Cast-iron Sentence Examples
She turned the fire off and poured a little water into the cast-iron skillet to keep it from sticking.
She hefted the cast iron skillet and spooned some scrambled eggs into his plate.
Nothing could bend that cast iron will.
He called another portal and strode through it to the house of the one brother he'd come to almost trust. Kiki's feet were propped on a cast iron table while he gazed intently at the screen of his trusty iPad.
Lowering the heavy cast iron frying pan into the sink, she filled it with water and left it to soak.Advertisement
All the essential parts of the micrometer, including the slides, micrometer box, tube, etc., are of steel or cast-iron, so that changes of temperature do not affect the adjustments.
They usually take the form of cast iron open stoves fitted with a number of Bunsen burners which heat perforated lumps of asbestos.
With cast iron pipe this cannot be done, and no length of piping over 40 ft.
In this case both collars of cast iron are loose.
A notable feature of modern boiler construction is the mode of building the apparatus of cast iron in either horizontal or vertical sections.Advertisement
Metallurgy.The average production and value of iron and steel manufactured in France in the last four decades of the I 9th century is shown below Cast Iron.
By ca-sing two conical surfaces of cast-iron immersed in mercury and contained in an iron vessel to rub against one another when pressed together by a lever, Joule obtained 776.045 foot-pounds for the mechanical equivalent of heat when the heavy weights were used, and 774.93 foot-pounds with the small driving weights.
The revolving part is made with two side frames of cast iron or steel plates, and to these the lifting gear is attached.
This is mixed with small coal, and when redistilled gives an enriched dust, and by repeating the process and distilling from cast iron retorts the metal is obtained.
It has a cast-iron steeple (restored in 1854), on the top of which is a gold dragon which, according to tradition, was brought from Constantinople either by the Varangians or by the emperor Baldwin after the Latin conquest.Advertisement
But as it was laid in cast-iron chairs the lower table was exposed to damage under the hammering of the traffic, and thus was liable to be rendered useless as a running surface.
In the earlier refineries the stills, the capacity of which varied from 25 to 80 barrels, usually consisted of a vertical cylinder, constructed of castor wrought-iron, with a boiler-plate bottom and a cast-iron dome, on which the " goose-neck " was bolted.
In the earlier stages of the development of the manufacture of mineral lubricating oils, the residues were distilled in cast-iron stills, and the lubricating properties of the products thus obtained were injured by overheating.
The principal manufactures are woollen, linen, cotton, cast-iron goods, beet-sugar, leather and brandy.
It is now ready either for incorporation with sulphur and other materials, or for agglomeration into solid masses by means of the masticating machine - an apparatus which consists of a strong cylindrical cast-iron casing, inside which there revolves a metal cylinder with a fluted or corrugated surface.Advertisement
In Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham and latterly the United States, the reverberatory furnace is used only for roasting the ore, and the oxidized ore is then reduced by fusion in a low, square blastfurnace (a "Scottish hearth furnace") lined with cast iron, as is also the inclined sole-plate which is made to project beyond the furnace, the outside portion (the "work-stone") being provided with grooves guiding any molten metal that may be placed on the "stone" into a cast iron pot; the "tuyere" for the introduction of the wind was, in the earlier types, about half way down the furnace.
In the more recent form of the hearth process the blocks of cast iron forming the sides and back of the Scottish furnace are now generally replaced in the United States by water-cooled shells (waterjackets) of cast iron.
The shaft, resting upon arches supported by four cast iron columns about 9 ft.
Liquation, if not followed by poling, is carried on as a rule in a reverberatory furnace with an oblong, slightly trough-shaped inclined hearth; if the lead is to be poled it is usually melted down in a cast-iron kettle.
The kettle is spherical, and is suspended over a fire-place by a broad rim resting on a wall; it is usually of cast iron.Advertisement
In the Pattinson process the argentiferous lead is melted down in the central cast iron kettle of a series 8-15, placed one next to the other, each having a capacity of 9-15 tons and a separate fire-place.
Under increasing magnetizing forces, greatly exceeding those comprised within the limits of the diagram, the magAetization does practically reach a limit, the maximum value being attained with a magnetizing force of less than 2000 for wrought iron and nickel, and less than 4000 for cast iron and cobalt.
The ring thus prepared was placed in a cast-iron box and heated in a gas furnace.
If, however, this non-magnetic substance is cooled to a temperature a few degrees below freezing-point, it becomes as strongly magnetic as average cast-iron (µ = 62 for H = 40), and retains its magnetic properties indefinitely at ordinary temperatures.
Heusler 2 in 1903 that certain alloys of the non-magnetic metal manganese with other non-magnetic substances were strongly magnetizable, their susceptibility being in some cases equal to that of cast iron.
To tin cast-iron articles they must be decarburetted superficially by ignition within a bath of ferric oxide (powdered haematite or similar material), then cleaned with acid, and tinned by immersion, as explained above.
The casting-table usually consists of a perfectly smooth cast-iron slab, frequently built up of a number of pieces carefully fitted together, mounted upon a low, massive truck running upon rails, so that it can be readily moved to any desired position in the casting-room.
The glass is taken from the furnace in large iron ladles, which are carried upon slings running on overhead rails; from the ladle the glass is thrown upon the cast-iron bed of a rolling-table, and is rolled into sheet by an iron roller, the process being similar to that employed in making plate-glass, but on a smaller scale.
The moulds are made of cast iron.
What is known as cast iron is essentially an alloy of iron proper with 2 to 6% of carbon and more or less of silicon.
Small, of Berwickshire, brought out a plough in which beam and handle were of wrought iron, the mould-board of cast iron.
This head slides freely in the cast iron tubes, and is connected by a copper rod with one of the terminals of the dynamo supplying the current.
The iron case is then removed, the whole is covered with charcoal, and a cast iron cover with a central flue is placed above all.
For the distillation of liquids the retort is usually a cylindrical pot placed vertically; cast iron is generally employed, in which case the bottom is frequently incurved and thicker than the sides in order to take up the additional wear and tear.
A common type of condenser consists of a copper worm placed in a water bath; but more generally straight tubes of copper or cast iron which cross and recross a rectangular tank are employed, since this form is more readily repaired and cleansed.
Of the Protestant churches the oldest is the Nikolaikirche, which dates from the 13th century; the fine cast-iron spire erected in 1843 had to be taken down in 1901.
In the mills of the Californian type the stamp is a cylindrical iron pestle faced with a chilled cast iron shoe, removable so that it can be renewed when necessary, attached to a round iron rod or lifter, the whole weighing from 600 to 900 lb; stamps weighing 1320 lb are in use in the Transvaal.
This consists of a cast-iron pan having a shallow cylindrical bottom holding mercury, in which a wooden muller, nearly of the same shape as the inside of the pan, and armed below with several projecting blades, is made to revolve by gearing wheels.
The acid treatment is generally carried out in cast iron pots; platinum vessels used to be employed, while porcelain vessels are only used for small operations, e.g.
The brass tube, strengthened at the bearing points by strong truly turned collars, rotates in the cast iron cradle q attached to the declination axis.
This consists of a heavy cast iron ring, known as a wedging crib, or curb, also fitted together in segments, which is lodged in a square-edged groove cut for its reception, tightly caulked with moss, and wedged into position.
The water-tight lining may be either a wrought iron tube, which is pressed down by jack screws as the borehole advances, or cast iron tubbing put together in short complete rings, in contradistinction to the old plan of building them up of segments.
When hard ground is reached, a seat is formed for the cast iron tubbing, which is built up in the usual way and concreted at the back, a small quantity of caustic soda being sometimes used in mixing the concrete to prevent freezing.
The size of the discharge aperture can be varied by means of a flexible wooden shutter sliding in a groove in a cast iron plate, curved to the slope of the casing.
The tubs are then removed or struck by the landers, who pull them forward on to the platform, which is covered with cast iron plates; at the same time empty ones are pushed in from the opposite side.
These are cylinders of cast iron or steel from 6 in.
Then late in the 18th century wrought iron began to be used, at first in combination with timber or cast iron.
Cast iron was about the same time used for arches, and some of the early railway bridges were built with cast iron girders.
From 1840, trusses, chiefly of timber but with wrought-iron tensionrods and cast-iron shoes, were adopted in America.
On the first English railways cast iron girder bridges for spans of to 66 ft.
The top flange consisted of cast iron hollow castings butted end to end, and the struts were of cast iron.
Southwark bridge over the Thames, designed by John Rennie with cast iron ribs and erected in 1814-1819, has a centre FIG.
In Paris the Austerlitz (1800-1806) and Carrousel (1834-1836) bridges had cast iron arches.
This had two arched ribs formed by the cast iron pipes through which the water passed.
It had five cast iron arched ribs with a centre span of zoo ft.
The difficulty of casting heavy arch ribs led to the construction of cast iron arches of cast voussoirs, somewhat like the voussoirs of masonry chambers and air locks, a feat unprecedented in the annals of engineering.
Screw piles are cast iron piles which are screwed FIG.
At their end is fixed a blade of cast iron from two to eight times the diameter of the shaft of the pile; the pitch of the screw varies from one-half to one-fourth of the external diameter of the blade.
In some cases the piers are cast iron cylinders io ft.
The chord blocks and post shoes are of cast-iron.
A solution of one part of the carbonate in 12 parts of water is heated to boiling in a cast-iron vessel (industrially by means of steampipes) and the milk of lime added in instalments until a sample of the filtered mixture no longer effervesces with an excess of acid.
A paper which he communicated to the Royal Society on "Experimental Researches on the Strength of Pillars of Cast Iron and other Materials," in 1840 gained him a Royal medal in 1841, and he was also elected a fellow.
C is compensated by permanent magnets athwartships and horizontal; D by masses of soft iron on both sides of the compass, and generally in the form of cast-iron spheres, with their centres in the same horizontal plane as the needles; E is usually too small to require correction; A is fortunately rarely of any value, as it cannot be corrected.
On the large scale it is obtained by distilling Chile saltpetre with concentrated sulphuric acid in horizontal cast iron stills, the vapours being condensed in a series of stoneware Woulfe's bottles.
At length when the furnace was tapped a white slag was drawn off from the top, and the liquid metal beneath was received into a ladle and poured into cast-iron moulds.
The Heroult cell consists of a square iron or steel box lined with carbon rammed and baked into a solid mass; at the bottom is a cast-iron plate connected with the negative pole of the dynamo, but the actual working cathode is undoubtedly the layer of already reduced and molten metal that lies in the bath.
It consists of a heavy cast-iron platform (a) mounted on four steel balls (b) which run in V guides of hardened steel.
Most of the weight of the instrument is floated on mercury contained in three troughs (c, c, c) which form part of the cast-iron base.
When shreds and nails are used, short thick wire nails and " medicated shreds " are the best; the ordinary cast iron wall nails being much too brittle and difficult to drive into the wall.
The essential characteristic of wrought iron was its nearly complete freedom from carbon; that of steel was its moderate carbon-content (say between 0.30 and 2.2%), which, though great enough to confer the property of being rendered intensely hard and brittle by sudden cooling, yet was not so great but that the metal was malleable when cooled slowly; while that of cast iron was that it contained so much carbon as to be very brittle whether cooled quickly or slowly.
Between 1860 and 1870 the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes introduced a new class of iron to-day called " mild " or " carbon wcarbon steel," which lacked the essential property of steel, the hardening power, yet differed from the existing forms of wrought iron in freedom from slag, and from cast iron in being very malleable.
The old varieties of wrought iron, steel and cast iron preserve their old names; the new class is called steel by main force.
Specifically, it is cast iron in the form of castings other than pigs, or remelted cast iron suitable for such castings, as distinguished from pig iron, i.e.
Malleable cast iron is iron which has been cast in the condition of cast iron, and made malleable by subsequent treatment without fusion.
And it was the lengthen ing of the forge, and the length and intimacy of contact between ore and fuel to which it led, that carburized the metal and turned it into cast iron.
With this method of making molten cast iron in the hands of a people already familiar with bronze founding, iron founding, i.e.
It was then, in 1735, that Abraham Darby showed how to make cast iron with coke in the high furnace, which by this time had become a veritable blast furnace.
The rapid advance in mechanical engineering in the latter part of this second period stimulated the iron industry greatly, giving it in 1728 Payn and Hanbury's rolling mill for rolling sheet iron, in 1760 John Smeaton's cylindrical cast-iron bellows in place of the wooden and leather ones previously used, in 1783 Cort's grooved rolls for rolling bars and rods of iron, and in 1838 James Nasmyth's steam hammer.
The second period, by converting the metal into the fusible cast iron and melting this, for the first time removed the gangue of the ore; the third period by giving a temperature high enough to melt the most infusible forms of iron, liberated the slag formed in deriving them from cast iron.
Suddenly cooled carbon steel, Steep Cast Iron no; d ` r t1?at J ustenite+ Cementite.
The large massive plates of cementite which form the network or skeleton in hyper-eutectoid steels should, under distortion, naturally tend to cut, in the softer pearlite, chasms too serious to be healed by the inflowing of the plastic ferrite, though this ferrite flows around and Steel White Cast Iron 100 75 K 0 ?
The freezing of molten cast iron of 2.50% of carbon goes on selectively like that of these steels which we have been studying, till the enrichment of the molten mother-metal in carbon brings its carbon-contents to B, 4.30%, the eutectic 1 carbon-content, i.e.
But in any event the changes which have just been described for cast iron of 2 50% of carbon occur in crossing region 7, and at An (PSP').
Thermal Treatment.-The hardening, tempering and annealing of steel, the chilling and annealing of cast iron, and the annealing of malleable cast iron are explained readily by the facts just set forth.
The annealing of such iron may occur in either of two degrees - a small one, as in making common chilled cast iron objects, such as railway car wheels, or a great one, as in making malleable cast iron.
Thus a cast iron which, if cooled slowly, would have been " grey," i.e.
The reason is that the particles of temper graphite which are thus formed within the solid casting in its long annealing are so finely divided that they do not break up the continuity of the mass in a very harmful way; whereas in grey cast iron both the eutectic graphite formed in solidifying, and also the primary graphite which, in case the metal is hypereutectic, forms in cooling through region 3 of fig.
Indeed, the remelting of cast iron to make grey iron castings belongs here.
This action is of great importance whether the metal is to be used as cast iron or is to be converted into wrought iron or steel.
In the former case there is no later chance to remove sulphur, a minute quantity of which does great harm by leading to the formation of cementite instead of graphite and ferrite, and thus making the cast-iron castings too hard to be cut to exact shape with steel tools; in the latter case the converting or purifying processes, which are essentially oxidizing ones, though they remove the other impurities, carbon, silicon, phosphorus and manganese, are not well adapted to desulphurizing, which needs rather deoxidizing conditions, so as to cause the formation of calcium sulphide, than oxidizing ones.
This heating was formerly done by burning part of the gases, after their escape from the furnace top, in a large combustion chamber, around a series of cast iron pipes through which the blast passed on its way from the blowing engine to the tuyeres.
The numerous converting mills which treat pig iron made at a distance will now have the crushing burden of providing in other ways the power which their rivals get from the blast-furnace, in addition to the severe disadvantage under which they already suffer, of wasting the initial heat of the molten cast iron as it runs from the blastfurnace.
A, Ladle bringing the cast iron from the blast-furnace.
This pours into them the molten cast iron which it has just received directly from the blast-furnace.
As present way of getting the iron of the ore into the form of wrought` iron and steel by first making cast iron and then purifying it,, i.e.
Thus we have reasons enough why the blast-furnace has displaced all competing processes, without taking into account its further advantage in lending itself easily to working on an enormous scale and with trifling consumption of labour, still further lessened by the general practice of transferring the molten cast iron in enormous ladles into the vessels in which its conversion into steel takes place.
The processes for converting cast iron into steel can now remove phosphorus easily, but the removal of sulphur in them is so difficult that it has to be accomplished for the most part in the blast-furnace itself.
Until relatively lately the cast iron for the Bessemer and open-hearth processes was nearly always allowed to solidify in pigs, which were next broken up by hand and remelted at great cost.
The obstacle is that, owing to unavoidable irregularities in the blast-furnace process, the siliconand sulphur-content of the cast iron vary to a degree and with an abruptness which are inconvenient for any conversion process and intolerable for the Bessemer process.
Further, the point at which the process should be arrested is recognized by the appearance of the flame which issues from the converter's mouth, and variations in the silicon-content of the cast iron treated alter this appearance, so that the indications of the flame become confusing, and control over the process is lost.
This " mixer " is a great reservoir into which successive lots of molten cast iron from all the blast-furnaces available are poured, forming a great molten mass of from 200 to 750 tons.
This is kept molten by a flame playing above it, and successive lots of the cast iron thus mixed are drawn off, as they are needed, for conversion into steel by the Bessemer or open-hearth process.
An excess of silicon or sulphur in the cast iron from one blastfurnace is diluted by thus mixing this iron with that from the other furnaces.
This device not only makes the cast iron much more uniform, but also removes much of its sulphur by a curious slow reaction.
As the essential difference between cast iron on one hand and wrought iron and steel on the other is that the former contains necessarily much more carbon, usually more silicon, and often more phosphorus that are suitable or indeed permissible in the latter two, the chief work of all these conversion processes is to remove the excess of these several foreign elements by oxidizing them to carbonic oxide CO, silica S102, and phosphoric acid P 2 0 5, respectively.
In the puddling process molten cast iron is converted into wrought iron, i.e.
At Hourpes, in order to save the expense of this remelting, the molten cast iron as it comes from the blast-furnace is poured directly into the puddling furnace, in large charges of about 2200 lb, which are thus about four times as large as those of common puddling furnaces.
In case of direct puddling and the use of larger charges this conservatism has some foundation, because the established custom of allowing the cast iron to solidify gives a better opportunity of examining its fracture, and thus of rejecting unsuitable iron, than is afforded in direct puddling.
The coke thus at once supplies by its combustion the heat needed for melting the iron and keeping it hot, and by itself dissolving in the molten metal returns carbon to it as fast as this element is burnt out by the blast, so that the " refined " cast iron which results, though still rich in carbon and therefore easy to melt in the puddling process, has relatively little silicon.
Thus may a 20-ton charge of cast iron be converted into steel in ten minutes.'
The two great essential discoveries were first that the rapid passage of air through molten cast iron raised its temperature above the melting point of low-carbon steel, or as it was then called " malleable iron," and second that this low-carbon steel, which Bessemer was the first to make in important quantities, was in fact an extraordinarily valuable substance when made under proper conditions.
The open-hearth process consists in making molten steel out of pig or cast iron and " scrap," i.e.
The " pig and ore " or " Siemens " variety of the process works chiefly by oxidation, the " pig and scrap " or " Siemens-Martin " variety chiefly by dilution, sometimes indeed by extreme dilution, as when Io parts of cast iron are diluted with 90 parts of scrap. Both varieties may be carried out in the basic and dephosphorizing way, i.e.
Bertrand and Thiel oxidize the carbon of molten cast iron by pouring it into a bath of molten iron which has first been oxygenated, i.e.
The two metallic masses coalesce, and the reaction between the oxygen of one and the carbon of the other is therefore extremely rapid because it occurs throughout their depth, whereas in common procedure oxidation occurs only at the upper surface of the bath of cast iron at its contact with the overlying slag.
The oxygenated metal is prepared by melting cast iron diluted with as much scrap steel as is available, and oxidizing it with the flame and with iron ore as it lies in a thin molten layer, on the hearth of a large open-hearth furnace; the thinness of the layer hastens the oxidation, and the large size of the furnace permits considerable frothing.
Talbot carries on the process as a quasicontinuous instead of an intermittent one, operating on Too-ton or 200-ton lots of cast iron in such a way as to draw off his steel in 20-ton lots at relatively short intervals, charging a fresh 20-ton lot of cast iron to replace each lot of steel thus drawn off, and thus keeping the furnace full of metal from Monday morning till Saturday night.
Besides minor advantages, this plan has the merit of avoiding an ineffective period which occurs in common open-hearth procedure just after the charge of cast iron has been melted down.
At the Carnegie works Mr Monell gets the two dephosphorizing conditions, low temperature and basicity of slag, early in the process, by pouring his molten but relatively cool cast iron upon a layer of pre-heated lime and iron oxide on the bottom of the open-hearth furnace.
In the duplex process the conversion of the cast iron into steel is begun in the Bessemer converter and finished in the openhearth furnace.
In the United States the charge usually consists chiefly of wrought iron, and in melting in the crucible it is carburized by mixing with it either charcoal or " washed metal," a very pure cast iron made by the Bell-Krupp process (§ 107).
By rapidly stirring molten iron oxide into molten pig iron in a furnace shaped like a saucer, slightly inclined and turning around its axis, at a temperature but little above the melting-point of the metal itself, the phosphorus and silicon are removed rapidly, without removing much of the carbon, and by this means an extremely pure cast iron is made.
But cast iron for the basic open-hearth process can be made from almost any ore, because its requirements, comparative freedom from silicon and sulphur, depend on the management of the blast-furnace rather than on the composition of the ore, whereas the phosphorus-content of the cast iron depends solely on that of the ore, because nearly all the phosphorus of the ore necessarily passes into the cast iron.
Thus the basic open-hearth process, is the only one which can make steel from cast iron containing, more than o io% but less than i 80%of phosphorus.
In a very few places the molten cast iron as it issues from the blast furnace is cast directly in these moulds, but in general it is allowed to solidify in pigs, and then remelted either in cupola furnaces or in air furnaces.
For crushing certain kinds of rock, the hardness of which cast iron is capable really makes it more valuable, pound for pound, than steel.
Qualities needed in Cast Iron Castings.
Though all true cast iron is brittle, in the sense that it is not usefully malleable, i.e.
Of these several qualities which cast iron may have, fluidity is given by keeping the sulphur-content low and phosphoruscontent high; and this latter element must be kept low if shock is to be resisted; but strength, hardness, endurance of shock, density and expansion in solidifying are controlled essentially by the distribution of the carbon between the states of graphite and cementite, and this in turn is controlled chiefly by the proportion of silicon, manganese and sulphur present, and in many cases by the rate of cooling.
Above the diagram are given the names of the different classes of cast iron to which different stages in the change from graphite to cementite correspond, and above these the names of kinds of steel or cast iron to which at the corresponding stages the constitution of the matrix corresponds, while below the diagram are given the properties of the cast iron as a whole corresponding to these stages, and still lower the purposes for which these stages fit the cast iron, first because of its strength and shock-resisting power, and second because of its hardness.
Influence of the Constitution of Cast Iron on its Properties.- How should the hardness, strength and ductility, or rather shockresisting power, of the cast iron be affected by this progressive change from graphite into cementite ?
Second, though the brittleness should be lessened somewhat by the decrease in the extent to which the continuity of the strong matrix is broken up by the graphite skeleton, yet this effect is outweighed greatly by that of the rapid substitution in the matrix of the brittle cementite for the' very ductile copper-like ferrite, so that the brittleness increases continuously (RS), from that of the very grey graphitic cast irons, which, like that of soapstone, is so slight that the metal can endure severe shock and even indentation without breaking, to that of the pure white cast iron which is about as brittle as porcelain.
The resultant of these two effects has not yet been well established; but it is probable that the strongest cast iron has a little more than 1% of carbon combined as cementite, so that its matrix is nearly equivalent to the strongest of the steels.
Beyond this, rapid cooling and the presence of sulphur both oppose the formation of graphite, and hence in cast iron rich in sulphur, and in thin and therefore rapidly cooling castings, the silicon-content must be greater than in thick ones and in those freer from sulphur.
In the better classes of castings it is usually between 0.40 and 0.70%, and in chilled railroad car-wheels it may well be between 0.15 and 0.30%; but skilful founders, confronted with the task of making use of cast iron rich in manganese, have succeeded in making good grey iron castings with even as much as 2.20% of this element.
Fortunately its embrittling effect on cast iron is very much less than on steel, so that the upper limit or greatest tolerable proportion of phosphorus, instead of being o.10 or better 0.08% as in the case of rail steel, may be put at 0.50% in case of machinery castings even if they are exposed to moderate shocks; at 1.60% for gas and water mains in spite of the gravity of the disasters which extreme brittleness here might cause; and even higher for castings which are not exposed to shock, and are so thin that the iron of which they are made must needs be very fluid.
The steel is cast in lots, weighing in some cases as much as 75 tons, in enduring cast iron moulds into very large ingots, which with their initial heat are immediately rolled down by a series of powerful roll trains into their final shape with but slight wear and tear of the moulds and the machinery.
The cast-iron contained nearly 3% each of silicon and graphite, and 1% each of phosphorus and manganese.
The low value for the cast-iron was confirmed by two entirely different methods given below.
This avoids the very uncertain correction for stem-exposure, but it is doubtful how far Cast-iron, k = o 1490 C.G.S.
The cast-iron contained about 3 .
The values obtained in this way for waves having a period of one second and a wave-length of half an inch agreed very well with those obtained in the same cast-iron by Angstrom's method (see below), with waves having a period of i hour and a length of 30 in.
It is clear, however, that this relation cannot be generally true, for the cast-iron mentioned in the last section had a specific resistance of 112,000 C.G.S.
Neither the influx of new deities nor the diligence of the priestly authors and commentators availed to break down the cast-iron traditions with which the compilers of the Pyramid texts were already familiar.
A case in point is the employment of hydraulic lime in place of Portland cement as grouting outside the cast-iron tubes used for lining tunnels made by the shield system.
It has an important trade in corn, timber, horned cattle, pigs and horses, fowls, dairy produce and lard; and considerable manufactures, including machinery, cast-iron, copper and brass goods, calico, gunpowder, oil, paper, articles in felt, flour, leather and biscuits.
The large employment of cast iron is comparatively modern, in England at least only dating from the i 6th century; it is not, however, incapable of artistic treatment if due regard be paid to the necessities of casting, and if no attempt is made to imitate the fine-drawn lightness to which wrought iron so readily lends itself.
The massively moulded ormolu stair balustrade of Northumberland House, now at 49 Prince's Gate; the candelabra at Windsor and Buckingham Palace, produced in Birmingham by the firm of Messenger; the cast-iron railings with javelin heads and lictors' fasces, the tripods, Corinthian column standard lamps and candelabra, boat-shaped oil lamps and tent-shaped lustres with classic mountings, are examples of the metal-work of a style which, outside the eccentric Brighton Pavilion and excursions into Gothic and Elizabethan, was universally accepted in the United Kingdom from the days of the Regency until after the accession of Victoria.
The after-treatment of castings by annealing exercises great influence on results in malleable cast iron and steel.
Wrought or malleable iron has less of carbon and other elements in its composition than has cast iron.
It is bad taste to imitate the tracery of the ductile wrought iron in cast designs, the foliations of ancient wrought-iron grilles and screens in heavy cast iron.
L I subjected in a series of large cast-iron cylinders to the action of pyrites-burner gases and steam at a low red heat.
The mixture of hydrochloric acid and air is taken directly from the " decomposing-pan " of an ordinary salt-cake furnace, is first cooled down in pipes sufficiently to condense most of the moisture present 1 ?i; \'\` (together with about 8% of the hydrochloric acid), and then passed through a cast-iron superheater and from this into the " decomposer."
Hasenclever, consisting of four horizontal cast-iron cylinders with internal stirring-gear.
Probably the best example of this type of mounting applied to a refractor is that made by the elder Cooke of York for Fletcher of Tarnbank; the polar axis is of cast iron and the mounting very satisfactory and convenient, but unfortunately no detailed description has been published.
This framework is provided with guides on which the platform, whilst preserving its horizontality, is V the observer has to follow the eye-end in a comparatively small circle; another good point is the flattening of the cast-iron centrepiece of the tube so that the flange of the declination axis is attached as near to the axis of the telescope tube as is consistent with free passage of the cone of rays from the object-glass.
The declination axis is here represented by what are practically the trunnions or pivots of the tube, resting in bearings which are supported by the arms of a very massive cast-iron fork bolted to the upper end of the polar axis.
This axis is a hollow forging of nickel steel, of which the accurately turned pivots rest on bearings attached to cast-iron uprights bolted upon a massive cast-iron base plate.
The combined overhanging weight of the cast-iron fork, the mirror and tube is so great, that without a very perfect relief-friction system the instrument could not be moved in right ascension with any approach to practical ease.
A flanged cast-iron box, strongly r i bbed and open on one side, forms the centre of the polar axis.
Teeth, when not otherwise specified, are understood to be made in one piece with the wheOl, the material being generally cast-iron, brass or bronze.
About 1839, on the recommendation of Graham, whom in 1837 he had accompanied to University College, London, he was appointed chemist at James Muspratt's alkali works in Lancashire; in connexion with alkali he showed that cast-iron vessels could be satisfactorily substituted for silver in the manufacture of caustic soda, and worked out improvements in the production of chlorate of potash.
In 1904 22,050 tons of cast iron were obtained.
This was accomplished by the construction of cast-iron beds, one for each separate page (not column, as in Applegath's machine).
It has a flat cast-iron bottom, 5 feet in diameter, and wooden sides about 30 inches high, the lower parts of which are lined with cast-iron.
Burlington's principal industries are the manufacture of shoes and cast-iron water and gas pipes.
If cast-iron pillars are used, each successive pillar shall be bolted to the one below it by at least four bolts not less than three-fourths of an inch in diameter, and the beams and girders shall be bolted to the pillars.
At each line of flooror roofbeams, lateral connexion between the ends of the beams and girders shall be made by passing wrought-iron or steel straps across or through the cast-iron column, in such a manner as to rigidly connect the beams and girders with each other on the direction of their length.
Cast-iron columns shall not be painted until after inspection by the Department of Buildings.
Where cast iron is used it must be of tough grey iron free from defects.
Owing to the low price of steel it is possible to make a steel column of equivalent strength cheaper than one in cast iron.
Within the 19th century, however, cast iron became general in the case of large towns; but following the precedent inseparable from the use of weaker conduits, the water was still delivered under very low pressure, rarely more than sufficient to supply taps or tanks near the level of the ground, and generally for only a short period out of each twenty-four hours.
Porcelain, enamelled iron, for high concentrations even cast-iron without any protection, are also in use.
The combination of these stresses generally limits the rim velocity of cast-iron pulleys to 80 or loo ft.
Pulleys are also built up of wrought iron and steel, and can then be constructed entirely free from internal stress; they are thus much lighter and stronger, and are not liable to fly to pieces like cast iron if they break.
A usual value of for hemp ropes on cast-iron pulleys is 0.3, and the exponential log ratio is therefore 0 3ur cosec 20 when 9 =7r.
A cast iron mouthpiece and lid is bolted to the exterior end of each retort, the mouthpiece carrying a socket end to receive the ascension pipe, through which the gas passes on leaving the retort.
The "Livesey 17 washer, a well-known type, is a rectangular cast iron vessel.
The governor consists usually of a bell floating in a cast iron tank partially filled with water, and is in fact a small gasholder, from the centre of which is suspended a conical valve controlling the gas inlet and closing it as the bell fills.
A temperature of 70, and a reversal of the current (of low density) between two cast iron electrodes every few minutes, are the best working conditions.
Heaps of cast-iron can be seen already upon many of the large farms. Of course a great many extra parts are bought to take the place of those which break most frequently, and some men are always kept at work repairing machines in the field.
Many metallurgists were sceptical on theoretical grounds about his results, and only became convinced when they saw that his process was really able to convert melted cast iron into malleable iron in a perfectly fluid state.
The press box first consisted of strongly bound oaken planks, but later on cast-iron boxes were introduced.
Such parts as may be subjected to extreme heat and the fretting action of molten material, as the tuyere and slag breasts of blast furnaces, and the fire bridges and bed plates of reverberatory furnaces, are often made in cast iron with double walls, a current of water or air being kept circulating through the intermediate space.
Deville's portable blast furnace is very similar in principle to the above, but the body of the furnace is formed of a single cast iron cylinder lined with fireclay, closed below by a cast iron plate perforated by a ring of small holes - a hemispherical basin below forming the air-heating chamber.
Indeed, he soon supplies a completely cast-iron alibi.
On the contrary they both have cast iron alibis proving they could not have been at either location.
Rare surviving example of a cast iron Victorian bandstand.
The original cast iron bandstand was erected in 1885 in a position now marked by a clump of rhododendron.
Both have Victorian brass and cast iron bedsteads, with interior sprung mattresses, made up with crisp white cotton bedding.
A motor cycle was seen driving through this alley on one occasion despite two cast iron bollards that restrict access.
Do today's steel bollards have the same solid design consistency of their cast iron ancestors?
Brick fireplace with cast iron log burning stove on a brick fireplace with cast iron log burning stove on a brick hearth.
At Chepstow the piers were large cast iron cylinders which themselves formed the caissons, the air locks being fitted on top of them.
Underneath the abandoned Victorian cast iron canopies Claire Morgan suspended hundreds of pieces of shattered glass to make five separate forms.
The appliance is built in stainless steel with solid cast iron pan supports.
Before this time the majority of mowers were made from the more bulky and heavy cast iron.
There's a choice of matt or gloss black cast iron pan supports (made by Aga ).
Brewed in traditional cast iron and copper vessels using the finest ingredients.
Among the spoil was found an old cast iron shoemaker s last, a spade a builder s trowel and a small engine cogwheel.
Food just cooks better in cast iron cookware than stainless steel, plus they don't warp over time.
You will find it on high quality cast iron cookware, microwave cooker linings, pots and pans and metal baths.
The pits are made from solid, polished copper with their elegant stands being made from cast iron.
Mounted on the maker's heavy cast-iron stand with chip tray, shelves and a built-on 12-speed all V-belt drive countershaft unit.
A rugged cast iron crankcase is used on the 25 and 28 series compressor frames.
The tall brick and cast-iron tower, with its iron cupola and clock is a prominent landmark within the town center.
In many cases our cast iron plates would not expect to be replaced during the life of the stove unlike normal firebricks.
Other three roofs have elaborate cast iron flashings and small lucarnes with finials.
How can I get paint off a cast iron grate?
Season to taste and keep warm Heat a cast iron griddle pan until very hot.
Brentwood Boro has five cast iron guideposts still in place.
New gudgeons and ball bearings were fitted to the other five cast iron headstocks.
It may suggest that Sheldons were no longer selling their cast iron holloware exclusively into the overseas market.
I don't suppose he'll be so cheerful once he's moved four hundredweight of cast iron and driven back to St. Malo.
Feature stone inglenook fireplace, inset multi-fuel cast iron stove on a stone hearth, bread oven door to side.
I have fond memories of the cast iron range in the front room there.
I could use the lead to make half round bars which could be fasted to the cast iron keel.
Our cast iron letterbox plate has a knocker for easy practical style.
Cast Iron Cast iron door knockers are often painted black.
Here, as so often elsewhere, good surviving examples of old cast iron lampposts at present carry much newer electric light fittings.
He also brought along a cast iron and enamel plaque, depicting the Last Supper.
Do not use a mell on stone or metal, as the cast iron head will shatter.
The library mezzanine floor was put in by our vendors; we'll have a cast iron spiral staircase joining the two.
By the early nineteenth century cast-iron mileposts became common.
Adjacent to the northern stone mark stands a cast iron obelisk in the Egyptian style.
The interior of the mill has stone-flagged floors supported by Victorian cast-iron pillars and low brick arches with iron hoops.
The Bergeon electric motor (with a two-step pulley) was cradled in a cast-iron holder and available with both single and three-phase motors.
We passed by a public building surrounded with a cast iron spiked railing.
The scrubber is fitted with substantial cast-iron doors. having machined faces, through which cleaning or charging of the coke scrubber may be effected.
Anyone nearby was liable to be struck by flying shards of cast iron two inches thick.
Its disappearance coincides with that of great hearths, which were replaced by cast-iron stoves.
Together with cast iron ballast these tanks allowed ship stowage to be shifted more easily, with a marked impact on sailing qualities.
The piers, of which there were 181 single and 12 double, supporting the superstructure, were formed from five cast iron columns.
True that it's not cast iron yet, but its a far better option than Tina turner!
The center piece of this large complex is a five story brick warehouse with quoins and internally cast-iron columns and fire proof brick vaulting.
All the essential parts of the micrometer, including the slides, micrometer box, tube, &c., are of steel or cast-iron, so that changes of temperature do not affect the adjustments.
What is known as cast iron is essentially an alloy of iron proper with 2 to 6% of carbon and more or less of silicon (see Iron).
Meanwhile Henry Cort had in 1784 very greatly simplified the conversion of cast iron into wrought iron.
Ferrite and cementite are thus the normal and usual constituents of slowly cooled steel, including all structural steels, rail steel, &c., and of white cast iron (see § 18).
But two remedies were quickly offered, one by the skilful Swede, Goransson, who used a pig iron initially rich in manganese and stopped his blow before much oxygen had been taken up; and the other by a British steel maker, Robert Mushet, who proposed the use of the manganiferous cast iron called spiegeleisen, and thereby removed the only remaining serious obstacle to the rapid spread of the process.
His shriveled old hands were folded and on the finger of one of them Pierre noticed a large cast iron ring with a seal representing a death's head.
Further round the corner is a smaller cast iron rubbing post.
The turbine then drove the spur wheel directly by means of a cast iron gear.
Overhead can be seen three sets of cast iron tentering gear, one set per pair of millstones.
In addition, due to cast iron 's high degree of thermal conductivity, hot water does not hold its temperatures for very long.
True that it 's not cast iron yet, but its a far better option than tina turner !
A few of these guns have a trunnion ring made of cast iron.
Cast-iron as a base material provides a more durable material compared to sheet metal.
Cast iron is less reactive than copper and aluminum, though.One benefit of cast iron is the ability to evenly sear or brown your food, thanks to the even distribution of heat.
A wrought iron hanging pot rack filled with cast iron and hammered copper pots adds warmth and charm to a rustic log cabin kitchen.
Garden accessories such as rustic log cabin birdhouses, cast iron bird baths and wagon wheel or whiskey barrel planters add rustic charm to a rugged lodge backyard.
Add cast iron pieces, wicker baskets, overstuffed pillows, and a few well-placed lamps also in cast iron or metal.
Not surprisingly, he used iron extensively in the design of the home, including cast iron railings, columns, porches and even window moldings.
You can achieve a transitional contemporary look using a forged metal curtain rod like steel, cast iron or wrought iron.
A downside to cast iron is the chemical reaction caused with acidic foods like wine, tomatoes, and citrus fruits and they may discolor during cooking.
Traditionally they are made of cast iron.
Although it is not absolutely necessary, a good 12-inch cast iron skillet comes in handy.
It is the best tool for making such dishes as corn bread or fried chicken, and with just a minimum of care, cast iron skillets last for generations.
Whether you use cast iron or not, a lot of soul food involves either frying or very long, slow cooking methods.
Melt enough shortening (over low heat) to come just 1/8-inch up the side of a 12-inch cast iron skillet or heavy fry pan.
Cooking in a cast iron skillet ensures a good supply of iron for vegetarians, not to mention delicious flavors.
Materials used to construct older bathtubs include cast iron and galvanized steel.
Tub manufacturers still use coated cast iron for molding, as well as more modern materials such as fiberglass and acrylic.
Most do-it-yourself homeowners choose sinks made from cast iron that is coated with enamel, enameled steel, or stainless steel, depending on the look of their appliances.
Older enamel, porcelain, and cast-iron sinks may not be acid resistant.
In general, metal railing is made of either wrought or cast iron.
Historical masonry homes may already have cast iron railings on a porch or the roof that can be matched by a craftsman to maintain a seamless appearance.
Kitchen sinks and bar sinks come in a wide variety of materials including china, cast iron and various types of metal.
Founded in 1960, Copco got its start manufacturing cast iron cookware with a porcelain enamel.
Room decorations should help to create a southwestern feel, such as cast iron lamps, candleholders and sconces.
From early trains made of tin-plate, cast iron and wood to the steam and electric models of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, antique toy trains have captured the hearts of collectors for more than six decades.
Antique cast iron school desks are quaint collectible items that are easy to find and are relatively inexpensive as a collectors item.
These attractive desks were sturdy and had intricate detail in the cast-iron legs.
Materials evolved from the original cast iron and wood to all wood, wood and steel and the modern plastic and steel.
The old Victorian style, cast iron desks are attractive enough to display in your home as decorative décor.
If you like treasure hunting for vintage collectibles, you'll love the adventure of finding the perfect antique cast iron school desk.
Depending on the types of meals you plan to enjoy during your camping trip, you may find it useful to take cast iron or lighter weight camping cookware such as a skillet, griddle, and Dutch oven.
The metal should be fire resistant and free from scorching or blackening - cast iron is usually the best option.
The grill should be sturdy enough to handle one to three heavy cast iron pans without bending or buckling from weight.
The grill can be used in conjunction with a cast iron skillet or Dutch oven to cook pancakes, stews, pasta, taco meat, eggs, or bacon.
Brown ground beef with some taco season in a cast iron skillet or Dutch oven over the campfire.
You can brown the ground beef at home before your trip or brown ground beef with some taco season in a cast iron skillet or Dutch oven over the campfire.
A Dutch oven is a cast iron pot standing on three or four short legs with a secure fitting lid.
If you are planning to cook something in a cast iron frying pan, however, a tripod will not be beneficial.
Cooking in a cast iron skillet may leach small amounts of absorbable iron into the diet.
I suggest using your cast iron pan to cook your steaks, but any pan you have on hand will work just as well.
With their beautiful wood cabinets and cast iron scrollwork, antique treadle sewing machines make beautiful display objects for sewing or craft rooms.
It featured a beautiful cast iron base and a wood table surface.
Look for cast iron or stainless steel construction, easy on and off features to place and remove it from countertops, and extras like rubber grips or cushions to prevent damage to the countertops.
One of the great properties of cast iron is even heat distribution.
Another great aspect of cast iron is that is retains heat longer than other metals.
The cast iron model comes with a stainless steel, removable drip tray for grease collection.
The grill plate is made out of enameled cast iron and comes with a removable, stainless steel, grease drip tray.
Both 1.5 quart models are made out of cast iron and are safe to go directly onto your cooktop.
A unique triple-motion gear powers cast iron blades that reach all areas of the bucket to ensure thorough mixing, smooth results and optimum incorporation of chunky ice cream additives.
Trying cooking your corn bread in a cast iron frying pan seasoned with bacon fat.
If you have a cast iron grill, using soap on it can result in rust.
Use a solution of a degreasing soap (such as Dawn) and water for grills that aren't cast iron.
Select cast-iron or stainless steel utensils and pans rather than those coated with Teflon.
Even if your old cast iron skillet has a bit of oxidation, don't throw it away--it isn't too hard to remove rust from cast iron skillets.
You will never find a cooking pan that heats as evenly as a cast iron skillet or prevents sticking assuming the pan has been taken care of and seasoned correctly.
Beyond cooking, the cast iron skillet can carry many memories.
Many cast iron skillets that you buy today already come seasoned.
A cast iron skillet that has not been properly seasoned will leave you with less than satisfactory results when cooking.
Food you prepare in a cast iron skillet will take on new flavors to make your cooking more unique.
Fortunately, cast iron is quite sturdy and can take hearty scrubbing.
Sprinkle the product over the cast iron skillet.
This same method can be used on cast iron pots, lids or whatever else you can find.
Direct radiators are a development of the early coil of pipe; they are made in various types and designs and are usually of cast iron.
The sets include a table and two chairs and are available in great materials such as white or black cast-iron and wicker.