How to use Cases in a sentence
How many cases has she been involved in?
I authorized the dispersal of two tons of water and twenty cases of rations from the emergency site in Raleigh along with hazmat drivers and twelve vehicles.
Any new happening outside the mundane assortment of drug cases, burglaries, domestic disturbances or a semi-annual Saturday night passion killing came as a welcome change.
Arthur took all his funny cases with him.
In some cases the material traverses the chamber from the coolest to the hottest part on a conveyer or in wagons.Advertisement
Bakewell is noted for a chalybeate spring, of use in cases of chronic rheumatism, and there are baths attached to it.
It is of course quite possible that isolated cases of officers being put to death for their faith occurred during Maximinian's reign, and on some such cases the legend may have grown up during the century and a half between Maximinian and Eucherius.
In most cases four spores are formed within the cell by free formation.
In most cases two distinct maxima and minima occur in the 24 hours.
In all cases the mean value for the 24 hours is taken as 100.Advertisement
Because its meaning has to be imputed, we have tended to describe it in terms of prior technologies—which, in many cases, understates its potential by many orders of magnitude.
In 1916, the number of cases just in New York City was reported to be nine thousand.
Hundreds of thousands of cases were still, of course, in the rest of the world even three decades after Salk's breakthrough.
It was always young girls so I started looking at old unsolved cases; missing children as well as murders.
It's tough on these old cases, especially if it's considered solved.Advertisement
At present, there are about one hundred new cases reported per month around the world, infecting about the same number of people as die from lightning strikes.
Though cases like these are not really how the science will be used, they illustrate the principle.
Most cases aren't like our jelly bean example where each person had the items the other person wanted.
And yet, we know of no cases of mass "left behind-ness," of people unable to learn how to function in this environment.
In both those cases, a technology or technique came along that actually changed the way people think.Advertisement
Not merely in these cases but continually did that old man--who by experience of life had reached the conviction that thoughts and the words serving as their expression are not what move people--use quite meaningless words that happened to enter his head.
I don't care about solving cases.
Is it one of your cases?
So we somehow refer cases to you?
We have this pledge among ourselves not getting a Texas mile near any of these cases.Advertisement
I took the liberty of confirming some of these cases.
I was surprised the FBI didn't press us on some of these more prominent cases.
How do you find individual cases?
That's what they do; chase old unresolved cases.
She'd located two promising missing children cases from the past forty-eight hours.
Only half are black and half nut cases.
The young attorney was always well prepared, and the police appreciated how tenaciously he pursued his cases.
Humans are afforded special protections in most cases.
In the cases where the observations were confined to a few months the representative nature of the results is more doubtful.
Many instances are on record of symptoms of poisoning, and even death, having followed the consumption of plants which have passed as true mushrooms; these cases have probably arisen from the examples consumed being in a state of decay, or from some mistake as to the species eaten.
In cases of poisoning by mushrooms immediate medical advice should be secured.
The material employed in all cases is the droppings of horses, which should be collected fresh, and spread out in thin layers in a dry place, a portion of the short litter being retained well moistened by horse-urine.
Many other fungi in addition to the fairy-ring champignon grow in circles, so that this habit must merely be taken with its other characters in cases of doubt.
It is bounded on the north-west by Ohio, from which it is separated by the Ohio river, on the north by Pennsylvania and Maryland, the Potomac river dividing it from the latter state; on the east and south-east by Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, the boundary lines in the first two cases being meridians, in the last case a very irregular line following the crest of mountain ridges in places; and on the south-west by Virginia and Kentucky, the Big Sandy river separating it from the latter state.
The judges have appellate jurisdiction of cases civil and criminal coming up from the lower courts.
Worship of an emperor during his lifetime, except as the worship of his genius, was, save in the cases of Caligula and Domitian, confined to the provinces.
Where the ritual, as in most cases, is a revival of pre-Reformation.
His work as a barrister was chiefly concerned with pedigree cases before the House of Lords.
In both cases two eyepieces are employed, one to view each separate web.
In these cases, however, the " infallibility " connotes certainty only in so far as anything human can be certain.
In most cases, owing to the mountainous character of the country, horizontal galleries are possible.
In neither of these cases have the subsidiary buildings been fully traced out.
A final argument is the existence in some cases of a village of circular stone buildings of similar construction to the nuraghi, but only 15 to 25 ft.
The tomb proper was no doubt covered with a mound of earth, which has in most cases disappeared.
In all cases canonical institution (which confers ecclesiastical jurisdiction) is reserved to the pope or the bishops.
Ecclesiastical immunities, such as reservation of the criminal cases of the clergy, exemption from military service and other privileges, are expressly maintained in a certain number of pacts.
He was still at college in Vienna when the sudden death of his father raised him to the Khedivate; and he was barely of age according to Turkish law, which fixes majority at eighteen in cases of succession to the throne.
Hyphear is useful for fattening cattle if they are hardy enough to withstand the purgative effect it produces at first; viscum is medicinally of value as an emollient, and in cases of tumour, ulcers and the like.
Instead of these are cats with more or less abbreviated tails, showing in greater or less degree a decided kink or bend near the tip. In other cases the tail is of the short curling type of that of a bulldog; sometimes it starts quite straight, but divides in a fork-like manner near the tip; and in yet other instances it is altogether wanting, as in the typical Manx cats.
But in other cases the encrusted star settles in that portion of the revolving vortex which has a velocity equivalent to its own, and so continues to revolve in the vortex, wrapped in its own firmament.
The defects of Descartes lie rather in his apparently imperfect apprehension of the principle of movements uniformly accelerated which his contemporary Galileo had illustrated and insisted upon, and in the indistinctness which attaches to his views of the transmission of motion in cases of impact.
Caesar had projected remedial measures, but (as in so many cases) had never been able to carry them out, and it was not until the time of Claudius that the problem was approached.
The investigations of Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay had shown that indifference to chemical reagents did not sufficiently characterize an unknown gas as nitrogen, and it became necessary to reinvestigate other cases of the occurrence of "nitrogen" in nature.
In two cases, however, it has been found in the absence of appreciable quantities of uranium and thorium compounds, namely in beryl, and in sylvine (potassium chloride).
Many cases occur where such an office was hereditary; thus the family of Callias at Athens were proxeni of the Spartans.
The books give a number of their "cities" reduced by Alexander - walled mountain villages which can in some cases be identified more or less certainly with places where the clans are established to-day.
When taken internally it is both a secretory and an excretory cholagogue, but so irritant and powerful that its use in cases of jaundice is generally undesirable.
On this account, the custom of both the French and English people of the country was for years before and for several years after 1870 to pronounce it Man-I-CO-ba, and even in some cases to spell it " Manitobah."
A flue should in all cases be provided to carry off the fumes of the fuel.
These officials, at the command of the senate, consulted the Sibylline books in order to discover, not exact predictions of definite future events, but the religious observances necessary to avert extraordinary calamities (pestilence, earthquake) and to expiate prodigies in cases where the national deities were unable, or unwilling, to help. Only the interpretation of the oracle which was considered suitable to the emergency was made known to the public, not the oracle itself.
A code of instructions for the guidance of church courts when engaged in cases of discipline is in general use, and bears witness to the extreme care taken not only to have things done decently and in order, but also to prevent hasty, impulsive and illogical procedure in the investigation of charges of heresy or immorality.
Cases of discipline are now comparatively rare, and, when they do occur, are not characterized by the bigoted severity which prevailed in former times and was rightly denounced as unchristian.
Their business was to supervise daily life, to warn the disorderly, and to give notice to the consistory of cases requiring discipline.
In most cases it was insisted on as necessary that church discipline should remain with the civil authority.
The first of these was due to the adoption by certain teachers in theological seminaries of the methods and results of the "higher criticism," and two famous heresy cases followed.
Official corruption and speculation have led to some unsound ventures, but in the great majority of cases the lines constructed have been beneficial and productive.
In such cases the prefect must approve them, and in some cases the sanction of the general council or even ratification by the president is necessary.
Its function is to examine criminal cases and to decide whether they shall be referred for trial to the lower courts or the cours dassises.
In the absence of a tribunal de commerce commercial cases come before the ordinary tribunal darrondissement.
Congo for maternity cases and cases of curable Ubangi-Chad illness; (2) the hospice, where the aged Madagascar poor, cases of incurable malady, orphans, Nossi-be Island foundlings and other children without Ste Marie Island means of support, and in some cases Comoro Islands lunatics, are received; (3) the bureau de Somali Coast bien-faisance, charged with the provision 9f Reunion out-door relief (secours a domicile) in money st Paul 1 or in kind, to the aged poor or those who, Amsterdam though capable of working, are prevented Kerguelen.
The common law as it existed before his time was wholly inadequate to cope with the new cases and customs which arose with the increasing development of commerce.
Cases of collision have been tried in it (the "Vivid," 1 Asp. Maritime Law Cases, 601).
Actions may be transferred to it, and appeals made to it, from the county courts in all cases arising within the jurisdiction of the Cinque Ports as defined by that act.
In all cases a more or less full series of teeth is developed, these being differentiated into incisors, canines, premolars and molars, when all are present; but only a single pair of teeth in each jaw has deciduous predecessors.
As regards the teeth, in all cases except the wombats the number of upper incisors differs from that of the corresponding lower teeth.
The tail is long and in some cases prehensile; the first hind-toe may be either large, small or absent; the dentition usually includes three pairs of upper and one of lower incisors, and six or seven pairs of cheekteeth in each jaw; the stomach is either simple or sadculated, without a cardiac gland; and there are four teats.
It will be observed from the figures of the lower jaws, which are in most cases the only parts known, that in many instances the number of cheek-teeth exceeds that found in modern marsupials except Myrmecobius.
The cabinet noir has now disappeared, but the right to open letters in cases of emergency appears still to be retained by the French government; and a similar right is occasionally exercised in England under the direction of a secretary of state, and, indeed, in all civilized countries.
Stolze has shown that in some cases even the mason's rubbish has not been removed.'
In this way he has gone over a great portion of the field of physics, and in many cases has either said the last word for the time being, or else started new and fruitful developments.
It also possesses the power of combining with most metallic oxides at high temperatures, forming borates, which in many cases show characteristic colours.
In other cases the inclusion of documents relating to the temple business, payments of tithes and other dues, salaries to temple officials, and such ceremonies as marriages, &c., which may have demanded the presence of the congregation and were at least partly religious in nature, have been allowed to complicate the matter.
In many cases the rivers as they approach the main stream break up into numerous branches, or spread their waters over vast flats.
No certain cure has been or is likely to be discovered for their poison, but in less serious cases strychnine has been used with advantage.
In many cases it arranged the assemblies and ceremonial of the tribe; it regulated marriage, descent and relationship; it ordered blood feuds, it prescribed the rites of hospitality and so on.
In 1890 matters were on the eve of a great change and wages fell, in most cases to a point 20% below the rates of 1885.
The determination is then gazetted, and it becomes operative over a specified area, which varies in different cases, on a date fixed by the board.
A few cases have been recorded, however, of tribes who can count in their own tongue up to four and five.
They consist of a number of circular or rectangular pits sunk from the cap of a hill, and going down to a depth of in some cases as much as 120 ft., until in fact the miners have been stopped by being unable to cope with the quantity of water made when the level of the valley was reached.
Though this industry has lapsed, there are brine baths, much used in cases of rheumatism, gout and general debility, and the former private mansion of Shrewbridge Hall is converted into a hotel with a spa.
The public-school system is under the supervision of a state superintendent of education, elected biennially by the General Assembly, and local schools are under union superintendents and in a few cases under town superintendents.
The Catholic Church has more wisely left physicians in possession, and elevated the anointing of the sick into a sacrament to be used only in cases of mortal sickness, and even then not to the exclusion of the healing art.
But in cases where a debt or instalment is in arrear and it is proved to the satisfaction of the court that the person making default either has or has had since the date of the order or judgment the means to pay the sum in respect of which he has made default and has refused or neglected to pay, he may be committed to prison at the discretion of the judge for a period of not more than forty-two days.
In the United States imprisonment for debt was universal under the common law, but it has been abolished in every state, except in certain cases, as where there is any suspicion of fraud or where the debtor has an intention of removing out of the state to avoid his debts.
We do intend to keep the names of the editors in those cases, but it will usually not be possible to specify who exactly wrote which part of the text.
In cases where the direction of the air motion is always the same, as in the ventilating shafts of mines and buildings for instance, these anemometers, known, however, as air meters, are employed, and give most satisfactory results.
In cases where the density of the air is not of average value, as on a high mountain, or with an exceptionally low barometer for example, an allowance must be made.
In order to see whether the heat came out of the chips he compared the capacity for heat of the chips abraded by the boring bar with that of an equal quantity of the metal cut from the block by a fine saw, and obtained the same result in the two cases, from which he concluded that "the heat produced could not possibly have been furnished at the expense of the latent heat of the metallic chips."
All we can do in such cases is to place the system under certain conditions of transformation, and be content with the amount of work which it is, as it were, willing to render up under those conditions.
In all cases there is a general tendency for other forms of energy to be transformed into heat on account of the friction of rough surfaces, the resistance of conductors, or similar causes, and thus to lose availability.
This was in many cases true, and it is equally true that Mozart and Haydn often had no scruple in following the customs of very bad composers.
Classical and modern chamber-music in the sonata style consists mainly of string-quartets for 2 violins, viola and violoncello; string-trios (rare, because very difficult to write sonorously); pianoforte-trios (pianoforte, violin and violoncello); pianoforte-quartets (pianoforte with string-trio); pianoforte-quintets (pianoforte with string-quartet); string-quintets (with 2 violas, very rarely with 2 violoncellos), and (in two important cases by Brahms) stringsextets.
These consist of enormous cells with nuclei so large as to be in some cases just visible to the naked eye.
Similarly the giant cells are produced at their periphery into a number of branching processes which bear similar end-organs on their surface and in some cases terminate in them.
In some cases (many species of Ascaris) the metamorphosis is reduced to a simple process of growth.
In other cases very serious disorders of the lymphatic system are brought about, of which the most marked is perhaps Elephantiasis.
It is at once evident that hand power is only suitable for cranes of moderate power, or in cases where heavy loads have to be lifted only very occasionally.
These methods are used in exceptional cases, but present the obvious difficulty of giving FIG.
The lifting speed of electric travellers is generally less, because the lift is generally much shorter, and may in ordinary cases be taken as V=3+85/T.
The speed of these two motions depends much on the length of the span and of the longitudinal run, and on the nature of the work to be done; in certain cases, e.g.
The Code made known, in a vast number of cases, what that decision would be, and many cases of appeal to the king were sent back to the judges with orders to decide in accordance with it.
In normal cases profits were divided according to contract, usually equally.
Merchants (and even temples in some cases) made ordinary business loans, charging from 20 to 30%.
In all these cases the children were legitimate and legal heirs.
In all these cases the father might dower her.
They even, in some cases, found the estate for the adopted child who was to relieve them of a care.
The manner of death is not specified in these cases.
The contracts naturally do not concern such criminal cases as the above, as a rule, but marriage contracts do specify death by strangling, drowning, precipitation from a tower or pinnacle of the temple or by the iron sword for a wife's repudiation of her husband.
In ordinary cases responsibility was not demanded for accident or for more than proper care.
The more important cases, especially those involving life and death, were tried by a bench of judges.
In many cases a still heavier type is used for the first mile or two from shore, and several intermediate types are often introduced, tapering gradually to the thin deep-water type.
Nearly all the cable companies possess their own steamers, of sufficient dimensions and specially equipped for making ordinary repairs; but for exceptional cases, where a considerable quantity of new cable may have to be inserted, it may be necessary to charter the services of one of the larger vessels owned by a cable-manufacturing company, at a certain sum per day, which may well reach £200 to £300.
The life of a cable is usually considered to continue until it is no longer capable of being lifted for repair, but in some cases the duration and frequency of interruptions as affecting Life.
Cables have frequently been picked up showing after many years of submergence no appreciable deterioration in this respect, while in other cases ends have been picked up which in the course of twelve years had been corroded to needle points, the result probably of metalliferous deposits in the locality.
Although formerly in very extensive employment, this instrument is dropping out of use and the " sounder " (and in many cases the telephone) is being used in its place.
In such cases it is usual to employ a local battery to produce the signals, and to close the local battery circuit by means of a relay working.
Closely analogous to the action of the state in the cases referred to is the action taken by municipal authorities with the authority of the legislature in competing with or superseding private companies for the supply of electric light, gas, water, tramways and other public services..
In some cases, such as that of peroxide of lead, an increase of resistance takes place.
In many cases additional condensers or inductance coils are inserted in various places so that the arrangement is somewhat disguised, but by far the larger part of the electric wave wireless telegraphy in 1907 was effected by transmitters having antennae either inductively or directly coupled to a closed condenser circuit containing a spark gap.
In both cases the amplitude of the oscillations decreases more or less rapidly.
In all cases of wave motion the wave-length is connected with the velocity of propagation of the radiation by the relation v=nX, where n is the frequency of the oscillations and X is the wave-length.
In some cases the exchanges are connected together directly; but when the volume of traffic is not sufficient to warrant the adoption of such a course connexions between two exchanges are made through junction centres to which both are connected.
In some cases when a magneto-generator is employed for calling purposes the coil of the machine is automatically cut out of circuit when it is not in action, and is brought into circuit when the handle is turned by the operation of a centrifugal or other arrangement.
In those cases in which the company's licence has been extended beyond 1911 (Glasgow to 1913, Swansea to 1926, Brighton to 1926 and Portsmouth to 1926) the Postmaster-General will buy the unexpired licence with allowance for goodwill.
In the rotation of crops there is an amazing diversityshifts of two years, three years, four years, six years, and in many cases whatever order strikes the fancy of the farmer.
In Latium leasehold and farming by landlords prevail, but cases of, nezzadria and of improvement farms exist.
In many cases the action of these organizations has proved, at least temporarily, advantageous to the working classes.
The penal tribunals have jurisdiction in cases involving imprisonment up to ten years, or a fine exceeding 40, while the assize courts, with a jury, deal with offences involving imprisonment for life or over ten years, and have exclusive jurisdiction (except that the senate is on occasion a high court of justice) over all political offences.
The high average in Sardinia is chiefly due to cases within the competence of the conciliation offices.
The courts of appeal and cassation, too, often have more than they can do; in the year 1907 the court of cassation at Rome decided 948 appeals on points of law in civil cases, while no fewer than 460 remained to be decided.
The Alpine frontier is fortified strongly, although the condition of the works was in many cases considered unsatisfactory by the 1907 Commission.
It is proportional, and is collected by deduction from salaries and pensions paid to servants of the state, where it is assessed on three-eighths of the income, and from interest on consolidated stock, where it is assessed on the whole amount; and by register in the cases of private individuals, who pay on three-fourths of their income, professional men, capitalists or manufacturers, who pay on one-half or nine-twentieths of their income.
The system of setting nations by the ears with the view of settling the quarrels of a few reigning houses was reduced to absurdity when the people, as in these cases, came to be partitioned and exchanged without the assertion or negation of a single principle affecting their interests or rousing their emotions.
The prime cause in most cases was the unsatisfactory economic condition of the working classes, which they realized all the more vividly for the very improvements that had been made in it, while education and better communications enabled them to organize themselves.
In some cases there was foundation for the laborers claims, but unfortunately the movement got into the hands of professional agitators and common swindlers, and the leader, a certain Giampetruzzi, who at one time seemed to be a worthy colleague of Marcelin Albert, was afterwards tried and condemned for having cheated his own followers.
They wrote the history of Rome from the earliest times (in most cases) down to their own days, the events of which were treated in much greater detail.
Anne's sister, Mary Boleyn, had been Henry VIII.'s mistress; this by canon law was a bar to his marriage with Anne - a bar which had been removed by papal dispensation in 1527, but now the papal power to dispense in such cases had been repudiated, and the original objection revived.
He interceded for her in vain with the king, as he had done in the cases of Fisher, More and the monks of Christchurch.
And idealism in some cases may interpret itself in favour of pantheism rather than of theism.
This had already been to some extent the practice when this class of cases was heard; it was now made the rule.
In cases of treason the king had a right to the forfeited lands, but he was not allowed to establish a similar right in cases of felony.
This writ was one transferring cases concerning the ownership of property from the courts of the feudal lords to those of the king.
Sometimes ships that are windbound and have exhausted their provision of water, touch here and apply to the natives for it; in such cases the crews sometimes fall into the hands of the latter and most of them are massacred."
In the majority of cases we do not know the polyp corresponding to a given medusa, or the medusa that arises from a given polyp.'
To establish the exact relationship it is necessary not only to breed but to rear the medusa, which cannot always be done in 1 In some cases hydroids have been reared in aquaria from ova of medusae, but these hydroids have not yet been found in the sea (Browne [Io a]).
It is not even possible in all cases to be certain that the polyp-group corresponds exactly to the medusagroup, especially in minor systematic categories, such as families.
Thus the typical hydroid colony starts from a " founder " polyp, which in the vast majority of cases is fixed, but which may be floating, as in Nemopsis, Pelagohydra, &c. The founder-polyp usually produces by budding polyp-individuals, and these in their turn produce other buds.
In some cases, however, medusabuds are formed on the hydro rhiza, as in Hydrocorallines.
As in other cases where animal colonies are formed by organic union of separate individuals, there is ever a tendency for the polyp-colony as a whole to act as a single individual, and for the members to become subordinated to the needs of the colony and to undergo specialization for particular functions, with the result that they simulate organs and their individuality becomes masked to a greater or less degree.
In all cases only medusabuds are produced, never polyp-buds.
In any case the daughter-individuals produced from the buds may be imagined as remaining attached to the parent and forming a colony of individuals in organic connexion with one another, and thus three possible cases arise.
In some cases both free medusae and gonophores may be produced from the same hydroid colony.
The result of cleavage in all cases is a typical blastula, which when set free becomes oval and develops a flagellum to each cell, but when not set free, it remains spherical in form and has no flagella.
The gymnoblastic polyp usually has a distinct perisarc investing the hydrorhiza and the hydrocaulus, sometimes also the hydranth as far as the bases of the tentacles (Bimeria); but in such cases the perisarc forms a closely-fitting investment or cuticule on the hydranth, never a hydrotheca standing off from it, as in the next sub-order.
In some cases, any polyp of the colony may bud medusae; in other cases, only certain polyps, the blastostyles, have this power.
Other variations in the mode of growth or budding bring about further differences in the building up of the colony, which are not in all cases properly understood and cannot be described in detail here.
Ceratella stands in much the same relation to the Stylasteridae that Hydractinia does to the Milleporidae, in both cases the chitinous perisarc being replaced by the solid coenosteum to which the hydrocorallines owe the second half of their name.
The actinula, when free, may multiply by larval budding, but in all cases both the original actinula and all its descendants become converted into medusae, so that there is no alter nation of generations.
This is in some degree parallel to the cases described above, in which a planula gives rise to the hydrorhiza, and buds a polyp laterally.
The parasite effects a lodgment in the host either by invading it as a free-swimming planula, or, apparently, in other cases, as a spore-embryo which is captured and swallowed as food by the host.
In some cases the buds do not become detached at once, but the stolon continues to grow and to produce more buds, forming a " bud-spike " (Knospencihre), which consists of the axial stolon bearing medusa-buds in all stages of development.
In such cases the original parent-actinula does not itself become a medusa, but remains arrested in development and ultimately dies off, so that a true alternation of generations is brought about.
In both cases the hydranth is extremely reduced and has no tentacles, and the polyp forms a colony by budding from the base.
In cases where the cormus has no pneumatophore the topmost swimming bell may contain an oil-reservoir or oleocyst.
Woltereck considers the siphonophores most nearly allied to the Narcomedusae, producing like the buds from an aboral stolon, the first bud being represented by the pneumatophore or protocodon, in different cases.
However, a cautious reasoner will probably rather explain such cases deductively from the doctrine of evolution than endeavour to support the doctrine of evolution by them.
The evidence as set out by Darwin has been added to enormously; new knowledge has in many cases altered our conceptions of the mode of the actual process of evolution, and from time to time a varying stress has been laid on what are known as the purely Darwinian factors in the theory.
Naturalists who deal specially with museum collections have been compelled, it is true, for other reasons to attach an increasing importance to what is called the type specimen, but they find that this insistence on the individual, although invaluable from the point of view of recording species, is unsatisfactory from the point of view of scientific zoology; and propositions for the amelioration of this condition of affairs range from a refusal of Linnaean nomenclature in such cases, to the institution of a division between master species for such species as have been properly revised by the comparative morphologist, and provisional species for such species as have been provisionally registered by those working at collections.
It is necessary to determine if the modification be a simple change that might have occurred in independent cases, in fact if it be a multiradial apocentricity, or if it involved intricate and precisely combined anatomical changes that we could not expect to occur twice independently; that is to say, if it be a uniradial apocentricity.
Ray Lankester's term, homoplasy, has passed into currency as designating such cases where different genetic material has been pressed by similar conditions into similar moulds.
The synod may restore them if convinced of the justice of their cause (and not merely in cases of ajbia).
In both cases, imperial assessors were appointed.
There are, however, a few cases in which the metropolitan is still allowed to cite in the first instance.
One of them was in cases of " perplexity."
This recourse in England sometimes took the form of the appeal to the king given by the Constitutions of Clarendon, just mentioned, and later by the acts of Henry VIII.; sometimes that of suing for writs of prohibition or mandamus, which were granted by the king's judges, either to restrain excess of jurisdiction, or to compel the spiritual judge to exercise jurisdiction in cases where it seemed to the temporal court that he was failing in his duty.
Cases upon the execution of these statutes are collected in Stillingfleet, On Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, p. 189; Gibson, Codex, 83.
In 1438 the council of Basel took away all papal original jurisdiction (save in certain reserved cases - of which infra), evocation of causes to Rome, appeals to Rome omisso medio, and appeals to Rome altogether in many causes.
Clerks were punishable only in the court Christian, except in cases of grave crimes such as murder, mutilation (Fournier, p. 72), and cases called " royal cases " (vide infra).
The sentence of the court Christian had in all other cases to be enforced by the secular arm.
In the cases of heresy, apostasy and sorcery, the spiritual courts sought the aid of the secular jurisdiction to superadd the punishment of death.
Theoretically still, in cases of sexual immorality, penance may be imposed.
Disputed cases of contract were more often tried in the secular courts.
The government in some cases recognized these tribunals as capable of judging ecclesiastical causes (Migne, ubi sup.).
Even as to the discipline of the Roman clergy it is only in certain limited cases that one can speak of ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
Heresy has been treated as a crime to be tried in and punished by the ordinary courts of the country, as in the cases of Servetus and Grotius.
Imprisonment may be inflicted in these last cases (ib.).
In most cases the organic structure has disappeared, le i tving only a cavity, with perhaps a trace of chitin.
He paid especial attention to orthography, and sought to differentiate the meanings of cases of like ending by distinctive marks (the apex to indicate a long vowel is attributed to him).
Thus he was in some cases, as in that of St James's, Piccadilly, content to make the exterior of an almost barnlike plainness.
In such cases the characters of the adult tissue clearly depend solely upon the characters of the cell-walls, and it is usual in plant-anatomy to speak of the wall with its enclosed cavity as the cell, and the contained protoplasm or other substances, if present, as cell-contents.
The thallus in all cases consists of a branched filament of cells placed end to end, as in many of the Green Algae.
In all cases, while the internal threads which bear the cortical branches consist of elongated cells with few chromatophores, and no doubt serve mainly for conduction of food substances, the superficial cells of the branches themselves are packed with chromatophores and form the chief assimilating tissue of the plant.
The tissue developed to meet the demands for conduction in such cases always shows some of the characters described.
A solid fungal body may usually be seen to consist of separate hyphae, but in some cases these are so bent and closely interwoven that an appearance like that of ordinary parenchymatous tissue is obtained in section, the structure being called pseudo parenchyrna.
In a few cases there is a special surface or epidermal layer, but usually all the outer layers of the stem are composed of brown, thick-walled, lignified, prosenchymatous, fibre-like cells forming a peripheral stereom (mechanical or supporting tissue) which forms the outer cortex.
The hydrom strand has in most cases no connection with the leaves, but runs straight up the stem and spreads out below the sexual organs or the foot of the sporogonium.
In the aquatic, semi-aquatic, and xerophilous types, where the whole surface of the plant absorbs water, perpetually in the first two cases and during rain in the last, the hydrom strand is either much reduced or altogether absent.
In many cases the cells bordering the leaf are produced into teeth, and very frequently they are thick-walled so as to form a supporting rim.
In a few cases the hydrom strand is continued into the cortex of the stem as a leaf-trace bundle (the anatomically demonstrable trace of the leaf in the stem).
In other cases the trace passes inwards and joins the central hydrom strand, so that a connected water-conducting system between stem and leaf is established.
In other cases the epithem may be absent altogether, the tracheal strand debouching directly on the lacunae of the mesophyll.
In other cases it does not differ histologically from the parenchyma of the rest of the cortex, though it is often distinguished by containing particularly abundant starch, in which case it is known as a starch sheath.
When the sieve-tube has ceased to function and the protoplasm, slime strings, and callose have disappeared, the perforations through which the slime strings passed are left as relatively large holes, easily visible in some cases with low powers of the microscope, piercing the sieve.plate.
In many cases externai protophloem, usually consisting of narrow sieve-tubes often with swollen walls, can be distinguished from metaphloem.
In other cases the leaf-gaps are very broad and long, the meristeles separating them being reduced to comparatively slender strands, while there is present in each gap a network of fine vascular threads, some of which run out to the leaf, while others form cross-connections between these leaf-trace strands and also with the main cauline meristeles.
In such cases the vascular system is said to be polycyclic in contrast with the ordinary monocyclic condition, These internal strands or cylinders are to be regarded as peculiar types of elaboration of the stele, and probably act as reservoirs for water-storage which can be drawn upon when the water supply from the root is deficient.
The evolution of the vascular structure of the petiole in the higher ferns is strikingly parallel with that of the stem, except in some few special cases.
The whole stele may be surrounded by a common external endodermis; sometimes there is an internal endodermis in addition, separating the bundles from the pith; while in other cases each bundle possesses a separate endodermis surrounding it.
We now know that many at least of the Cycadofilices bore seeds, of a type much more complex than that of most modern seed plants, and in some cases approximating to the seeds of existing Cycads.
Besides the types forming this series, there are a number of others (Medulloseae and allied forms) which show numerous, often very complex, types of stelar structure, in some cases polystelic, whose origin and relationship with the simpler and better known types is frequently obscure.
In other cases the reduction goes much further, till the endodermis eventually comes to surround nothing but an intercellular channel formed in place of the stelar tissue.
As a secondary function we may recognize, in certain cases, the power of closing wounds, which results from the rapid coagulation of exuded latex in contact with the air.
In some cases (Allium, Convolvulaceae, &c.) rows of cells with latex-like contents occur, but the walls separating the individual cells do not break down.
The triple division of tissues is laid down in most cases at 1 very early period of developmentin the flowering plants usuall3 before the resting stage is reached.
In other cases, however, continuous primitive stele is developed, extending from the primar stem to the primary root, the leaf-traces arising later.
In other cases the root structure of the stele continues up to the cotyledonary node, though the hypocotyl is still to be distinguished from the primary root by the character of its epidermis.
In other cases this growing-point becomes active at once, there being little or no elongation of the hypocotyl and tbe cotyledon or cotyledons remaining in the seed.
In other cases, again, a group of two or four prismatIl cells takes the place of the apical cell.
Many cases exist which are intermediate between the two extreme types described.
Where a large-celled pith is developed this often becomes obvious very early, and in some cases it appears to have separate initials situated below those of the hollow vascular cylinder.
In some cases where there is apparently a well-marked plerome at the apex, this is really the young pith, the distinction between the stelar and cortical initials, if it exists, being, as is so often the case, impossible to make out.
The differentiation of the stelar stereom, which usually takes the form of a sclerized pericycle, and may extend to the endocycle and parts of the rays, takes place in most cases later than the formation of the primary vascular strand.
In the very frequent cases where the bundles have considerable individuality, the fibrous pericyclic cap very clearly has a common origin from the same strand of tissue as the vascular elements themselves.
In such cases it is part of the peridesm or sheath of elongated narrowcelled tissue surrounding the individual bundle.
In a few cases the boundaries of the different layers are not traceable.
Every great group or phylum of vascular plants, when it has become dominant in the vegetation of the world, has produced members with the tree habit arising by the formation of a thick woody trunk, in most cases by the activity of a cambium.
In a few cases some of the tracheids have very thick walls and reduced cavities, functioning as mechanical rather than as waterconducting elements.
The stereom is furnished either by cortical cells or by the tracheal elements, in a few cases by fibres which arc probably homologous with sievetubes.
Among Gymnosperms the secondary xylem is similarly simple, consisting of tracheids which act as stereom as well as hydrom, and a little amylom; while the phloem-parenchyma sometimes undergoes a differentiation, part being developed as amylom, part as proteid cells immediately associated with the sieve-tube, in other cases the proteid cells of the secondary phloem do not form part of the phloem-parenchyma, but occupy the top and bottom cellrows of the medullary rays, the middle rows consisting of ordinary starchy cells.
In some cases special secreting tissues, resin ducts, oil glands, laticiferous tissue, crystal sacs, &c., may be developed among the ordinary secondary vascular elements.
In some cases the heart-wood, instead of becoming specially hard, remains soft and easily rots, so that the trunk of the tree frequently becomes hollow, as is commonly the case in the willow.
In a good many cases, sometimes in isolated genera or species, sometimes characteristic of whole families, so-called anomalous cambial layers are formed in the stem, either as an extension of, or in addition to, the original cambial cylinder.
Sometimes in such cases the cambium ceases to be active round these bays and joins across the outside of the bay, where it resumes its normal activity, thus isolating a phtoem strand, or, as it is sometimes called, a phloem -island, in the midst of the xylem.
In other cases a most intricate arrangement of secondary tissue masses is produced, quite impossible to interpret unless all stages of their development have been followed.
In other cases, a similar formation of spongy but dead periderm tissue may occur for the same purpose in special patches, called pneumatodes, on the roots of certain trees living in marshy places, which rise above the soil in order to obtain air.
The apparently structureless substance is saturated with it; and if once a cell is completely dried, even at a low temperature, in the enormous majority of cases its life iS gone and the restoration of water fails to enable it to recover.
Other collections of cells are in many cases set apart for giving rigidity and strength to the mass of the plant.
It is evident that as the latter increases in bulk, more and more attention must be paid to the dangers of uprooting by winds and storms. Various mechanisms have been adopted in different cases, some connected with the subterranean and others with the sub-aerial portions of the plant.
The natural source of the water is in all cases the soil, and few plants normally obtain any from elsewhere.
They are mainly carbohydrates such as starch and sugar, proteids in the form of globulins or albumoses, and in many cases fats and oils, while certain other bodies of similar nutritive value are less widely distributed.
There is a certain amount of evidence that at any rate in some cases light is necessary, and that the violet rays of the spectrum are chiefly concerned.
Mycorhizas.The most interesting cases, however, in which Fungi form symbiotic relationships with green plants have been discovered in connection with forest trees.
The true nature of the relationship was first recognized by Pfeffer in 1877, but few cases were known till recent years.
They seldom penetrate the living cells, though they do so in a few cases.
While they are quite capable of taking up nitrates from the soil where and so long as these are present, they can grow and thrive in soil which contains no combined nitrogen at all, deriving their supplies of this element in these cases from the air.
In some cases the zoogloea thread or tube has not been seen, the organism consisting entirely of the bacterioids.
In many cases the digestion of reserve food materials is effected by the direct action of the protoplasm, without the intervention of enzymes.
There is, no doubt, a direct interchange of heat between the plant and the air, which in many cases results in a gain of heat by the plant.
This comes in almost all such cases from the decomposition of sugar, which is split up by the protoplasm into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
It has been ascertained that in many cases this decomposition is effected by the secretion of an enzyme, which has been termed zymase.
This as, in nearly all cases, attended by a permanent change in form.
Similar sensitivenesses can be demonstrated in other cases.
In both these cases the stimulation is followed, not only by movement, but by the secretion of an acid liquid containing a digestive juice, by virtue of which the insect is digested after being killed.
The stimulating particles, whether starch grains in all cases, or other particles as well, have been termed sic tolitlis.
In some cases the two sides of the pulvini vary their turgidity in.
In such cases the immediate damage done may be slight; but the effects of prolonged action and the summation of numerous attacks at numerous points are often enormotis, certain of these leafdiseases costing millions sterling annually to some planting and agricultural communities.
In other cases the Fungus is virulent and rampant, and, instead of a local effect, exerts a general destructive action throughout the plant-e.g.
This wood is in great part already dead substance, but the mycelium gradually invades the vessels occupied with the transmission of water up the trunk, cuts off the current, and so kills the tree; in other cases such Fungi attack the roots, and so induce rot and starvation of oxygen, resulting in fouling.
Some very curious details are observable in these cases of malformation, For instance, the Aecidium eta/mum first referred to causes the new shoots to differ in direction, duration and arrangement, and even shape of foliage leaves from the normal; and the shoots of Euphorbia infected with the aecidia of Uromyces Pisi depart so much from the normal in appearance that the attacked plants have been taken for a different species.
Similarly with Anemone infested with Puccinia and Vacciniusn with Catyptospora, and many other cases of deformations due to hypertrophy or atrophy.
In a large number of cases, however, the disease is purely local, and does not itself extend far into the organ or tissue affected.
The phenomena described occur in all cases of cicatrization of wounds in naturee.g.
Plcotrachelus causes the invaded Pilobolus to swell up, and changes the whole course of its cell metabolism, and similarly with Plasmodiophora in the roots of turnips, and many other cases.
Phytophthora in potatoes., If, on the other hand, the irritating agent is local in its action, causing only a few cells to react, we have the various pimples, excrescences, outgrowths, &c., exhibited in such cases as Ustilago Maydis on the maize, various galls, witchesbrooms, &c.
But even when inside it does not follow that the Fungus can kill the cell, and many cases are known where the Fungus can break throtigh the cells first lines of defence (cell-wall and protoplasmic lining); but the struggle goes on at close quarters, and various degrees of hypertrophy, accumulation of plastic bodies or secretions, discolorations, &c.,, indicate the suffering of the still living cell.
Finally, cases occur where the invaded cell so adapts itself to the presence of the intruder that life in commonsymbiosisresults.
It may be that in particular cases particular modes of cultivation disfavour the host; or that the soil, climate or seasons do so; but overwhelming evidence exists to show that the principal causes of epidemics reside in circumstances which favor the spread, nutrition and reproduction of the pest, and the lesson to be learnt is, that precautions against the establishment of such favoring conditions must be sought.
Nevertheless, epidemics occur, and practical measures are devised to meet the various cases and to check the ravages already begun.
More indirect methods, such as the grafting of less resistant scions on more vigorous stocks, of raising special late or early varieties by crossing or selection, and so on, have also met with success; but it must be understood that resistant in such cases usually means that some peculiarity of quick growth, early ripening or other life-feature in the plant is for the time being taken advantage of.
We may often distinguish between primary symptoms and secondary or subordinate symptoms, but for the purposes of classification in an article of this scope we shall only attempt to group the various cases under the more obvious signs of disease exhibited.
The principal symptom may show itself in general pallor, including all cases where the normal healthy green hue is replaced by a sickly yellowish hue indicating that the chlorophyll apparatus is deficient.
In other cases the presence of insects, Fungi or poisons at the roots may be looked for.
In many cases the swellings on leaves are minute, and may be termed puslulese.g.
Turning now to outgrowths of a woody nature, the well-known burrs or knaurs, so common on elms and other trees are cases in point.
It is, of course, impossible to do this here, but I will briefly discuss one or two groups of cases.
In many cases the punctures of Aphides and Coccideae are shown to be responsible for such exudations, and at least one instance is known where a FungusClaviceps-causes it.
It is clear that in these cases the obvious symptomthe fluxis not the primary one.
NecrosisA number of diseases the obvious symptoms of which are the local drying up and death of tissues, in many cases with secondary results on organs or parts of organs, may be brought together under this heading.
Such frost-cracks, sun-cracks, &c., may then be slowly healed over by callus, but if the conditions for necrosis recur the crack may be again opened, or if Fungi, &c., interfere with occlusion, the healing is prevented; in such cases the local necrosis may give rise to cankers.
In many cases, however, monstrosities of flowers have been shown to be due to the irritating action of minute insects or Fungi, and others are known which, although induced by causes unknown to us, and regarded as internal, would not be likely to survive in the wild condition.
Under the head of malformations we place cases of atrophy of parts or general dwarfing, due to starvation, the attacks of Fungi or minute insects, the presence of unsuitable food-materials and so on, as well as cases of transformation of stamens into petals, carpels into leaves, and so forth.
For instance, the difference between the long-stalked and finely-cut leaves of Anemone attacked with rust and the normal leaves with broad segments, or between the urceolate leaves occasionally found on cabbages and the ordinary formin these cases undoubtedly pathological and teratological respectivelyis nothing like so great as between the upper and lower normalleaves of many Umhelliferae or the submerged and floating leaves of an aquatic Ranunculus or Cabomba.
It is possible, of course, that each explanation is correct in particular cases, as the views are by no means mutually exclusive.
In some cases it shows, when submitted to a careful examination under the highest powers of the microscope, and especially when treated with reagents of various kinds, traces of a more or less definite structure in the form of a meshwork consisting of a clear homogeneous substance containing numerous minute bodies known as microsomes, the spaces being filled by a more fluid ground-substance.
In some cases both the nucleus and the chromatophores may be carried along in the rotating stream, but in others, such as T.Titeila, the chloroplasts may remain motionless iii a non-motile layer of the cytoplasm in direct contact with the cell wall.i Desmids, Diatoms and Oscillaria show creeping movements probably due to the secretion of slime by the cells; the swarmspores and plasmodium of the Myxomycetes exhibit amoehoid movements; and the motile spores of Fungi and Algae, the spermatozoids of mosses, ferns, &c., move by means of delicate prolongations, cilia or flagella cf the protoplast.
The division in all cases takes place by constriction, or by a simultaneous splitting along an equatorial plane.
In some cases the plastid disappears and the crystalline pigment only is left.
Starch exists, in the majority of cases, in the form of grains, which are composed of stratified layers arranged around a nucleus or hilum.
It is often vacuolar, sometimes granular, and in other cases it is a homogeneous body with no visible structure or differentiation.
The chromatin substance increases in amount; the thread stains moie deeply, and in most cases presents a homogeneous appearance.
In a few cases both among the higher and the lower plants, of which the formation of spores in the ascus is a typical example, new cells are formed by the aggregation of portions of the cytoplasm around the nuclei which become delimited from the rest of the cell iontents by a membrane.
Belajeff regards it as a true centrosome; but this is doubtful, for while in some cases it appears to be connected with the division of the cell, in others it is independent of it.
In some cases the region where the penetration of the male organ takes place is indicated on the oosphere by a hyaline receptive spot (Oedogonium, Vaucheria, &c.), or by a receptive papilla consisting of hyaline cytoplasm (Peronosporeae).
Fertilization is effected by the union of two nuclei in all those cases which have been carefully investigated.
The bacteria, in most cases, have no definite nucleus or central body.
The rows of cells from which the laticiferous vessels are formed can be distinguished in many cases in the young embryo while still in the dry seed (Scott), but the latex vessels in process of formation are more easily seen when germination has begun.
The effect of the phylogenetic factor in homology may be illustrated in the following cases.
However, it may still be useful in describing monstrosities, and perhaps also those cases in which an organ serves first one purpose and then another, as when a leafy shoot eventually becomes a thorn, or the base of a foliage-leaf becomes a bud-scale.
Xanthium spinosum has spread from the Russian steppes to every stock-raising country in the world, and in some cases has made the industry impossible.
The general method by which this is effected in this and other cases is statistical.
In all these cases it is a nice question whether we are tracing an ascending or descending stream.
Further development was, however, not stopped, but in many cases stimulated by migration and settlement in new homes.
If on each occasion he himself made the observations his voyage must have extended over six years; but it is not impossible that he ascertained the approximate length of the longest day in some cases by questioning the natives.
But in the 19th century and after exploring work was so generally and steadily maintained in all directions, and was in so many cases narrowed down from long journeys to detailed surveys within relatively small areas, that i t becomes desirable to cover the whole period at one view for certain great divisions of the world.
Actual or projected routes for telegraph cables across the deep sea have also been sounded with extreme accuracy in many cases; but beyond these lines of sounding the vast spaces of the ocean remain unplumbed save for the rare researches of scientific expeditions, such as those of the " Challenger," the " Valdivia," the " Albatross " and the " Scotia."
From the descriptive or topographical point of view, geometrical form alone should be con- Land sidered; but the origin and geological structure of forms. land forms must in many cases be taken into account when dealing with the function they exercise in the control of mobile distributions.
In some cases, such as the Ethiopian and Neotropical and the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions, the faunas, although distinct, are related, several forms on opposite sides of the Atlantic being analogous, e.g.
In most cases, however, a very dense population can only be maintained in regions where mineral resources have fixed the site of great manufacturing industries.
The minor subdivisions into provinces, counties and parishes, or analogous areas, may also be related in many cases to natural features or racial differences perpetuated by historical causes.
In all cases of carbolic acid poisoning the nervous influence is seen.
The cat cemetery on the west side of the town consisted of numbers of large brick chambers, crammed with burnt and decayed mummies, many of which had been enclosed in cat-shaped cases of wood and bronze.
In rare cases the right and left preacetabular blades fuse with each other above the spinous processes.
Each brachiocephalic soon sends off its subclavian, while in the normal or more usual cases the rest proceeds as the carotid trunk, inclusive of the vertebral artery.
In other likewise very rare cases a left, or a left and right, superficial carotids are developed and take the place of the then vanished deep or primary carotids.
The outer membranes are spread out between two or more successive bronchial semi-rings, a distance from the trachea which is, in typical cases, devoid of sounding membranes; some Cuculi, Caprimulgi, and some owls.
But indications of such a syrinx occur also in Pittidae, pigeons and gallinaceous birds (Gallidae), the last cases being clearly analogous.
In all, there is a wonderful amount of specialization, though perhaps in a very straight line from generalized forms; but the affinity to Australian or Polynesian types is in many cases clearly traceable, and it cannot be supposed but that these last are of cognate origin with those of New Zealand.
In some cases the closest examination has failed to detect any distinction that may be called specific between the members of their avifauna; but in most it is possible to discover just sufficient difference to warrant a separation of the subjects.
It is not the quantity but the quality of the anatomical and bionomic characters which determines their taxonomic value, and a few fundamental characters are better indications of the affinities of given groups of birds than a great number of agreements if these can be shown to be cases of isomorphism or heterophyletic, convergent analogy.