.
It includes 55% of Roman Catholics and about 35% of Protestant Episcopalians.
At the decisive battle of Naseby (the 14th of June 1645) he commanded the parliamentary right wing and routed the cavalry of Sir Marmaduke Lang exclusion from pardon of all the king's leading adherents, besides the indefinite establishment of Presbyterianism and the refusal of toleration to the Roman Catholics and members of the Church of England.
These advantages, however, scarcely benefited at all the Irish Roman Catholics, who were excluded from political life and from the corporate towns; and Cromwell's union meant little more than the union of the English colony in Ireland with England.
The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.Advertisement
Religious toleration was granted, but with the important exception that some harsh measures were enacted against Anglicans and Roman Catholics, to neither of whom was liberty of worship accorded.
Democratic principles were gaining ground among the Roman Catholics as well as the Presbyterians.
This charge is denied by his apologists; and though his methods were attacked by good Catholics like Johann Hass, he was elected prior of the Dominicans in Glogau in i 505.
Justina was an Arian, and the imperial court at Milan pitted itself against the Catholics, under the famous Ambrose, bishop of that city.
Paul forbade Roman Catholics to take the oath; but to no purpose, beyond stirring up a literary controversy.
On the 3rd of May the Czech Catholics elected Matthias king of Bohemia, but this was contrary to the wishes of both pope and emperor, who preferred to partition Bohemia.
This portion of the law, designed to reassure foreign Catholics, met with little opposition; but the second portion, regulating the relations between state and church in Italy, was sharply criticized by deputies who, like Sella, recognized the ideal of a free church in a free state to be an impracticable dream.
In the long and important debate upon foreign policy in the Italian Chamber of Deputies (6th to 9th December) the fear was repeatedly expressed lest Bismarck should seek to purchase the support of German Catholics by raising the Roman question.
But while the majority of the deputies, were nominally in favor of the bill, the parliamentary committee reported against it, and public opinion was so hostile that an anti-divorce petition received 3,500,000 signatures, including not only those of professing Catholics, but of free-thinkers and Jews, who regarded divorce as unsuitable to Italian conditions.
At the elections for the local bodies the Catholics had already been permitted to vote, and, availing themselves of the privilege, they gained seats in many municipal councils and obtained the majority in some.
At the general parliamentary elections of 1904 a few Catholics had been elected as such, and the encyclical of the 11th of June 1905 On the political organization of the Catholics, practically abolished the non erpedit.
In June 1675 he signed the paper of advice drawn up by the bishops for the king, urging the rigid enforcement of the laws against the Roman Catholics, their complete banishment from the court, and the suppression of conventicles, 2 and a bill introduced by him imposing special taxes on recusants and subjecting Roman Catholic priests to imprisonment for life was only thrown out as too lenient because it secured offenders from the charge of treason.
The exhibition of 1844, which was attended by more than a million pilgrims, aroused protests, resulting in the formation of the sect of German Catholics.
In Spain causes of nullity and divorce a thoro, in Portugal causes of nullity between Catholics, are still for the court Christian.
The Concordat of 1856 and consequent legislation restored matrimonial jurisdiction to the courts Christian over marriages between Roman Catholics.
He was a member of the commission for ecclesiastical causes, and although afterwards he claimed that he had used all his influence to dissuade James from removing the tests, and in other ways illegally favouring the Roman Catholics, he signed the warrant for the committal of the seven bishops, and appeared as a witness against them.
In the same year he published Ober die Freiheit der Wissenschaft, in which he maintained the independence of science, whose goal was truth, against authority, and reproached the excessive respect for the latter in the Roman Church with the insignificant part played by the German Catholics in literature and philosophy.
Catholic apologetics must further give a central position to Church authority, which Roman Catholics explicitly define as infallible; but this position too is debated in a late section of their system.
The Poles and most of the Lithuanians are Roman Catholics.
In Finland the population is composed of Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Protestants; the Baltic provinces are inhabited by German-speaking, Lettspeaking and Esth-speaking Lutherans; the inhabitants of the south-western provinces are chiefly Polish-speaking Roman Catholics and Yiddish-speaking Jews; in the Crimea and on the Middle Volga there are a considerable number of Tatarspeaking Mahommedans; and in the Caucasus there is a conglomeration of races and languages such as is to be found on no other portion of the earth's surface.
It is admitted by his Anglican critics that he did the work of enforcing uniformity against the Roman Catholics with good-will and considerable tact.
They have become^mainly Protestants, Catholics or Mormons, but retain many superstitions connected with their native religion.
Although, however, he adds that at this point he suspended his religious inquiries, " acquiescing with implicit belief in the tenets and mysteries which are adopted by the general consent of Catholics and Protestants," his readers will probably do him no great injustice if they assume that even then it was rather to the negations than to the affirmations of Protestantism that he most heartily assented.
In 1906, of the 14,944 members of religious denominations 9,97 0 were Roman Catholics, 1,210 Protestant Episcopalians, 1,105 Latter-Day Saints (Mormons), 618 Methodists and 520 Presbyterians.
In 1674 he is mentioned as endeavouring to prevent the justices putting into force the laws against the Roman Catholics and Nonconformists.'
In 1681 Anglesey wrote A Letter from a Person of Honour in the Country, as a rejoinder to the earl of Castlehaven, who had published memoirs on the Irish rebellion defending the action of the Irish and the Roman Catholics.
Letters and writings of his own (1527-1528) proved him to hold strongly anti-Lutheran heresies, and both Catholics and Lutherans urged the duke of Liegnitz to dismiss him.
Tyrone continued to concert measures with the Irish leaders in Munster, and issued a manifesto to the Catholics of Ireland summoning them to join his standard; protesting that the interests of religion were his first care.
He was responsible for many of the barbarities committed by the Catholics during the rebellion.'
Owen Roe professed to be acting in the interest of Charles I.; but his real aim was the complete independence of Ireland, while the AngloNorman Catholics represented by the council desired to secure religious liberty and an Irish constitution under the crown of England.
In March 1646 a cessation of hostilities was arranged between Ormonde and the Catholics; and O'Neill, furnished with supplies by the papal nuncio, Rinuccini, turned against the Scottish parliamentary army under General Monro, who had been operating with fluctuating success in Ireland since April 1642.
He succeeded in forming a Cabinet which comprised a number of non-Giolittians of all parties, but only a few of his own "old guard," so that he won the support of a considerable part of the Chamber, although the Socialists and the Popolari (Catholics) rendered his hold somewhat precarious.
There are five churches in Tonga - the Free Wesleyans, embracing the great majority of the inhabitants, Wesleyans, Roman Catholics, and Seventh Day Adventists.
The Baptist and Methodist churches are the leading religious denominations in the state; but there are also Presbyterians, Lutherans, members of the Christian Connexion (O'Kellyites), Disciples of Christ (Campbellites) Episcopalians, Friends, Roman Catholics, Moravians and members of other denominations.
Both are used for worship by Roman Catholics, by whom the chapel was acquired in 1874 and opened five years later after careful restoration.
There is much uncertainty about the early theological history of the sect, but it is probable that Mack and his followers were influenced by both the Greek Catholics and the Waldensians.
The Armenians are Christians, mostly of the national Gregorian Church (979,566), though 34,000 are Roman Catholics.
Many of the reformers wanted no bishops at all, while the Catholics wanted those of the old dispensation, and the queen herself grudged episcopal privilege until she discovered in it one of the chief bulwarks of the royal supremacy.
That doom was postponed; but Catholics everywhere saw with pain the harsh treatment accorded to a defenceless old man.
In 1906 there were 1,742,873 communicants of different religious denominations, over one-third being Roman Catholics and about one-fifth Methodists.
It must be borne in mind, however, that the designation " Catholic " was equally claimed by all the warring parties within the church at various times; thus, the followers of Arius and Athanasius alike called themselves Catholics, and it was only the ultimate victory of the latter that has reserved for them in history the name of Catholic, and branded the former as Arian.
The additional qualification of " Roman " she tolerates, since it proclaims her doctrine of the see of Rome as the keystone of Catholicism; but to herself she is "the Catholic Church," and her members are "Catholics."
A large section of her members, accordingly, laying stress on this side of her tradition, prefer to call themselves " Catholics."
Over 94% of the population were Roman Catholics.
Most remarkable of all, the Roman Catholic churches, in this strong, hold of exiled Puritanism where Catholics were so long under the heavy ban of law, outnumber those of any single Protestant denomination; Irish Catholics dominate the politics of the city, and Protestants and Catholics have been aligned against each other on the question of the control of the public schools.
Catholics - United Greeks, United Syrians and Maronites - are numerous.
He was for eight years professor of theology in the Protestant college of Nimes; but in 1661, having successfully opposed a scheme for re-uniting Catholics and Protestants, he was forbidden to preach in Lower Languedoc. In 1662 he obtained a post at Montauban similar to that which he had lost; but after four years he was removed from this also.
Fully 95% of the inhabitants are Roman Catholics, under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the archbishop of Olmiitz and the bishop, of Briinn; 2.7% Protestants and 2% Jews.
To the Ancient Order of Hibernians none might be admitted but persons of Irish birth or descent, who were Roman Catholics, and whose parents were Roman Catholics; but notwithstanding this requirement, the organization - being a secret society - was under the ban of the Catholic Church.
Catholics and Protestants were unanimous in praising his fiery eloquence in the Lent sermons which he preached at Montpellier in 1686.
More than two-thirds of the inhabitants are Protestants; the majority of the remainder are Roman Catholics, and there are about 25,000 Jews.
The emperor John Palaeologus, pressed hard by the Turks, showed a great desire to unite himself with the Catholics; he consented to come with the principal representatives of the Greek church to some place in the west where the union could be concluded in the presence of the pope and of the Latin council.
Education is given by a public-school system, which, while nominally providing for separate schools for Catholics and Protestants, makes it practically impossible at most points to carry on such schools.
His policy towards all governments outside Italy was to support them wherever they represented social order; and it was with difficulty that he persuaded French Catholics to be united in defence of the republic. The German Kulturkampf was ended by his exertions.
He used his influence with the emperor of Russia, as also with the emperors of China and Japan and with the shah of Persia, to secure the free practice of their religion for Roman Catholics within their respective dominions.
Roman Catholics greatly predominate among religious denominations, having in 1906 477,774 members out of a total of 778,901 for all denominations; in the same year there were 185,554 Baptists, 79,464 Methodists, 9070 Protestant Episcopalians and 8350 Presbyterians.
Thus the Roman Catholics prefer the name of Croats, Hrvats or Latins; the Orthodox, of Serbs; the Moslems, of Turks.
All alike belong to the Serbo-Croatian branch of the Slavonic race; and all speak a language almost identical with Servian, though written by the Roman Catholics in Latin instead of Cyrillic letters.
In 18 95 43% of the population were Orthodox Christians, 35% Moslems and 21% Roman Catholics.
The Roman Catholics have an archbishop in Serajevo, a bishop in Mostar and an apostolic administrator in Banjaluka.
Many of the Roman Catholics withdrew into Croatia-Slavonia and south Hungary, where they ultimately fell again under Ottoman dominion.
The losses inflicted on the Turks by Hunyadi Janos, and the attempt to organize a defensive league among the neighbouring Christian lands, temporarily averted the ruin of all the neighbouring lands were governed by Moslems or Roman Catholics; and at home the peasants were permitted to retain their creed and communal organization.
The result was that the Turks in retaliation deprived the Catholics, always under the protection of France, of some of their privileges in connexion with the holy places, which were now granted to the Orthodox Church.
His ambassador, accordingly, handed in at Constantinople a formal demand for the restitution of the Catholics in all their property and rights.
During the religious wars of the 16th century Agen took the part of the Catholics and openly joined the League in 1589.
Both by Catholics and by Protestants blessings may be applied to things inanimate as well as animate; but while in the reformed Churches this involves no more than an appeal to God for a special blessing, or a solemn "setting apart" of persons or objects for sacred purpoes, in the Catholic idea it implies a special power, conferred by God, of the priests over the invisible forces of evil.
Protestants have condemned these formulae as so much magic, and in this modern science tends to agree with them; but to orthodox Protestants at least Catholics have a perfect right to reply that, in taking this line, they are but repeating the accusation brought by the Pharisees against Christ, viz.
The inhabitants are almost exclusively of German stock and Roman Catholics.
According to religion 92.47% of the inhabitants were Roman Catholics; 5.7% were Jews; 2.11% were Protestants and the remainder belonged to the Greek church.
Nor have the Catholics been one whit behind them.
With a passionate hatred and distrust of the Catholics, and an intense love of political liberty, he united the desire for ease to Protestant Dissenters.
The population has since increased, amounting in 1905 to 94,514, of whom about two-thirds are .Roman Catholics.
At the head of a strong government he was enabled, in spite of a powerful opposition of Catholics and Magnates, to carry in 1894 the Civil Marriage Bill.
Not including the city of Rio de Janeiro, whose population was estimated at 691,565 in conformity with a special municipal census of 1906, the total population was 16,626,991, of which 15,572,671 were Roman Catholics, 177,727 Protestants, 876,593 of other faiths.
The census of 1890 divided the population into 14,179,615 Roman Catholics, 1 43,743 Protestants, 3300 of all other faiths, 7257 of no religious profession, and 600,000 unchristianized Indians.
For Roman Catholics the decision necessarily carries great weight, and it may perhaps have its influence on Anglicans of the school which approximates most closely to Roman belief.
They are residential colleges belonging respectively to the Anglicans, Roman Catholics and Presbyterians.
The Roman Catholics, at whose head is a vicar-apostolic, numbered 10,419.
He supported the government in its attempts to subdue by legislation the Socialists, Poles and Catholics; and he was one of the few men of eminence who gave the sanction of his name to the attacks on the Jews which began in 1878.
He sought the establishment of a Czech kingdom which should include Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, and in his zeal for Czech autonomy he even entered into an alliance with the Conservative nobility and with the extreme Catholics.
In Turkish Hungary all the confessions enjoyed liberty of worship, though the Catholics, as possible partisans of the " king of Vienna," were liked the least.
But Thurzo was the last Protestant palatine, and, on his death, the Catholics, at the diet of Sopron (1625), where they dominated the Upper Chamber, and had a large minority in the Lower, were able to elect Count Miklos Esterhazy in Thurz6's stead.
Towards all her Magyars, especially the Catholics, she was ever most gracious; but the magnates, the Batthyanis, the Nadasdys, the Pallfys, the Andrassys, who had chased her enemies from Bohemia and routed them in Bavaria, enjoyed the lion's share of her benefactions.
Catholics and others visit it in great numbers.
No official record of his consecration can be discovered, but there is no sufficient reason to doubt the fact; and it is certain that during his lifetime he was acknowledged as a canonical bishop both by Roman Catholics and by Protestants.
Since 1887 a church rate has been levied on the Evangelical-Lutheran communities, and since 1904 upon the Roman Catholics also.
The Roman Catholics number 16,453 (including 2005 natives) and form 5% of the European population, and the Hebrews 1 5,47 8 or 5.34% of the European inhabitants.
As regards religion, the inhabitants are fairly equally distributed into Roman Catholics and Protestants.
He was the founder and head of the Evangelical Union established to combat the aggressive tendencies of the Roman Catholics.
Both houses of parliament, who viewed this union with abhorrence, now passed the Test Act, forbidding Catholics to hold office.
Hale (1687), by which he was allowed to dispense Catholics from the Test Act.
Catholics were now admitted to the chief offices in the army, and to some important posts in the state, in virtue of the dispensing power of James.
In 1687 James made a bid for the support of the Dissenters by advocating a system of joint toleration for Catholics and Dissenters.
In April 1687 he published a Declaration of Indulgence - exempting Catholics and Dissenters from penal statutes.
By an unscrupulous use of the dispensing power he introduced Dissenters and Catholics into all departments of state and into the municipal corporations, which were remodelled in their interests.
Discontent in Ireland was now rapidly becoming dangerous, and was finding a focus in the Society of the United Irishmen, and in the Catholic Committee, an organization formed a few years previously, chiefly under the direction of Lord Kenmare, to watch the interests of the Catholics.
Other ancient churches outside the City are few; but there may be noted St Margaret's, under the shadow of Westminster Abbey; and the beautiful Ely Chapel in Holborn (q.v.), the only remnant of a palace of the bishops of Ely, now used by the Roman Catholics.
Previous deputies had addressed the king on their bended knees, whereas the representatives of the Catholics had been permitted to stand.
Another historic part filled by Amyraut was in the negotiations originated by Pierre le Gouz de la Berchere (1600-1653), first president of the parlement of Grenoble, when exiled to Saumur, for a reconciliation and reunion of the Catholics of France with the French Protestants.
They were recruited largely, but not solely, from among the Roman Catholics, and the Protestants among them were often identical with the NonJurors.
About 93% are Protestants, 6% Roman Catholics, and only 2% Jews.
Prynne now attacked the bishops and the Roman Catholics and defended the taking up of arms by the parliament.
The majority of the inhabitants are Protestant, with a strong tendency towards Pietism; but the Roman Catholics number upwards of 40,000, forming about one-fourth of the total population.
His De visibili Monarchia Ecclesiae, published in 1571, contains the first narrative of the sufferings of the English Roman Catholics.
Pop. (1900), 18,003, nearly all being Roman Catholics.
To these should be added 133,144 Hungarians, 21,733 natives of Germany (3782 less than in 1890), 2506 natives of Italy, 1703 Russians, 1176 French, 1643 Swiss, &c. Of this heterogeneous population 1,461,891 were Roman Catholics, the Jews coming next in order with 146,926.
Protestants of the Augsburg and Helvetic Confessions numbered 54,364; members of the Church of England, 49 o; Old Catholics, 975; members of the Greek Orthodox Church, 3674; Greek Catholics, 2521; and Mahommedans, 889.
Under the new act marriages of non Catholics solemnized by diplomatic or consular officers or by ministers of dissenting churches, if properly registered, are valid, and those solemnized before the passing of this act were to be valid if registered before the end of 1899.
In 1906 there were in the state 264,712 communicants of various religious denominations, and of these 1 99,95 1 were Roman Catholics.
It was also complicated by racial and religious prejudices, a large proportion of the factory operatives being foreigners and Roman Catholics, and most of the country people native Protestants.
His scheme for the establishment of a university which should satisfy both Roman Catholics and Protestants met with general disapproval.
The population of Frankfort has steadily increased since the beginning of the 19th century; it amounted in 1817 to 41,458; (1840) 55,269; (1864) 77,372; (1871) 59, 26 5; (1875) 103,136; (1890) 179,985; and (1905), including the incorporated suburban districts, 334,951, of whom 175,909 were Protestants, 88,457 Roman Catholics and 21,974 Jews.
He conceived it as " a religious monopoly " to which " the nation at large contributes," while " Presbyterians alone receive," and which placed him in " a relation to the state " so " seriously objectionable " as to be " impossible to hold."5 The invidious distinction it drew between Presbyterians on the one hand, and Catholics, Friends, freethinking Christians, unbelievers and Jews on the other, who were compelled to support a ministry they " conscientiously disapproved," offended his always delicate conscience; while possibly the intellectual and ecclesiastical atmosphere of the city proved uncongenial to his liberal magnanimity.
In Coburg the people belong to the Franconian and in Gotha to the Thuringian branch of the Teutonic family, and, according to religious confessions, almost the entire population is Lutheran, Roman Catholics only numbering some 3000 and Jews about 700.
Drawn between various influences, that of Marguerite d'Angouleme, the du Bellays, and the duchesse d'Etampes, who was in favour of the Reformation or at least of toleration, and the contrary influence of the uncompromising Catholics, Duprat, and then Montmorency and de Tournon, he gave pledges successively to both parties.
Of the total about 45% are Roman Catholics, 32% Protestant Episcopalians, and 16% Presbyterians, the Roman Catholic faith prevailing in the mountainous districts and the Protestant in the towns and lowlands.
In Le Correspondant (1843), established by Montalembert and De Falloux, the Catholics and Legitimists had a valuable supporter.
He was always in favour of the abolition of the slave trade (which he actually effected during his short tenure of office in 1806), of the repeal of the Test Acts, and of concessions to the Roman Catholics, both in Great Britain and in Ireland.
He, like Pitt, was compelled to bow to the king's invincible determination not to allow the emancipation of the Roman Catholics.
Heresy became henceforward a purely ecclesiastical offence, although disabling laws of various kinds continued to be enforced against Jews, Catholics and other dissenters.
The Lebanon is under a military governor (mushir)who must be a Christian in the service of the sultan, approved by the powers, and has, so far, been chosen from the Roman Catholics owing to the great preponderance of Latin Christians in the province.
Albania, the traditional claim of France to protect Roman Catholics in the Ottoman Empire has been greatly impaired by the non-religious character of the Republic. Like Italy, she is now regarded by Eastern Catholics with distrust as an enemy of the Holy Father.
Kovno and Suvalki provinces Roman Catholics make up 75.2% of the population, Jews 12.5%, Orthodox 8.9% and Protestants and Calvinists 3.5%.
At rare intervals a vision might perhaps be vouchsafed to some Montanistic old woman, or a brother might now and then have a dream that seemed to be of supernatural origin; but the overmastering power of religious enthusiasm was a thing of which the Montanists knew as little as the Catholics.
On doctrinal questions there was no real difference between the Catholics and the Montanists.
After the close of the 2nd century we find two sections amongst the Western Montanists, just as amongst the Western Catholics - there were some who adopted the Logos-Christology, and others who remained Monarchians.1 Sources.
There were really divided views on the question of the Divine Monarchy among the Montanists as among the Catholics.
He compiled the Garden of the Soul (1740 ?), which continues to be the most popular manual of devotion among English-speaking Roman Catholics, and he revised an edition of the Douai version of the Scriptures (1749-1750), correcting the language and orthography, which in many places had become obsolete.
During the eight years of his life at Bayswater he was most active in all the duties of the priesthood, preaching, hearing confessions, and receiving converts; and he was notably zealous to promote in England all that was specially Roman and papal, thus giving offence to old-fashioned Catholics, both clerical and lay, many of whom were largely influenced by Gallican ideas, and had with difficulty accepted the restoration of the hierarchy in 1850.
He was now generally recognized as the able and effective leader of the Ultramontane party among English Roman Catholics,.
He steadily opposed whatever might encourage the admission of Catholics to the national universities, and so put his foot down on Newman's project to open a branch house of the Oratory at Oxford with himself as superior.
Though this was intended as a barrier against Calvinistic influences, certain Reformed writers, as well as Roman Catholics, persisted in claiming the support of the Greek Church for sundry of their own positions.
The Presbyterians and Protestant Episcopalians each outnumber the Roman Catholics in Belfast, and these three are the chief religious divisions.
When the king arrived at Belfast in that year there were only two places of worship in the town, the old corporation church in the High Street, and the Presbyterian meeting-house in Rosemary Lane, the Roman Catholics not being permitted to build their chapels within the walls of corporate towns.
The religious views of Servetus, marked by strong individuality, are not easily described in terms of current systems. His denial of the tripersonality of the Godhead and the eternity of the Son, along with his anabaptism, made his system abhorrent to Catholics and Protestants alike, in spite of his intense Biblicism, his passionate devotion to the person of Christ, and his Christocentric scheme of the universe.
The people are nearly all Catholics.
Of these 401,720 were Baptists; 3 1 7,495 Methodists; 308,356 Roman Catholics; 62,090 Presbyterians; 39,550 Disciples of Christ; 34,006 members of the Churches of Christ; 27,437 Lutherans; 14,246 Protestant Episcopalians; 7745 members of the German Evangelical Synod of North America, and 1856 Congregationalists.
In 1906 it was estimated that there were 788,667 communicants of all religious denominations; of these 207,607 were Roman Catholics; 164,329 Methodists; 117,668 Lutherans; 60,081 Presbyterians; 55,948 Disciples of Christ; 44,096 Baptists; 37,061 Congregationalists; 11,681 members of the German Evangelical Synod; and 8990 Protestant Episcopalians.
Protestantism; on the contrary, he yearned to beat these by their own weapons, chiefly by showing them that Catholics could interpret the Bible in a manner quite as mystical and pietistic as theirs.
On a third hill are the cathedral and mission buildings of the Roman Catholics.
The chiefs of the rival creeds - British (Anglicans), French (Catholics), and Ba-Islamu, as they were called - divided thechiefships.
By increasing the territory of the Roman Catholics, and giving them estates on the road from Buddu to the capital, Portal gave effect to projects which the Protestants had violently opposed.
On such points the Catholics followed the more sensible course.
The conflicts between Catholics and Protestants speedily merged into the chronic political rivalries, domestic and foreign, which distracted the European states; and religious considerations played a very important part in diplomacy and war for at least a century and a half, from the diet of Augsburg in 1530 to the English revolution and the league of Augsburg, 1688-89.
A new edition of the German Bible was issued with the view of meeting the needs of Catholics, a new religious literature grew up designed to, substantiate the beliefs sanctioned by the Roman Church and to carry out the movement begun long before toward spiritualizing its institutions and rites.
On the 30th of July 1540 three Lutheran clergymen were burned and three Roman Catholics beheaded, the latter for denying the king's spiritual supremacy.
With the protection afforded him and his companions by Bern, and the absence of well-organized opposition on the part of the Roman Catholics, the new doctrines rapidly spread, and by 1 535 Farel was preaching in St Pierre itself.
After a public disputation in which the Catholics were weakly represented, and a popular demonstration in favour of the new doctrines, the council of Geneva rather reluctantly sanctioned the abolition of the Mass.
But in Servetus, whose execution he approved, we find an isolated, feeble revolt against assumptions which both Catholics and Protestants of all shades accepted without question.
As has been mentioned already, the new charter softened religious tests for office and the suffrage, and accorded " liberty of conscience " except to Roman Catholics.
Utrecht is the seat of a university, and of a Roman Catholic archbishopric. It is also the seat of the archbishop of the Dutch Old Catholics.
Historically Douai is mainly important as the centre of the political and religious propaganda of the exiled English Roman Catholics.
It has also an orthodox bishop. The Roman Catholics, who constitute the majority of citizens, possess a lofty and beautiful cruciform cathedral, built entirely of stone and metal.
When the Arians, however, finding the second form more consistent with their views, adopted it persistently and exclusively, its use was naturally discountenanced by the Catholics, and the other form became the symbol of orthodoxy.
While Protestants, he thinks, have undermined it by a deeper conception of faith,' Roman Catholics have come to attach more value to obedience and " implicit belief " than to knowledge; and even the Eastern Church lives to-day by the cultus more than by the vision of supernatural truth.
The total population of the Waldensian valleys (for they also contain Roman Catholics in no small number) amounts to about 20,000 all told.
The church of St Michael, founded by Bishop Bernward early in the 11th century and restored after injury by fire in 1186, contains a unique painted ceiling of the 12th century, the sarcophagus and monument of Bishop Bernward, and a bronze font; it is now a Protestant parish church, but the crypt is used by the Roman Catholics.
The prevailing religion is the Lutheran (79.8%); 1 4.3% belong to the Orthodox Greek Church; of the Russians, however, a considerable proportion are Raskolniks (Nonconformists); the Roman Catholics amount to 2.3%, and the Jews to 2%.
Of 3,591,974 members of all religious denominations in 1906, 2,285,768 were Roman Catholics, 313,689 Methodist Episcopalians, 199,923 Presbyterians, 193,890 Protestant Episcopalians, 176,981 Baptists, 124,644 Lutherans, 57,351 Congregationalists, 35,34 2 Jews (heads of families only), 26,183 members of the German Evangelical Synod, 19,302 members of Eastern Orthodox churches and 10,761 Universalists.
At its first session the assembly passed an act declaratory of the rights and privileges of the people, and much like the charter of liberties and privileges enacted in 1683, except that annual instead of triennial sessions of the assembly were now requested and, as was also provided in Sloughter's commission and instructions, religious liberty was denied to Roman Catholics.
Roman Catholics support about 150 clerical day schools attended by about 11,500 scholars.
Roman Catholics number 51.4% and Protestants 46.6% of the population, and there are 16,000 Jews.
The Poles are almost all Roman Catholics.
Classified according to religion there were, in 1904, 372,078 Protestants, 1,310,391 Roman Catholics, and 32,379 Jews.
The Roman Catholics number 2 30% of the whites, the head of their church in the province being a vicar apostolic. At the head of the Anglican community, which is in full communion with the Church of England, is the bishop of Bloemfontein, whose diocese, founded in 1863, includes not only the Orange Free State, but Basutoland, Griqualand West and British Bechuanaland.
All the churches named have missions to the natives, and in 1904, 104,389 aboriginals and 10,909 persons of mixed race were returned as Protestants, and 1093 aboriginals and 117 of mixed race as Roman Catholics.
Roman Catholics are more numerous in Montana than Protestants, having 72,359 communicants out of a total of 98,984 of all denominations in 1906, when there were 7022 Methodists, 4096 Presbyterians, 3290 Protestant Episcopalians and 2029 Baptists.
About 94% of the inhabitants of Saxony are Protestants; about 12,500 are Jews, and about 4.7%, including the royal family, are Roman Catholics.
By the peace of Prague, which transferred Upper Lusatia to Saxony in 1635, stipulations were made in favour of the Roman Catholics of that region, who are ecclesiastically in the jurisdiction of the cathedral chapter of St Peter at Bautzen, the dean of which has ex-officio a seat in the first chamber' of the diet.
No change followed in the internal affairs of the new kingdom, except that Roman Catholics were admitted to equal privileges with Protestants.
He accorded at first only a few trifling reforms, which were far from removing the popular discontent, while he retained the unpopular minister, Count Detlew von Einsiedel (1773-1861), and continued the encouragement of the Roman Catholics.
Religious considerations arising out of the attitude of the government towards the " German Catholics," and a new constitution for the Protestant Church, began to mingle with purely political questions, and Prince John, as the supposed head of the Jesuit party, was insulted at a review of the communal guards at Leipzig in 1845.
The privileges of the nobles were curtailed; the administration of justice was put on a better footing; the press was unshackled; publicity in legal proceedings was granted; trial by jury was introduced for some special cases; and the German Catholics were recognized.
The Norwegian Lutherans have a normal school at Sioux Falls, and the Roman Catholics have schools of higher grade at Sioux Falls, Deadwood and Aberdeen.
Numerous Catholics, on the other hand, well qualified to form a judgment, themselves protest against this obliteration of the dividing line.
An instance of this interference with the duties of the individual citizen towards the state may be found in the fact that, till the year 1904, the Catholics of Italy were prohibited by the pope from taking part in any parliamentary election.
Finally, ample scope for the display of tolerance - or intolerance - is found in the mixed marriages between Protestants and Catholics, which, as a result of the modern facilities for intercommunication and the consequent greater mobility of the population, have shown a large increase during the last few decades - in Germany, for instance.
Just as in Protestant countries there has often been an amalgamation of evangelical belief with national feeling, to the great gain of both, Catholics demand that Catholicism shall enter into the sphere of their national interests, and that the activities of the Catholic Church should rest on a national basis.
In Germany, again, the last few years have witnessed a growing aversion from Ultramontanism on the part of those Catholics who cannot reconcile its tenets with their patriotic sentiments,.
Thus Ultramontanism is not to be conceived as a theological movement, but as the programme of a party whose principles are in fundamental opposition to modern culture, modern education, modern tolerance and the modern state - a party which seeks to carry out its campaign against the society of to-day, not by bridging the gulf betwixt creed and creed, but by widening it, by awakening religious fanaticism, and by closing the way to a peaceful co-operation of Catholics and non-Catholics in the highest tasks of culture and human civilization.
But, although characterized by learning and acuteness, as well as by considerable breadth of spiritual sympathy, it cannot be said to have been accepted by Catholics themselves as embodying an accurate objective view of the actual doctrine of their church.
Croiset in 1698, and is now very popular among Roman Catholics.
The missionaries in Siam are entirely French Roman Catholics and American Protestants.
Of the total about 50% are Presbyterians, about 20% each Protestant Episcopalians and Roman Catholics; Antrim being one of the most decidedly Protestant counties in Ireland.
He was loudly accused by the Catholics of collusion with the enemies of the faith.
But the Romanists (who form 13% of the electors) are steadily growing in numbers and in influence, while the Christian Catholics are losing ground rapidly, the highest number of votes received by a candidate for the conseil superieur having fallen from 2003 in 1874 to 806 in 1890 and 507 in 1906, while they are abandoning the country churches (some were lost as early as 1892) which they had taken from the Romanists in the course of the Kulturkampf.
The Popular party, composed of Catholics and recruited largely from Slovakia and the country districts of Moravia, was represented by 33 deputies and 18 senators.
Generally speaking, the Roman Catholics are on the increase in Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony and Wurttemburg; and the Evangelicals in the other districts of Germany, especially in the large cities.
Her brother, Louis XIII., only consented to the marriage on the condition that the English Roman Catholics were relieved from the operation of the penal laws.
He soon found an excuse for breaking his promise to relieve the English Catholics.
During the session of the Short Parliament in the spring of 1640, the queen urged the king to oppose himself to the House of Commons in defence of the Catholics.
When the Long Parliament met, the Catholics were believed to be the authors and agents of every arbitrary scheme which was supposed to have entered into the plans of Strafford or Laud.
The Old Catholic Communion, however, was formally constituted, with Reinkens at its head as bishop, and it still continues to exist (see OLD Catholics).
The proprietor was a Roman Catholic and probably it was his intention that Maryland should be an asylum for persecuted Roman Catholics, but it is even more clear that he was desirous of having Protestant colonists also.
Roman Catholics were disfranchised immediately afterward.
The compromise that resulted from these conflicting forces suited Elizabeth very well; she had little dislike of Catholics who repudiated the papacy, but she was forced to rely mainly on Protestants, and had little respect for any form of ecclesiastical self-government.
She could not afford to recognize Mary's claim, for that would have been to alienate the Protestants, double the number of Catholics, and, in her own phrase, to spread a winding-sheet before her eyes; for all would have turned to the rising sun.
Bardstown was settled about 1775, largely by Roman Catholics from Maryland.
In 1906 there were 858,324 communicants of different religious denominations in the state, including 311,583 Baptists, 165,908 Roman Catholics, 156,007 Methodists, 136,110 Disciples of Christ, 47,822 Presbyterians and 8091 Protestant Episcopalians.
Both Lutherans and Catholics on the continent were shocked.
Here his evangelistic fervour attracted multitudes to his preaching, including Roman Catholics, but at the same time excited the anger of his opponents; and the result of their opposition was that after a ministry of fifteen months he was commanded by the civil authorities (27th of September 1691) to leave Erfurt within forty-eight hours.
They are almost exclusively of German stock and are Roman Catholics, Elementary education is much more advanced here than in any other Alpine province.
Laynez took a leading part in the colloquy of Poissy in 1561 between the Catholics and Huguenots; and obtained a legal footing from the states-general for colleges of the Society in France.
In England the political schemings of Parsons were no small factors in the odium which fell on the Society at large; and his determination to capture the English Catholics as an apanage of the Society, to the exclusion of all else, was an object lesson to the rest of Europe of a restless ambition and lust of domination which were to find many imitators.
Some of them were double spies, sold to both parties, whose real sentiments are still conjectural; but Walsingham was more successful in seducing Catholic spies than his antagonists were in seducing Protestant spies, and most of his information came from Catholics who betrayed one another.
The United Free Church has a strong hold on the poeple, but in a few of the islands the Roman Catholics have a great following.
The statistics of communicants or members are defective, and because of the different organization in this respect of different bcdies, notably of the Protestants and Roman Catholics, comparisons are more or less misleading.
Disregarding, however, such incomparability, but excluding 15% of all Roman Catholics (for children under 9 years of age), the total number of church members was 32,936,445, of whom 61.6% were Protestants, 36.7% Roman Catholics and 1.7% members of other churches.
The Roman Catholics are strongest in the Western division and the North Atlantic division, with 49.2% in the former and 56.6% in the latter of all church members; their share in the North Central division is 36-9%.
Thus the numerical superiority of the Baptists and Methodists in the two Southern divisions is complementary to that of the Roman Catholics in the other three divisions of the country.
So also the immigration of French Canadians and of Irish explains the fact that in every state of one-time Puritan New England the Roman Catholics were a majority over Protestants and all other churches.
This was true in I89o of 12 states, while in one other the Roman Catholics held a plurality; in 1906 the corresponding figures were 16 and 20.
The Protestant bodies are more widely and evenly distributed throughuut the country than are the Roman Catholics.
In the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, formed in 1905, certain educational privileges (though not amounting to a separate school system) were granted to the Roman Catholics.
In return the company was to take to New France 300 colonists a year; only French Catholics might go; and for each settlement the company was to provide three priests.
Some thought that, under a Protestant sovereign, the Canadian Catholics would be rapidly converted to Protestantism.
In Ontario as well as in Quebec separate schools are allowed to Roman Catholics.
After having done battle with heathens, Jews, Marcionites, Gnostics, Monarchians, and the Catholics, he died an old man, carrying with him to the grave the last remains of primitive Christianity in the West, but at the same time in conflict with himself.
In this position he continued to labour, to write, and to assail the lax Catholics and their clergy until at least the time of Bishop Calixtus in the reign of Elagabalus.
The latest extant works of Tertullian (all after 217) are his controversial writings against the laxity of the Catholics, full of the bitterest attacks, especially upon Calixtus, the bishop of Rome; these are De monogamic, De jejunio, De pudicitia, and De ecstasi Libri VII.
As regards church membership, the Baptists are much the most numerous, followed by the Methodists, the Roman Catholics and the Presbyterians.
The Roman Catholics, the London Missionary Society and the Wesleyans have all missions in the town; and there are two missionary hospitals.
The total membership of the churches in 1906 was about 1,029,037, of whom 596,319 were Baptists, 349,079 were Methodist Episcopalians, 24,040 were Presbyterians, 19,273 were Roman Catholics, 12,703 were Disciples of Christ, 9790 were Protestant Episcopalians, and 5581 were Congregationalists.
In 1581 he issued a pamphlet against John Hamilton and other Catholics, who had, he said, driven him from his country.
Many naturalized foreign Catholics, including Americans, were among the original settlers.
In its clean and broad streets there are many synagogues, mosques and churches, for half the inhabitants are Roman Catholics, Moslems, Armenians or Jews; the remainder being Orthodox Rumans and Greeks.
In 1635 by the treaty of Prague they were definitely transferred from Bohemia to Saxony, although the emperor as king of Bohemia retained a certain supremacy for the purpose of guarding the rights and privileges of the Roman Catholics.
The Clare election and the progress of the Catholic Association convinced both Wellington and Peel that the time had come when Catholic emancipation must be granted; and, submitting when further resistance would have led to civil war, the ministry itself brought in at the beginning of the session of 1829 a bill for the relief of the Catholics.
This matter of the king's marriage was of great political importance, the Protestants and the Catholics being equally interested in the issue.
In March 1825 he was created cardinal by Leo XII., and shortly afterwards was entrusted with an important mission to adjust a concordat regarding the interests of the Catholics of Belgium and the Protestants of Holland.
The Roman Catholics are mostly gathered around the episcopal sees of Hildesheim and Osnabruck and close to Munster (in Westphalia) on the western border, and the Jews in the towns.
Of the total population about 97% are rural, and about the same percentage are Roman Catholics.
They left no issue, and the Act of Settlement passed in 1701, excluding Roman Catholics from the throne, secured the succession to Anne, second daughter of James II., and on her death without issue to the Protestant house of Hanover, descended from the princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I., wife of Frederick V., count palatine of the Rhine.
Most of the Portuguese and about one-third of the native Hawaiians are Roman Catholics.
One cannot but feel regret at seeing the Reformed Churches blown about by every wind of doctrine, and catching at straws now from Kant, now from Hegel, and now from Lotze, or at home from Green, Caird, Martineau, Balfour and Ward in succession, without ever having considered the basis of their faith; while the Roman Catholics are making every effort to ground a Universal Church on a sane system of metaphysics.
It satisfied neither Catholics nor Protestants.
At the Reformation the altars in churches were looked upon as symbols of the unreformed doctrine, especially where the struggle lay between the Catholics and the Calvinists, who on this point were much more radical revolutionaries than the Lutherans.
Catholic missionaries had not been wanting in the meanwhile, and in the indiscriminate persecution by Athanaric, between 370 and 375, Catholics and Arians stood and fell side by side.
The breach with the Protestant Reformation was now final, and all Catholics felt themselves once more united and brought into intimate connexion with the centre of unity at Rome (see Trent, Council Of).
Thus the pope laid the foundations of that wonderful and silent engine of universal government by which Rome still rules the Catholics of every land on the face of the globe.
While the majority of Protestant leaders left the conversion of the heathen to some remote and inscrutable interposition of Providence, the Jesuits, Franciscans, Dominicans and kindred orders were busily engaged in making Roman Catholics of the nations brought by Oriental commerce or American colonial enterprise into contact with Spain, Portugal and France.
By heading off reactionary Austria Napoleon hoped to conciliate the French Liberals; by helping the pope, to satisfy the Catholics; by concessions to be wrung both from Pius and from the Roman triumvirs, to achieve a bloodless victory.
As the arbitrary king alienated the Liberal Catholics, who were still more or less under the spell of the French Revolution, the Catholic provinces took advantage of the upheavals of 1830 to form the independent kingdom of Belgium.
The Catholics and Liberals were alternately in control until 1894, when the tenfold enlargement of the electorate broke down the Liberal party completely.
Here, even after 1831 the Roman Catholics constituted three-eighths of the population.
Allied with the Liberals against the orthodox Protestants, who were threatening religious liberty, the Catholics assisted in 1857 to establish a system of non-sectarian state schools, where attendance is not obligatory nor instruction gratuitous.
The spread of toleration, which always savours minorities, broke down between 1845 and 1873 the Lutheran exclusiveness of Norway, Denmark and Sweden; but as yet the Catholics form a disappearing fraction of the population.
It could neither afford to trifle with the sympathies of the French Catholics nor to interrupt the progress of those elements, which would naturally be a thorn in the side of the young German Empire, thus undo Bismarck's work, and restore the Vatican policy to its pristine strength and vigour.
This did not by any means represent all the demands of the Jesuits, and it was couched in terms which appeared not unacceptable to the majority of the Catholics.
Instructions were given to the French Catholics to break with monarchical principles, and both externally and internally to cleave to the Republic as representing the best form of constitutional government.
The electioneering alliances, which were everywhere in vogue, but particularly in Germany, between the Catholics and popular party and the Social Democrats, throw a lurid light upon the character of a movement that certainly went far beyond the intentions of the pope, but which it was now difficult to undo or to hold in check.
Moreover, in the industrial districts of Germany, for example, the Christian industrial movement, supported by Protestants and Catholics alike, had achieved considerable results, and proved a serviceable means of combating the seductions of Socialism.
On the other hand, the great opportunity now open to the papacy on its spiritual side, is proved by the growing respect in which it has been held since 1870 in the English-speaking countries, where Roman Catholics are in a minority and their Church is in no sense established.
Pop. (1900) 35,968 (only 13,659 in 1850); (1905) 38,700, mainly French-speaking and Protestants; of the 6114 "Catholics" the majority are "Old Catholics."
At the census of 1905 the population of Silesia was 4,942,611, of whom 2,120,361 were Protestants, 2,765,394 Catholics and 46,845 Jews.
The Roman Catholics, most of whom are under the ecclesiastical sway of the prince bishop of Breslau, are predominant in Upper Silesia and Glatz; the Protestants prevail in Lower Silesia, to the west of the Oder, and in Lusatia.
According to religion, 84.73 were Roman Catholics, 14% Protestants and the remainder were Jews.
In 1906 the total number of communicants of different religious denominations in the state was 2,977,022, of whom 1,717,037 were Protestants and 1,214,734 were Roman Catholics.
There were Dutch, Swedes, English, Germans, Welsh, Irish and Scotch-Irish; Quakers, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Catholics, Lutherans (Reformed), Mennonites, Dunkers, Schwenkfelders, and Moravians.
Emboldened by his success he denounced various Roman Catholics, married an Irish lady, and having become very popular lived in luxurious fashion.
His son by his first marriage became earl of Hardwicke; his eldest son by his second marriage, Charles Philip Yorke (1764-1834), member of parliament for Cambridgeshire and afterwards for Liskeard, was secretary of state for war in Addington's ministry in 1801, and was a strong opponent of concession to the Roman Catholics.
Twothirds of the population were Sla y s and the remainder Italians, while nearly the whole of the inhabitants (99.6%) were Roman Catholics, under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of three bishops.
The growing ascendancy of the Catholics in North Germany in and after 1623 almost induced Christian, for purely political reasons, to intervene directly in the Thirty Years' War.
It may be noticed that while the Austrian branch excludes any other than Roman Catholics from the order, the Spanish Fleece may be granted to Protestants.
The members of the order must be Roman Catholics.
Pop. (1905), 26,468, of whom about 80% are Roman Catholics.
Thus he rewarded the Orthodox upstart, Prince Constantine Ortrogski, for his victory at Orsza by making him palatine of Troki, despite determined opposition from the Catholics; severely punished all disturbers of the worship of the Greek schismatics; protected the Jews in the country places, and insisted that the municipalities of the towns should be composed of an equal number of Catholics and Orthodox Greeks.
The revival was not a little due to the foundation in 18 22, by a few earnest but (as they called themselves) " humble and obscure " Catholics at Lyons, of a new voluntary society, called the Institution for the Propagation of the Faith.
The Maori rebellion, fomented by French Catholics, was an outbreak against everything foreign, and the strange religion Hau-hauism, a blend of Old Testament history, Roman Catholic dogmas, pagan rites and ventriloquism, found many adherents.
In 1866 there were not more than loo Christians; official returns in 1910 show 178,686 Protestants, including 72,000 church members and probationers; and 72,290 Roman Catholics.
The total number of Christians in British Malaysia and the Dutch East Indies is about 600,000 (including 57,000 Roman Catholics).
The Roman Catholics have extensive missions in these countries, directed at winning adherents to the unity of the Holy See from the Oriental Churches, which are regarded as schismatic and heretical.
Very few have become Roman Catholics.
The Protestants have the same civil rights as the Roman Catholics, and the sovereign may be either Roman Catholic or Protestant.
Munich University, where Dollinger was professor, became the centre of the opposition to the new dogma, and the "old Catholics" were protected by the king and the government.
In 1900 the total population of the canton was 589,433, of whom 483,388 were German-speaking, 97,789 French-speaking, and 7167 Italian-speaking; while there were 506,699 Protestants, 80,489 Romanists (including the Old Catholics), and 1543 Jews.
The Old Catholics, with whom the Jansenists are frequently confused, date from the 17th century.
Besides an archbishop at Utrecht, the Old Catholics have bishops at Deventer and Haarlem, and a training college at Amersfoort.
The traitorous surrender of Deventer and Zutphen by their English governors, Stanley and York, both Catholics, rendered all Englishmen suspect.
Neither the granting of freedom of worship to Roman Catholics nor the word " Indies " was mentioned, but in a secret treaty King Philip undertook to place no hindrance in the way of Dutch trade, wherever carried on.
The Belgians were strict Catholics, the Dutch Calvinistic Protestants.
Opposed to them is the coalition of the orthodox Protestant conservatives, styled antirevolutionaries, supported by the Calvinistic peasantry, and the Catholics, who represent about one-third of the population and have their headquarters in Dutch Brabant, Dutch Flanders and Limburg.
The constitution of 1848 made it the duty of the state to provide free primary secular education, but it allowed to members of all creeds the liberty of establishing private schools, and this was carried into effect by a law passed in 1857 by the joint efforts of the liberals and Catholics against the opposition of the orthodox Calvinists.
The principle of personal service has been strongly opposed by the Catholics and conservatives, but became the law of the land in 1898, though exemptions were conceded in favour of ecclesiastics and certain classes of students.
It was supported by the radical left, by a large portion of the Orthodox-Calvinists under Dr Kuyper, and by some Catholics; it had against it the moderate liberals, the aristocratic section of the Orthodox-Calvinists, the bulk of the Catholics, and a few radicals under an influential leader van Houten.
Of the 46 Takkians, 35 were liberals; of the 54 anti-Takkians, 24 were Catholics.
Although his parents were Roman Catholics, the prince was, on Feb.
The population of the Rhine province in 1905 was 6,435,778, including 4,47 2,058 Roman Catholics, 1,877,582 Protestants and 55,408 Jews.
In an electoral district with 32,000 votes which returns eight deputies, four parties send up candidates, let us say, eight Catholics, eight Liberals, eight Socialists and one Catholic-Democrat.
The constitution provides for absolute liberty of conscience and there is no state religion, but the people are almost to a man Roman Catholics.
It is computed that there are 10,000 Protestants (half English) and 5000 Jews, and that all the rest are Catholics.
The principle of liberty of worship and of the press, which it laid down, was so offensive to the Catholics that the bishops condemned it publicly, and in the Doctrinal Judgment actually forbade their flocks to take the oath.
The elections of 1854 modified the parliamentary situation by increasing the strength of the Conservatives; the ministry resigned and a new one was formed, under Pierre de Decker, of moderate Catholics and Progressives.
In 1870 the Liberal party, which had been in power for thirteen years, was overthrown by a union of the Catholics with a number of Liberal dissentients to whom the policy of the government had given offence, and a Catholic cabinet, at the head of which was Baron Jules Joseph d'Anethan, took office.
At the election of August 1870, the Catholics obtained a majority in both chambers.
Malou had become the head of a cabinet of moderate Catholics, and he retained office till 1878.
In order to emerge victorious in such a struggle the Liberal party had need of all their strength, but a split took place between the sections known as the doctrinaires and the progressists, on the question of an extension of the franchise, and at the election of 1884 the Catholics carried all before them at the polls.
The Catholics had a majority in both, but not enough to enable them to dispense with the assistance of the Liberals, the constitution requiring for every revision a two-thirds majority.
The first "godly band" is dated December 1557; but more important is the covenant of 1581, drawn up by John Craig in consequence of the strenuous efforts which the Roman Catholics were making to regain their hold upon Scotland, and called the King's Confession or National Covenant.
The conspiracy was regarded by Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador, one of its chief instigators, and also by Walsingham, as the most dangerous of recent years; it included, in its general purpose of destroying the government, a large number of Roman Catholics, and had ramifications all over the country.
Pop. (1885) 239,437; (1900) 370,685; (1905) 428,503, of which about 80% are Roman Catholics.
In spite of their feuds with the archbishops, the burghers of Cologne were stanch Catholics, and the number of the magnificent medieval churches left is evidence at once of their piety and their wealth.
The great majority of the people were excluded as Roman Catholics from the franchise; two-thirds of the members of the House of Commons were returned by small boroughs at the absolute disposal of single patrons, whose support was bought by a lavish distribution of peerages and pensions.
In 1792 he succeeded in carrying an Act conferring the franchise on the Roman Catholics; in 1794 in conjunction with William Ponsonby he introduced a reform bill which was even less democratic than Flood's bill of 1783.
The Catholic question had rapidly become of the first importance, and when a powerful section of the Whigs joined Pitt's ministry in 1794, and it became known that the lordlieutenancy was to go to Lord Fitzwilliam, who shared Grattan's views, expectations were raised that the question was about to be settled in a manner satisfactory to the Irish Catholics.
Thus the Presbyterians of the north, who were mainly republican in sentiment, combined with a section of the Roman Catholics to form the organization of the United Irishmen, to promote revolutionary ideas imported from France; and a party prepared to welcome a French invasion soon came into existence.
The rebellion put an end to the growing reconciliation between Roman Catholics and Protestants; religious passions were now violently inflamed, and the Orangemen and Catholics divided the island into two hostile factions.