Catalan sentence example
None of these maps was graduated, which is all the Mediterranean they embody materials available even in the days before Ptolemy, while the correct delineation of the west seems to be of a later date, and may have been due to Catalan seamen.
Phison +barya L op felice Other Catalans are, Jahuda Cresques, a Jew of Barcelona, the supposed author of the famous Catalan map of the world (1375), Guglielmo Solerio (1384), Mecia de Viladestes (1413-1433) Gabriel de Valleseche (1439-1447) and Pietro Roselli, a pupil of Beccario of Genoa (1462).
Very different in character is the Catalan map of 1375, for its author, discarding Ptolemy, shows India as a peninsula.
It has been translated into Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Welsh, Polish, Gaelic, Russian, Bohemian, Dutch, Catalan, Chinese, modern Greek and phonetic writing.
The history and literature of Catalonia have been closely studied, and in many cases the results of research are published in the Catalan language.Advertisement
The Revista catalana (Catalan Review), published at Barcelona from 1889, contains many valuable papers on local affairs.
But it was not till 1857 that he wrote his first poem in Catalan - a copy of verses to the Virgin of Montserrat.
Long before his death he had become alienated from the advanced school of Catalan nationalists, and endeavoured to explain away the severe criticism of Castile in which his Historia de Cataluna y de la Corona de Aragon (1860-1863) abounds.
Santa Maria is a fine example of Spanish Gothic, and consists, like many Catalan churches, of nave and chancel, aisles and ambulatory, without transepts.
Magnetites were also early employed, at first in Catalan forges, in which by means of a direct process the metal was secured from the ores and forged into blooms without being cast; later they were smelted in blast furnaces.Advertisement
In 1346 a Catalan expedition started for "the river of gold" on the Guinea coast; its fate is unknown.
This prosperity has been in part due to the great development of means of communication around the city and in the four Catalan provinces.
The natural steps first of making it intentionally by putting such stones into his fire, and next of improving his fire by putting it and these stones into a cavity on the weather side of some bank with an opening towards the prevalent wind, would give a simple forge, differing only in size, in lacking forced blast, and in details of construction, from the Catalan forges and bloomaries of to-day.
If the kings of Sicily on this side the Pharos kept Corfu down to 1386, those beyond the Pharos became in 1311 overlords of Athens, when that duchy was seized by Catalan adventurers, disbanded after the wars of Sicily.
And as a poet Lull takes a prominent position in the history of Catalan literature; such pieces as El Desconort (1295) and Lo Cant de Ramon (1299) combine in a rare degree simple beauty of expression with sublimity of thought and impassioned sincerity.Advertisement
Apart from the wealthier landowners, who speak French fluently, and send their children to be educated in France, they use the Catalan dialect of Spanish.
Netherlands to the Austrian claimant, accomplished all that could reasonably be desired, though the abandonment to the vengeance of the Spanish government of her Catalan allies, and the base desertion of her continental confederates on the very field of action, brought dishonour on the good name of England.
His adventurers (known as the Catalan Grand Company) declared war upon Andronicus, and, after devastating Thrace and Macedonia, conquered the duchy of Athens and Thebes.
Silvela endeavoured to unite in what he styled a Modern Conservative party the bulk of the followers of Canovas; the Ultramontanes, who were headed by General Polavieja and Seor Pidal; the Catalan Regionalists, whose leader, Duran y Bas, became a cabinet minister; and his own personal following, of whom the most prominent were the home secretary, Seor Dato, and the talented and energetic finance minister, Seor Villaverde, upon whose shoulders rested the heaviest part of the task of the new cabinet.
The spark was put to the powder by the action of the war minister, General Linares, in proposing to organize a new field force by calling out the Catalan reserves.Advertisement
If a given province now speaks Catalan rather than Castilian, the explanation is to be sought simply and solely in the fact that it was conquered by a king of Aragon and peopled by his Catalan subjects.
Catalan, by its most characteristic features, belongs to the Romance of southern France and not to that of Spain; it is legitimate, therefore, to regard it as imported into Spain by those His pani whom the Arab conquest had driven back beyond the mountains into Languedoc, and who in the 9th century regained the country of their origin; this conclusion is confirmed by the fact that the dialect is also that of two French provinces on the north of the PyreneesRoussillon and Cerdagne.
The river Segura, which falls into the Mediterranean in the neighborhood of Orihuela, a little to the north of Murcia, is as nearly as possible the southern boundary of the Catalan domain; westward the boundary coincides pretty exactly with the political frontier, the provinces of New Castile and Aragon not being at all encroached on.
Catalan, which by the reunion of Aragon and the countship of Barcelona in 1137 became the official language of the Aragonese monarchyalthough the kingdom of Aragon, consisting of the present provinces of Saragossa, Huesca and Teruel, has always been Castilian in speechestablished a footing in Italy also, in all parts where the domination of the kings of Aragon extended, viz, in Sicily, Naples, Corsica and Sardinia, but it has not maintained itself here except in a single district of the last-named island (Aighero); everywhere else in Italy, where it was not spoken except by the conquerors, nor written except in the royal chancery, it has disappeared without leaving a trace.
Afterwards, and especially in these parts of the Catalan domain outside of Catalonia which did not acknowledge that they derived their language from that province, Lesnosi received a more extensive signification, so as to mean the literary language in general, whether of verse or of prose.Advertisement
All the proparoxytones of modern Catalan are of recent introduction and due to Castilian influence.
It is not to be supposed that the separation of Catalan from the Gallo-Roman family occurred before the transformation had taken place; there is good reason to believe that Catalan possessed the it at one time, but afterwards lost it in its contact with the Spanish dialects.
On this point Catalan is more hesitating than Provenal; it does not distinguish so clearly the pronunciation of e according to its origin; while e (1) is capable of yielding an open e, the is often pronounced close, and the poets have no difficulty in making words in e close and in e open rhyme together, which is not the case in.
The Latin never yields ie in Catalan as it does in French and occasionally in Provenal; s e d e t becomes seu (where u represents the final d), p e d e m makes peu, and e go eu; in some words where the tonic is followed by a syllable in which an i occurs, it may become I (ir, he r i; mig, me di us; m-,is, m eli us); and the same holds good for in a similar situation (ciri, c r i u s, c e r e u s; fire, f e r i a), and for e in a close syllable before a nasal (eximpli, e x e to p 1 u m; mintr for mentir, gint for gent).
In the larger portion of the Catalan domain this 1 mouilie has become y.Advertisement
Catalan, then, makes no distinctions save in the gender and the number of its nouns.
A curious fact, and one which has arisen since the 15th century, is the addition of a paragogic C to those infinitives which are accentedon the radical; in a portion of the Catalan domain one hears creurer, veurer.
Cabalan Dialect of Aighero (Sardinia).As compared with that of the mainland, the Catalan of Alghero, introduced into this portion of Sardinia by the Aragonese conquerors and colonists, does not present any very important differences; some of them, such as they are, are explicable by the influence of the indigenous dialects of Sassari and Logudoro.
In phonetics one observes(i) the change of lj into y as an initial before i (yitx, yigis; lego, legis), a change which does not take place in the Catalan of the mainland except in the interior, or at the end of the word; (2) the frequent change of 1 between vowels and of I after c, g, f, p or b into r (taura tabula; candera, candela; sangrol, sin gultum; frama, flama).
One and the same vulgar tongue, diversely modified in the lapse of time, has produced Castilian and Portuguese as two varieties, while Catalan, the third language of the Peninsula, connects itself, as has already been pointed out, with the Gallo-Roman.Advertisement
Within the Castilian domain, thus embracing all in Spain that is neither Portuguese nor Catalan, there exist linguistic varieties which it would perhaps be an exaggeration.
The plural of the first and second personal pronoun has in the modern language taken a composite formnosoiros, vosotroswhich has been imitated in Catalan.
At the present day Gallego, which is simply Portuguese variously modified and with a development in some respects arrested, is much less important than Catalan, not only because the Spaniards who speak it (i,8oo,ooo) are fewer than the Catalans (3,500,000), but also because, its literary culture having been early abandoned in favor of Castilian, it fell into the vegetative condition of a provincial patois.
This class of furnace is usually known as an open fire or hearth, and is represented in a more advanced stage of development by the Catalan, German and Walloon forges formerly used in the production of malleable iron.
The principle is essentially that of the Catalan forge.Advertisement
On some pages these micrographic bands form a candelabrum, a motif that was mainly used in 14th century Catalan Bibles.
The Catalan is a favorite of many top grandmasters, with Kasparov, Karpov and Korchnoi using it to good effect in key matches.
On your way you will be able to sample the wines of Roussillon, delicious local honeys, and the Catalan cuisine.
Without a spirit of childhood in the listener, the music of the Catalan Federico Mompou can seem almost infantile.
Juan Carlos OcaÃ±a is concerned about Basque and Catalan nationalism in Spain.Advertisement
The cuisine is strongly regional, served with local wines - sparkling Catalan cava or chilled fino sherry from Andalucia.
Even getting a Catalan spell-checker has been difficult up to Office 2000.
In MV they take some of these subjects further and include chapters on the four-colour theorem, Ramsey theory, Catalan numbers and more.
The food is also a highlight of the Catalan Castles & Coves walk, which offers a combination of inland and coastal walking.
He took the field against the Turks (1301, 1310) and against the Grand Catalan Company (1305), but was repeatedly defeated.Advertisement
From the 9th to the 12th century Catalan spread farther and farther within the limits of Catalonia, properly so called; in 1229 it was brought to Majorca by Jaime el Conquistador, and in 1238 the same sovereign carried it to Valencia also.
To this hour, particularly in Valencia and the Balearics, Lemosi is employed to designate on the one hand the old Catalan and on the other the very artificial and somewhat archaizing idiom which is current in the jochs fiorals; while the spoken dialect is called, according to the localities, Valencid (in Valencia), Major qul and Menorqui (in Majorca and Minorca), or Catald (in Catalonia); the form Catalanesch is obsolete.
What has just been said as to the treatment of the final vowels in Catalan must be understood as applying only to pure Catalan, unaltered by the predominance of the Castilian, for the actual language is no longer faithful to the principle we have laid down; it allows the.final o atonic in a number of substantives and adjectives, and in the verb it now conjugates canto, temo, sentoa thing unknown in the ancient language.
Latin au becomes o (cOla, c a u s a; or, a U r u m); Old Catalan has kept the diphthong better, but possibly we- should attribute the examples of au which are met with in texts of the 13th and 14th centuries to the literary influence of Provence.
Rumba Catalan is a variation of a particular form of flamenco rumba played by gypsies in Barcelona.
The focal point is the dining room, the setting for dinners of delicious Catalan specialities.
Choose from Italian, Catalan, French, Mediterranean, and we can't leave out American it's there too.
Catalan Cooking's recipe for Cod Fish with Raisins is great for those who love the combination of sweet and salty in a single dish.
In his old age he was engaged in incessant conflicts with his Aragonese and Catalan subjects, with Louis XI.
The Catalan revolt was pacified in 1472, but John had war, in which he was generally unfortunate, with his neighbour the French king till his death on the 20th of January 1479.
Catalan being a variety of the langue doc, it will be convenient to note the peculiarities of its phonetics and inflexion as compared with ordinary Provenal, Tonic VowelsWith regard to a, which is pronounced alike in open and close syllables (amar, a m a r e; abre, a r b o r), there is nothing to remark.