Cast sentence example

cast
  • Does he cast a shadow?

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  • They're putting a cast on her leg right now.

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  • She cast Alex a scorching look.

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  • The doctor cast a rapid glance upwards and silently shrugged his shoulders.

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  • Why were they cast out of the underworld?

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  • He was cast out of the Immortal world fairly young.

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  • Darkyn's mate cast a worried look at the teen demoness, who was shaking.

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  • Cast your whole vote, not a strip of paper merely, but your whole influence.

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  • Gabriel.s small cottage was lit by a single candle that cast light on a collection of weapons along one wall and a few books on a bookshelf on another.

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  • Anger awoke her from the odd spell he seemed to cast over her.

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  • Water shot from the bottom of the canyon, forming hundreds of tall columns whose mist cast rainbows in the bright moonlight.

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  • They cast several glances her way and appeared as interested in her as they were in looking past her.

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  • I saw Mr. Vanoli in the alley on my way to the Chinese yesterday, but I cast my eyes down and looked the other way.

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  • In time to cast my vote!

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  • Or cast myself into the Lake of Souls.

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  • He called another portal and strode through it to the house of the one brother he'd come to almost trust.  Kiki's feet were propped on a cast iron table while he gazed intently at the screen of his trusty iPad.

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  • Katie followed, trailed closely by Deidre.  The sounds of their escape were nothing compared to the sounds of what followed.  Katie cast a look over her shoulder and saw several demons had dropped into the jungle and transformed into panther-like forms.  She stopped and reached into the pouch slung across her chest.

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  • There was anger in her voice, her eyes cast downward "We have to talk," Dean said, taking the only other seat.

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  • Her eyes were cast downward, and her glass still in place on the table.

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  • But admiration of his talents must not blind us to his moral worthlessness, nor is it right to cast the blame for his excesses on the brutal and vicious society in which he lived.

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  • Each time this happened Rostov felt uncomfortable and cast down his eyes.

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  • But how cast off all the superfluous, devilish burden of my outer man?

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  • The cast skipped town leaving a peck of unpaid bills.

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  • While the theft of the bone cast a pall on the upcoming activity, the anticipation of an outing in the mountains helped brighten their mood.

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  • She hefted the cast iron skillet and spooned some scrambled eggs into his plate.

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  • Dean felt the beginnings of a headache creep along the base of his neck as he tried to concentrate on who, among the cast of characters cloistered snugly in Bird Song, might have been responsible for Jerome Shipton's fall.

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  • Gabe cast an irritated look over his shoulder but looked where she indicated.  He lowered the sword he was using to hack through the brush and started in that direction.  Katie watched as the forest cleared a path for him, the way it had before.

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  • Follow me, Toby said.  He cast another puzzled look at Deidre and ran forward.

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  • Friday morning had a yellow cast about it as if something omi­nous was about to take place.

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  • Lowering the heavy cast iron frying pan into the sink, she filled it with water and left it to soak.

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  • Carmen Barnett curled up on the window seat and watched from the bay window as the sun cast its first rays on the farmstead below.

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  • It was where he was birthed and spent only a few weeks before his mother was cast out.

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  • My father disowned me and cast out my mother and me.

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  • In exchange, she would help me seek revenge against those who cast us out after I was born.

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  • He is described as a grisly monster with a hundred dragons' heads, who was conquered and cast into Tartarus by Zeus.

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  • They usually take the form of cast iron open stoves fitted with a number of Bunsen burners which heat perforated lumps of asbestos.

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  • In this case both collars of cast iron are loose.

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  • Direct radiators are a development of the early coil of pipe; they are made in various types and designs and are usually of cast iron.

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  • A notable feature of modern boiler construction is the mode of building the apparatus of cast iron in either horizontal or vertical sections.

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  • Metallurgy.The average production and value of iron and steel manufactured in France in the last four decades of the I 9th century is shown below Cast Iron.

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  • On the 6th of October 1769 the coast of New Zealand was sighted, and two days later Cook cast anchor in Poverty Bay, so named from the inhospitality and hostility of the natives.

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  • At last one cast a stone towards the boat, which earned him a charge of small shot in the leg.

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  • The events of these three years taught the Labour leaders that a parliamentary party was of little practical influence unless it was able to cast on all important occasions a solid vote, and to meet the case a new method was devised.

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  • Opposite the barracks is the memorial to the officers and men of the Royal Artillery who fell in the Crimean War, a bronze figure of Victory cast out of cannon captured in the Crimea.

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  • All the tissues external to the cork are cast off by the plant.

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  • His spare time was devoted to the prosecution of studies in philology and history, more particularly to the study of Thucydides, and of the new light which had been cast upon Roman history and upon historical method in general by the researches of Niebuhr.

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  • The Sumerians cast the heads of their lions in copper, not always with successful results, and filled them with bitumen and clay (like the image in " Bel and the Dragon," which was " clay within and brass without ") to give them solidity.

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  • In order to consolidate his possessions still further, now that French success seemed assured, the pope determined to deal drastically with Romagna, which although nominally under papal rule was divided up into a number of practically independent lordships on which Venice, Milan and Florance cast hungry eyes.

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  • The romance of his love affair with Sarah Curran - who afterwards married Robert Henry Sturgeon, an officer distinguished in the Peninsular War - has cast a glamour over the memory of Robert Emmet; and it inspired Thomas Moore's well-known songs, "She is far from the land where her young hero sleeps," and "Oh, breathe not his name"; it is also the subject of Washington Irving's "The Broken Heart."

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  • If the observer takes up a suitable position near water, his coat is often seen to be covered with the cast sub-imaginal skins of these insects, which had chosen him as a convenient object upon which to undergo their final change.

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  • It is a centre of the iron and steel industries, producing principally cast steel, cast iron, iron pipes, wire and wire ropes, and lamps, with tin and zinc works, coal-mining, factories for carpets, calcium carbide and paper-roofing, brickworks and breweries.

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  • A plaster cast of the type is, when dry, saturated with shellac varnish and redried.

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  • Her body was cast into a spring near Thebes, which was ever afterwards called by her name.

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  • In the more recent form of the hearth process the blocks of cast iron forming the sides and back of the Scottish furnace are now generally replaced in the United States by water-cooled shells (waterjackets) of cast iron.

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  • It is enclosed by water-jackets, which are usually cast iron, sometimes mild steel.

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  • In the Pattinson process the argentiferous lead is melted down in the central cast iron kettle of a series 8-15, placed one next to the other, each having a capacity of 9-15 tons and a separate fire-place.

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  • Fleming rightly regards it as not a little curious that for materials differing so much as this cast cobalt and soft annealed iron the hysteretic exponent should in both cases be so near to 1.6.

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  • Among other things, it was found that the behaviour of cast cobalt was entirely changed by annealing; the sinuous curve shown in Fig.

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  • Heusler 2 in 1903 that certain alloys of the non-magnetic metal manganese with other non-magnetic substances were strongly magnetizable, their susceptibility being in some cases equal to that of cast iron.

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  • While this sceptical thesis was embraced by philosophers who had lost their interest in religion, the spiritually minded sought their satisfaction more and more in a mysticism which frequently cast itself loose from ecclesiastical trammels.

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  • When light proceeding from a small source falls upon an opaque object, a shadow is cast upon a screen situated behind the obstacle, and this shadow is found to be bordered by alternations of brightness and darkness, known as " diffraction bands."

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  • They agreed to cast lots, on the understanding that the second should kill the first and so on.

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  • The slag and metal produced are then run off and the latter is cast into bars; these are in general contaminated with iron, arsenic, copper and other impurities.

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  • He then journeyed to Wittenberg, where he was advised by Martin Luther to cast aside the senseless rules of his order, to marry, and to convert Prussia into an hereditary duchy for himself.

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  • Though he had been a hard-money Democrat, he joined the Greenback party after the Civil War, and in 1876 was its candidate for the presidency, but received only 81,740 out of the 8,412,833 votes cast.

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  • It had five cast iron arched ribs with a centre span of zoo ft.

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  • The reason is that the particles of temper graphite which are thus formed within the solid casting in its long annealing are so finely divided that they do not break up the continuity of the mass in a very harmful way; whereas in grey cast iron both the eutectic graphite formed in solidifying, and also the primary graphite which, in case the metal is hypereutectic, forms in cooling through region 3 of fig.

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  • This crude cast iron, called " pig iron," may be run from the blast furnace directly Ore FIG.

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  • As present way of getting the iron of the ore into the form of wrought` iron and steel by first making cast iron and then purifying it,, i.e.

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  • Thus we have reasons enough why the blast-furnace has displaced all competing processes, without taking into account its further advantage in lending itself easily to working on an enormous scale and with trifling consumption of labour, still further lessened by the general practice of transferring the molten cast iron in enormous ladles into the vessels in which its conversion into steel takes place.

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  • The processes for converting cast iron into steel can now remove phosphorus easily, but the removal of sulphur in them is so difficult that it has to be accomplished for the most part in the blast-furnace itself.

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  • Until relatively lately the cast iron for the Bessemer and open-hearth processes was nearly always allowed to solidify in pigs, which were next broken up by hand and remelted at great cost.

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  • An excess of silicon or sulphur in the cast iron from one blastfurnace is diluted by thus mixing this iron with that from the other furnaces.

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  • Discouragement and weariness cast me down frequently; but the next moment the thought that I should soon be at home and show my loved ones what I had accomplished, spurred me on, and I eagerly looked forward to their pleasure in my achievement.

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  • Mr. Anagnos states that he cast his vote with those who were favourable to me.

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  • I was never cast away nor distressed in any weather, though I encountered some severe storms.

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  • You may melt your metals and cast them into the most beautiful moulds you can; they will never excite me like the forms which this molten earth flows out into.

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  • I cast my vote, perchance, as I think right; but I am not vitally concerned that that right should prevail.

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  • The old count cast down his eyes on hearing his son's words and began bustlingly searching for something.

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  • His shriveled old hands were folded and on the finger of one of them Pierre noticed a large cast iron ring with a seal representing a death's head.

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  • He cast down his eyes and hurried out as if it were none of his business, careful as he went not to inflict any accidental injury on the young lady.

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  • A thousand times during that half-hour Rostov cast eager and restless glances over the edge of the wood, with the two scraggy oaks rising above the aspen undergrowth and the gully with its water-worn side and "Uncle's" cap just visible above the bush on his right.

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  • It was the same panorama he had admired from that spot the day before, but now the whole place was full of troops and covered by smoke clouds from the guns, and the slanting rays of the bright sun, rising slightly to the left behind Pierre, cast upon it through the clear morning air penetrating streaks of rosy, golden-tinted light and long dark shadows.

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  • The die was cast, which decreed that from 1579 onwards the northern and southern Netherlands were to pursue separate destinies.

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  • If they are again approved by a majority of each house in the next General Assembly, they are submitted finally to a direct popular vote, a majority of the votes cast being decisive.

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  • On the 6th of February 1658 he lost his favourite daughter, Elizabeth Claypole, and he was much cast down by the shock of his bereavement and of her long sufferings.

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  • Rumford then turned up a hollow cylinder which was cast in one piece with a brass six-pounder, and having reduced the connexion between the cylinder and cannon to a narrow neck of metal, he caused a blunt borer to press against the hollow of the cylinder with a force equal to the weight of about ro,000 lb, while the casting was made to rotate in a lathe.

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  • The larvae of this parasite develop in the Malpighian tubules of the insect; at a certain stage they cast their cuticle and make their way into the space - part of the haemocoel - found in the labium.

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  • The reproductive organs do not begin to appear until the larva has twice cast its skin.

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  • Much attention has been paid to the improvement of the mechanical details of the lifting and other motions of cranes, and in important installations the gearing is now usually made of cast steel.

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  • The revolving part is made with two side frames of cast iron or steel plates, and to these the lifting gear is attached.

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  • This is mixed with small coal, and when redistilled gives an enriched dust, and by repeating the process and distilling from cast iron retorts the metal is obtained.

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  • In 1894 the excess of imports over exports fell to 2,720,000, but by 1898 it had grown to 8,391,000, in consequence chiefly of the increased importation of coal, raw cotton and cotton thread, pig and cast iron, old iron, grease and oil-seeds for use in Italian industries.

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  • It would follow, on the other hand, that what is called Oscan represented the language of the invading Sabines (more correctly Safines), whose racial affinities would seem to be of a distinctly more northern cast, and to mark them, like the Dorians or Achaeans in Greece, as an early wave of the invaders who more than once in later history havevitally influenced the fortunes of the tempting southern land into which they forced their way.

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  • Plotting was rife at Milan, as also at Bologna, where the memory of old liberties predisposed men to cast off clerical rule and led to the first rising on behalf of Italian liberty in the year 1794.

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  • Austria, indeed, might easily have been persuaded to ignore the Irredentist agitation, had not the equivocal attitude of Cairoli and Zanardelli cast doubt upon the sincerity of their regret.

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  • The sixth oecumenical synod decreed that the dead pope Honorius should be " cast out from the holy Catholic Church of God " and anathematized, a sentence approved by the reigning pope Leo II.

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  • Pieces of amber torn from the sea-floor are cast up by the waves, and collected at ebb-tide.

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  • The remaining 200 victims, who had escaped the bullets of the siege and survived the butchery of the river bank, were massacred afterwards and cast down the famous well of Cawnpore, which is now marked by a memorial and surrounded by gardens.

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  • This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.

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  • The lenticels of the stem are usually formed beneath stomata, whose function they take up after the stomata have been ruptured and cast off with the rest of the epidermis.

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  • Interesting too are the magnificent west doors, cast in bronze by native workmen in 804.

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  • He was minister to Great Britain in1796-1803and again in 1825-1826, and was the Federalist candidate for vicepresident in 1804 and 1808, and for president in 1816, when he received 34 electoral votes to 183 cast for Monroe.

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  • Of his earlier life it was said that he was born in Egypt of Levite parents, and when the Pharaoh commanded that every new-born male child of the Hebrews should be killed, he was put into a chest and cast upon the Nile.

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  • Even in land-warfare he cast aside the weapons of his forefathers; but he soon learned to handle the weapons of his new land with greater prowess than they had ever been handled before.

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  • His grandfather had obtained from Venice an " artist " who undertook " to build churches and palaces, to cast big bells and cannons, to fire off the said cannons and to make every sort of castings very cunningly "; and with the aid of that clever Venetian he had become the proud possessor of a " cannon-house," subsequently dignified with the name of " arsenal."

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  • After a rite intended to secure its perfect ceremonial purity, a part of the victim, the vapa, was removed, held over the fire and finally cast into it.

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  • Two goats were provided by the ancient Hebrews on the Day of Atonement; the high priest sent one into the desert, after confessing on it the sins of Israel; it was not permitted to run free but was probably cast over a precipice; the other was sacrificed as a sin-offering.

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  • The American warship "Nipsic" was cast upon the beach, but was afterwards floated and saved.

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  • For the prophet's function became in an increasing degree a function of mind, and not merely of traditional routine or mechanical technique, like that of the diviner with his arrows or his lots which he cast in the presence of the ephod or plated Yahweh image.

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  • The bell is one of five which the emperor Yung-lo ordered to be cast.

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  • In this mausoleum Theodoric was buried, but his body was cast forth from it, perhaps during the troublous times of the siege of Ravenna by the imperial troops, and the Rotunda (as it is now generally called) was converted into a church dedicated to the Virgin.

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  • Rictiovarus in disgust cast himself into the fire, or the caldron of boiling tar, from which they had emerged refreshed.

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  • At the Republican convention held in Chicago, in June, Mr Taft was nominated on the first ballot, receiving 702 out of 980 votes cast.

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  • It is possible that some had escaped by taking timely refuge among their brethren in Judah; indeed, if national tradition availed, there were doubtless times when Judah cast its eye upon the land with which it had been so intimately connected.

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  • Tobiah was cast out, the offending priest expelled, and a general purging followed, in which all the foreign element was removed.

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  • And as we were staying in Asia at the time, the man cast up at the same place and interviewed us and other scholars, making trial of their wisdom.

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  • At his suggestion they cast lots, and the first man was killed by the second and so on, until all were dead except Josephus and (perhaps) one other.

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  • Having offered sacrifice and inquired how to renew the human race, they were ordered to cast behind them the "bones of the great mother," that is, the stones from the hillside.

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  • Ten years later, however, at the election of assemblymen, 33 of the western counties polled an extra-legal vote on the question of calling a constitutional convention, and 30,000 votes were cast for it to only l000 against it.

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  • St Bernard's mysticism is of a practical cast, dealing mainly with the means by which man may attain to the knowledge and enjoyment of God.

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  • Ruysbroeck's mysticism is more of a practical than a speculative cast.

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  • In 1840 he introduced a bill to settle the vexed question of patronage; but disliked by a majority in the general assembly of the Scotch church, and unsupported by the government, it failed to become law, and some opprobrium was cast upon its author.

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  • Agrippa being one day overheard by Eutyches, a slave whom he had made free, to express a wish for Tiberius' death and the advancement of Gaius, was betrayed to the emperor and cast into prison.

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  • During the war the principal iron foundry of the Confederacy (Tredegar Iron Works) was in Richmond, and here most of the cannon used by the Confederate armies were cast.

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  • The apparently hopeless outlook for corn-growing compelled farmers to cast about for some other means of subsistence, and to rely more than they had hitherto done upon the possibilities of stock-breeding.

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  • He was not cast in a heroic mould, and he had no desire to figure at the stake; like Cecil, and Elizabeth herself, he had a great respect for authority, and when his time came he could consistently impose authority on others.

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  • On hearing this message, Mahmud at first reproached Hasan with having caused him to break his word, but the wily treasurer succeeded in turning his master's anger upon Firdousi to such an extent that he threatened that on the morrow he would "cast that Carmathian (heretic) under the feet of his elephants."

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  • He refused to put the vote of outlawry, uttered a few passionate words, cast off his official robes, declared the session at an end, and made his way out under protection of a squad of grenadiers.

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  • France responded by an overwhelming affirmative, 3,568,885 votes being cast for the proposal and only 8374 against it.

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  • The measure proved to be the deportation of the leading Jacobins; and a cloak of legality was cast over this extraordinary proceeding by a special decree of the senate (avowedly the guardian of the constitution) that this act of the government was a "measure tending to preserve the constitution" (5th of January 1801).

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  • Nothing could bend that cast iron will.

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  • After wavering between various plans, he decided on the 13th of July to cast himself on the generosity of the British government, and dictated a letter to the prince regent in which he compared himself to Themistocles seating himself at the hearth of his enemy.

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  • Vases of all kinds, carved in marble or other stones, cast or beaten in metals or fashioned in clay, the latter in enormous number and variety, richly ornamented with coloured schemes, and sometimes bearing moulded decoration.

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  • In 1796, on the refusal of Washington to accept another election, Adams was chosen president, defeating Thomas Jefferson; though Alexander Hamilton and other Federalists had asked that an equal vote should be cast for Adams and Thomas Pinckney, the other Federalist in the contest, partly in order that Jefferson, who was elected vice-president, might be excluded altogether, and partly, it seems, in the hope that Pinckney should in fact receive more votes than Adams, and thus, in accordance with the system then obtaining, be elected president, though he was intended for the second place on the Federalist ticket.

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  • The growth of an insect is usually rapid, and as the cuticle does not share therein, it is from time to time cast off by moulting or ecdysis.

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  • We see however the similarity of the metal-working of both countries at approximately the same time; both are in the same style of artistic development, the Egyptian perhaps the more advanced of the two, and (if the published analysis by Mosso is to be relied upon) with the additional technique of the alloy with tin, making the metal bronze, and so easier for the heads to be cast.

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  • As soon as Alexander heard the news he decoyed Cardinal Orsini to the Vatican and cast him into a dungeon, where he died.

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  • As instances of his close intimacy with illustrious Florentine families, it may be mentioned that he held the young Francesco Guicciardini at the font, and that he helped to cast the horoscope of the Casa Strozzi in the Via Tornabuoni.

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  • In the same year Bey Shehr and other portions of the Hamid principality were acquired by purchase from their ruler Hussein Bey, as the Karamanian princes were beginning to cast covetous eyes on them; but the Karamanians were unwilling to resign their claims to be heirs of the Seljukian sultans, and not until the reign of Mahommed II.

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  • To delay him and obtain escape, Medea dismembered her young brother Absyrtus, whom she had taken with her, and cast his limbs about in the sea for his father to pick up. Her plan succeeded, and while Aeetes was burying the remains of his son at Tomi, Jason and Medea escaped.

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  • All these views have, however, been cast in the shade by more recent investigations based on minute literary analysis of the Pentateuch, begun by Graf, continued by Kuenen, and culminating in the work of Wellhausen and Robertson Smith.

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  • A trench was dug, in which a fire was lighted; a victim was sacrificed, and its blood poured into the trench; the body, upon which incense and fruits, honey and wine were thrown, was then cast into the fire.

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  • In general it may be said, then, that whereas exorcism is practised in order to cast out devils already in possession, benediction is the formula by which they are prevented from entering in.

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  • Bottle moulds are made of cast iron, either in two pieces, hinged together at the base or at one side, or in three pieces, one forming the body and two pieces forming the neck.

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  • By means of a rotating table either two surfaces of glass, or one surface of glass and one of cast iron, are rubbed together with the interposition of a powerful abrasive such as sand, emery or carborundum.

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  • The moulds are made of cast iron.

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  • Such an alloy can be cast like ordinary bronze, but excels the latter in hardness, elasticity, toughness and tensile strength.

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  • What is known as cast iron is essentially an alloy of iron proper with 2 to 6% of carbon and more or less of silicon.

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  • As a general rule the ripe proglottides are detached in chains and replaced by others which in their turn become detached, the process being repeated for a year or so until the worm weakens and is cast out.

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  • The former contains a mixture of semi-solid and molten metal, which is raked out into iron ladles and cast into plates of 66 to 77 lb weight, to be sold as "spelter."

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  • It is fused up in iron basins lined with clay, and cast out into the customary form of cakes.

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  • The men who charge and empty the retorts, those who draw and cast the metal, and those who keep the furnace in repair, need not know anything about the making or using of gas, and the men who make the gas need not know anything about a zinc furnace.

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  • This method is rarely practised except by the rollers of zinc. A certain amount of refined zinc can be dipped from the furnace; a further amount, nearly free from iron, can be liquated out of the ingots cast from the bottom of the bath in a subsequent slow remelting, and it is sometimes possible to eliminate a zinciferous lead which collects in the sump of the furnace.

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  • If zinc be cast into a mould at a red heat, the ingot produced is laminar and brittle; if cast at just the fusing-point, it is granular and sufficiently ductile to be rolled into sheet at the ordinary temperature.

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  • Small, of Berwickshire, brought out a plough in which beam and handle were of wrought iron, the mould-board of cast iron.

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  • A certain impetuousness of character which disposed him to rush into controversy whenever doubt was cast upon the views he supported accounted for a great deal of writing, and he also carried on an extensive correspondence with Wohler and other scientific men.

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  • As growth proceeds the integument is periodically cast; and at the final moult the perfect winged insect appears.

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  • Aluminium bronze (aluminium and copper) and ferro-aluminium (aluminium and iron) have been made in this way; the latter is the more satisfactory product, because a certain proportion of carbon is expected in an alloy of this character, as in ferromanganese and cast iron, and its presence is not objectionable.

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  • This head slides freely in the cast iron tubes, and is connected by a copper rod with one of the terminals of the dynamo supplying the current.

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  • The iron case is then removed, the whole is covered with charcoal, and a cast iron cover with a central flue is placed above all.

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  • Four horns, representing the hostile world-power that oppresses Israel and Jerusalem, are cast down by four smiths.

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  • Guilt, personified as a woman, is cast into.

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  • The great bell of the commune called together the adherents of the archbishop; the bell of the people summoned the partisans of the count, After a day's fighting (July 1, 1288) the count, his two sons and his two grandsons were captured in the palazzo del popolo (or town hall), and cast into a tower belonging to the Gualandi and known as the "Tower of the Seven.

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  • For the distillation of liquids the retort is usually a cylindrical pot placed vertically; cast iron is generally employed, in which case the bottom is frequently incurved and thicker than the sides in order to take up the additional wear and tear.

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  • Cast iron stills are provided with a hemispherical head or dome, generally attached to the body of the still by bolts, and of sufficient size to allow for any frothing.

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  • A common type of condenser consists of a copper worm placed in a water bath; but more generally straight tubes of copper or cast iron which cross and recross a rectangular tank are employed, since this form is more readily repaired and cleansed.

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  • The only vote which he had ever cast for a presidential candidate was in 1856 for James .Buchanan; and leading Democrats, so late as by Grant, but a treaty negotiated with this end in view failed to obtain the requisite two-thirds vote in the Senate.

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  • She cast away every regard for the feelings and prejudices of her people.

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  • Zeno are especially interesting as being among the earliest important examples in Italy of cast bronze reliefs.

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  • His first wife, who died at Oxford on the 15th of February 1553, was disinterred in 1551 and tried for heresy; legal evidence was not forthcoming because witnesses had not understood her tongue; and instead of the corpse being burnt, it was merely cast on a dunghill in the stable of the dean of Christ Church.

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  • The latter had been cast away, many years previously, on the coast of the United States and had become a naturalized American citizen.

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  • The bronze image of the same divinity at Horyu-ji, said to have been cast at the beginning of the 7th century by Tori Busshi, the grandson of a Chinese immigrant, is of good technical quality, but much inferior in design to the former.

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  • The colossal Nara Daibutsu (Vairocana) at Tdai-ji, cast in 749 by a workman of Korean descent, is the largest of the great bronzes in Japan, but ranks far below the Yakushi-ji image in artistic qualities.

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  • Shibuichi and shakudo are melted separately, and when they have cooled just enough not to mingle too intimately, they are Cast into a bar which is subsequently beaten flat.

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  • From the time when they began to cast bronze statues, Japanese experts understood how to employ a hollow, removable core round which the metal was run in a skin just thick enough for strength without waste of material; and they also understood the use of wax for modelling purposes.

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  • It would have been scarcely possible to cast such statues in one piece in situ, or, if cast elsewhere, to transport them and elevate them on their pedestals.

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  • Miyagawa soon began to cast about for a better inspiration, and found it in Adoption of the monochromes and polychromes of the Chinese Chinese Kang-hsi and Yung-cheng kilns.

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  • At that period the first Afghan War was at its height, and in crossing over from Persia through Afghanistan the Aga Khan found opportunities of rendering valuable services to the British army, and thus cast in his lot for ever with the British.

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  • The antiquities consist of cairns and tumuli; the remains of the fortress of Emain near the city of Armagh, once the residence of the kings of Ulster; and Danes Cast, an extensive fortification in the south-east of the county, near Poyntzpass, extending into Co.

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  • The principle usually followed in the electrolytic refining of metals is to cast the impure metal into plates, which are exposed as anodes in a suitable solvent, commonly a salt of the metal under treatment.

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  • In 1706 appeared the True Relation of the Apparition of one Mrs Veal, long supposed to have been written for a bookseller to help off an unsaleable translation of Drelincourt, On Death, but considerable doubt has been cast upon this by William Lee.

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  • It is the first part which is cast off when the snake sheds its skin; this is done several times in the year, and the epidermis comes off in a single piece, being, from the mouth towards the tail, turned inside out during the process.

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  • From bottom of ingot as cast, magnified 2g diameters.

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  • From top of ingot as cast, magnified 29 diameters.

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  • With the completion of the three books of Odes he cast aside for a time the office of the vates, and resumed that of the critical spectator of human life, but in the spirit of a moralist rather than a satirist.

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  • Born of a family of priest-physicians, and inheriting all its traditions and prejudices, Hippocrates was the first to cast superstition aside, and to base the practice of medicine on the principles of inductive philosophy.

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  • In the closing years of Alexander's reign events in Poland cast their shadow before them, and in answer to political conspiracies Novosiltsov, formerly adviser to the Grand Duke Constantine as governor of Poland, upon his transfer to Lithuania initiated the persecution of liberal thought.

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  • Minos, disgusted at Scylla's treachery, tied her to the rudder of his ship, and afterwards cast her body ashore on the promontory called after her Scyllaeum; or she threw herself into the sea and swam after Minos, constantly pursued by her father, until at last she was changed into a ciris (a bird or a fish).

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  • His reception and entertainment of Odysseus, who when cast by a storm on the shore of the island was relieved by the king's daughter, Nausicaa, is described in the Odyssey (vi.-xiii.).

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  • The general ` brown' has a greyish cast, as far as the under fur is concerned, and is overlaid with rich lustrous blackish-brown in places where the long bristly hairs prevail.

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  • The specific gravity of cast gold varies from 18.29 to 19.37, and by compression between dies the specific gravity may be raised from 19.37 to 19.41; by annealing, however, the previous density is to some extent recovered, as it is then found to be 19.40.

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  • In the mills of the Californian type the stamp is a cylindrical iron pestle faced with a chilled cast iron shoe, removable so that it can be renewed when necessary, attached to a round iron rod or lifter, the whole weighing from 600 to 900 lb; stamps weighing 1320 lb are in use in the Transvaal.

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  • The acid treatment is generally carried out in cast iron pots; platinum vessels used to be employed, while porcelain vessels are only used for small operations, e.g.

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  • The French ambassador, de la Haye, had delayed bringing him the customary gifts, with the idea that he would, like his predecessors, speedily give place to a new grand vizier; Kuprili was bitterly offended, and, on pretext of an abuse of the immunities of diplomatic correspondence, bastinadoed the ambassador's son and cast him and the ambassador himself into prison.

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  • A sermon which he preached before the Synod at St Andrews against the dissoluteness of the clergy gave great offence to the provost, who cast him into prison, and might have carried his resentment to the extremest limit had not Alesius contrived to escape to Germany in 1532.

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  • Porphyra laciniata, the edible laver; Codium tomentosum, a coarse species; Padina pavonia, common in shallow water; Ulva latissima; Haliseris polypodioides; Sargassum bacciferum; the well-known gulf weed, probably transported from the Atlantic; Zostera marina, forming dense beds in muddy bays; the roots are cast up by storms and are valuable to dress the fields.

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  • The doubts thus cast upon the age when the Homeric poems first assumed the fixed form of writing were closely associated with the universal scepticism as to the historical accuracy of any traditions whatever regarding the early history of Greece.

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  • In February, however,Bolivar formally resigned the presidency of the republic,at the same time expressing a determination to refute the imputations of ambition which had been so freely cast upon him, by retiring into private life, and spending the remainder of his days on his patrimonial estate.

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  • Cast in the form of comments on the history of Livy, the Discorsi are really an inquiry into the genesis and maintenance of states.

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  • The best results, however, are obtained by taking a wax cast from the elastic mould, and then from this a plaster mould, which may be waterproofed with wax, black-leaded, and used as cathode.

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  • The place of his birth is unknown and its date uncertain, although some authorities give it as the 2nd of April 742; doubts have been cast upon his legitimacy, and it is just possible that the marriage of Pippin and Bertha took place subsequent to the birth of their elder son.

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  • This act can hardly have been unpremeditated, and some doubt has been cast upon the statement which Einhard attributes to Charles, that he would not have entered the building had he known of the intention of Leo.

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  • The brass tube, strengthened at the bearing points by strong truly turned collars, rotates in the cast iron cradle q attached to the declination axis.

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  • But his time is at hand; together with his hosts he has been cast down from heaven, and on the earth he "hath but a short time."

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  • Satan is bound 1 and cast into the abyss, and the kingdom of Christ and of the martyrs and faithful confessors established for a thousand years.

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  • The author of the Apocalypse has cast aside all national religious prejudices."

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  • This consists of a heavy cast iron ring, known as a wedging crib, or curb, also fitted together in segments, which is lodged in a square-edged groove cut for its reception, tightly caulked with moss, and wedged into position.

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  • The water-tight lining may be either a wrought iron tube, which is pressed down by jack screws as the borehole advances, or cast iron tubbing put together in short complete rings, in contradistinction to the old plan of building them up of segments.

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  • When hard ground is reached, a seat is formed for the cast iron tubbing, which is built up in the usual way and concreted at the back, a small quantity of caustic soda being sometimes used in mixing the concrete to prevent freezing.

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  • On the tail rope plan the engine has two drums worked by spur gearing, which can be connected with, or cast loose from, the driving shaft at pleasure.

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  • The size of the discharge aperture can be varied by means of a flexible wooden shutter sliding in a groove in a cast iron plate, curved to the slope of the casing.

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  • The tubs are then removed or struck by the landers, who pull them forward on to the platform, which is covered with cast iron plates; at the same time empty ones are pushed in from the opposite side.

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  • The defeat of the Carthaginian army in 206 led him to cast in his lot with Rome.

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  • Beyond a doubt he was not without a certain moral timidity contrasting strangely with his eager temperament and alertness of intellect; but, though he was not cast in a heroic mould, he must have been one of the most amiable of men.

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  • His influence in the estate of the clergy, however, was cast against the union of the three estates in a single assembly, and he voted in the minority of his order which in the middle of June opposed the merging of the clergy in the National Assembly.

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  • It is not even safe, according to these two fathers, to commit too much to writing; and Clement undertakes not to reveal in writing many secrets known to the initiated among his readers; otherwise the indiscreet eye of the heathen may rest on them, and he will have cast his pearls before swine.

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  • But Fulk le Rechin (the Cross-looking), brother of Geoffrey the Bearded, who had at first been contented with an appanage consisting of Saintonge and the chcitellenie of Vihiers, having allowed Saintonge to be taken in 1062 by the duke of Aquitaine, took advantage of the general discontent aroused in the countship by the unskilful policy of Geoffrey to make himself master of Saumur (25th of February 1067) and Angers (4 th of April), and cast Geoffrey into prison at Sable.

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  • Individuals, often large groups, and even whole districts, had indeed earlier rejected some portions of the Roman Catholic faith, or refused obedience to the ecclesiastical government; but previously to the burning of the canon law by Luther no prince had openly and permanently cast off his allegiance to the international conceived them is found in his Dictatus.

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  • In the presidential election of 1896, when an unprecedentedly large vote was cast, the number of voters registered was nearly 20% of the population, and of these nearly 82% actually voted.

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  • The Romans cast their larger copper coins, in clay moulds carrying distinctive markings, not because they knew nothing of striking, but because it was not suitable for such large masses of metal.

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  • The most ancient coins were cast in bulletshaped or conical moulds and marked on one side by means of a die which was struck with a hammer.

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  • Square pieces of metal were also cut from cast bars, converted into round disks by hammering and then struck between dies.

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  • Olivier introduced screw presses for striking coins, together with rolls for reducing the cast bars and machines for punching-out round disks from flattened sheets of metal, in Paris in 1553.

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  • The cast bars are reduced to the thickness of the coin by repeated passages between rolls.

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  • These are cylinders of cast iron or steel from 6 in.

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  • Hoffman, for governor, and by the issue of false naturalization papers and fraudulent voting in New York City on a gigantic scale Hoffman was chosen governor and the electoral vote was cast for Seymour.

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  • In 1876, Tilden having been nominated for the presidency, New York cast its electoral vote for him.

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  • In 1880 it was cast for Garfield, the Republican nominee.

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  • The walls of the ghettos had been cast down, but the Jews could find no entry into the comity of nations.

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  • It is said that seven demons were cast out of her, but this need not imply simply one occasion.

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  • After the British occupation of Bloemfontein he cast in his lot with the Imperial Government, realizing that it had fought for those very principles which President Brand and he had laboured for in bygone years.

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  • The influence which the Kruger party had obtained in the Free State was evidenced by the presidential election in 1896, when Mr Steyn received forty-one votes against nineteen cast for Mr Fraser.

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  • The state had a bonded debt in 1909 of $384,000, authorized by popular vote in November 1908; by the constitution the aggregate indebtedness of the state was limited to $100,000 except in case of war, invasion or insurrection, or in case a measure authorizing a greater indebtedness should be submitted by the legislature to the electorate and should receive a majority of the votes cast.

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  • Mr Roosevelt, however, received a larger proportion of the total vote cast than any mayoralty candidate of the Republican party had previously received in New York City.

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  • His long experience, his wide reading and his thorough knowledge of all sorts and conditions of men, enabled him to act quickly at a time of crisis, but his important speeches, or a course of political action that might be far-reaching in its effect, were not cast into their final form without careful consultation with the best advisers he could obtain.

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  • Then late in the 18th century wrought iron began to be used, at first in combination with timber or cast iron.

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  • Cast iron was about the same time used for arches, and some of the early railway bridges were built with cast iron girders.

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  • Cast iron is now only used for arched bridges of moderate span.

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  • Cast steel clamps hold the cable together, and to these the suspending rods are attached.

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  • On the first English railways cast iron girder bridges for spans of to 66 ft.

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  • In both England and America in early braced bridges cast iron, generally in the form of tubes circular or octagonal in section, was used for compression members, and wrought iron for the tension members.

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  • The top flange consisted of cast iron hollow castings butted end to end, and the struts were of cast iron.

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  • Southwark bridge over the Thames, designed by John Rennie with cast iron ribs and erected in 1814-1819, has a centre FIG.

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  • In Paris the Austerlitz (1800-1806) and Carrousel (1834-1836) bridges had cast iron arches.

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  • This had two arched ribs formed by the cast iron pipes through which the water passed.

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  • Cast iron arches of considerable span were constructed late FIG.

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  • The difficulty of casting heavy arch ribs led to the construction of cast iron arches of cast voussoirs, somewhat like the voussoirs of masonry chambers and air locks, a feat unprecedented in the annals of engineering.

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  • The bridge has three spans, each formed of arches of cast steel.

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  • Cast iron and concrete reinforced piles are now used.

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  • Screw piles are cast iron piles which are screwed FIG.

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  • At their end is fixed a blade of cast iron from two to eight times the diameter of the shaft of the pile; the pitch of the screw varies from one-half to one-fourth of the external diameter of the blade.

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  • Piers and abutments are of masonry, brickwork, or cast or wrought iron.

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  • In some cases the piers are cast iron cylinders io ft.

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  • He razed the walls and allowed the women, children and priests to retire in safety to Liege, but the male prisoners he either hanged or drowned in the river by causing them to be cast from the projecting cliff of Bouvignes.

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  • Louis David painted "Marat Assassinated," and a veritable cult was rendered to the Friend of the People, whose ashes were transferred to the Pantheon with great pomp on the 21st of September 1794 - to be cast out again in virtue of the decree of the 8th of February 1795.

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  • He at once made peace with his cousin; restored him his patrimony; and, to secure Lithuania against the future vengeance of the Knights, Jagiello made overtures to Poland for the hand of Jadwiga, and received the Polish crown along with it, as already mentioned Before proceeding to describe the Jagiellonic period of Polish history, it is necessary to cast a rapid glance at the social and political condition of the country in the preceding Piast period.

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  • The Republic had deliberately cast itself upon the downward grade which was to lead to ruin.

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  • The church of St Francis de Sales (in Walnut Hills), built in 1888, has a bell, cast in Cincinnati, weighing fifteen tons, and said to be the largest swinging bell in the world.

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  • The design, by August von Kreling (1819-1876), embraces fifteen bronze figures, all cast at the royal bronze foundry in Munich, the chief being a female figure with outstretched arms, from whose fingers the water falls in a fine spray.

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  • The sodium is then cast into moulds.

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  • In September 1839 a 3-foot speculum was finished and mounted on an altazimuth stand similar to Herschel's; but, though the definition of the images was good (except that the diffraction at the joints of the speculum caused minute rays in the case of a very bright star), and its peculiar skeleton form allowed the speculum to follow atmospheric changes of temperature very quickly, Lord Rosse decided to cast a solid 3-foot speculum.

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  • Any constitution or constitutional amendment proposed by such constitutional convention comes into effect only if approved by a majority of the votes cast in a popular election.

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  • It comprises the chronological details, references to authorities, and judgments on the character of the various kings, especially as regards their attitude to the worship at the high places, all cast in the same literary mould, and marked by the same characteristic phraseology.

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  • Fine aluminium will not burn below the temperature of molten cast iron, and previous experimenters had resorted to heating their mixtures in a crucible.

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  • The pope drew a ring from his finger and, giving it to the doge, bade him cast such a one into the sea each year on Ascension day, and so wed the sea.

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  • Kentucky is governed under a constitution adopted in 1891.3 A convention to revise the constitution or to draft a new one meets on the call of two successive legislatures, ratified by a majority of the popular vote, provided that majority be at least one-fourth of the total number of votes cast at the preceding general election.

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  • The electoral vote of the state was cast for Jackson in 1828 and for Clay in 1832.

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  • To the mass these signs are unintelligible, because they deem it impossible that Yahweh should utterly cast off His chosen nation; but to those who know His absolute righteousness, and confront it with the people's sin, the impending approach of the Assyrian can have only one meaning and can point to only one issue, viz.

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  • In recent times therefore advance in the understanding of the prophets has moved on pari passu with the higher criticism, especially the criticism of the Pentateuch, and with the general study of Hebrew history; and most works on the subject prior to Ewald must be regarded as quite antiquated except for the light they cast on detailed points of exegesis.

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  • This was cast into an oblong ingot, 1 to 12 in.

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  • The political history of the ancient world ends with the formation, under Diocletian and Constantine, of a universal state bearing the cast of Oriental as well as Graeco-Roman civilization.

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  • Of more historical interest are the two books Contra Symmachum, of 658 and 1131 hexameter verses respectively, the first attacking the pagan gods, the second directed against the petition of Symmachus to the emperor for the restoration of the altar and statue of Victory which Gratian had cast down.

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  • The artificers in gold and silver melted the metals by means of a reed-blowpipe and cast them solid or hollow, and were also skilled in hammered work and chasing, as some fine specimens remain to show, though the famous animals modelled with gold and silver, fur, feathers and scales have disappeared.

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  • But though his natural defects of intellect and will-power were not improved by the pedantic tutoring to which he was submitted, he grew up pious, honest and well-meaning; and had fate cast him in any but the most stormy times of his country's history he might well have left the reputation of a model king.

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  • The governor and the councillors are elected for a term of two years; and a majority of the votes cast is necessary to a choice.

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  • He cast covetous eyes upon the archbishopric of Magdeburg and the bishopric of Halberstadt, both of which he secured for his son Frederick in 1551.

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  • They are both divided into a number of square panels with subjects and single figures, chiefly from Bible history, cast in relief.

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  • The western door at Monreale, inferior to the northern one both in richness of design and in workmanship, is by Bonannus of Pisa, for the cathedral of which place he cast the still existing bronze door on the south, opposite the leaning tower.

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  • He was associated with Sir William Fairbairn in an important series of experiments on cast iron, and his help was sought by Robert Stephenson in regard to the forms and dimensions of the tubes for the Britannia bridge.

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  • A paper which he communicated to the Royal Society on "Experimental Researches on the Strength of Pillars of Cast Iron and other Materials," in 1840 gained him a Royal medal in 1841, and he was also elected a fellow.

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  • Magnetites were also early employed, at first in Catalan forges, in which by means of a direct process the metal was secured from the ores and forged into blooms without being cast; later they were smelted in blast furnaces.

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  • Some cities also provide in their charters that an official, including the mayor or a member of the council, may be displaced from office if, at a special election held on the demand of a prescribed number of the city voters, he does not receive the largest number of votes cast.

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  • Nevertheless, the system here described, being an election by states, is not the same thing as a general popular vote over the union, for it sometimes happens that a person is chosen president who has received a minority of the popular vote cast.

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  • In 762 he took part in the rising led by Ibrahim ibn 'Abdallah ibn al-IIasan, the 'Alid, called "The Pure Soul," against the caliph al-Mansur, and after the defeat and death of Ibrahim was cast into prison.

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  • A gloom was cast over the first parliament of the Dominion by the assassination in 1868 of one of the most brilliant figures in the politics of the time, D'Arcy McGee (q.v.).

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    0
  • When the larval development is completed the test is cast off, its cells breaking apart and falling to pieces leaving the young animal with a well-developed shell exposed and the internal organs in an advanced state.

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  • But he understood the Gospel as being primarily an assured hope and a holy law, as fear of the Judge who can cast into hell and as an inflexible rule of faith and of discipline.

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  • Congress then enacted that a majority of the votes cast should be sufficient, and thus the constitution went into effect, the state was admitted to the Union in June 1868, and a new governor and legislature were elected.

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  • Sunt Cogitationes has been regarded by thinkers who profess themselves Berkeleians as the one proposition warranted by consciousness; the empiricism of his philosophy has been eagerly welcomed, while the spiritual intuition, without which the whole is to Berkeley meaningless, has been cast aside.

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  • There is a story that in 1122 Joscelin (Jocelyn) of Courtenay, and Baldwin II., king of Jerusalem, both prisoners of the Amir Balak in its castle, were murdered by being cast from its cliffs after an attempted rescue.

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  • Certain races moult or cast their skin three times during their larval existence, but for the most part the silkworm moults four times - about the sixth, tenth, fifteenth and twenty-third days after hatching.

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  • Taygetus into which criminals were cast.

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  • To every Salon Houdon was a chief contributor; most of the leading men of the day were his sitters; his busts of d'Alembert, Prince Henry of Prussia, Gerbier, Buffon (for Catharine of Russia) and Mirabeau are remarkable portraits; and in 1778, when the news of Rousseau's death reached him, Houdon started at once for Ermenonville, and there took a cast of the dead man's face, from which he produced the grand and life-like head now in the Louvre.

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  • Secondly, there is the so-called " Vallum," in reality no vallum at all, but a broad flat-bottomed ditch out of which the earth has been cast up on either side into g Bremen (Rochester) ijffabilasrciu.n

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  • His memory would be stainless but for the deep shadow cast on it by the advancement which he conferred upon his relatives.

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  • Titian painted Paul's portrait, and Guglielmo della Porta cast the bronze statue which now adorns his grave in St Peter's.

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  • Excavation in Mesopotamia may in time cast some light on the questions whether the Semites really reached Babylonia by way of Mesopotamia,' when, and whom they found there, and whether they partly settled there by the way.

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  • An amendment to the constitution to be adopted must be approved by a majority of the members elected to each house of the general assembly in two successive legislatures and then, at least three months after the second approval of the general assembly, by a majority of the popular vote cast on the adoption of the amendment.

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  • According to this, a pilgrim returning from the Holy Land was cast by a storm on a desolate island where dwelt a hermit.

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    0
  • On the large scale it is obtained by distilling Chile saltpetre with concentrated sulphuric acid in horizontal cast iron stills, the vapours being condensed in a series of stoneware Woulfe's bottles.

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    0
  • The Basutos think that crocodiles can devour the shadow of a man cast on the surface of water.

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    0
  • Zukal has considered that the lichen acids protect the lichen from the attacks of animals; the experiments of Zopf, however, have cast doubt on this; certainly lichens containing very bitter acids are eaten by mites though some of the acids appear to be poisonous to frogs.

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  • After various assaults upon his constancy, he was sentenced to be cast into the fiery furnace, through which he passed wholly unharmed.

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  • The individual and collective influence of the several impurities which occur in the product of the Heroult cell is still to seek, and the importance of this inquiry will be seen when we consider that if cast iron, wrought iron and steel, the three totally distinct metals included in the generic name of "iron" - which are only distinguished one from another chemically by minute differences in the proportion of certain non-metallic ingredients - had only been in use for a comparatively few years, attempts might occasionally be made to forge cast iron, or to employ wrought iron in the manufacture of edge-tools.

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  • Cast ashore on Ithaca by a storm, he plundered the island to get provisions, and was attacked by Odysseus, whom he slew.

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  • When shreds and nails are used, short thick wire nails and " medicated shreds " are the best; the ordinary cast iron wall nails being much too brittle and difficult to drive into the wall.

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  • Protect fig-trees, if the weather proves frosty, as soon as they have cast their leaves.

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  • In the ensuing presidential election Van Buren and Adams received a popular vote of 291,263, of which 120,510 were cast in New York.

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  • The area within which the Carboniferous rocks of Britain occur is sufficiently extensive to contain more than one type of the system, and thus to cast much light on the varied geographical conditions under which these rocks were accumulated.

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  • In these three genera the conidia are cast off with a jerk somewhat in the same way as the sporangium of Pilobolus.

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  • So strong is the effect of carbon that the use to which the metal is put, and indeed its division into its two great classes, the malleable one, comprising steel and wrought iron, with less than 2.20% of carbon, and the unmalleable one, cast iron, with more than this quantity, are based on carbon-content.

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  • The essential characteristic of wrought iron was its nearly complete freedom from carbon; that of steel was its moderate carbon-content (say between 0.30 and 2.2%), which, though great enough to confer the property of being rendered intensely hard and brittle by sudden cooling, yet was not so great but that the metal was malleable when cooled slowly; while that of cast iron was that it contained so much carbon as to be very brittle whether cooled quickly or slowly.

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  • But the best class of steel, crucible steel, was freed from slag by fusion in crucibles; hence its name, " cast steel."

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  • Between 1860 and 1870 the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes introduced a new class of iron to-day called " mild " or " carbon wcarbon steel," which lacked the essential property of steel, the hardening power, yet differed from the existing forms of wrought iron in freedom from slag, and from cast iron in being very malleable.

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  • This they did with the excuse that the new product resembled one class of steel - cast steel - in being free from slag; and, after a period of protest, all acquiesced in calling it " steel," which is now its firmly established name.

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  • The old varieties of wrought iron, steel and cast iron preserve their old names; the new class is called steel by main force.

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  • Steel is iron which is malleable at least in some one range of temperature, and also is either (a) cast into an initially malleable mass, or (b) is capable of hardening greatly by sudden cooling, or (c) is both so cast and so capable of hardening.

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  • Specifically, it is cast iron in the form of castings other than pigs, or remelted cast iron suitable for such castings, as distinguished from pig iron, i.e.

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  • Malleable cast iron is iron which has been cast in the condition of cast iron, and made malleable by subsequent treatment without fusion.

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  • Alloy steels and cast irons are those which owe their properties chiefly to the presence of one or more elements other than carbon.

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  • Moreover, the coals which deoxidized the iron would inevitably carburize some lumps of it, here so far as to turn it into the brittle and relatively useless cast iron, there only far enough to convert it into steel, strong and very useful even in its unhardened state.

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  • It is not improbable that, once bronze became known, it might replace iron in a measure, perhaps even in a very large measure, because it is so fusible that it can be cast directly and easily;into many useful shapes.

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  • For brevity we may call these the periods of wrought iron, of cast iron, and of molten steel, recognizing that in the second and third the earlier processes continued in use.

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  • Moreover, this same carburizing action of the fuel would at times go so far as to turn part of the metal into a true cast iron, so brittle that it could not be worked at all.

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  • With the second period began, in the 14th century, the gradual displacement of the direct extraction of wrought iron from the ore by the intentional and regular use of this indirect method of first carburizing the metal and thus turning it into cast iron, and then converting it into wrought iron by remelting it in the forge.

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  • And it was the lengthen ing of the forge, and the length and intimacy of contact between ore and fuel to which it led, that carburized the metal and turned it into cast iron.

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  • With this method of making molten cast iron in the hands of a people already familiar with bronze founding, iron founding, i.e.

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  • Thus ornamental iron castings were made in Sussex in the 14th century, and in the 16th cannons weighing three tons each were cast.

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  • In 1611 Simon Sturtevant patented the use of mineral coal for iron-smelting, and in 1619 Dud Dudley made with this coal both cast and wrought iron with technical success, but through the opposition of the charcoal iron-makers all of his many attempts were defeated.

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  • It was then, in 1735, that Abraham Darby showed how to make cast iron with coke in the high furnace, which by this time had become a veritable blast furnace.

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  • The second period, by converting the metal into the fusible cast iron and melting this, for the first time removed the gangue of the ore; the third period by giving a temperature high enough to melt the most infusible forms of iron, liberated the slag formed in deriving them from cast iron.

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  • Knowing this, and having in the Siemens regenerative gas furnace an independent means of generating this temperature, the Martin brothers of Sireuil in France in 1864 developed the open-hearth process of making steel of any desired carbon-content by melting together in this furnace cast and wrought iron.

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