Castile sentence example
There are several fine public buildings, as the governor's palace, the new opera-house, the public library and museum of Maltese antiquities, and the auberges or lodges of the Knights of Malta (especially the Auberge de Castile) which are now used for military offices, club-rooms, and other purposes.
In his youth he was one of the infantes (princes) of Aragon who took part in the dissensions of Castile during the minority and reign of John II.
He was succeeded by Ferdinand, his son by his second marriage, who was already associated with his wife Isabella as joint sovereign of Castile.
In 1496 Philip married Joanna of Aragon, who in 1500 became heiress apparent to Castile and Aragon.
On the death of Queen Isabel, Philip and Joanna succeeded to the crown of Castile and took up their residence in their new kingdom (January 1506).Advertisement
In the following year, by the death, of Ferdinand of Aragon, his maternal grandfather, and the incapacity of his mother Joanna, who had become hopelessly insane, he succeeded to the crowns of Castile and Aragon, which carried with them large possessions in Italy and the dominion, of the New World of America.
No policy could have been less far-sighted; for Charles V., joint heir to Austria, Burgundy, Castile and Aragon, the future overwhelming rival of France, was already born.
Charles V., it must be remembered, achieved his conquest and confirmed his authority far less as emperor than as the heir of Castile and Aragon.
He successfully resisted encroachments on ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the kings of England, Castile and Aragon.
The years from 1195 to 1203 have been filled up with fabulous stories of missions to the Moors; but Dominic stayed at Osma, preaching much in the cathedral, until 1203, when he accompanied the bishop on an embassy in behalf of the king of Castile to "The Marches."Advertisement
In 1201 she negotiated a marriage between her grand-daughter, Blanche of Castile, and Louis of France, the grandson of her first husband.
Rodrigo Diaz, called de Bivar, from the place of his birth, better known by the title given him by the Arabs as the Cid (El Seid, the lord), and El Campeador, the champion par excellence, was of a noble family, one of whose members in a former generation had been elected judge of Castile.
Castile was left to his eldest son Sancho, Leon to Alphonso, Galicia to Garcia, Zamora and Toro to his two daughters Urraca and Elvira.
He rose to great distinction in the war between Sancho of Castile and Sancho of Navarre, in which he won his name of Campeador, by slaying the enemy's champion in single combat.
In Germany tallow is the principal fat; in France olive oil occupies the chief place and the product is known as Marseilles or Castile soap; and in England tallow and palm oil are largely used.Advertisement
He was born on the 27th of December 1350, and died by a fall from his horse, like his namesake, cousin and contemporary of Castile.
In his own kingdom Charles took some steps to reform the financial and judicial administration and so to increase his revenue; but he was soon occupied once more with foreign entanglements, and in July 1362, in alliance with Peter the Cruel, king of Castile, he invaded Aragon, deserting his new ally soon afterwards for Peter IV., king of Aragon.
Still hankering after Burgundy, Charles saw his French estates again seized; but after some desultory warfare, chiefly in Normandy, peace was made in March 1365, and he returned to his work of interference in the politics of the Spanish kingdoms. In turn he made treaties with the kings of Castile and Aragon, who were at war with each other; promising to assist Peter the Cruel to regain his throne, from which he had been driven in 1366 by his half-brother Henry of Trastamara, and then assuring Henry and his ally Peter of Aragon that he would aid, them to retain Castile.
Won over by the surrender of Cherbourg in July 1378, the English under John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, came to his aid; but a heavy price had to be paid for the neutrality of the king of Castile.
It was one of the many misfortunes of Castile that the long reign of John II.Advertisement
It was in vain that Sigismund journeyed to Perpignan, and that the kings of Aragon, Castile and Navarre ceased to obey the aged pontiff.
Enguerrand III., the Great, fought at Bouvines under Philip Augustus (1214), but later he was accused of aiming at the crown of France, and he took part in the disturbances which arose during the regency of Blanche of Castile.
For some time the Salernitan medicine held its ground, and it was not till the conquest of Toledo by Alphonso of Castile that any large number of Western scholars came in contact with the learning of the Spanish Moors, and systematic efforts were made to translate their philosophical and medical works.
A rapid in the Tagus, artificially converted into a weir, renders irrigation easy, and has thus created an oasis in the midst of the barren plateau of New Castile.
He assumed the title of Alphonso XII.; for although no king of united Spain had previously borne the name, the Spanish monarchy was regarded as continuous with the more ancient monarchy, represented by the eleven kings of Leon and Castile already referred to.Advertisement
In 1431 he was deputed by John II., king of Castile, to attend the council of Basel, in which he made himself conspicuous by his learning.
They took refuge in Castile.
Peter the Cruel, his nephew, reigned over Castile; and the murderers were given up as soon as required.
The chief remains of the Spanish heroic epic are some poems on the Cid, on the seven Infantes of Lara, and on Fernán Gonzalez, count of Castile.
The king of Castile finally bought off the claim of his English competitor by arranging a marriage between his son Henry and Catherine, daughter of John of Gaunt, in 1387.Advertisement
He treated with Maximilian of Austria to prevent him from entering Picardy during the war with Naples, and then proceeded to Castile to claim promised support.
It cannot have been his conscience which constrained him to leave Teresa, for his next step was to marry Berengaria of Castile, who was his second cousin.
From Miranda it winds south-eastward through the wide basin enclosed on the right by the highlands of Old Castile and western Aragon, and on the left by the Pyrenees.
It was followed in Catalonia till the year i i 80, in the kingdom of Aragon till 1350, in Valencia till 1358, and in Castile till 1382.
Hostilities continued intermittently until John of Castile died, without leaving issue by Beatrice, in 1390.Advertisement
He had even added to his other dignities the title of king of Castile, having married, after his first wife's death, the daughter of Peter the Cruel.
The title, however, was an empty one, the throne of Castile being actually in the possession of Henry of Trastamara, whom the English had vainly endeavoured to set aside.
Richard found a convenient way to get rid of John of Gaunt by sending him to Castile to make good his barren title, and on this expedition he was away three years.
The principal right-hand tributaries, besides the Gallo and Zezere, are the Jarama, descending from the tableland of New Castile a little below Aranjuez, the Alberche and the Tietar, which collect their head waters from opposite sides of the Sierra de Gredos, and the Alagon, from the rough and broken country between the Sierras de Gredos and Gata.
After the preliminary period of conquest the whole of the Spanish possessions were divided into the two "kingdoms" of New Spain, - consisting of Venezuela and the Spanish possessions north of the isthmus - and of New Castile, a title soon changed to Peru, which included the Central American isthmus and all of South America except Venezuela and Brazil.Advertisement
Ramiro soon rid himself of his rival, and welded Sobrarbe, Ribagorza and Aragon into a single kingdom, which thenceforward grew rapidly in size and power and shared with Castile the chief part in the struggle against the Moors.
The history of this period, which was terminated by the union of Castile and Aragon under Ferdinand and Isabella in 1479, is given, along with a full account of the very interesting constitution of Aragon, under Spain.
He marched with them into Spain, supported Henry of Trastamara against Pedro the Cruel, set the former upon the throne of Castile (1366), and was made constable of Ca stile and count of Trastamara.
After an offer of the crown of Castile, made by the revolutionary leaders in the civil war, had been declined by her, she was in 1468 formally recognized by her brother as lawful heir, after himself, to the united crowns of Castile and Leon.
For some time they held a humble court at Duenas, and afterwards they resided at Segovia, where, on the death of Henry, she was proclaimed queen of Castile and Leon (December 13, 1474).Advertisement
The very sincerity of her piety and strength of her religious convictions led her more than once, however, into great errors of state policy, and into more than one act which offends the moral sense of a more refined age; her efforts for the introduction of the Inquisition into Castile, and for the proscription of the Jews, are outstanding evidences of what can only be called her bigotry.
An expedition of Philip against Castile in aid of the children of his sister, Blanche, proved abortive.
In 1489, after a stubborn defence lasting seven months, it was captured by the Spaniards under Isabella of Castile, whose cannon still adorn the Alameda or public promenade.
Leaving aside the legendary and uncertain portion of their history, we find the Provinces in some districts dependent allies of Navarre, in others of Castile.
There was a short union with Castile under Pedro the Cruel, but the definitive union did not take place till 1370.Advertisement
In Alava the ruling power was the confederation of Arriaga (so called after its meeting place), which united the province to the crown of Castile in 1332.
Guipuzcoa, which had been dependent sometimes on Navarre, sometimes on Castile, was definitively united to Castile in 1200.
Long before his death he had become alienated from the advanced school of Catalan nationalists, and endeavoured to explain away the severe criticism of Castile in which his Historia de Cataluna y de la Corona de Aragon (1860-1863) abounds.
As infante of Castile Ferdinand had played an honourable part.
Having been bred in Castile, where the royal authority was, at least in theory, absolute, he showed himself impatient under the checks imposed on him by the fueros, the chartered rights of Aragon and Catalonia.
The northern part of Albacete belongs to the high plains of New Castile, the southern is generally mountainous, traversed by low ranges or isolated groups of hills, which culminate in the Sierra de Alcaraz on the borders of Granada, where several summits reach 5000 ft.
To others he has seemed to be a loyal servant of the king who endeavoured to enforce the authority of the crown, which in Castile was the only alternative to anarchy.
In 1445 the faction of the nobles allied with Alvaro's main enemies, the Infantes de Aragon, were beaten at Olmedo, and the favourite, who had been constable of Castile and count of Santesteban since 1423, became Grand Master of the military order of Santiago by election of the Knights.
Daughters of Philip of Swabia married Ferdinand III., king of Castile and Leon, and Henry II, duke of Brabant, and a daughter of Conrad, brother of the emperor Frederick I., married into the family of Guelph.
These incessant wars weakened the Mahommedans, to the great advantage of the rising power of the Christian kings of Leon and Castile, but they gave the kingdom of Seville a certain superiority over the other little states.
After 1063 he was assailed by Fernando El Magno of Castile and Leon, who marched to the gates of Seville, and forced him to pay tribute.
He was made provincial of his order for Castile.
After his death in 737,the Asturians continued to offer the same heroic resistance, and ultimately enabled the people of Galicia, Leon and Castile to recover their liberty.
Andalusia has never been, like Castile or Aragon, a separate kingdom.
He was more or less effectively the supreme temporal chief of the kingdom of Sicily and Naples, Sardinia, the states of the Iberian peninsula (Castile, Leon, Navarre and Portugal), Aragon (which, under Peter II., was the type of vassal and tributary kingdom of the Roman power), the Scandinavian states, the kingdom of Hungary, the Slav states of Bohemia, Poland, Servia, Bosnia and Bulgaria, and the Christian states founded in Syria by the crusaders of the 12th century.
The name Castile is commonly said to be derived from the numerous frontier forts (castillos) erected in the middle ages as a defence against the Moors.
The northern part of the kingdom, which was first freed from Moorish rule, is called Old Castile (Castilla la Vieja); the southern, acquired later, is called New Castile (Castilla la Nueva).
These two divisions, with a third known as North Castile, now rank as military districts or captaincies-general; but the term "North Castile," which covers the northern extremity of Old Castile, is not generally used.
In 1833 Old Castile was divided into the provinces of Avila, Burgos, Logrono, Palencia, Santander, Segovia, Soria and Valladolid; while New Castile was similarly divided into Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Guadalajara, Madrid and Toledo.
Castile extends for about 300 m.
This plateau has a natural frontier of high mountains on all sides, except on the borders of Leon and Murcia; it is also bisected by the Sierra de Guadarrama and Sierra de Gredos, which extend in a southwesterly direction across the central districts, and form the dividing line between Old and New Castile.
Three great rivers, the Douro, which traverses Old Castile, with the Tagus and Guadiana, which respectively drain the central and southern regions of New Castile, flow westward into Portugal, and finally reach the Atlantic; while the Ebro, which rises in the north of the kingdom, skirts the north-eastern frontier on its way to the Mediterranean.
The climate of Old Castile is healthy, but liable to severe cold and heat.
The transformation of Castile from a small county in the north of what is now Old Castile into an independent monarchy, was one of the decisive events in the reconquest of Spain from the Moors.
New territories were annexed on the south, until, after the capture of Toledo in 1085, and the consequent formation of a New Castile, the kingdom comprised the whole of central Spain.
Thenceforward its history is inseparable from that of the whole country; and it is therefore described in full, together with the language and literature of Castile, under Spain.
Castilian, which is the literary language of Spain, and with certain differences, of Spanish America, is spoken in Old and New Castile, Aragon, Estremadura, and the greater part of Leon; in Andalusia it is subject to various modifications of accent and pronunciation.
It emanated from the king in a general council of the kingdom of Leon and Castile, and consisted of two separate parts; in the first 19 chapters were contained a series of statutes which were to be valid for the kingdom at large, while the rest of the document was simply a municipal charter.'
Latterly the word fuero came to be used in Castile in a wider sense than before, as meaning a general code of laws; thus about the time of Saint Ferdinand the old Lex Visigothorum, then translated for the first time into the vernacular, was called the Fuero Juzgo, a name which was soon retranslated into the barbarous Latin of the period as Forum Judicum; 4 and among the compilations of Alphonso the Learned in like manner were an Espejo de Fueros and also the Fuero de las leyes, better known perhaps as the Fuero Real.
The history of the Foraes of the Portuguese towns, and of the Fors du Beam, is precisely analogous to that of the fueros of Castile.
But the union of Castile and Aragon in 1479 favoured other cities of Spain at the expense of Barcelona, whose commercial supremacy was transferred to the ports of western Spain by the discovery of America in 1492.
By the marriage of Mary, only daughter of Charles the Bold of Burgundy to Maximilian, archduke of Austria, 1477, the grand mastership of the order came to the house of Habsburg and, with the Netherlands provinces, to Spain in 1504 on the accession of Philip, Maximilian's son, to Castile.
Of his many works the most important are his chronicles of the four kings of Castile during whose reigns he lived; they give a generally accurate account of scenes and events, most of which he had witnessed; he also wrote a long satirical and didactic poem, interesting as a picture of his personal experiences and of contemporary morality.
His next brother, Edmund of Langley, who was created duke of York (1385),(1385), founded the Yorkist line, and was father, by a daughter and co-heiress of Pedro the Cruel, king of Castile, of two sons, Edward, second duke, who was slain at Agincourt, and Richard, earl of Cambridge, who by marrying the granddaughter and eventual heiress of Lionel's daughter Philippa, brought the right to the succession into the house of York.
In 1366 he joined his eldest brother, Edward the Black Prince, in Aquitaine, and in the year after led a strong contingent to share in the campaign in support of Pedro the Cruel of Castile.
The victory of John of Portugal over the king of Castile at Aljubarrota, won with English help, offered an opportunity.
Juan, who had succeeded his father Henry as king of Castile, offered a compromise by marriage.
In the spring the allies invaded Castile.
The conquests of the previous year were lost, and when Juan renewed his offers, John of Gaunt agreed to surrender his claims to his daughter by Constance of Castile, who was to marry Juan's heir.
Almost immediately after his return John married as his third wife Catherine Swynford; Constance of Castile had died in 1394.
In January 1256, however, William was killed, and in the following year there was a double election for the German crown, Alphonso X., king of Castile, a grandson of Philip of Swabia, and Richard, earl of Cornwall, brother of the English king Henry III., being each chosen by parties of electors.
In that year the young king of Castile, Henry, was killed by accident.
Berengaria sent for her son with such speed that her messenger reached Leon before the news of the death of the king of Castile, and when he came to her she renounced the crown in his favour.
After the union of Castile and Leon in that year he began the series of campaigns which ended by reducing the Mahommedan dominions in Spain to Granada.
He renewed the ban against Peter the Cruel of Castile, and interfered in vain against Peter IV.
In 1086 he was invited by the Mahommedan princes in Spain to defend them against Alphonso VI., king of Castile and Leon.
Three books of Amadis de Gaula are mentioned by Pero Ferrus who was living in 1379, and there is evidence that the romance was current in Castile more than a quarter of a century earlier; but again there is no information as to the language in which they were written.
La Salle, thus placed in a position of inferiority, left the islands and appealed unsuccessfully for redress at the court of Castile.
Eight years of misrule followed before Queen Catherine of Castile intervened.
Jean de Bethencourt, who died in 1422, bequeathed the islands to his brother Reynaud; Guzman sold them to another Spaniard named Paraza, who was forced to re-sell to Ferdinand and Isabella of Castile in 1476; and Prince Henry twice endeavoured to enforce his own claims. Meanwhile the Guanches remained unconquered throughout the greater part of the archipelago.
In 1479 the sovereignty of Ferdinand and Isabella over the Canaries was established by the treaty of Alcagova, between Portugal and Castile.
During the remaining twenty years of his life, James was much concerned in warring with the Moors in Murcia, not on his own account, but on behalf of his son-in-law Alphonso the Wise of Castile.
After repudiating Leonora of Castile he married Yolande (in Spanish Violante) daughter of Andrew II.
He also vanquished Alphonso Raymond of Castile, his mother's ally, and thus freed Portugal from dependence on the crown of Leon.
Philip's son Louis, afterwards Louis VIII., married Blanche of Castile, John's niece.
After its capture by Alphonso the Wise of Castile (1252-1284), the town was a Christian stronghold on the borders of Moorish territory.
The period of minority was exceptionally anarchical, even for Castile, but as the cities, always the best supporters of the royal authority, were growing in strength, Henry was able to reduce his kingdom to obedience, and, when he took the government into his own hands after 1393, to compel his nobles with comparative ease to surrender the crown lands they had seized.
This league was joined by a powerful group of princes and nobles and found recognition by the prince-electors of the Empire; but for want of leadership it did not stand the test, when Richard of Cornwall and Alphonso of Castile were elected rival kings in 1257.2 In the following centuries the imperial cities in south Germany, where most of them were situated, repeatedly formed leagues to protect their interests against the power of the princes and the nobles, and destructive wars were waged; but no great political issue found solution, the relative position of the parties after each war remaining much what it had been before.
Blanche of Castile, the queen-mother, arranged the marriage to win over to the cause of France the powerful count of Provence, but treated her daughter-in-law most unkindly, and her jealousy of the energetic young queen was naturally shared by Louis, whose coldness towards and suspicion of his wife are well known.
Aspiring during the reign of her son to the same role which she had seen Blanche of Castile play, she induced, in 1263, the young Philip, heir to the throne, to promise to obey her in everything up to the age of thirty; and Saint Louis was obliged to ask for a bull from Urban IV.
At this juncture he succeeded in making his escape from prison in Castile into Aragon, where, under the ancient " fueros " of the kingdom he could claim a public trial in open court, and so bring into requisition the documentary evidence he possessed of the king's complicity in the deed.
In 1252, on the death of his mother, Blanche of Castile, he was joint regent with Charles of Anjou until the return of Louis IX., and took a great part in the negotiations which led to the treaties of Abbeville and of Paris (1258-1259).
After entering the Benedictine order and teaching at the university of Paris from 1435 to 1438, he became almoner to Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, who entrusted him with diplomatic missions in France, Italy, Portugal and Castile.
The Spaniards became one nation by the conquest of Granada and the union of the crowns of Castile and Aragon.
After the meeting at Ferentino, John went to France and England, finding little consolation; and thence he travelled to Compostella, where he married a new wife, Berengaria of Castile.
Thus in the central district of Val de Penas and in the Rioja region (situated between Old Castile and Navarre) in the north-east are produced red wines which in regard to vinosity, body and in some other respects resemble the heavier clarets or burgundies of France - although not possessing the delicacy and elegance of the latter.
In I128, after her power had been crushed in another unsuccessful conflict with Leon and Castile, she was deposed by her own rebellious subjects and exiled in company with Peres.
The annals of his reign have been encum Alphonso 1., bered with a mass of legends, among which must be g g included the account of a cortes held at Lamego in 1143; probably also the description of the Valdevez tournament, in which the Portuguese knights are said to have vanquished the champions of Leon and Castile.
Hostilities between Portugal and the reunited kingdoms of Leon and Castile were terminated in 1297 by a treaty of alliance, in accordance with which Ferdinand IV.
Ferdinand, a weak but ambitious and unscrupulous king, claimed the thrones of Castile and Leon, left vacant by the death of Pedro I.
To avenge this slight, Henry of Castile invaded Portugal and besieged Lisbon.
Ferdinand appealed to John of Gaunt, who also claimed the throne of Castile, on behalf of his wife Constance, daughter of Pedro I.
An alliance between Portugal and England was concluded; and although Ferdinand made peace with Castile in 1374, he renewed his claim in 1380, after the death of Henry of Castile, and sent Joao Fernandes Andeiro, count of Ourem, to secure English aid.
Abroad, he aimed at peace with Castile and close friendship with England.
Portugal was not to be regarded as a conquered or annexed province, but as a separate kingdom, joined to Spain solely by a personal union similar to the union between Castile and Aragon under Ferdinand and Isabella.
Asturias had been united with Leon, Leon with Castile, Castile with Aragon.
Yet as regards the Peninsula, the literatures of Portugal and Castile act and react on one another and if the latter gave much, she also received much, for nearly every Portuguese author of renown from 1450 until the 18th century, except Antonio Ferreira, wrote in Spanish, and some, like Jorge de Montemor and Manoel de Mello, produced masterpieces in that language and are numbered .as Spanish classics.
Being a much better soldier than any of his opponents he gained victories at Sepulveda and Fuente de la Culebra, but his only trustworthy supporters were his Aragonese, who were not numerous enough to keep down Castile and Leon.
He was finally compelled to give way in Castile and Leon to his stepson Alphonso,, son of Urraca and her first husband.
Unable to carry out his project of conquest, he left his men at the Canaries and went to seek help at the court of Castile.
La Salle, unwilling to accept a position of inferiority, left the Canaries and appealed unsuccessfully for redress at the court of Castile.
Before putting this plan into execution, however, it was decided to try a "quiet way"; and Winter was sent over to Flanders to obtain the good offices of Juan de Velasco, duke of Frias and constable of Castile, who had arrived there to conduct the negotiations for a peace between England and Spain, in order to obtain the repeal of the penal laws.
Clement eventually succeeded in winning to his cause Scotland, Castile, Aragon, Navarre, a great part of the Latin East, and Flanders.
St Louis gave it to his mother Blanche of Castile, and then to his wife Marguerite of Provence.
He continued for some years in favour with the king, who made him a knight of the Garter; but, having killed a man in a passion, he fled abroad and was entertained at the court of the emperor Maximilian, and afterwards at that of Philip, king of Castile, when resident in the Low Countries before his departure for Spain.
He was born at Guadalajara in New Castile, the chief lordship of his family, on the 3rd of May 1428.
The house of Mendoza claimed to descend from the lords of Llodio in Alava, and to have been settled in Old Castile, in the 11th century.
Another had been Admiral of Castile in the reign of Alphonso the Wise.
In 1473 he was created cardinal, was promoted to the archbishopric of Seville and named chancellor of Castile.
He fought for her at the battle of Toro on the 1st of March 1476; had a prominent part in placing her on the throne; and served her indefatigably in her efforts to suppress the disorderly nobles of Castile.
His protectors entered into negotiations which in fact turned on the question whether more was to be gained by supporting him, or by giving him up. An appeal to Isabella, queen of Castile, met with no response.
Requesens was only "a gentleman of cloak and sword" (caballero de capa y espada), though by the king's favour he was "grand commander" of the military order of Santiago in Castile.
Declaring John deposed because he had broken his oath to observe the charter, they Offered the crown to Louis of France, the son of King Philip, because he had married Johns niece Blanche of Castile and could assert in her right a claim to the throne.
He was persuaded by the exiled Peter the Cruel king of Castile to restore him to the throne which he had forfeited by his mis- Spain.
In 1367 he gathered a great army, entered Castile, defeated the usurper Henry of Trasta mara at the battle of Najera, and restored his ally.
It is interesting to find that he had for some time at the end of his reign a second Spanish marriage in view; his wife Elizabeth of York having died in 1503, he seriously proposed himself as a suitor for Joanna of Castile, the elder sister of Catherine, and the widow of the archduke Philip, though she was known to be insane.
Francis I.; the heritage of both Ferdinand and Maximilianhis maternal and paternal grandfathersfell to Charles of Hahsburg, who already possessed the Netherlands in his fathers right and Castile in that of his mother.
Isabella of Castile, queen of Ferdinand of Aragon; whose descendants were kings of Spain till the accession of the Bourbons in 1700.
Boabdil soon after sought to gain prestige by invading Castile.
He was taken prisoner at Lucena in 1483, and only obtained his freedom by consenting to hold Granada as a tributary kingdom under Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Castile and Aragon.
A History of the Navy of the United States (1839), supplemented (1846) by a set of Lives of Distinguished American Naval Officers, was succeeded by The Pathfinder (1840), a good "Leatherstocking" novel; by Mercedes of Castile (1840); The Deerslayer (1841); by The Two Admirals and by Wing and Wing (1842); by Wyandotte, The History of a Pocket Handkerchief, and Ned Myers (1843); and by Afloat and Ashore, or the Adventures of Miles Wallingford (1844).
Presently Suffolk fell into the hands of Philip, king of Castile, who imprisoned him at Namur, and in 1506 surrendered him to Henry VII.
He was the third (or, counting children who died in infancy, the fifth) son of John (Joao) I., the founder of the Aviz dynasty, under whom Portugal, victorious against Castile and against the Moors of Morocco, began to take a prominent place among European nations; his mother was Philippa, daughter of John of Gaunt.
In 1445-1446, again, Dom Henry renewed his earlier attempts (which had failed in 1424-1425) to purchase or seize the Canaries for Portugal; by these he brought his country to the verge of war with Castile; but the home government refused to support him, and the project was again abandoned.
In the Morocco campaigns of his last years, especially at the capture of Alcazar the Little (1458), he restored the military fame which he had founded at Ceuta and compromised at Tangier, and which brought him invitations from the pope, the emperor and the kings of Castile and England, to take command of their armies.
Their flesh is as good as that of the fat sheep of Castile.
In the 12th century the kings of Castile gradually annexed the Rioja and Alava.
Charles also had all towns and large villages fortified; and being a man of affairs he set about undoing the effect of the treaty of Brtigny by alliances with Flanders, whose heiress he married to his brother Philip, duke of Burgundy; with Henry, king of Castile, and Ferdinand of Portugal, who possessed fine navies; and, finally, with the emperor Charles IV.
The territorial power of Charles V., heir to the houses of Burgundy, Austria, Castile and Aragon, which not only arrested the traditional policy of France but hemmed her Rivalry of in on every side; his pretensions to be the head of Francis I.
In 1 502 she and her husband received the homage of the cortes of Castile and of Aragon as heirs.
When Isabella died, Ferdinand endeavoured to lay hands on the regency of Castile, but the nobles, who disliked and feared him, forced him to withdraw.
In countries which were not feudally organized - in Castile, for instance - vassal meant simply subject, and during the revolutionary period acquired a distinctly offensive significance as being equivalent to slave.
While, again, continuous mountain ranges and broad plains and table-lands give the prevailing character to the scenery, there are, on the one hand, lofty isolated peaks, such as Monseny, Montserrat and Mont Sant in Catalonia, the Pea Golosa in Valencia, Moncayo on the borders of Aragon and Old Castile, and, on the other hand, small secluded valleys, such as those of Vich and Olot among the Catalonian Pyrenees.
The northern half of the table-land, made up of the provinces of Leon and Old Castile, has an average elevation estimated at about 2700 ft., while the southern half, made up of Estremadura and New Castile, is slightly lowerabout 2600 ft.
It stretches from Gahicia arc Asturias on the north to the valley of the Guadaiquivir on tiw south, and includes the mountains of Castile, the Sierra de Toledc and the Sierra Morena.
They likewise appear in Castile, forming the sierras of Gredos and Guadarrama; farther south they rise in the mountains of Toledo, in the Sierra Morena, and across the provinces of Cordova, Seville, Huelva and Badajoz as fal as Evora in Portugal.
Morena, where the ladanum hush (Cistus ladaniferus) is specially abundant; those covered by the Lahiatae are known as tomiliares (from tomillo, thyme), and occur chiefly in the south, south-west and east of the table-land of New Castile.
On the lofty parameras of Soria and other parts of Old Castile the vegetation has an almost alpine character.
The flamingo is found native in the Balearic Islands and on the southern coasts, and a stray specimen is occasionally seen on the table-land of New Castile.
In neither province is the soil naturally fertile, and nothing but the untiring industry of the inhabitants, favored by the rivers which traverse the province from the table-land of New Castile and the numerous small streams (nacinlientos) that issue from the base of the limestone mountains and by the numerous torrents from the Pyrenees, has converted them into two of the most productive regions in Spain.
The least productive tracts, apart from Aragori and Estremadura, are situated in the south and east of New Castile, in Murcia, and in Lower Andalusiathe marshes or marismas of the lower Guadaiquivir and the arenas gordas between that river and the Rio Tinto.
By far the greater part of the table-land, however, is anything but fertile, the principal exceptions being the Tierra de Campos, said to be the chief corn-growing district in Spain, occupying the greater part of Palencia in the north-west of Old Castile, and the Tierra de Barros, in the portion of Badajoz lying to the south of the Guadiana in Estremadura.
Then the vineyards spread all along the Ebro valley and in the Mediterranean seaboard provinces, as well as in New and Old Castile and Estremadura to such an extent that wine is now produced in all the 49 provinces of the kingdom.
The chain of this order surrounds the royal arms, in which are included, besides the arms of Castile, Leon, Granada, and the lilies of the royal house of Bourbon, the arms of Austria, Sicily, Savoy, Brabant and others.
Yet it is certain that in this region were planted the seeds of the kingdom of Castile and Leon, the dominant power of the Spain.
As the population grew, it pushed down to the plain of Leon and Castile.
As the Marca Hispanica on the cast became the county of Barcelona, so the chiefs of Bardulia became the counts of Castile, then the count of Castile, the rival of the king at Leon, and in time the king of Castile, and head of Christian Spain.
It mattered little that he desolated the shrine of St James at Compostella, the monastery of Cardena in Castile, took Leon, Pamplona and Barcelona, if at the end he left the roots of the Christian states firm in the soil, and to his son and successor as hajib only a mercenary army without patriotism or loyalty.
A palace revolution, headed by Mahommcd, of the Omayyad family, who called himself Al Mahdi Billah (guided by God), and a street riot, upset the power of the liajib at Cordova while he was absent on a raid against Castile.
Garcia was murdered by the sons of Count Vela of Ala va whom he had despoiled, and Sancho took possession of Castile, giving the government of it to his son Fernando, (Ferdinand I.), with the title of king, and taking the name of king of the Spains for himself.
Fernando now united all the north-west of Spain into the kingdom of Castile and Leon with Gallicia.
His marriage with Constance, daughter of Robert, duke of Burgundy, brought a powerful foreign influence into play in Castile.
The adoption of the Roman instead of the Gothic ritual of Saint Isidore has been lamented, but it marked the assumption by Castile of a place in the community of the western European kingdoms. The Frenchmen, both monks and knights, who accompanied Constance brought to bear on Spain the ecclesiastical, architectural, literary and military influence of France, then the intellectual centre of Europe, as fully as it ever was exercised in later times.
Castile ceased to be an isolated kingdom, and became an advance guard of Europe in not the least vital part of the crusades.
When the peril of appealing to Yusuf was put before him at durbar by his son, he acknowledged the danger, but added that he did not wish to be cursed throughout Islam as the cause of the loss of Spain and that, if choose he must, he thought it better to lead camels in Africa than to tend pigs in Castile.
Alphonso and Urraca came to open war, in which he claimed to be king of Castile by right of his marriage and his election by the nobles.
The complicated story of the Christian kingdoms of Spain during the next two generations can be best made intelligible by taking the king of Castile as the centre of the Am,nso Viii.
His boyhood was filled by all the miseries of Castile, which rarely failed to desoend in the middle ages 1158-1214.
Castile, by its geographical position as the centre of Spain from Cantabria to the Sierra Morena, was the forefront of the struggle with the Moors.
Aiphonso had conquered Cuenca, in the hill country between Castile and Valencia, in 1177, with the help of the king of Aragon, also an Alphonso, the son of Petronilla and of Ramon Berenguer of Barcelona.
To tighten the bond with Leon, Alphonso of Castile married his daughter Berengaria to its king Alphonso (1188-1230), the son of his uncle Fernando.
Berengaria, a woman of very noble character and eminent ability, deserved a better husband than her cousin of Leon, who was nicknamed El Babosothe Slobbererand who appears to have been epileptic. In 1212 the king of Castile reaped the reward of long years of patience.
Fernando (Ferdinand III.) who was in all ways worthy of his mother, took up the crusading duty of a king of Castile, and Ferdinand continued the advance into Andalusia.
Castile and of Castile Leon were united, never to be divided again.
In 1265 he entered Murcia, which, Recon quest however, he agreed to occupy in the name of Castile.
It was the official recognition of a substantial political factnamely, that Castile and the kingdom of Castile and Leon had been made up Leon.
It is characteristic of the loose construction of the kingdom that the Cortes of Leon and of Castile continued, after the final union, to meet apart on some occasions until 1301.
Therefore the distinction of classes was far sharper in Aragon than in nonfeudal Castile and Leon.
Predial slavery, which had disappeared in Castile and Leon in the i3th century, existed unmodified in Aragon, and in its worst form, down to the Bourbon dynasty.
To reduce them to pure slavery would, in the case of Castile at least, have been dangerous, and would also have been offensive to the Christians, who were themselves fighting for emancipation.
John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, married the elder of the daughters of Maria de Padilla, and claimed the crown of Castile by right of his wife.
And what is true of Castile and Leon applies equally to Aragon.
They were mainly in old Castile.
The crown of Castile and Leon had indeed a common Cortes after 1301.
The third estate secured representation in the Cortes of Leon (1188), and then in Castile and the Common Cortes.
The great cities in Castile and Leon succeeded finally in reducing the right of representation to a privilege of eighteen among them, with the good will of the king, who found it easier to coerce or bribe the procurators of eighteen towns than the representatives of a hundred and fifty.
The nobles of Castile and Leon were not feudal vassals, but great landowners claiming and exercising rights oi jurisdiction on their estates.
In Castile they never went beyond begging or extorting grants of the crown lands, or pensions charged on the royal revenue.
Aiphonso, after first accepting Sanchos claim, repudiated it, and made a will by which he not only left the crown of Castile to the eldest son of Fernando de la Cerda, but cut vassal kingdoms out of the southern parts of Spain for Sanchos younger brothers.
The result of his victory was to give Aragon and his other dominions a measure of internal peace unknown in Castile.
On their own principles they ought to have given the crown to John of Castile as the son of Ferdinands elder brothei.
At the age of over eighty, blind and unconquerable, he.transmitted his kingdom to Ferdinand, his son by his second marriage, with Juana Enriquez, of the family of the hereditary admirals of Castile.
In the purely internal affairs of Castile it was always she who decided on questions of administration.
Castile and Aragon alike royal officers were appointed to adjudicate on disputes within.
One of the first measures adopted by them in Castile, before the union with Aragon, was to stop the nomination of foreigners to Spanish benefices by the pope.
The Inquisition was at first established (in 1480) in the dominions of Castile only, but it was extended in 1486 to Catalonia and in 1487 to Aragon, in spite of strong protests.
The disregard which both showed for the interests of Spain and its constitutional rights led to the outbreak of the revolt of the citiesthe Comuncroswhich plunged Castile into confusion in 1519 and 1520 after the departure Revolt of the of Charles for Flanders.
The outbreak of the Comuneros in Castile coincided with the social and agrarian revolt in Valencia known as the Germania or brotherhood, from the name of the directing committee appointed by the insurgents.
After desolating Valencia for some three years it was put down by the help of troops from Castile.
With his absolutist tendencies he was bound to wish to govern them as he did Castile, and the principle of religious toleration, which was not understood by any prince in Europe with the exception of the prince of Orange, \Villiam the Silent (q.v.), was peculiarly impossible for him.
The burden of the struggle fell with crushing effect on his Spanish dominions and peculiarly on Castile.
Resources for the incessant wars of the reign had been sought in the taxation of Castile and the revenue from the mines of America.
The outcry of the Cortes, whether of Castile or of the other states, for relief from taxation was loud.
The removal of internal custom-houses, and the opening of the trade with America, hitherto confined to Seville and to the dominions of the crown of Castile, to all Spaniards, were considerable boons.
Pragmatic According to the ancient law of Castile and Leon Sanction.
Garcia - 910913 Took Leon, which then included Bardulia, or Castile, as the eldest son.
Was driven out by his nobles, in alliance with Fernan Gon zales, count of Castile, and restored by the caliph.
He married a daughter of Sancho Garcia, count of Castile.
On the murder of Garcia, the last count, he took Castile by right of his wife.
He di vided his various dominions Navarre to Garcia, Castile to I Fernando,Sobrarbeto Gonzalo, and Aragon to Ramiro San chez, a natural son.
Saragossa Irom the Moors, and was married to Urraca, queen of Castile and Leon.
Divided his kingdoms between his Sons; to the elder Sancho, Castile, to the younger, Fernando, Leon.
Berengaria resigned the crown of Castile to her son Fernando by the uricanonical marriage with Alphonso IX.
I 4541474 was not recognized, and the crown of Castile passed to his Isabella -.
Joan, The Mad1504-1520Daughter of Isabella, whom she succeeded in Castile, with her husband Philip I., of Habsburg.
Medieval Spain divides itself into three con quistasthat of Castile (much the most considerable), that of Portugal, and that of Aragon.
The river Segura, which falls into the Mediterranean in the neighborhood of Orihuela, a little to the north of Murcia, is as nearly as possible the southern boundary of the Catalan domain; westward the boundary coincides pretty exactly with the political frontier, the provinces of New Castile and Aragon not being at all encroached on.
We shall proceed in the first instance to examine the most salient features of the normal Castilian, spoken in the provinces more or less closely corresponding to the old limits of Old and New Castile, so as to be able afterwards to note the peculiarities of what, for want of a better expression, we must call the Castiian dialects.
Galician, on the other hand, which began a literary life early in the middle ages for it was employed by Alfonso the Learned in his Cani-igas in honor of the Virgindecayed in proportion as the monarchy of Castile and Leon, to which Galicia had been annexed, gathered force and unity in its southward conquest.
In 1653 the Jesuits succeeded in securing his translation to the little see of Osma in Old Castile.
The fanaticism of the Muwahhadis did not prevent them from encouraging the establishment of Christians even in Fez, and after the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa they occasionally entered into alliances with the kings of Castile.
Garcia Ordonez accused him to Alphonso of keeping back part of the tribute received from Seville, and the king took advantage of the Cid's absence on a raid against the Moors to banish him from Castile.
She was an affectionate wife to her husband Francis I.; but she was always the queen of Hungary and Bohemia and archduchess of Austria, like her ancestress, Isabella the Catholic, who never forgot, nor allowed her husband to forget, that she was "proprietary queen" of Castile and Leon.
The chief remains of the Spanish heroic epic are some poems on the Cid, on the seven Infantes of Lara, and on FernÃ¡n Gonzalez, count of Castile.
But by his second wife, the heiress of Castile, John had left an only daughter, wife of Henry III., king of Castile and Leon, who also left descendants, and from his third but ambiguous union sprang the house of Beaufort, whose doubtful claims to his heirship passed with his great-granddaughter Margaret, by her husband Edmund Tudor, to their son Henry VII.
He had pursued the traditional policy of intermarriage with the royal families of Castile and Aragon, hoping to weld together the Spanish and Portuguese dominions into a single world-wide Sebastianism " became a religion; its' votaries were numbered by thousands, and four impostors arose in succession, each claiming to be the rei encuberto, or " hidden king," whose advent was so ardently desired (see Sebastian).
In July and, August the plains of New Castile and Estremadura are sunburnt wastes; the roads are several inches deep with dust; the leaves of the few trees are withered and discoloured; the atmosphere is filled with a fine dust, producing a haze known as calina, which converts the blue of the sky into a dull grey.
You will save money and your eyes and lungs using baking soda, vinegar and castile soap for all your cleaning.
You can also create cleansers by adding other natural cleansers such as Murphy's Soap or Castile soap.
Wood Sprite Organic Body makes Creamy Castile organic olive oil baby soap designed especially for delicate baby skin.
Mix the oil and Castile soap into the mixture once it's done steeping.
If you prefer to use Castile flakes, use four ounces of those mixed with one quart of water.
Pour the liquid castile soap into a large container, and then stir in the washing soda, baking soda, and vinegar a little bit at a time.
Michelle Duggar notes on the family's website that while she uses Fels-Naptha bar soap by the case to make the homemade laundry detergent recipes, it is possible to substitute with Ivory, Sunlight, Kirk's Hardwater Castile or Zote soap.
Other bar soap brands that can be used include Ivory, and Kirk's Castile.
If you're looking for olive oil recipes, you can also search for castile soap, as olive oil is usually the main ingredient in this type of soap.
And they are easy to care for--most can be washed by hand in the sink with a bit of vinegar or castile soap.
If this is unsatisfactory, you can wipe them with plain white vinegar or a light touch of castile soap.
If you want to give a little basket of treats, you can also include homemade bubble bath, which is very easy to make with just distilled water, castile soap and glycerin, scented as you like.
They were fanatical, and their tyranny drove numbers of their Jewish and Christian subjects to take refuge in the growing Christian states of Portugal, Castile and Aragon.