Carthage sentence example
The western emporium known in the scriptures as Tarshish was probably situated in the south of Spain, possibly at Cadiz, although some writers contend that it was Carthage in North Africa.
In Africa their empire included Egypt, Carthage, Numidia and Mauritania.
In the succeeding century it was connected with Carthage by a great highway.
Cartagena was founded about the year 243 B.C. by the Carthaginian Hasdrubal, and was called Carthago Nova or New Carthage, to distinguish it from the African city of Carthage.
He fell, however, in 407 in an attempt to enter Syracuse, and, as a result of the treaty of 405 B.C., Selinus became absolutely subject to Carthage, and remained so until its destruction at the close of the first Punic War, when its inhabitants were transferred to Lilybaeum.Advertisement
The toleration edicts of Galerius and of Constantine and Licinius were published during his pontificate, which was also marked by the holding of the Lateran synod in Rome (313) at which Caecilianus, bishop of Carthage, was acquitted of the charges brought against him and Donatus condemned.
Under Gallus, the successor of Decius, the persecution was relaxed, and Cyprian returned to Carthage.
Till near the end of the 2nd century the line between heresy and orthodoxy was less rigidly drawn there than at Ephesus, Lyons, Rome or Carthage.
The story of the founding of the castle resembles that connected with the city of Carthage.
War with Carthage followed.Advertisement
After concluding peace with Carthage, Agathocles styled himself king of Sicily, and established his rule over the Greek cities of the island more firmly than ever.
Even in his old age he displayed the same restless energy, and is said to have been meditating a fresh attack on Carthage at the time of his death.
Apparently they were at first arranged in a series of anniversaries separate from that of the martyrs, as seems to be shown by the existence at Rome of the Depositio episcoporum side by side with the Depositio martyrum; the two lists seem to have been combined, as in the calendar of Carthage, which includes the dies nataliciorum martyrum et depositiones episcoporum.
He is said to have been born in Carthage, and brought to Rome as a slave.
He lived at the meeting-point of three distinct civilizations - the mature, or rather decaying, civilization of Greece, of which Athens was still the centre; that of Carthage, which was so soon to pass away and leave scarcely any vestige of itself; and the nascent civilization of Italy, in which all other modes were soon to be absorbed.Advertisement
He went back to Sicily, warred with Carthage on his own account, and brought back the bones of the unburied Syracusans from Himera, but was still so dreaded that the people banished Diodes without restoring him.
By accusing the generals engaged at Acragas in the war against Carthage, by obtaining the restoration of exiles (no doubt others of the partisans of Hermocrates), by high-handed proceedings at Gela, he secured his own election first as one of the generals, then as sole general (or with a nominal colleague), with special powers.
It was doubtless fear and hatred of Carthage, from which city the Greeks of Sicily had suffered so much, that urged the Syracusans to acquiesce in the enormous expenditure which they must have incurred under the rule of Dionysius.
Sicily, too, was again menaced by Carthage.
To him Syracuse owed her deliverance from the younger Dionysius and from Hicetas, who held the rest of Syracuse, and to him both Syracuse and the Sicilian Greeks owed a decisive triumph over Carthage and the safe possession of Sicily west of the river Halycus, the largest portion of the island.Advertisement
It was shortly after this revolution, in 317, that Agathocles with a body of mercenaries from Campania and a host of exiles from the Greek cities, backed up by the Carthaginian Hamilcar, who was in friendly relations with the Syracusan oligarchy, became a tyrant or despot of the city, assuming subsequently, on the strength of his successes against Carthage, the title of king.
Hieronymus, the grandson of Hiero, thought fit to ally himself with Carthage; he did not live, however, to see the mischief he had done, for he fell in a conspiracy which he had wantonly provoked by his arrogance and cruelty.
The ships sailed away to Carthage; on their way back to Syracuse with supplies they could not get beyond Cape Pachynus owing to adverse winds, and they were confronted by a Roman fleet.
From these facts it would seem that the Numidians, travelling from the neighbourhood of Carthage and intermixing with the dominant Semitic race, landed in the Canary Islands, and that it is they who have written the inscriptions at Hierro and Grand Canary.
The authentic history of Etruria is very meagre, and consists mainly in the story of its relations with Carthage, Greece and Rome.Advertisement
After the expulsion of the Tarquins the chief events in Etruscan history are the vain attempt to re-establish themselves in Rome under Lars Porsena of Clusium, the defeat of Octavius Mamilius, son-in-law of Tarquinius Superbus, at Lake Regillus, and the treaty with Carthage.
By this treaty Corsica was assigned to the Etruscans while Carthage obtained Sardinia.
In the north the Moslem arms reached Armenia and Asia Minor; on the west they were successful as far as Carthage on the north coast of Africa.
These places are noticed separately, as are also Goletta (formerly the port of Tunis), Bizerta (a naval port and arsenal), Kef, Porto Farina, and the ruins at Carthage and Sbeitla (Sufetula).
Carthage was the second city of the Latin part of the empire, "after Rome the busiest and perhaps the most corrupt city of the West, and the chief centre of Latin culture and letters."
Lost to Rome by the invasion of the Vandals, who took Carthage in 439, the province was recovered by Belisarius a century later (533-34), and remained Roman till the Arab invasions of 648-69.
Numerous other works in English and French have been published on Tunisia from the tourist's point of view; the best of these is by Douglas Sladen, Carthage and Tunis (2 vols., 1908).
Flaubert's Salammbo ought always to be read by those who visit Carthage and Tunisia.
It was mainly written at La Marsa, near Carthage.
During the next fifty years Messina changed masters several times, till Timoleon finally expelled the Carthaginians in 343 B.C. In the wars between Agathocles of Syracuse and Carthage, Messina took the side of the Carthaginians.
Such, for example, appears to have been the case in Carthage (if we may judge from the Acts of the martyrs Perpetua and Felicitas) at the commencement of the persecution of Septimius Severus about the year 202.
In Carthage, for example, it would appear that the breach between the Catholic Church and the Montanistic conventicle was caused by a disagreement on the question whether or not virgins ought to be veiled.
There are other indications that Montanism in Carthage was a very different thing from the Montanism of Montanus.
At Rome and Carthage, and in all other places where sincere Montanists were found, they were confronted by the imposing edifice of the Catholic Church, and they had neither the courage nor the inclination to undermine her sacred foundations.
In Carthage there existed down to the year 400 a sect called Tertullianists; and in their survival we have a striking testimony to the influence of the great Carthaginian teacher.
Several of the councils of Carthage, and also that of Arles, are dated according to this era.
The two 13th-century romances, Gaidon, by Herbert Leduc de Dammartin, and Anseis de Carthage, contain a purely fictitious account of the end of the war in Spain, and of the establishment of a Frankish kingdom under the rule of Anseis.
For individual chansons see Anseis de Carthage, ed.
He was educated, like many of the Numidian chiefs, at Carthage, learnt Latin and Greek, and was an accomplished as well as a naturally clever man.
Although his kingdom was nominally independent of Carthage, it really stood to it in a relation of vassalage; it was directly under Carthaginian influences, and was imbued to a very considerable extent with Carthaginian civilization.
Soon afterwards he appeared in Spain, fighting for Carthage with a large force of Numidian cavalry against the Romans under the two Scipios.
It would seem that he had thoughts of annexing Carthage itself with the connivance of Rome.
In a war which soon followed he was successful; the remonstrances of Carthage with Rome on the behaviour of her ally were answered by the appointment of Scipio as arbitrator; but, as though intentionally on the part of Rome, no definite settlement was arrived at, and thus the relations between Massinissa and the Carthaginians continued strained.
Rome, it is certain, deliberately favoured her ally's unjust claims with the view of keeping Carthage weak, and Massinissa on his part was cunning enough to retain the friendship of the Roman people by helping them with liberal supplies in their wars against Perseus of Macedon and Antiochus.
As soon as Carthage seemed to be recovering herself, and some of Massinissa's partisans were driven from the city into exile, his policy was to excite the fears of Rome, till at last in 149 war was declared - the Third Punic War, which ended in the final overthrow of Carthage.
He appears to have practised as a lawyer at Carthage and to have been in easy circumstances.
Herodotus, who omits wholly the histories of Phoenicia, Carthage and Etruria, three of the most important among the states existing in his day, cannot have intended to compose a "universal history," the very idea of which belongs to a later age.
The northern road, the Rue de Rome, led to the Gare du Nord, the station for Carthage, Goletta and La Marsa.
The northern section is called the Avenue de Paris; the southern Avenue de Carthage.
The coffins in the vaults have been removed to the Chapel of St Louis at Carthage.
Many of the dwellings of the richer residents are adorned with arcades, the marble columns of which were taken from the ruins of Carthage.
South-east of the city, along the valley of the Wadi Melain, are hundreds of large stone arches, magnificent remains of the Roman aqueduct from Zaghwan to Carthage.
The ruins of Carthage (q.v.) lie a few miles north of Goletta.
Tunis is probably of greater antiquity than Carthage, of which city however it became a dependency, being repeatedly mentioned in the history of the Punic Wars.
The importance of Tunis dates from the Arab conquest, when, as Carthage sank, Tunis took its place commercially and politically.
Their trial and execution took place in Carthage under the Pro-consul Vigellius Saturninus, whom Tertullian declares to have been the first persecutor of the Christians in Africa.
The fame of the martyrs led to the building of a basilica in their honour at Carthage; and their annual commemoration required that the brevity and obscurity of their Acts should be supplemented and explained, to make them suitable for public recitation.
Four years later its population was about 15,000, and a large Mormon temple had been built, but internal dissensions arose, "gentile" hostility was aroused, the charter of Nauvoo was revoked in 1845, two of the leaders, Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum, were killed at Carthage, the county-seat, by a mob, and in 1846 the sect was driven from the state.
But he met with a sharp rebuff, and Bishop Stephen fared no better when, in the middle of the 3rd century, he came into collision with Cyprian of Carthage and Firmilian of Caesarea in the dispute concerning heretical baptism.
The inhabitants out of compassion then allowed Marius to depart, and put him on board a ship which conveyed him to Carthage.
When forbidden to land, he told the messenger to inform the governor that he had seen Marius sitting as a fugitive among the ruins of Carthage.
Meanwhile the tendency which gave rise to the metropolitan system resulted in the grouping together of the churches of a number of contiguous provinces under the headship of the bishop of the most important city of the district, as, for instance, Antioch, Ephesus, Alexandria, Rome, Milan, Carthage, Arles.
There are various suburbs, chiefly residential, in the Mill Creek valley, among them being Carthage, Hartwell, Wyoming, Lockland and Glendale.
Among the institutions are the City infirmary (at Hartwell, a suburb), which, besides supporting pauper inmates, affords relief to outdoor poor; the Cincinnati hospital, which is supported by taxation and treats without charge all who are unable to pay; twenty other hospitals, some of which are charitable institutions; a United States marine hospital; the Longview hospital for the insane, at Carthage, Io m.
In the view of many authorities this version was first produced at Carthage, but recent writers are inclined to regard Antioch as its birthplace, a view which is supported by the remarkable agreement of its readings with the Lucianic recension and with the early Syriac MSS.
This was ratified by Pope Gelasius (492-496), and independently confirmed for the province of Africa by a series of Synods held at Hippo Regius in 393, and at Carthage in 397 and 419, under the lead of Augustine.
In the 3rd century, under Gallienus and Probus, the city contained the chief imperial mint and treasury; and an engraved coffer, found in Croatia, dating from the 4th century, and representing the five foremost cities of the Empire, includes Siscia along with Rome, Byzantium, Carthage and Nicomedia.
From Phoenicia this naturally became the main Punic unit; a bronze weight from Iol (18), marked 100, gives a drachma of 56 or 57 (224-228); and a Punic inscription (18) names 28 drachmae = 25 Attic, and therefore 57 to 59 grains (228-236); while a probably later series of 8 marble disks from Carthage (44) show 208, but vary from 197 to 234.
As dictator he planted numerous colonies both in the eastern and western provinces, notably at Corinth and Carthage.
In Carthage Praxeas for a time had some success, but was forced by Tertullian not only to desist but to retract.
In Cyprian of Carthage (c. 250) we first find the Eucharist regarded as a sacrifice of Christ's body and blood offered by the priest for the sins of the living and dead.
Cyprian (Ep. 63) affirms (c. 250) that his predecessors on the throne of Carthage had used water, and that many African bishops continued to do so, " out of ignorance," he says, " and simplemindedness, and God would forgive them."
Before the council of Nicaea (325) it was only to be found at Rome and Carthage.
Though the office is found at Carthage, and St Cyprian (200?-258) makes many references to acolytes, whom he used to carry his letters, this seems to be the only place in Africa where they were known.
The Statuta Ecclesiae Antigua (falsely called the Canons of the Fourth Council of Carthage in 397), a Gallican collection, originating in the province of Arles at the beginning of the 6th century, mentions the acolyte, but does not give, as in the case of the other orders, any form for the ordination.
Along the north coast of Africa are areas which, if properly irrigated, as was done in the days of Carthage, could produce enough wheat to feed half of the Caucasian race.
Born at Carthage of good family - his father was a " centurio pro consularis " - he received a first-rate education both in Latin and in Greek.
He studied in Carthage, probably also in Rome, where, according to Eusebius, he enjoyed the reputation of being one of the most eminent jurists.
Thus equipped with knowledge and experience, he returned to Carthage and there laid the foundation of Latin Christian literature.
It is certain that he was settled in Carthage in the second half of 197, the date of his writing his Apologeticus and (shortly afterwards) his two books Ad nationes; we also know that he became a presbyter in Carthage and was married.
For the next five years it was his constant endeavour to secure the victory for Montanism within the church; but in this he became involved more and more deeply in controversy with the majority of the church in Carthage and especially with its clergy, which had the support of the clergy of Rome.
On his breach with the Catholic church, probably in 207-208, he became the head of a small Montanist community in Carthage.
That he returned at last to the bosom of the Catholic church is a mere legend, the motive of which is obvious; his adherents after his death continued to maintain themselves as a small community in Carthage.
Under the Ptolemies, the inland cities declined in comparison with the maritime ones, and the Cyrenaica began to feel the commercial competition of Egypt and Carthage, whence easier roads lead into the continent.
It is the seat of the Carthage Collegiate Institute (Presbyterian).
In the vicinity there are valuable lead, zinc and coal mines, and quarries of Carthage "marble," with which the county court house is built.
Carthage is a jobbing centre for a fruit and grain producing region; live-stock (especially harness horses) is raised in the vicinity; and among the city's manufactures are lime, flour, canned fruits, furniture, bed springs and mattresses, mining and quarrying machinery, ploughs and woollen goods.
Carthage, founded in 1833, was laid out as a town and became the county-seat in 1842, was incorporated as a town in 1868, was chartered as a city in 1873, and in 1890 became a city of the third class under the general (state) law.
Carthage" fill a hall 400 ft.
Antium is named with Ardea, Laurentum and Circeii, as under Roman protection, in the treaty with Carthage in 34 8 B.C. In 341 it lost its independence after a rising with the rest of Latium against Rome, and the beaks (rostra) of the six captured Antiatine ships decorated and gave their name to the orators' tribunal in the Roman Forum.
The Punic wars transferred the supreme power from Carthage to Rome, and Latin civilization was established firmly when, in 27 B.C., Andalusia became the Roman province of Baetica - so called after its great waterway, the Baetis (Guadalquivir).
After the period of the persecutions had passed by, the great ecclesiastical capitals Carthage, Alexandria, Antioch and Constantinople, as secondary centres of organization and administration, drew to themselves and kept in their hands a share in ecclesiastical affairs.
He was, moreover, the only bishop of a great see - for Carthage had practically ceased to count - who was at that time a subject of the Roman emperor.
They passed through various modifications in the course of time; after leaving the mother country the script acquires a more cursive, flowing style on the stones from Cyprus and Attica; the tendency becomes more strongly marked at the Punic stage; until in the neo-Punic, from the destruction of Carthage (146 B.C.) to the 1st century A.D.; both the writing and the language reached their most degenerate form.
Under Ethbaal further expansion is recorded; Botrys north of Byblus and Aoza in North Africa are said to have been founded by him; the more famous Carthage owed its origin to the civil discords which followed the death of Metten I.
Lixus in Mauretania, Gades and Utica, are said to have been founded, one after the other, as far back as the 12th century B.C. Most of the African colonies were no doubt younger; we have traditional dates for Aoza (887-855) and Carthage (813).
But as Tyre decayed in power the colonies turned more and more to Carthage as their natural parent and protector.
For effective control over a colonial empire Carthage had the advantage of situation over far-away Tyre; the traditional bonds grew lax and the ancient dues ceased to be paid, though as late as the middle of the 6th century Carthage rendered tithes to the Tyrian Melqarth.
She represented the principle of fertility and generation; references to her cult at Gebal, Sidon, Ashkelon, in Cyprus at Kition and Paphos, in Sicily at Eryx, in Gaulus, at Carthage, are frequent in the inscriptions and elsewhere.
Another goddess, specially honoured at Carthage, is Tanith (pronunciation uncertain); nothing is known of her characteristics; she is regularly connected with Ba'al on the Carthaginian votive tablets, and called " the face of Ba'al," i.e.
After a severe defeat at Adys near Carthage, the Carthaginians were inclined for peace, but the terms proposed by Regulus were so harsh that they resolved to continue the war.
The third council of Carthage in 397 forbade anything but Holy Scripture to be read in church; this rule has been adhered to so far as the liturgical epistle and gospel, and occasional additional lessons in the Roman missal are concerned, but in the divine office, on feasts when nine lessons are read at matins, only the first three lessons are taken from Holy Scripture, the next three being taken from the sermons of ecclesiastical writers, and the last three from expositions of the day's gospel; but sometimes the lives or Passions of the saints, or of some particular saints, were substituted for any or all of these breviary lessons.
It is not improbable that Assyria and Babylon, with their splendid rivers, the Euphrates and Tigris, may have taken the idea from the Nile, and that Carthage and Phoenicia as well as Greece and Italy may have followed the same example.
There has been some confusion between chalcedony and the ancient "carcedonia," a stone which seems to have been a carbuncle from Africa, brought by way of Carthage (Kapxn6e0v).
The Phoenician, whether from old Phoenicia or from Carthage, came from lands which were mere strips of sea-coast with a boundless continent behind them.
The Phoenician element ran an opposite course, as the independent Phoenician settlements in Sicily sank into dependencies of Carthage.
We must always remember that Carthage - the new city - was one of settle-'' the latest of Phoenician foundations, and that the days of the Carthaginian dominion show us only the latest form of Phoenician life.
Phoenician settlement in Sicily began before Carthage became great, perhaps before Carthage came into being.
The Phoenicians, now shut up in one corner of the island, with Selinus on one side and Himera on the other founded right in their teeth, are bitter enemies; but the time of their renewed greatness under the headship of Carthage has not yet come.
The Phoe nician settlements in Sicily become dependent on Carthage, whose growing power begins to be dangerous to the Greeks of Sicily.
While the Persians threatened old Greece, Carthage threatened the Greeks of Sicily.
But, while the victory of Salamis was followed by a long war with Persia, the peace which was now granted to Carthage stayed in force for seventy years.
But Carthage was more far-sighted.
Carthage, after a long period of abstention from intervention in Sicilian affairs, and the observance of a wise neutrality during the war between Athens and Syracuse, stepped in as the ally of Segesta, the enemy of her old ally Selinus.
Hannibal then returned to Carthage after an absence of three months only.
Carthage was confirmed in her possession of Selinus, Himera and Acragas, with some Sican districts which had opposed her.
The people of Gela and Camarina were allowed to occupy their unwalled towns as tributaries of Carthage.
The reign of Dionysius (405-367) is divided into marked periods by four wars with Carthage, in 39 8 -397, 39 2, 383-378 and 368.
In the first war with Carthage the Greek cities under Carthaginian dominion or dependence helped him; so did Sicans and Sicels, which last had among them some stirring leaders; Elymian Segesta clave to Carthage.
Many of the Sicels forsook him; Acragas declared herself independent; Carthage herself again took the field.
The two tyrants drove Carthage to a peace by which she abandoned all her Sicel allies to Dionysius.
His demand that Carthage should altogether withdraw from Sicily was met by a crushing defeat.
Then came a treaty by which Carthage kept Selinus and part of the land of Acragas.
His last war with Carthage, which began with an invasion of western Sicily, and which was going on at his death in 367 B.C., was ended by a peace by which the Halycus remained the boundary.
The work of Timoleon (q.v.), whose headquarters were first at Tauromenium, then at Hadranum, was threefold - the immediate deliverance of Syracuse, the restoration of Sicily in general to freedom and Greek life, and the defence of the Greek cities against Carthage.
The great victory of the Crimissus in 339 led to a peace with Carthage with the old frontier; but all Greek cities were to be free, and Carthage was to give no help to any tyrant.
Carthage was hard pressed by Agathocles, while Syracuse was no;less hard pressed by Hamilcar.
Gauls, Samnites, Tyrrhenians, fought for him, while mercenary Greeks and Syracusan exiles fought for Carthage.
C. Agatho- troops; by inviting and murdering Ophellas, lord of Cyrene, he doubled his army and brought Carthage near to despair.
Deinocrates and Agathocles came to a kind of partnership in 304, and a peace with Carthage, with the old boundary, secured Agathocles in the possession of Syracuse and eastern Sicily (301).
Very soon came the first war between Rome and Carthage (the " First Punic War ").
The established rule of Carthage in western Sicily was now something that could well be endured alongside of the robber commonwealth at Messana.
When Rome entered Sicily as the ally of the Mamertines, Hiero became the ally of Carthage.
By the treaty which ended the war in 241 Carthage ceded to Rome all her possessions in Sicily.
As that part of the island which kept a national Greek government became the 2B76-210 first kingdom dependent on Rome, so the share of Carthage became the first Roman province.
Acragas, again held for Carthage, was for four years (214-210) the centre of an active campaign.
In one part of the island the Roman people stepped into the position of Carthage, in another part into that of King Hiero.
The Vandal now dwelt at Carthage instead of the Canaanite.
Along with Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Isles, Sicily was again a possession of a naval power at Carthage.
The Avrigha, or Afrigha, in ancient times occupied the coast lands near Carthage, and some scholars derive the word Africa from their name (see Roman Africa).
He retook Kairawan, swept the coast as far as Carthage, which he sacked, expelling the Greek garrisons from all the fortified places; he then turned his arms against the Berbers, who, commanded by the Kahina (Diviner), as the Arabs called their queen, beat him so completely that he was compelled to retreat to Barca.
It was conquered by Tarquinius Superbus, and appears as a Roman possession in the treaty with Carthage of 509 B.C., though it was later one of the thirty cities of the Latin league.
Carthage, indeed, chief of the Phoenician settlements, sent forth colonies to defend her conquests and strengthen her military power; and these subcolonies naturally remained in strict subjection to her power, whereas the other young Phoenician states assumed and asserted entire independence.
The most numerous inscriptions come from the excavations in Carthage, the ancient colony of Sidon.
There was certainly a brazen bull at Agrigentum, which was carried off by the Carthaginians to Carthage, whence it was again taken by Scipio and restored to Agrigentum.
In contrast with the Greeks Carthage took the part of Persia.
But not only the expeditions of Mardonius (492) and Datis (490), but even the carefully prepared campaign of Xerxes, in conjunction with Carthage completely failed (48o479).
Notwithstanding his opposition, the progress of the Vandals was rapid, and by May 430 only three cities of Roman Africa - Carthage, Hippo and Cirta - remained untaken.
On the rgth of October 439, without any declaration of war, he suddenly attacked Carthage and took it.
He made, in fact, of Carthage a pirate's stronghold, whence he issued forth, like the Barbary pirates of a later day, to attack, as he himself said, "the dwellings of the men with whom God is angry," leaving the question who those men might be to the decision of the elements.
The sacred vessels of the Jewish temple, brought to Rome by Titus, are said to have been among the spoils carried to Carthage by the conqueror.
He marched rapidly towards Carthage and on the 13th of September was confronted by Gelimer at Ad Decimum, 10 m.
On the 14th of September 533 the imperial general entered Carthage and ate the feast prepared in Gelimer's palace for its lord.
Such lands as Cyprus, Cilicia and Syria, such cities as Citium, Soli, Heraclea in Pontus, Sidon, Carthage, Seleucia on the Tigris, Apamea by the Orontes, furnished the school with its scholars and presidents; Tarsus, Rhodes and Alexandria became famous as its university towns.
Aristo of Chios and Herillus of Carthage, Zeno's heterodox pupils, Persaeus, his favourite disciple and housemate, the poet Aratus, and Sphaerus, the adviser of the Spartan king Cleomenes, are noteworthy minor names; but the chief interest centres about Zeno, Cleanthes, Chrysippus, who in succession built up the wondrous system.
Portugal, like every great maritime trading community from Carthage to Venice, discovered that the ideal of " sea power and commerce " led directly to empire.
Hannibal is said to have embarked here on his exile from Carthage.
Refusing to remain with Dido, queen of Carthage, who in despair puts an end to her life, he sets sail from Africa, and after seven years' wandering lands at the mouth of the Tiber.
And this is naturally true in an especial sense of the Roman historians; the long list of annalists begins at the moment when the great struggle with Carthage had for the first time brought Rome into direct connexion with the historic peoples of the ancient world, and when Romans themselves awoke to the importance of the part reserved for Rome to play in universal history.
In some other mountain districts the Roman inhabitants long maintained their independence, and in 534 a large part of the south of Spain, including the great cities of Cadiz, Cordova, Seville and New Carthage, was, with the good will of its Roman inhabitants, reunited to the Empire, which kept some points on the coast as late as 624.
Eleven hundred and sixty-four years after each city was built, it was tak.en, - Babylon by Cyrus, Rome by Alaric, and Cyrus' conquest took place just when Rome began the Republic. But before Rome becomes a world empire, Macedon and Carthage intervene, gL.ardians of Rome's youth (tutor curatorque).
The oriental features of her worship as practised at Corinth are due to its early commercial relations with Asia Minor; the fame of her temple worship on Mount Eryx spread to Carthage, Rome and Latium.
His conquest of Thessaly and alliance with Carthage made the situation dangerous.
In 1905 the eleven municipalities with a population of at least 8000 each (including the seven above, and Carthage, Moberly, Sedalia and Webb City) produced, under the "factory system," goods valued at $335,43 1, 97 8.
In addition to St Louis, 2 Kansas City and St Joseph, the leading cities in 1900 were Joplin, Springfield, Sedalia, Hannibal, Jefferson City, Carthage, Webb City and Moberly.
He took a decided view on the Pelagian controversy, confirming the decisions of the synod of the province of proconsular Africa held in Carthage in 416, which had been sent to him.
There is more than one meaning of Carthage discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
The result was regarded as a glorious victory, and in Roman literature the fall of Numantia was placed beside the fall of Carthage (149 B.C.).
It was at this time that the Latin collection of Dionysius Exiguus became known; and just as he had given the Greek councils a place in his collection, so from him were borrowed the canons of councils which did not appear in the Greek collection - the twenty canons of Sardica (343), in the Greek text, which differs considerably from the Latin; and the council of Carthage of 419, which itself included, more or less completely, in 105 canons, the decisions of the African councils.
At the time of the Vandal invasion this collection comprised the canons of the council of Carthage under Gratus (about 348) and under Genethlius (390), the whole series of the twenty or twenty-two plenary councils held during the episcopate of Aurelius, and finally, those of the councils held at Byzacene.
In the 3rd century baptism in the name of Christ was still so widespread that Pope Stephen, in opposition to Cyprian of Carthage, declared it to be valid.
Tertullian's scruples were not long respected in Carthage, for in Cyprian's works (c. 250.) we already hear of new-born infants being baptized.
Like the other Phoenician colonies in the west, Panormus came under the power of Carthage, and became the head of the Carthaginian dominion in Sicily.
After the conquest by Pyrrhus the city was soon recovered by Carthage, but this first Greek occupation was the beginning of a connexion with western Greece and its islands which was revived under various forms in later times.
After the Roman conquest an attempt to recover the city for Carthage was made in 250 B.e., which led only to a great Roman victory (see Punic Wars).
At the beginning of the 3rd century something like a definite system had been established at Carthage and elsewhere.
Thirty years later, first at Carthage, then at Rome, the same step has been taken with regard to penitent apostates, at least the less guilty of them.
Another expedition against the great oasis failed likewise, and the plan of attacking Carthage was frustrated by the refusal of the Phoenicians to operate against their kindred.
On the 1st of May 418 a great synod ("A Council of Africa," St Augustine calls it), which assembled under the presidency of Aurelius, bishop of Carthage, to take action concerning the errors of Caelestius, a disciple of Pelagius, denounced the Pelagian doctrines of human nature, original sin, grace and perfectibility, and fully approved the contraryviews of Augustine.
When the Romans first came into collision with Carthage in the 3rd century B.C., the name was applied to the whole country from the river Mulucha (now the Muluya), about too m.
At the end of the war the victorious Romans confiscated the dominions of Syphax, and gave them to Massinissa, whose sway extended from the frontier of Mauretania to the boundary of the Carthaginian territory, and also south and east as far as the Cyrenaica (Appian, Punica, 106), so that the Numidian kingdom entirely surrounded Carthage except towards the sea.
Including these towns there were altogether twenty which are known to have received at one time or another the title and status of Roman colonies; and in the 5th century the Notitia enumerates no less than 123 sees whose bishops assembled at Carthage in 479.
The predisposing causes of the Donatist schism were the belief, early introduced into the African church, that the validity of all sacerdotal acts depended upon the personal character of the agent, and the question, arising out of that belief, as to the eligibility for sacerdotal office of the traditores, or those who had delivered up their copies of the Scriptures under the compulsion of the Diocletian persecution; the exciting cause was the election of a successor to Mensurius, bishop of Carthage, who died in 311.
Mensurius had held moderate views as to the treatment of the traditores, and accordingly a strong fanatical party had formed itself in Carthage in opposition to him, headed by a wealthy and influential widow named Lucilla, and countenanced by Secundus of Tigisis, episcopus primae sedis in Numidia.
It had been customary for the Numidian bishops to be present at the election and consecration of the bishop of Carthage, who as metropolitan of proconsular Africa occupied a position of primacy towards all the African provinces.
Soon after Caecilian's consecration, Secundus sent a commission to Carthage, which appointed an interventor temporarily to administer the bishopric which they regarded as vacant.
Then Secundus himself with seventy of the Numidian bishops arrived at Carthage.
The decision was entirely in favour of Caecilian, and Donatus was found guilty of various ecclesiastical offences, An appeal was taken and allowed; but the decision of the synod of Arles in 314 not only confirmed the position of Caecilian, but greatly strengthened it by passing a canon that ordination was not 1 There were three prominent men named Donatus connected with the movement - Donatus of Casae Nigrae; Donatus surnamed Magnus, who succeeded Majorinus as the Donatist bishop of Carthage; and Donatus of Bagoi, a leader of the circumcelliones, who was captured and executed c. 350.
Felix had previously been declared innocent after an examination of records and witnesses at Carthage.
Majorinus, the Donatist bishop of Carthage, died in 315, and was succeeded by Donatus, surnamed Magnus, a man of great force of character, under whose influence the schism gained fresh strength from the opposition it encountered.
Their churches were restored and their bishops reinstated (Parmenianus succeeding the deceased Donatus at Carthage), with the natural result of greatly increasing both the numbers and the enthusiasm of the party.
On the other hand, Augustine, bishop of Hippo, after several years' negotiation, arranged a great conference between the Donatists and the orthodox, which was held under the authority of the emperor at Carthage in 411.
The discussion, which lasted for three days, Augustine and Aurelius of Carthage being the chief speakers on the one side, and Primian and Petilian on the other, turned exclusively upon the two questions that had given rise to the schism - first, the question of fact, whether Felix of Aptunga who consecrated Caecilian had been a traditor; and secondly, the question of doctrine, whether a church by tolerance of unworthy members within its pale lost the essential attributes of purity and catholicity.
But Rome had already her eyes on the Spanish men and mines, and, in the second Punic War, drove Carthage finally and completely out of the Peninsula (201 B.C.).
When in 428 Gaiseric, king of the Vandals (q.v.), accepted the invitation of Bonifacius, the count of Africa, and passed cut of Spain to found the Vandal kingdom of Carthage, his whole horde numbered only 80,000 persons, including old men, women and children, and runaway slaves who had joined him.
Majorian (457461), the last capable emperor of the \Vest, proposed to make Spain the basis of his attack on the Vandals at Carthage till his fleet was destroyed by them in the harbour of Carthagena.
Between Scipio (P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus the younger), the future conqueror of Carthage, and himself a friendship soon sprang up, which ripened into a lifelong intimacy, and was of inestimable service to him throughout his career.
The estimation in which he was held at Rome is clearly shown by the anxiety of the consul Marcus (or Manlius) Manilius (149) to take him as his adviser on his expedition against Carthage.
But when, in 147, Scipio himself took the command in Africa, Polybius hastened to join him, and was an eye-witness of the siege and destruction of Carthage.
The feelling were ameliorated somewhat by the destruction of Carthage.
In Carthage 1 Peter was known, and soon accepted as canonical.
A martyr venerated from early times in Carthage in North Africa.
Three holy virgins martyred in Carthage in North Africa.
According to Pliny, the only authority on this point, the period of the voyage was that of the greatest prosperity of Carthage, which may be taken as somewhere between 570 and 480 B.C. The extent of this voyage is doubtful, but it seems probable that the farthest point reached was on the east-running coast which bounds the Gulf of Guinea on the north.
He was of patrician family, wealthy, highly educated,, and for some time occupied as a teacher of rhetoric at Carthage.
Caecilianus (or Caecilius), a presbyter of Carthage, is supposed to have been the instrument of his conversion, which seems to have taken place about 246.
Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the centre of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a century to be larger than Carthage; and for some centuries more it had to acknowledge no superior but Rome.
His son, Gaius Flaminius, was quaestor under P. Scipio Africanus the elder in Spain in 210, and took part in the capture of New Carthage.
Besides the Afri (Aourigha) of the territory of Carthage, the principal tribes that took part in the wars against the Romans were the Lotophagi, the Garamantes, the Maces, the Nasamones in the regions of the S.E., the Misulani or Musulamii (whence the name Mussulman), the Massyli and the Massaesyli in the E., who were neighbours of the Moors.
Hiero through his long reign was the stanch friend and ally of Rome in her struggles with Carthage; but his paternal despotism, under which Greek life and civilization at Syracuse had greatly flourished, was unfortunately succeeded by the rule of a man who wholly reversed his policy.
On July 4 he came out and sank the French transport " Carthage " off Helles; later after a cruise in the Aegean he tried to reenter the Straits, but finding the British mine defences too formidable, he sailed to Cattaro to take part in the general commerce-destroying warfare in the Mediterranean.
The history of Tunisia begins for us with the establishment of the Phoenician colonies (see Phoenicia and Carthage).
The Italian colonies were planted among friendly, almost kindred, races, and grew much more rapidly than the Sicilian Greek states, which had to contend against the power of Carthage.
But Cyprian of Carthage said long ago, Consuetudo sine veritate vetustas erroris est; and the bare fact of previous existence is no argument for the re-introduction of obsolete and antiquated institutions and theories.
He also wrote on the trade of Carthage, on Pytheas of Marseilles, the geographer, and two important works on numismatics (La Numismatique du moyen age, Paris, 2 vols., 1835; Etudes numislnatiques, Brussels, 1840).
These were unable to withstand the Greek settlers, and the Phoenicians of Sicily withdrew step by step to form three considerable towns in the north-west corner bf the island near to the Elymi, on whose alliance they relied, and at the shortest distance by sea from Carthage - Motya, Solous or Soluntum, and Panormus (see Palermo).
A " personal treaty," having reference to dynastic interests, is contrasted with a " real treaty," which binds the nation irrespectively 1 For the celebrated treaty of 509 B.C. between Rome and Carthage, see Polybius iii.
In imperial Athens large revenues were derived from the states of the Delian league, while in both Carthage and Rome inferior or dependent districts and races were laid under contribution to a very considerable extent (see Finance).
The Spanish collection divides the African canons among seven councils of Carthage and one of Mileve; but in many cases it ascribes them to the wrong source; for example, it gives under the title of the fourth council of Carthage, the Statuta Ecclesiae antiqua, an Arlesian compilation of Saint Caesarius, which has led to a number of incorrect references.
The "Conference of Carthage" (see Donatists), held by imperial command in 411 with a view to terminating the Donatist schism, while not strictly a synod, was nevertheless one of the most important assemblies in the history of the African church, and, indeed of the whole Christian church.
After the Athenian debacle, the Segestans turned to Carthage; but when Hannibal in 409 B.C. firmly established the Carthaginian power in western Sicily, Segesta sank to the position of a dependent ally, and was indeed besieged by Dionysius in 397, being at last relieved by Himilco.
They can also get discount tickets to the Precious Moments Park in Carthage, Missouri, which was opened in 1989 and has welcomed approximately 400,000 visitors every year.
It was founded (perhaps on the site of an early Sicanian settlement) by colonists from Gela about 582 B.C., and, though the lastest city of importance founded by the Greeks in Sicily, soon acquired a position second to that of Syracuse alone, owing to its favourable situation for trade with Carthage and to the fertility of its territory.
It was in the latter temple that the statue of the god by Myron stood; it had probably been carried off to Carthage, was given to the temple by P. Scipio Africanus from the spoils of that city and aroused the cupidity of Verres.
With 15,000 mercenaries, whom he had to train into Roman discipline, he took Carthage, defeated Gelimer the Vandal king, and carried him captive, in 534, to grace the first triumph witnessed in Constantinople.
He was highly esteemed by Cyprian, bishop of Carthage; Novatian refers to his nobilissimae memoriae, and he corresponded with Origen.
The great Phoenician colony of Carthage, founded before 800 B.C., perpetuated the commercial enterprise of the parent state, and extended the sphere of practical trade to the ocean shores of Africa and Europe.
The most celebrated voyage of antiquity undertaken for the express purpose of discovery was that fitted out by the senate of Carthage under the command of Hanno, with the intention of founding new colonies along the west coast of Africa.
Hanoi is 1 For others of the name see Carthage; Hannibal; Punic Wars.
A dispute between Selinus and Segesta (probably the revival of a similar quarrel about 454, when an Athenian force appears to have taken part 2) was one of the causes of the Athenian expedition of 415 B.C. At its close the former seemed to have the latter at its mercy, but an appeal to Carthage was responded 1 The plant was formerly thought to be wild parsley.
The 42nd canon of the council of Carthage under Aurelius likewise forbade them, but these were only local councils.
The 41st canon of the council of Carthage enacted that the sacraments of the altar should be received fasting, except on the anniversary of the Lord's supper.
Confident in his own powers, 'he entered ardently into what was no doubt the great question of the time at Carthage as elsewhere.
Christian convert was his unanimous call by the Christian people to the head of the church in Carthage, at the end of 248 or beginning of 249.
The time was one of fierce persecution directed against the Christians, and the bishop of Carthage became a prominent object of attack.
It sided with Rome against Carthage, and drew Hannibal's first assault.
He carried on war with Carthage with varying success; his attempts to drive the Carthaginians entirely out of the island failed, and at his death they were masters of at least a third of it.
The con flexion between Carthage and Phoenicia is more certain, and the ancient Abyssinian kingdom was founded by Semites from south Arabia.
He was killed by a mob in a jail at Carthage, Illinois, on the 27th of June 1844.
The ostensible purpose of his mission (apart, of course, from those of pilgrimage and perhaps relic-hunting) was that he might gain further instruction from Jerome on the points raised by the Priscillianists and Origenists; but in reality, it would seem, his business was to stir up and assist Jerome and others against Pelagius, who, since the synod of Carthage in 411, had been living in Palestine, and finding some acceptance there.
A hurriedly equipped fleet sent out from Carthage under Hanno was intercepted by the praetor Publius Valerius Falto and totally defeated (battle of the Aegates Islands, March io, 241).
The commerce of Athens extended from Egypt and Colchis to Etruria and Carthage, and her manufactures, which attracted skilled operatives from many lands, found a ready sale all over the Mediterranean.
Across it were drawn seven parallels, running through Meroe, Syene, Alexandria, Rhodes, Lysimachia on the Hellespont, the mouth of the Borysthenes and Thule, and these were crossed at right angles by seven meridians, drawn at irregular intervals, and passing through the Pillars of Hercules, Carthage, Alexandria, Thapsacus on the Euphrates, the Caspian gates, the mouth of the Indus and that of the Ganges.
This map of Eratosthenes, notwithstanding its many errors, such as the assumed connexion of the Caspian with a northern ocean and the supposition that Carthage, Sicily and Rome lay on the same meridian, enjoyed a high reputation in his day.
It passed into Carthaginian hands by the treaty of 405 B.C., was won back by Dionysius in his first Punic war, but recovered by Carthage in 383.
The earlier part of it treated of the mythical adventures of Aeneas in Sicily, Carthage and Italy, and borrowed from the interview of Zeus and Thetis in the first book of the Iliad the idea of the interview of Jupiter and Venus; which Virgil has made one of the cardinal passages in the Aeneid.
It became subject to Carthage, but lost none of its prosperity.
At this period the metropolis of Byzacena was after Carthage the most important town in Roman Africa.
On the 27th of March 1882 the dignity of cardinal was conferred upon Lavigerie, but the great object of his ambition was to restore the see of St Cyprian; and in that also he was successful, for by a bull of 10th November 1884 the metropolitan see of Carthage was re-erected, and Lavigerie received the pallium on the 25th of January 1885.
By him the term was confined to the territory of Carthage and the regions composing the eastern group of the Atlas.
After the capture of Carthage by Scipio (146 B.C.) this territory was erected into a Roman province, and a trench, the fossa regia, was dug to mark the boundary of the Roman province of Africa and the dominions of the Numidian princes.
Those towns, however, which had remained faithful to Carthage were destroyed, like Carthage itself.
These provinces were Zeugitana (the former Proconsularis), Carthage, Byzacium, Tripolitana, Numidia and 1Vlauretania.
In 697 Carthage was taken.
Nevertheless, the Roman functionaries, the army and the colonists from Italy soon brought the Latin element into Africa, where it flourished with such vigour that, in the 3rd century, Carthage became the centre of a Romano-African civilization of extraordinary literary brilliancy, which numbered among its leaders such men as Apuleius, Tertullian, Arnobius, Cyprian, Augustine and many others.
Carthage regained its rank of capital of Africa under Augustus, when thousands of Roman colonists flocked to the town.
In all the towns of Algeria and Tunisia museums have been founded for storing the antiquities of the region; the most important of these are the museums of St Louis, Carthage and the palace of Bardo (musee Alaoui) near Tunis, those of Susa, Constantine, Lambessa, Timgad, Tebessa, Philippeville, Cherchel and Oran.
In Tunisia, Carthage early became the object of archaeological investigation.
Chateaubriand visited and described the ruins; the Dane Falbe, the Englishman Nathan Davis, Beule, P. de Sainte-Marie and others also have carried out researches; for more than twenty years Pere Delattre has explored the ruins of Carthage (q.v.) with extraordinary success.
It would be impossible to enumerate here all the monographs describing, for example, the ruins of Carthage, those of the temple of the waters at Mount Zaghuan, the amphitheatre of El Jem (Thysdrus), the temple of Saturn, the royal tomb and the theatre of Dugga (Thugga), the bridge of Chemtu (Simitthu), the ruins and cemeteries of Tebursuk and Medeina (Althiburus), the rich villa of the Laberii at Wadna (Uthina), the sanctuary of Saturn Balcaranensis on the hill called Bu-KornaIn, the ruins of the district of Enfida (Aphrodisium, Uppenna, Segermes), those of Leptis minor (Lemta), of Thenae (near Sfax), those of the island of Meninx (Jerba), of the peninsula of Zarzis, of Mactar, Sbeitla (Sufetula), Gigthis (Bu-Grara), Gafsa (Capsa), Kef (Sicca Veneria), Bulla Regia, &c.
Sculpture throughout the district is very provincial and of minor importance; the only exceptions are certain statues found at Carthage and Cherchel, the capital of the Mauretanian kings.