See Dio Cassius lxii.
Dio Cassius says that Bocchus sent his sons to support Sextus Pompeius in Spain, while Bogud fought on the side of Caesar, and there is no doubt that after Caesar's death Bocchus supported Octavian, and Bogud Antony, During Bogud's absence in Spain, his brother seized the whole of Numidia, and was confirmed sole ruler by Octavian.
35 (58); Dio Cassius, liv.
When governor of Alexandria he was slain by the soldiers, as having participated in the rebellion of Avidius Cassius (175).
See Capitolinus, Antoninus, 3; Vulcacius Gallicanus, Avidius Cassius, 7; edition of the metrological work by F.
A severe blow was struck against the city in 43 by C. Cassius, who besieged and ruthlessly plundered the people for refusing to submit to his exactions.
313-315; Dio Cassius xlix.
12, LI; Dio Cassius xlv.
Cassius Hemina (about 146), in the fourth book of his Annals, wrote on the Second Punic War.
See Tacitus, Annals, xii.-xv.; Dio Cassius lix.
Dio Cassius, lxx.
Among various reasons, the most convincing is that the presence of Aurelius was required in Rome; moreover, the real leader was evidently Cassius.
There news reached him that Avidius Cassius, the commander of the Roman troops in Asia, had revolted and proclaimed himself emperor (175).
But after three months Cassius was assassinated, and his head was brought to Aurelius, who with characteristic magnanimity, persuaded the senate to pardon all the family of Cassius.
He treated them all with forbearance, and it is said that when the correspondence of Cassius was brought him he burnt it without reading it.
Dio Cassius and Capitolinus charge Faustina with the most shameless infidelity to her husband, who is even blamed for not paying heed to her crimes.
When civil war again broke out, DeIotarus was persuaded to support Brutus and Cassius, but after the battle of Philippi went over to the triumvirs.
75, 114; Bellum Alexandrinum, 34-4 1, 6 5-77; Dio Cassius xli.
I also read Tibullus, Catullus, Propertius, Horace (with Dacier's and Torrentius's notes), Virgil, Ovid's Epistles, with l"leziriac's commentary, the Ars amandi and the Elegies; likewise the Augustus and Tiberius of Suetonius, and a Latin translation of Dion Cassius from the death of Julius Caesar to the death of Augustus.
Dio Cassius calls it the day of Cronos.
When the Parthians, elated by their victory over Crassus (53 B.C.) advanced upon Syria, Cassius opposed them.
When Cassius demanded a tribute of 700 talents from Palestine, Antipater set Herod, Phasael and this Malichus, his enemy, to collect it.
If he had been lenient for their sakes or in the hope of damaging Antipater, he was disappointed; for Cassius sold four cities into slavery and Hyrcanus made up the deficit.
After the departure of Cassius, Antipater being dead, there was confusion in Judaea.
When Antony assumed the dominion of the East after the defeat of Cassius at Philippi, an embassy of the Jews, amongst other embassies, approached him in Bithynia and accused the sons of Antipater as usurpers of the power which rightly belonged' to Hyrcanus.
Indeed even Gentiles helped them, so that the whole world (Dio Cassius says) was stirred.
iv.; Suetonius, Domitian; Dio Cassius lxvi., lxvii.; Tacitus, Agricola, 18-22.
See Tacitus, Histories; Suetonius, Vitellius; Dio Cassius lxv.;: Merivale, Hist.
But according to Dio Cassius (liv.
According to Dio Cassius, Maecenas was the inventor of a system of shorthand.
The chief ancient authorities for his life are Horace (Odes with Scholia), Dio Cassius, Tacitus (Annals), Suetonius (Augustus).
According to Dio Cassius (lxix.
The autobiography was used by both Dio Cassius and Marius Maximus.
See Tacitus, Histories; Suetonius, Vespasian; Dio Cassius, lxvi.; Merivale, Hist.
Dion Cassius (xl.
In 42 B.C. Brutus and Cassius declared him a traitor, invaded his territory and put him to death.
A mixture of stannous and stannic chloride, when added to a sufficient quantity of solution of chloride of gold, gives an intensely purple precipitate of gold purple (purple of Cassius).
Dio Cassius, who lived in the early part of the 3rd century (Hist.
25 he was brought to trial for having eulogized Brutus and spoken of Cassius as the last of the Romans.
34, 35; Suetonius, Tiberius, 61, Caligula, 16; Seneca, Suasoriae, vii., esp. the Consolatio to Cordus's daughter Marcia; Dio Cassius lvii.
721852; Dio Cassius, frag.
313; Dio Cassius xlix.
'DIO CASSIUS (more correctly Cassius Dio), Cocceianus (c. A.D.
His father was Cassius Apronianus, governor of Dalmatia and Cilicia under Marcus Aurelius, and on his mother's side he was the grandson of Dio Chrysostom, who had assumed the surname of Cocceianus in honour of his patron the emperor Cocceius Nerva.
After his father's death, Dio Cassius left Cilicia for Rome (180) and became a member of the senate.
Before writing his history of Rome ('Pco,uacKa or `PcoyacKI `Iaropta), Dio Cassius had dedicated to the emperor Severus an account of various dreams and prodigies which had presaged his elevation to the throne (perhaps the Ev6Sia attributed to Dio by Suidas), and had also written a biography of his fellow-countryman Arrian.
His biography, by Dio Cassius, is lost.
pp. 780-782; see also Dio Cassius liii.
He was thereupon declared a public enemy and superseded by C. Cassius (the murderer of Caesar),who attacked him in Laodicea.
trans., 1897); Orelli, Onomasticon Tullianum; Dio Cassius xli.
When the gold is finely divided, as in " purple of Cassius," or when it is precipitated from solutions, the colour is ruby-red, while in very thin leaves it transmits a greenish light.
In solution minute quantities of gold may be detected by the formation of " purple of Cassius," a bluish-purple precipitate thrown down by a mixture of ferric and stannous chlorides.
Kunkel shares with Boyle the honour of having discovered the secret of the process by which Brand of Hamburg had prepared phosphorus in 1669, and he found how to make artificial ruby (red glass) by the incorporation of purple of Cassius.
In 43 B.C. he was proscribed, but managed to escape to the camp of Brutus and Cassius.
16; Dio Cassius xl.
Our best authority is the 68th book of Dio Cassius; then comes the "Panegyric" of Pliny, with his correspondence.
v.; Dio Cassius liii.
See Aelius Lampridius, Herodian, and fragments in Dio Cassius; H.
14-16; Suetonius, Nero, 33 Dio Cassius lx.
See Dio Cassius xxxvii.
In the Civil War it sided with Pompey, and later on with Brutus and Cassius.
Agrippa's first care was to provide a safe harbour for his ships, which he accomplished by cutting through the strips of land which separated the Lacus Lucrinus from the sea, thus forming an outer harbour; an inner one was also made by joining the lake Avernus to the Lucrinus (Dio Cassius xlviii.
See Dio Cassius xlix.-liv.; Suetonius, Augustus; Velleius Paterculus ii.; Josephus, Antiq.
Dio Cassius mentions a bridge, possibly 3000 to 4000 ft.
Towards the close of the latter's reign (93) he is said to have excited suspicion and to have been banished to Tarentum on a charge of conspiracy (Dio Cassius lxvii.
His chosen councillors in all affairs of state were senators, and the hearing of claims against the Fiscus was taken from the imperial procuratores and entrusted to the more impartial jurisdiction of a praetor and a court of judices (Dio Cassius lxviii.
Dio Cassius, lxviii.
A personal insult to Cassius Chaerea, tribune of a praetorian cohort, led to Caligula's assassination on the 24th of January 41.
20 ff.; Dio Cassius lix.; see also S.
828; Dio Cassius, li.
GAIUS CASSIUS, Latin poet, general and politician, called Parmensis from his birthplace Parma,was one of the murderers of Julius Caesar, and after his death joined the party of Brutus and his namesake Cassius the conspirator.
When Pompeius, having been defeated in a naval engagement at Naulochus by the fleet of Octavian under Agrippa, fled to Asia, Cassius went over to Antony, and took part in the battle of Actium (31).
Cassius is credited with satires, elegies, epigrams and tragedies.
Horace appears to have thought well of Cassius as a poet, for he asks Tibullus whether he intends to compete with the opuscula (probably the elegies) of Cassius (Epistles, i.
Varius Rufus published his famous tragedy Thyestes from an MS. which he found amongst the papers of Cassius after his death, is due to a confusion of Cassius's murderer, Q.
Cassius Parmensis must not be confused with Cassius Etruscus (Horace, Satires, i.
24; Dio Cassius xl.
116; Dio Cassius lxii.
But all attempts at negotiation failed, and in January 49 B.C., martial law having been proclaimed on the proposal of the consuls, the tribunes Antony and Cassius fled to Caesar, who crossed the Rubicon (the frontier of Italy) with a single legion, exclaiming "Alea jacta est."
/n==Authorities== - The principal ancient authorities for the life of Caesar are his own Commentaries, the biographies of Plutarch and Suetonius, letters and speeches of Cicero, the Catiline of Sallust, the Pharsalia of Lucan, and the histories of Appian, Dio Cassius and Velleius Paterculus (that of Livy exists only in the Epitome).
His declared sympathy with Brutus and Cassius occasioned his banishment in 66.
5, Dialogus, 5; Dio Cassius lxvi.
32; Dio Cassius xxxvi.
11-51; Lives by Suetonius and Plutarch; Dio Cassius lxiv.; Merivale, History of the Romans under the Empire, ch.
Early in the 3rd century Dio Cassius still saw the comitia centuriata meeting with all its old solemnities (Dio Cassius lviii.
p. 540; Suetonius, Tiberius, 37, Caligula, 1; Dio Cassius xlix.
6 mention is made of its governor, Caecina Severus (Dio Cassius lv.
92, 134, 135; Dio Cassius li.
5-18; Dio Cassius xli.
According to Dio Cassius, the Egyptian week commenced with Saturday.
He built a theatre in the capital, which was dedicated on the return of Augustus from Gaul in 13 (Dio Cassius liv.
i.-vi.; Suetonius, Tiberius, 53; Dio Cassius lvii.
Of Cassiope, the only other city of ancient importance, the name is still preserved by the village of Cassopo, and there are some rude remains of building on the site; but the temple of Zeus Cassius for which it was celebrated has totally disappeared.
- The principalreferences to early Britain in classical writers occur in Strabo, Diodorus, Julius Caesar, the elder Pliny, Tacitus, Ptolemy and Cassius Dio, and in the lists of the Antonine Itinerary (probably about A.D.
She is accused by Dio Cassius and Capitolinus of gross profligacy, and was reputed to have instigated the revolt of Avidius Cassius against her husband.
See Capitolinus, Marcus Aurelius; Dio Cassius lxxi.
ALAMANNI, or Allemanni, a German tribe, first mentioned by Dio Cassius, under the year 213.
See Dio Cassius lxvii.
3-8; Dio Cassius lxxviii.
This earlier league was doubtless broken up by the fall of Alba; it was probably the increasing power of the Volsci and Aequi that led to the formation of the later league, including all the more powerful cities of Latium, as well as to the alliance concluded by them with the Romans in the consulship of Spurius Cassius (493 B.C.).
Dio Cassius lxxvii.
The city of AntinoOpolis was founded on the ruins of Besa where he died (Dio Cassius lix.
After the battle of Philippi she was put to death at Miletus (or in the temple of Artemis at Ephesus) by order of Mark Antony, at the request of her sister Cleopatra (Dio Cassius xlii.
But their fate is noticed by Dio Cassius, and its circumstances may be gathered with certainty from the condition in which the city has been found.
According to Cassius Dio, a large number of the inhabitants were assembled in the theatre at the time of the catastrophe, but no bodies have been found there, and they were probably sought for and removed shortly afterwards.
Gaius Cassius, governor of Cisalpine Gaul, and the praetor Gnaeus Manlius, who attempted to stop him, were defeated at Mutina.
See Tacitus, Histories, ii., iii., iv.; Dio Cassius lxv.
5, ~ 19 if.; Dio Cassius, passirn; Julius Capitolinus; Claudius Mamertinus; Ammianus Marcellinus, passim; Zosimus; Jordanes, De origine Getarum; Procopius, De bello Gothico; K.
Avidius Cassius, who led the Roman forces in the war, usurped the purple, and was acknowledged by the armies of Syria and Egypt.
On the approach of Marcus Aurelius, the adherents of Cassius slew him, and the clemency of the emperor restored peace.
73; Dio Cassius lx.
6-9; Suetonius, Tiberius, 62; Dio Cassius lvii.
AVIDIUS CASSIUS (d.
A rumour of Aurelius's death having reached Syria, Cassius, without waiting for confirmation, proclaimed himself emperor; when the report proved false, it was too late for him to draw back, and he accordingly prepared for war.
While in Illyria, he received the news that Cassius had been slain by his own officers.
See Dio Cassius ixxi.
6; Lives of Marcus Aurelius, Verus and Commodus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, and the special biography of Avidius Cassius in the same by Vulcacius Gallicanus.
Gaius Cassius >>
Reimarus's reputation as a scholar rests on the valuable edition of Dio Cassius (1750-52) which he prepared from the materials collected by J.
7, 2), and similarly Sextus Pompeius sought to propitiate him by throwing horses into the sea (Dio Cassius xlviii.
But Herod held his ground as governor of Coele-Syria and retained the favour of Cassius and Mark Antony in turn, despite the complaints of the Jewish nobility.
7 2; Dio Cassius lix.
52; Dio Cassius lix.
Cassius to Cicero; Quintus to Tiro, and subsequently in those of Augustus to Tiberius.
But perhaps the most singular scene is the council of three great ladies presided over by Servilia at Antium, which decides the movements of Brutus and Cassius in June 44 B.C., when Cassius " looking very fierce - you would say that he was breathing fire and sword " - blustered concerning what he considered an insult, viz.
After Cicero's death his character was attacked by various detractors, such as the author of the spurious Controversia put into the mouth of Sallust, and the calumniator from whom Dio Cassius (xlvi.
20; Dio Cassius, xl.
20; Dio Cassius xlv.
After the death of Caesar he attached himself to Mark Antony,- but, owing to some fancied slight, he deserted to Brutus and Cassius.
20.5; Dio Cassius xlvii.
Brutus and Cassius paid him little regard, and dispersed to their respective provinces.
They divided the western provinces among them, the east being held for the republic by Brutus and Cassius.
The remnant of the republican party took refuge either with Brutus and Cassius in the East, or with Sextus Pompeius, who had made himself master of the seas.
Octavianus and Antonius crossed the Adriatic in 42 B.C. to reduce the last defenders of the republic. Brutus and Cassius were defeated, and fell at the battle of Philippi.
Mutinies became frequent in all parts of the empire; to ore of them the life of the jurist and praetorian praefect Ulpian was sacrificed; another compelled the retirement of Dio Cassius from his command.
His advisers were men like the famous jurist Ulpian, the historian Dio Cassius and a select board of sixteen senators; a municipal council of fourteen assisted the city praefect in administering the affairs of the fourteen districts of Rome.
See Lampridius, Alexander Severus; Dio Cassius lxxviii.
The narrative is of special value as supplementing Dion Cassius, whose history ends with Alexander Severus.
Furneaux), Suetonius, Dio Cassius (Epit.
72; Dio Cassius xlv.
6, pro Flacco, 38; Plutarch, Cicero, 12; Dio Cassius xxxvii.
In the following year (42) Antony and Octavian proceeded against the conspirators Cassius and Brutus, and by the two battles of Philippi annihilated the senatorial and republican parties.
i.-v.; Dio Cassius xli.-liii.
14 ff.; Dio Cassius xlviii.
Plutarch, Brutus, 28; Dio Cassius xlvii.
His principal pupils were Herennius, the two Origens, Cassius Longinus and Plotinus.
14; Dio Cassius lx.
Suetonius, Valerius Maximus, Appian and Dio Cassius all state that, at Caesar's funeral, a certain Helvius Cinna was killed by mistake for Cornelius Cinna, the conspirator.
p. 796; Dio Cassius xxxix.
The history of the war is given in Dio Cassius, but the best commentary upon it is the famous column of Trajan.
The Parthians formed a league with Brutus and Cassius, as previously with Pompey, but gave them no support, until in 40 B.C. a Parthian army, led by Pacorus and the republican general Labienus, harried Syria and Asia Minor.
This war, which broke out on the question of Armenia and Osroene, proved of decisive significance for the future development of the East, for, in its course, Seleucia was destroyed by the Romans under Avidius Cassius (164).
In the civil wars of the 1st century B.C. the Ephesians twice supported the unsuccessful party, giving shelter to, or being made use of by, first, Brutus and Cassius, and afterwards Antony, for which partisanship or weakness they paid very heavily in fines.
D10 Cassius, 50.12-51.3; Plutarch, Antonius, 62-68; Velleius Paterculus, ii.
According to Dio Cassius (xxxv1.38), in conjunction with L.
Dio Cassius xxxvi.
Some of the incidents given as facts by Dio Cassius are manifest absurdities; and Cicero paid more regard to the effect than to the truthfulness of an accusation.
Very much no doubt of the substance of the lost books has been preserved both by such writers as Plutarch and Dio Cassius, and by epitomizers like Florus and Eutropius.
Some allusions will also be found in Dio Cassius, Pliny and Athenaeus.
In 79 he was curule aedile with his brother, in 77 praetor, in 73 consul with Gaius Cassius Varus.
5; Dio Cassius lxi.
Neapolis was the port of Philippi, as Kavala now is of Seres; in the bay on which it stands the fleet of Brutus and Cassius was stationed during the battle of Philippi.
Considering his long life and reputation Aurispa produced little: Latin translations of the commentary of Hierocles on the golden verses of Pythagoras (1474) and of Philisci Consolatoria ad Ciceronem from Dio Cassius (not published till 1510); and, according to Gesner, a translation of the works of Archimedes.
The lives, which (with few exceptions) are arranged in chronological order, are distributed as follows: - To Spartianus: the biographies of Hadrian, Aelius Verus, Didius Julianus, Septimius Severus, Pescennius Niger, Caracallus, Geta (?); to Vulcacius Gallicanus: Avidius Cassius; to Capitolinus: Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Verus, Pertinax, Clodius Albinus, the two Maximins, the three Gordians, Maximus and Balbinus, Opilius Macrinus (?); to Lampridius: Commodus, Diadumenus, Elagabalus, Alexander Severus; to Pollio: the two Valerians, the Gallieni, the so-called Thirty Tyrants or Usurpers, Claudius (his lives of Philip, Decius, and Gallus being lost); to Vopiscus: Aurelian, Tacitus, Florian, Probus, the four tyrants (Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus, Bonosus), Carus, Numerian, Carinus.
- A ncient: Plutarch, Pompey; Dio Cassius; Appian; Velleius Paterculus; Caesar, De bello civili; Strabo xii., 555-560; Cicero, passim; Lucan, Pharsalia.
120; Dio Cassius xliii.
See Dio Cassius, xlvi-xlix.; Appian, Bell.
After them the district was called Orrhoene (thus in the inscriptions, in Pliny and Dio Cassius), which occasionally has been changed into Osroene, in assimilation to the Parthian name Osroes or Chosroes (Khosrau).
11-22; Dio Cassius xl.
8 -11; Dio Cassius lvii.
6; Dio Cassius xix.
- Dio Cassius lxxvii., lxxviii.; Herodian iii.
After its surrender, he joined Pompey in Greece and was slain in the flight after the battle of Pharsalus, in which he commanded the right wing against Antony (Caesar, Bellum Civile, i., ii., iii.; Dio Cassius xxxix., xli.; Appian, B.C. ii.
After Caesar's assassination he attached himself to Brutus and Cassius, and in 43 was condemned by the lex Pedia as having been implicated in the plot.
He died soon afterwards(Dio Cassius xlviii.-l; Appian, Bell.
In 44 B.C. Cassius arrived in Syria for the purpose of filling his war-chest: Antipater and Herod collected the sum of money at which the Jews of Palestine had been assessed.
With the connivance of Cassius Herod had Malichus assassinated; but the country was in a state of anarchy, thanks to the extortions of Cassius and the encroachments of neighbouring powers.
I I, § II; Dio Cassius liv.
Beyond this quarter begins an extensive Roman necropolis extending along the edge of the hill north-east of the high road leading to the north-west; the most important tomb is the so-called Grotta delle Vipere, the rockhewn tomb of Cassius Philippus and Atilia Pomptilla, the sides of which are covered with inscriptions (Corpus Inscr.
He was banished by Nero (in 66 or 68) for having indirectly disparaged the emperor's projected history of the Romans in heroic verse (Dio Cassius lxii.
Dio Cassius >>
Cassius Longinus, and forced them to pass under the yoke (Livy, Epit.
62.80; Dio Cassius xli.
8 Written 'Oapor i s in Dio Cassius, Excerpta, lxviii.
How did Cassius Clay train to become the greatest heavyweight boxer in the world?
conspirators led by Cassius is concerned by the total power that Caesar might acquire.
stolid face; Liston kept swinging at where Cassius had been a split second before.
Afric, 25; Dio Cassius xli.
This astrological week became very current in the Roman empire, but was still a novelty in the time of Dio Cassius (xxxvii.
See Dio Cassius xxxvi.
Verus, originally a man of considerable courage and ability, was sent to oppose the Parthians, but gave himself up to sensual excesses, and the Roman cause in Armenia would have been lost, and the empire itself, perhaps, imperilled, had not Verus had under him able generals, 2 the chief of whom was Avidius Cassius (see Cassius, AvIDius).
17; Dio Cassius xxxvi.
At any rate Antipater was ready to aid Cassius with advice; Taricheae was taken and 30,000 Jews were sold into slavery (51 B.C.).
In spite of this vigorous coercion Cassius came to terms with Alexander, before he returned to the Euphrates to hold it against the Parthians.
Dio Cassius puts the total at the incredible figure of 580,000, besides the incalculable number who succumbed to famine, disease and fire (Dio-Xiphilin lxix.
xii., xiii., xiv.; Dio Cassius lix.-lxi.; Suetonius, Nero, 34; Stahr, Agrippina, die Mutter Neros (1880); Raffay, Die Memoiren der Kaiserin Agrippina (1884); B.
See Cicero's speech; Dio Cassius xxxvi.
See Sallust, Catilina, 35.49; Dio Cassius xxxvi.
The chief ancient authorities for the reign of Hadrian are: the life by Aelius Spartianus in the Scriptores historiae Augustae (see AUGUSTAN HISTORY and bibliography); the epitome of Dio Cassius (lxix.) by Xiphilinus; Aurelius Victor, Epit.
In 63 B.C., at Caesar's instigation, he prosecuted Gaius Rabirius for treason; in the same year, as tribune of the plebs, he carried a plebiscite which indirectly secured for Caesar the dignity of pontifex maximus (Dio Cassius xxxvii.
See Urlichs, De Vita et Honoribus Agricolae (1868); Dio Cassius xxxix.
The list of his works includes hymns and national songs - among others, the famous Chant du depart; odes, Sur la mort de Mirabeau, Sur l'oligarchie de Robespierre, &c.; tragedies which never reached the stage, Brutus et Cassius, Philippe deux, Tibere; translations from Sophocles and Lessing, from Gray and Horace, from Tacitus and Aristotle; with elegies, dithyrambics and Ossianic rhapsodies.
In 59 Calenus was praetor, and brought forward a law that the senators, knights, and tribuni aerarii, who composed the judices, should vote separately, so that it might be known how they gave their votes (Dio Cassius xxxviii.
and Hispanica; the fragments of Sallust; Dio Cassius xxxvi.
Such was the conspiracy of Catiline and the character of its author, as we find them in the speeches of Cicero, and the histories of Sallust and Dio Cassius (see also Plutarch, Cicero; Vell.
the defeat of Brutus and Cassius at Philippi, in cxxxiii.
Cassius just kept flicking jabs into the champion 's stolid face; Liston kept swinging at where Cassius had been a split second before.
Known as Cassius Clay earlier in his career, this pugilist will forever be known for what he was able to achieve in the ring, as well as in the political arena.
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