How to use Casimir in a sentence

casimir
  • His request being granted, Languet spent the last years of his life mainly in the Low Countries, and though nominally still in the service of the elector, he undertook a mission to England for John Casimir of Bavaria and was a valuable adviser to William the Silent, prince of Orange.

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  • Indeed, from first to last, the Polish gentry as a body took good care to pay and fight as little as possible, and Casimir depended for the most part upon the liberality of the Church and the Prussian towns, and the valour of the Hussite infantry, 17c,000 of whom, fighting on both sides, are said to have perished.

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  • Count Casimir Batthyany attacked him in The Times, and Szemere, who had been prime minister under him, published a bitter criticism of his acts and character, accusing him of arrogance, cowardice and duplicity.

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  • Casimir Dudevant, whom she married on the 11th of December 1822, was the natural son of a Baron Dudevant.

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  • At the same time negotiations were successfully carried on with John Casimir, with Elizabeth and with Henry of Navarre, and their help secured for the national cause.

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  • At the same time John Casimir, brother of the elector palatine, at the invitation of the Calvinist party and with the secret financial aid of Queen Elizabeth, entered the country at the head of a body of German mercenaries from the east.

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  • Alexander Ghent had fallen into the hands of John Casimir, Farnese and under his armed protection a fierce and intolerant governor= Calvinism reigned supreme in that important city.

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  • But now George discomfited all his enemies by suddenly excluding his own son from the throne in favour of Ladislaus, the eldest son of Casimir IV., thus skilfully enlisting Poland on his side.

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  • At the very moment when Matthias was about to profit by the disappearance of his most capable rival, another dangerous rebellion, headed by the primate and the chief dignitaries of the state, with the object of placing Casimir, son of Casimir IV., on the throne, paralysed Matthias's foreign policy during the critical years 1470-1471.

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  • Casimir de Candolle has made an independent investigation, based on Hooker and Benthams Genera plantarum.

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  • On the death of Casimir, king of Poland and grand-prince of Lithuania, in 1492, the kingdom and the principality ceased to be united and Ivan III.

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  • He excommunicated Casimir of Poland for marital infidelity and forced him to do penance.

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  • Pope Eugenius (1442) issued a fiercely intolerant missive; the Franciscan John of Capistrano moved the masses to activity by his eloquent denunciations; even Casimir IV.

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  • Charles married Elizabeth, the sister of Casimir the Great of Poland, with whom he was connected by ties of close friendship, and Louis, by virtue of a compact made by his father thirty-one years previously, added the Polish crown to that of Hungary in 1370.

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  • The Roman Catholic cathedral was finished by Casimir IV.

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  • From Casimir the Great, who captured it in 1340, it received the Magdeburg rights, and for almost two hundred years the public records were kept in German.

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  • Having graduated and begun to give lectures at Jena in 1605, he in 1606 accepted the invitation of John Casimir, duke of Coburg, to the superintendency of Heldburg and mastership of the gymnasium; soon afterwards he became general superintendent of the duchy, in which capacity he was engaged in the practical work of ecclesiastical organization until 1616, when he became theological professor at Jena, where the remainder of his life was spent.

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  • A friend procured him a situation as tutor in the house of Casimir Perier.

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  • In 1572 Gotha was given to John Casimir, a son of the Saxon duke John Frederick, but when he died childless in 1633 it passed to another branch of the family.

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  • Both these embassies were undertaken contrary to the wishes of King Casimir IV., who was altogether opposed to Olesnicki's ecclesiastical policy.

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  • In his account, however, of the quarrel between Casimir and Olesnicki concerning the question of priority between the cardinal and the primate of Poland he warmly embraced the cause of the former, and even pronounced Casimir worthy of dethronement.

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  • Yet as a high-minded patriot Dlugosz had no sympathy whatever with Olesnicki's opposition to Casimir's Prussian policy, and steadily supported the king during the whole course of the war with the Teutonic knights.

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  • In 1467 the generous and discerning Casimir IV.

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  • Casimir belongs to that remarkable group of late medieval sovereigns who may be called the fathers of modern diplomacy, inasmuch as they relegated warfare to its proper place as the instrument of politics, and preferred the councilchamber to the battle-field.

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  • He was educated at the court of Charles Robert of Hungary, who had married Casimir's beautiful sister Elizabeth, and who gave his brother-in-law an excellent education under Italian masters.

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  • In his youth Casimir was considered frivolous and licentious; while his sudden flight from the field of Plowce, the scene of his father's great victory over the Teutonic knights, argued but poorly for his personal courage.

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  • Fortunately Casimir was a man of penetrating genius.

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  • Casimir recognized from the first that further fighting against tremendous odds was unprofitable.

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  • At this congress the differences between Casimir and John of Bohemia were finally adjusted; peace was made between the king of Poland and the Teutonic Order on the basis of the cession of Pomerania, Kulm, and Michalow to the knights, who retroceded Kujavia and Dobrzyn; and the kings of Hungary and Poland further agreed to assist each other in the acquisition of the south-eastern border province of Halicz, or Red Russia (very nearly corresponding to the modern Galicia), in case the necessity for intervention should arise.

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  • The Holy See, jealous of the growing power of the house of Luxemburg, attempted to set aside the decrees of the congress of Visegred, by urging Casimir to take up arms against the knights once more; but Casimir prudently refrained from hostilities, and ultimately compensated himself in the southeast for his losses in the north.

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  • Hungary coming to the assistance of Poland, Lubart was defeated and taken prisoner; but Casimir, anxious to avoid a bloody war with Lithuania's Tatar allies, came to a compromise with Lubart whereby Poland retained Halicz with Lemberg, while Vladimir, Belz, and Brzesc fell to the share of Lithuania.

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  • With the Teutonic knights, still Poland's most dangerous foe, Casimir preserved peaceful relations throughout his reign.

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  • John of Bohemia was also a constant thorn in the side of Casimir.

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  • Silesia, now split up into seventeen principalities, was the bone of contention between them; and when Casimir suddenly invaded that country, took Wschowa, and made Prince Charles of Bohemia a prisoner, war between the two kingdoms actually broke out and Casimir was besieged in Cracow by the Czechs.

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  • Charles IV., a cautious sovereign with many cares, was as anxious for the maintenance of peace as Casimir himself.

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  • Throughout his reign Casimir never neglected the great work of domestic reform, greatly aided by Jaroslaw Skotowicki, archbishop of Gnesen, formerly a professor at Bologna.

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  • Towards everything like disorder, tyranny, or aristocratic oppression, Casimir was always inexorably severe; all disturbers of the peace were remorselessly put to death as the worst enemies of their country and he enjoyed in consequence the honourable title of "the Peasants' King."

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  • To remedy the evil, Casimir drew up and promulgated the severe statute of Great Poland, which went to the very root of the matter and greatly strengthened the hands of the king's justices.

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  • Casimir also did much for education.

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  • Stimulated by the example of Charles IV., who had founded the university of Prague in 1348, Casimir on the 12th of May 1364 established and richly endowed the first university of Cracow, which had five professors of Roman law, three of Canon law, two of physics, and one master of arts.

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  • The security of the kingdom was sensibly promoted by the erection of a cordon of fortresses on its north-eastern borders, and a blow was given to foreign interference when Casimir succeeded in gaining dominant influence over the independent Polish principality of Masovia, which had hitherto gravitated between Bohemia and the Teutonic Order.

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  • Casimir's last political act was the conclusion of a fresh alliance with Louis of Hungary against Charles IV.

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  • Though married three times Casimir left no sons; but he had the satisfaction of knowing that his domains would pass into the hands of a nephew every whit as capable and sagacious as himself.

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  • The Polish king, John Casimir, fled to Silesia.

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  • In the beginning of 1656 John Casimir returned from exile and the Polish army was reorganized and increased.

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  • Friction had soon arisen with New Netherland, although, owing to their common dislike of the English, the Swedes and the Dutch had maintained a formal friendship. In 1651, however, Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Netherland, and more aggressive than his predecessors, built Fort Casimir, near what is now New Castle.

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  • In 1654 Printz's successor, Johan Claudius Rising, who had arrived from Sweden with a large number of colonists, expelled the Dutch from Fort Casimir.

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  • In 1656, however, the Dutch West India Company sold part of what had been New Sweden to the city of Amsterdam, which in the following year established a settlement called " New Amstel " at Fort Casimir (New Castle).

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  • It was he who brought King John Casimir back from exile and enabled him to regain his lost kingdom.

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  • Czarniecki is rightly regarded as one of the most famous of heroic Poland's great captains, and to him belongs the chief merit of extricating her from the difficulties which threatened to overwhelm her during the disastrous reign of John Casimir.

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  • A born ruler, Casimir introduced a whole series of administrative and economical reforms. He was the especial protector of the cities and the peasants, and, though averse from violent measures, punished aristocratic tyranny with an iron hand.

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  • Casimir's few wars were waged entirely for profit, not glory.

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  • In default of male issue, Casimir left the Polish throne to his nephew, Louis of Hungary, who ruled the country (1370-1382) through his mother, Queen Elizabeth, Wladislaus Lokietek's daughter.

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  • So wealthy did Cracow become at last that Casimir the Great felt it necessary to restrain the luxury of her citizens by sumptuary ordinances.

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  • The only portion of the community which had no privileges were the Jews, first introduced into Poland by Boleslaus the Pious, duke of Great Poland, in 1264, when bitter persecutions had driven them northwards from the shores of the Adriatic. Casimir the Great extended their liberty of domicile over the whole kingdom (1334).

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  • This was Wladislaus's second son, already grandduke of Lithuania, who ascended the Polish throne as Casimir IV.

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  • Enormous were the difficulties of Casimir IV.

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  • A Lithuanian'himself, Casimir strenuously resisted the attempts of Poland to wrest these provinces from the grandduchy.

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  • But provinces are not conquered by manifestoes, and Casimir's acceptance of the homage of the Prussian League at once involved him in a war with the desperate Teutonic Knights, which lasted twelve years, but might easily have been concluded in a twelvemonth had he only been loyally supported by his own subjects, for whose benefit he had embarked upon this great enterprise.

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  • Moreover Casimir's difficulties were materially increased by the necessity of paying for Czech mercenaries, the pos polite ruszenie, or Polish militia, proving utterly useless at the very beginning of the war.

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  • Thus the high hopes entertained by Casimir at the beginning of the war had not been realized.

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  • Sure of the support of the pope, Matthias (q.v.) deliberately set about traversing all the plans of Casimir.

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  • He encouraged the Teutonic Order to rebel against Poland; he entertained at his court antiPolish embassies from Moscow; he encouraged the Tatars to ravage Lithuania; he thwarted Casimir's policy in Moldavia.

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  • The death of the brilliant adventurer at Vienna in 1490 came therefore as a distinct relief to Poland, and all danger from the side of Hungary was removed in 1490 when Casimir's son Wladislaus, already king of Bohemia, was elected king of Hungary also.

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  • It was in the reign of Casimir IV.

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  • This aggression seriously threatened the trade of Poland, and induced Casimir IV.

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  • During the fourteen years (1492-1506) which separate the reigns of Casimir IV.

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  • The controlling hand of Casimir IV.

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  • The first symptom of this lawlessness was the separation of Poland and Lithuania, the Lithuanians proceeding to elect Alexander, Casimir's fourth son, as their grand-duke, without even consulting the Polish senate, in flagrant violation of the union of Horodlo.

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  • Fortunately for the integrity of the Polish state the premature death of Alexander in 1506 brought upon the throne his capable brother Sigismund, the fifth son of Casimir IV., whose long reign of gismundl., forty-two years was salutary, and would have been so 6-1548.

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  • Casimir the Great even tried to make municipal government as democratic as possible by enacting that one half of the town council of Cracow should be elected from the civic patriciate, but the other half from the commonalty.

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  • A strongly centralized government had ever been Poland's greatest need, and Casimir the Great had striven successfully against all centrifugal tendencies.

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  • Again, however, he made the mistake of attacking a fortress, which delayed his advance for a month, and gave John Casimir time to collect an army for the relief of the besieged.

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  • King John Casimir, betrayed and abandoned by his own subjects, fled .to Silesia, and profiting by the cataclysm which, for the moment, had swept the Polish state out of existence, the Muscovites, unopposed, quickly appropriated nearly everything which was not already occupied by the Swedes.

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  • The first of these events, to be dated from the alliance between the emperor Leopold and John Casimir, on the 2 7th of May 1657, led to a truce with the tsar and the welcome diversion of all the Muscovite forces against Swedish Livonia.

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  • By the peace of Oliva (May 3, 1660), made under French mediation, John Casimir ceded Livonia, and renounced all claim to the Swedish crown.

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  • Its last manifestation was the successful defence of the monastery of Czenstochowa by Prior Kordecki against the finest troops in Europe, its last representative was Stephen Czarniecki, who brought the fugitive John Casimir back from exile and reinstalled him on his tottering throne.

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  • Mention may here be made of other chroniclers such as Martin the Pole (Polonus), who died in 1279 or 1280, and Jan of Czarnkow, who died in 1389; the latter was the historian and panegyrist of Casimir the Great.

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  • Casimir the Great may be said to have laid the foundation of this university.

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  • The wife of John Casimir, a Frenchwoman, Marie Louise, hired a troop of French actors and first familiarized the Poles with something which resembled the modern stage.

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  • Mickiewicz had had a predecessor, but of far less talent, Casimir Brodzinski (1791-1835).

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  • He began his labours with The Age of Casimir the Great (1848), and Boleslaw the Brave (1849), following these with Jadwiga and Jagiello, in three volumes (1855-1856) - a work which Spasovich, in his Russian History of Slavonic Literature, compares in vigour of style and fullness of colour with Macaulay's History of England and Thierry's Norman Conquest.

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  • Casimir Stadnicki has treated of the period of the Jagiellons; and Szaraniewicz, professor at the university of Lemberg, has written on the early history of Galicia.

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  • Dr Joseph Casimir Plebanski, besides editing the Biblioteka warszawska, a very valuable literary journal which stands at the head of all works of the kind in Poland, has also written a dissertation (in Latin) on the liberum veto, which puts that institution in a new light.

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  • With a force of seven hundred men he sailed into the Delaware in 1655, captured Fort Casimir (Newcastle) - which Stuyvesant had built in 1651 and which the Swedes had taken in 1654 - and overthrew the Swedish authority in that region.

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  • He had interviews with the prince of Orange, with Casimir who was there in the interests of Protestant Germany, with Anjou who came in his own interests or in those of France, and with Don John, who nominally governed the country in Philip's name; the story that he instigated a plot to kidnap or murder Don John is without foundation.

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  • In this assault Count Casimir Pulaski, on the American side, was mortally wounded.

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  • Of the principal secular buildings, the royal castle (Zamek Krolowsk), a huge building, begun in the 13th century, and successively enlarged by Casimir the Great and by Sigismund I.

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  • It was founded by Casimir the Great in 1364, and completed by Ladislaus Jagiello in 1400.

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  • He was, however, more than compensated for this disappointment by his compact (1339) with his ally and brother-in-law, Casimir of Poland, whereby it was agreed that Louis should succeed to the Polish throne on the death of the childless Casimir.

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  • His first wife was Maria, daughter of Duke Casimir of Teschen, whom he wedded in 1306.

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  • Sigismund died very suddenly in his 66th year, leaving two sons, Wladislaus and John Casimir, who succeeded him in rotation.

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  • Sigismund was the only one of the six sons of Casimir IV.

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  • His first step was to recover control of the mint, and place it in the hands of capable middle-class merchants and bankers, like Caspar Beer, Jan Thurzo, Jan Boner, the Betmans, exiles for conscience' sake from Alsace, who had sought refuge in Poland under Casimir IV., Justus Decyusz, subsequently the king's secretary and historian, and their fellows, all practical economists of high integrity who reformed the currency and opened out new ways for trade and commerce.

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  • The German king treated his foe generousli and was rewarded by receiving to the end of his reign the servic of a loyal vassal; he also gained the goodwill of the Poles by helping to bring about the return of their duke, Casimir I., who willingly did homage for his land.

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  • Except John Casimir, the Protestant princes showed no eagerness to assist Gebhard, who in a short time was driven from his see, and afterwards took up his residence in Strassburg, where also he instigated a rebellion on a small scale.

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  • A short time afterwards the militant party among the Protestants suffered a heavy loss by the death of their leader, John Casimir, whose policy, however, was continued by his nephew and pupil, the elector Frederick IV.

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  • On the hill above the town are the ruins of an old castle, said to have been founded by Casimir the Great.

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  • Casimir the Great and other Polish princes endowed it with privileges similar to those of Cracow, and it attained a high degree of prosperity.

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  • In 1568 a marriage was arranged between John Casimir, son of the elector palatine, Frederick III., and Elizabeth, a daughter of Augustus, and for a time it seemed possible that the Saxon elector would support his son-in-law in his attempts to aid the revolting inhabitants of the Netherlands.

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  • On the other hand, the national party abandoned the candidature to the throne of Prince Casimir of Poland, thus paving the way to the eventual succession of Albert's heir.

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  • In later years, however, hope of obtaining aid from Poland in his struggle against King Matthias induced him to offer the succession to the Bohemian throne to Vladislav (Wladislaus, Ladislaus), son of Casimir, king of Poland.

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  • Casimir's reign of forty-five years was epoch-making for Poland.

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  • The great triumph of Casimir's reign was the final subjugation of the Teutonic Order, a triumph only accomplished after a harassing and desultory thirteen years' war, during which Casimir's own subjects gave him more trouble than all his enemies.

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  • In October 1453 they placed themselves beneath the overlordship of Casimir; on the 4th of February 1454 formally renounced their ancient allegiance to the Order; and some weeks later captured no fewer than fifty-seven towns and castles.

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  • On the 6th of March 1454 Casimir issued a manifesto directing the incorporation of the Prussian provinces with Poland, but granting them at the same time freedom from taxation and full autonomy.

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  • The intervention of the Curia, which hitherto had been hostile to Casimir because of his steady and patriotic resistance to papal aggression, was due to the permutations of European politics.

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  • Casimir was to be a leading factor in this combination, and he took advantage of it to procure the election of his son Wladislaus as king of Bohemia.

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  • But he would not commit himself too far, and his ulterior plans were frustrated by the rivalry of Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, who even went so far as to stimulate the Teutonic Order to rise against Casimir.

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  • The death of Matthias in 1490 was a great relief to Poland, and Casimir employed the two remaining years of his reign in consolidating his position still further.

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  • The feature of Casimir's character which most impressed his contemporaries was his extraordinary simplicity and sobriety.

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  • Casimir's married life was singularly happy.

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  • It was reprinted in 1904 in an abridged form by Casimir Stryienski and Frantz Funck-Brentano.

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  • The shifting policy of the Walachian princes at this time is well described in a letter of the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus (1458-90) to Casimir of Poland.

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  • All Poland now lay at his feet, and the road to the defenceless capital was open before him; but he wasted the precious months in vain before the fortress of Zamosc, and was then persuaded by the new king of Poland, John Casimir, to consent to a suspension of hostilities.

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  • In 1653 Poland made a supreme effort, the diet voted 17,000,000 gulden in subsidies, and John Casimir led an army of 60,000 men into the Ukraine and defeated the arch-rebel at Zranta, whereupon Chmielnicki took the oath of allegiance to the tsar (compact of Pereyaslavl, February 19,1654), and all hope of an independent Cossack state was at an end.

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  • In 1 577 this colony received town rights from the elector John Casimir, whose successor fortified the place.

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  • Destroyed in the course of these struggles, it was restored by Casimir of Poland in 1346, and down to the close of, the 16th century it continued to be a flourishing commercial city.

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  • But he intrigued with the republicans, and Casimir - Perier insisted on the departure of both mother and son.

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  • Cond, with the men-at-arms of John Casimir, son of the Count Palatine, tried to starve out the capital; but once more the defection Peace of of the nobles obliged him to sign a treaty of peace at juomneman.

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  • When the abdication of Christina of Sweden caused a quarrel between Charles Gustavus of Sweden and John Casimir of Poland, by which the emperor and the elector of Brandenburg hoped to profit, Mazarin (August 15, 1658) leagued the Rhine princes against them; while at the same time the substitution of Pope Alexander VII.

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  • John Casimir, who acted as commander-in-chief, returned to the Palatinate in October 1583, and early in the following year Gebhard was driven from Bonn and took refuge in the Netherlands.

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  • Casimir, duke of Poland, dedicated a church at Cracow to him.

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  • Nevertheless in 1325 the Order, disregarding the censures of the church, resumed the war with Gedymin, who had in the meantime improved his position by an alliance with Wladislaus Lokietek, king of Poland, whose son Casimir now married Gedymin's daughter Aldona.

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  • Areas being researched are neutrino astrophysics, the Casimir effect, quantum gravity fluctuations and laboratory astrophysics.

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  • Casimir was the name of the king's eldest brother, who held the office of grand chamberlain.

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  • For his subsequent services to King John Casimir, especially in the Ukraine against the Tatars and Cossacks, he received the grand baton of the crown, or commandershipin-chief (1668).

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  • Casimir began by tying the hands of the Teutonic Order by the truce of Thorn; he induced the king of Bohemia to relinquish his claims to the Polish throne by consenting to leave him a free hand in Silesia (conference of Trencsen, early in 1335); and subsequently he attended the celebrated congress of Visegrad (November 12December 3, 1 335), where Charles Robert entertained him and the king of Bohemia magnificently.

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  • To guarantee still further the integrity of Poland, Casimir, who had no male issue, concluded a compact with Charles Robert whereby he recognized Louis, Charles Robert's son, as the successor to the Polish crown; Louis on his part contracting to confirm the privileges of the Polish gentry and clergy, and to rule Poland through natives only.

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  • But instead of support, Casimir encountered obstinate obstruction at every point.

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  • On the death of George, Casimir's eldest son Wladislaus was elected king of Bohemia by the Utraquist party, despite the determined opposition of Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, whose ability and audacity henceforth made him Casimir's most dangerous rival.

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  • Another poet was Andrew Morsztyn (born about 1620, died about the commencement of the 18th century), an astute courtier, who was finance minister (podskarbi) under John Casimir, and was.

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  • It was due entirely to his steadfast adherence to these principles that Poland in the course of the 15th century rose to the rank of a great power; but by a singular irony of fate, Casimir, in consequence of his unswerving efforts to make his country glorious and prosperous, entirely forfeited the popularity of his Polish subjects, whose true interests he understood far better than they did themselves.

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