Carolingian sentence example

carolingian
  • critical edition of the Carolingian diplomas.
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  • On the partition of the Carolingian realms in 843 Metz fell to the share of the emperor Lothair I.
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  • In the 9th century Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, in his work, De ordine palatii et regni, speaks of a summus cancellarius, evidently an official at the court of the Carolingian emperors and kings.
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  • In the triple partition of the Carolingian empire at Verdun in 843, the central portion was assigned to the emperor Lothaire, separating the kingdoms of East Francia (the later The duchy Germany) from West Francia (the later France).
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  • Had his successor been as prudent and able, he might have made a unified Netherlands the nucleus of a mighty middle kingdom, interposing between France and Germany, and a revival of that of the Carolingian Lothaire.
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  • Under the empire Arvernia formed part of Prima Aquitania, and the district shared in the fortunes of Aquitaine during the Merovingian and Carolingian periods.
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  • The discords which followed on the break-up of the Carolingian power, and the weakness of the so-called Italian emperors, who were unable to control the feudatories (marquises of Ivrea and Tuscany, dukes of Friuli and Spoleto), from whose ranks they sprang, exposed Italy to ever-increasing misrule.
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  • and the Glockenturm to the E., both of which to a large extent had formed part of the Carolingian palace, were all but destroyed in the fire by which the Rathaus was seriously damaged in 1883.
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  • His graduation thesis, published in 1819, on the history of the Merovingian mayors of the palace, attracted the attention of Baron Stein, by whom he was engaged in 1820 to edit the Carolingian chroniclers for the newly-founded Historical Society of Germany.
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  • Thus, in six volumes, he had carried the work no farther than the Carolingian period.
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  • A similar step was taken, in 922, in the case of Robert II., this too marking the increasing irritation felt at the weakness of the Carolingian kings.
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  • It is the Church which creates the Carolingian empire, because the clergy thinks in terms of empire.
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  • Early Hesse was the district around the Fulda, the Werra, the Eder and the Lahn, and was part of the Frankish kingdom both during Merovingian and during Carolingian times.
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  • Father Braun, to whose kindness the writer is indebted for the above account of the causes of the ritual changes in the Carolingian epoch, adds that the papacy was never narrowminded in its attitude towards local rites, and that it was not until the close of the middle ages, when diversity had become confusion and worse, that it began to insist upon uniformity.
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  • Under the kings of the third dynasty, the division of the kingdom among the sons of the dead monarch which had characterized the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, ceased.
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  • Ulm is mentioned as early as 854, and under the Carolingian sovereigns it was the scene of several assemblies.
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  • In the Norse version of the Carolingian epic Guillaume appears in his proper historical environment, as a chief under Charlemagne; but he plays a leading part in the Couronnement Looys, describing the formal associations of Louis the Pious in the empire at Aix (813, the year after Guillaume's death), and after the battle of Aliscans it is from the emperor Louis that he seeks reinforcements.
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  • Then followed the death of Lothair (2nd of March 986) and of Louis V., the last Carolingian king, in May 987.
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  • Simultaneously with this work he carried on the publication of the annals of the Carolingian epoch on the model of the German Jahrbitcher, reserving for himself the reign of Charles the Bald.
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  • The preliminary work on the Carolingian diplomas involved such lengthy and costly researches that the Academie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres took over the expenses after Giry's death.
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  • He was a staunch supporter of Charlemagne's principles of government and educational reforms; he established schools, and by his own literary achievements showed himself a worthy member of the learned circle which graced the Carolingian court.
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  • Florence is the capital of a province of the same name, and the central government is represented by a prefect (prefetto), while local government is carried on by a mayor (sindaco) Under the Carolingian emperors Tuscany was a March or margraviate, and the marquises became so powerful as to be even a danger to the Empire.
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  • It was the advent of the Carolingian princes and the difficulties which they had to overcome that carried these institutions a stage further forward.
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  • It was this problem which led to the next step. To solve it the early Carolingian princes, especially Charles Martel, who found the royal domains exhausted and their own inadequate, grasped at the land of the Church.
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  • In the period that followed, the reign of Charlemagne and the later Carolingian age, continued necessities, military and civil, forced the kings to recognize these new institutions more fully, even when standing in a position between the government and the subject, intercepting the public duties of the latter.
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  • We have traced a definite line of descent for feudal institutions from Roman days through the Merovingian and Carolingian ages to the 10th century.
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  • against Simeon of Bulgaria; and the khakan was honoured in diplomatic intercourse with the seal of three solidi, which marked him as a potentate of the first rank, above even the pope and the Carolingian monarchs.
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  • In the 9th century, during the great movement termed the Carolingian Renaissance, these Annals became the usual form of contemporary history; it suffices to mention the Annales Einhardi, the Annales Laureshamenses (or "of Lorsch"), and the Annales S.
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  • The Saalhof, built on the site of the palace erected by Louis the Pious in 822, overlooking the Main, has a chapel of the 12th century, the substructure dating from Carolingian times.
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  • During the Carolingian period it was the seat of no fewer than 16 imperial councils or colloquies.
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  • By the rest of the Carolingian kings it was less frequently visited, and this neglect was naturally greater during the period of the Saxon and Salic emperors from 919 to 1137.
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  • These fragments of the "province of Italy," as it was when reconquered by Justinian, were almost all lost either to the Lombards, who finally conquered Ravenna itself about 750, or by the revolt of the pope, who separated from the empire on account of the iconoclastic reforms. The intervention of Pippin the Carolingian, who was called in by the popes to protect them against the Lombards and the Eastern emperors alike, made a revival of the exarchate impossible.
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  • In the Western Church the title was hardly known before the 7th century, and did not become common until the Carolingian emperors revived the right of the metropolitans to summon provincial synods.
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  • Having in general shared the fortunes of Aquitaine during the Merovingian and Carolingian periods, Agenais next became an hereditary countship in the part of the country now called Gascony (Vasconia).
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  • (c. 876-936), surnamed the "Fowler," German king, son of Otto the Illustrious, duke of Saxony, grew to manhood amid the disorders which witnessed to the decay of the Carolingian empire, and in early life shared in various campaigns for the defence of Saxony.
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  • The main work of the Carolingian renaissance was to restore Latin to its position as a literary language, and to reintroduce a correct system of spelling and an improved handwriting.
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  • This episode, which bears the marks of popular heroic poetry, may well be the substance of a lost Carolingian cantilena.1 The legendary Charlemagne and his warriors were endowed with the great deeds of earlier kings and heroes of the Frankish kingdom, for the romancers were not troubled by considerations of chronology.
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  • These were not originally known as the twelve peers 2 famous in later Carolingian romance.
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  • The Chanson de Roland relates the historic defeat of Roncesvalles on the 15th of August 778, and forms the very crown of the whole Carolingian legend.
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  • Mussafia, Vienna, 1864); for the Carolingian romances relating to Roland, see ROLAND; Les Saisnes, ed.
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  • The Spanish versions of Carolingian legends are studied by Mila y Fontanals in De la poesia heroico-popular castellana (Barcelona, 1874).
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  • It contains eighty-three fables, is as old as the 10th century, and seems to have been based on a still earlier prose version, which, under the name of "Aesop," and addressed to one Rufus, may have been made in the Carolingian period or even earlier.
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  • The laws of the Carolingian empire provided that one excom municated by the Church who did not make his peace p within a year and a day should be outlawed, and this general principle was not lost sight of.
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  • The monasteries, however, played a great part in the educational side of the Carolingian revival; and certainly from that date schools for boys destined to live and work in the world were commonly attached to Benedictine monasteries.
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  • The first of these movements arose during the Carolingian revival (c. 800), and is associated with the name of Benedict of Aniane.
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  • Throughout the 9th and 10th centuries, as the life-benefices of the later Carolingian kings were gradually transformed into hereditary fiefs, the insecurity of life and property increased, for there was no central power to curb the warring local magnates.
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  • This rising, which lwas probably caused by the exaction of tithes and the oppression of Frankish officials, aimed also at restoring the heathen religion, and was put down in 842 by king Louis the German, who claimed authority over this part of the Carolingian empire.
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  • The influences of civilization and the settlement of Frankish colonists in various parts of Saxony facilitated its incorporation with the Carolingian empire, with which its history is for some time identified.
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  • There is very little evidence as to the form and character of the stole before the Carolingian age; but from the 9th century onwards representations of the stole show that it varied in no essential particular from that of the present day.
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  • In southern Italy, probably under Greek influence, and in Milan (where the custom still survives) the diaconal stole was put on over the dalmatic. Similarly in Spain and Gaul, anterior to the Carolingian age, the stole was worn by deacons over the alba or outer tunic.
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  • It was a royal residence in Carolingian times and became a free town of the Empire in the 13th century.
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  • - After the accession of the House of Saxony (919), the national ecclesiastical system, founded upon the principles of Carolingian law, developed in Germany with fresh energy.
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  • In June 842 the three brothers met on an island in the Saone to negotiate a peace, and each appointed forty representatives to arrange the boundaries of their respective kingdoms. This developed into the treaty of Verdun concluded in August 843, by which Louis received the bulk of the lands of the Carolingian empire lying east of the Rhine, together with a district around Spires, Worms and Mainz, on the left bank of the river.
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  • In 1849 he took the degree of doctor of letters with two theses, one of which, Wala et Louis le Debonnaire (published in Paris in 1849), placed him in the front rank of French scholars in the province of Carolingian history.
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  • In the 9th century it was known as Cruciniacum, and it had a palace of the Carolingian kings.
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  • Nierstein was originally a Roman settlement, and was a royal residence under the Carolingian rulers.
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  • His literary attainments attracted the notice of Charlemagne, and Paulus became a potent factor in the Carolingian renaissance.
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  • He also wrote many letters, verses and epitaphs, including those of Duke Arichis and of many members of the Carolingian family.
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  • The Carolingian princes, when Boniface pointed them towards Rome, followed him without their clergy offering any resistance on grounds of principle.
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  • Shortly afterwards, in the partition of the Carolingian Empire, Italy passed under the rule of a prince of its own, Louis II., who, with the title of emperor, made his authority felt in political matters.
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  • The dalmatic was in general use at the beginning of the 9th century, partly as a result of the Carolingian reforms, which established the Roman model in western Europe; but it continued to be granted by the popes to distinguished ecclesiastics not otherwise entitled to wear it, e.g.
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  • It is not till the final break up of the Carolingian empire in the 10th and II th centuries that it becomes possible to trace out the local history of different parts of the Alps.
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  • Under the Carolingian monarchs it was the site of a palace, and Otto I.
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  • The country was ruled by Gerold, a brother-in-law of Charlemagne, till his death in a battle with the Avars in 799, when its administration was entrusted to Frankish counts and assimilated with that of the rest of the Carolingian empire, while its condition was improved by the measures taken by Charlemagne for the intellectual progress and material welfare of his realm.
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  • The history of Bavaria for the ensuing century is bound up with that of the Carolingian empire.
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  • During the years following the destruction of the Carolingian empire the borders of Bavaria were continually changing, and for a lengthened period after 955 this process was one of expansion.
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  • On the division of the Carolingian realm the part of the province to the east of the river fell to the share of Germany, while that to the west remained with the evanescent kingdom of Lotharingia.
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  • The sons of Clovis divided the dominions of their father between them, made themselves masters of Burgundy (532), and in addition received Provence from the Ostrogoths (535); Septimania was not taken from the Arabs till the time of Pippin, the founder of the Carolingian dynasty.
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  • The mayors of the palace belonging to the Carolingian family were able to keep the throne vacant for long periods of time, and finally, in 751 the mayor Pippin, with the consent of the pope Zacharias, sent King Childeric III.
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  • It has long been conceded that the great French national epics of the 11th and 12th centuries must have been founded on a great fund of popular poetry, and that many of the episodes of the chansons de geste refer to historical events anterior to the Carolingian period.
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  • When in 825 his son Louis, afterwards called the German, was entrusted with the government of Bavaria and from this centre gradually ~ extended his authority over the Carolingian dominions east of the Rhine, a step was taken in the process by which East Francia, or Germany, was becoming a unit distinguishable from other portions of the Empire; a process which was carried further by the treaty of Verclun in August 843, when, after a struggle between Louis the German and his brothers for their fathers inheritance, an arrangement was made by which Louis obtained the bulk of the lands east of the Rhine together with the districts around Mainz, Worms and Spires on the left bank.
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  • One is concerned to glorify at all costs the Carolingian house; another sacrifices almost everything to attack the emperor Henry IV.
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  • is valuable, while another Carolingian courtier, Nithard, has a special interest as, almost alone among these early chroniclers, being a soldier and not a monk.
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  • The Carolingian time is covered by E.
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  • From about 81 9 to 1082 Carcassonne formed a separate countship, and from the latter date till 1247 a viscountship. Towards the end of the 11th century the viscounts of Carcassonne assumed the style of viscounts of Beziers, which town and its lords they had dominated since the fall of the Carolingian empire.
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  • 67.) The history of Genoa during the dark ages, throughout the Lombard and Carolingian periods, is but the repetition of the general history of the Italian communes, which succeeded in snatching from contending princes and barons the first charters of their freedom.
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  • The fundamental factor in these dissensions was the rivalry between the princes of Spoleto and the Carolingian house, represented by the king of Germany.
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  • The oldest, that on the Septimer pass, dates from the Carolingian period, though it was restored in 1120 by the bishop Wido of Chur: that on the Great St Bernard was founded in the 10th century, and reorganized in the 13th.
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  • On the fall of the Carolingian house the title passed to Alberic II.
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  • On the east of the town is the beautiful park called the Valkhof, which marks the site of the old palace of the Carolingian emperors.
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  • On the other hand, the most important commodities offered for sale in the market had been subject to official examination already in Carolingian times.
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  • Under the new Carolingian dynasty, Pippin and Charlemagne restored the unity of the Frankish realm, and then the word Neustria was restricted to the district between the Loire and the Seine, together with part of the diocese of Rouen north of the Seine; while Austrasia comprised only the Frankish dominions beyond the Rhine, perhaps with the addition of the three cities of Mainz, Worms and Spires on the left bank.
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  • It was liberally endowed with land by the princes of the Carolingian house and others, and soon became one of the most famous and wealthy establishments of its kind.
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  • By the conquest of Pavia and the capture of Desiderius in 774 Charlemagne completely destroyed the Lombard supremacy; but the city continued to be the centre of the Carolingian power in Italy, and a royal residence was built in the neighbourhood (Corteolona on the Olona).
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  • He then turned his attention to a group of documents relating to ecclesiastical history in the Carolingian period and bearing on the question of false decretals, and produced Les Chartes de St-Calais (1887) and Les Actes de l'eveche du Mans (1894).
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  • After his death his published and unpublished writings were collected and published (with the exception of Les Cours royales des Iles Normandes and Lettres de Gerbert) in two volumes called Questions merovingiennes and Opuscules inedits (1896), containing, besides important papers on diplomatic and on Carolingian and Merovingian history, a large number of short monographs ranging over a great variety of subjects.
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  • He did not claim the crown of France when his brother died in 898; but recognizing the supremacy of the Carolingian king, Charles III., the Simple, he was confirmed in his offices and possessions, after which he continued to defend northern France from the attacks of the Normans.
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  • Charles Martel, however, a son of Pippin by a concubine Chalpaida, seized the mayoralty in both kingdoms, and he it was who continued the Carolingian dynasty.
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  • The Carolingian dynasty reigned in France from 751 to 987, when it was ousted by the Capetian dynasty.
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  • The Carolingian kings expressly recognized the Roman law, and allowed all who would be counted Romans to "profess" it.
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  • Under the Carolingian empire, a vast system grew up in the North Italian cities of episcopal "immunities," by which a city with its surrounding district was removed, more or less completely, from the jurisdiction of the ordinary authority, military or civil, and placed under that of the bishop. These "immunities" led to the temporal sovereignty of the bishops; under it the spirit of liberty grew more readily than under the military chief.
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  • Certain Carolingian monarchs, probably copying the practice of the papal chancery, issued diplomas authenticated by leaden seals, examples of the reign of Charles the Bald being still extant.
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  • Kaiserslautern takes its name from the emperor (Kaiser) Frederick I., who built a castle here about 1152, although it appears to have been a royal residence in Carolingian times.
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  • The claims of the bishopric dated from Carolingian times, and the independence of Andorra, like most other Pyrenean anomalies, has been traditionally ascribed to Charlemagne (742-814).
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  • During the Carolingian epoch the custom grew up of granting these as regular heritable fiefs or benefices, and by the 10th century, before the great Cluniac reform, the system was firmly established.
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  • Moreover, Harold had before his eye as a precedent the displacement of the effete Carolingian line in France, by the new house of Robert the Strong and Hugh Capet, seventy years before, He prepared for the crisis that must come at the death of Edward the Confessor by bestowing the governance of several earldoms upon his brothers.
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  • AGOBARD (c. 779-840), Carolingian prelate and reformer, became coadjutor to Leidrad, archbishop of Lyons, in 813, and on the death of the latter succeeded him in the see (816).
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  • Agobard occupies an important place in the Carolingian renaissance.
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  • He denounced the trial by ordeal of fire and water, the belief in witchcraft, and the ascription of tempests to magic,maintained the Carolingian opposition to image-worship, but carried his logic farther and opposed the adoration of the saints.
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  • After the treaty of Verdun in 843 it became the centre of the East Frankish or German kingdom, and in theory remained so for a long period, and was for a time the most important of the duchies which arose on the ruins of the Carolingian empire.
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  • These letters, of which 311 are extant, are filled chiefly with pious meditations, but they further form a mine of information as to the literary and social conditions of the time, and are the most reliable authority for the history of humanism in the Carolingian age.
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  • Alcuin is the most prominent figure of the Carolingian Renaissance, in which have been distinguished three main periods: in the first of these, up to the` arrival of Alcuin at the court, the Italians occupy the chief place; in the second, Alcuin and the Anglo-Saxons are dominant; in the third, which begins in 804, the influence of the Goth Theodulf is preponderant.
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  • During the Carolingian period Boulogne was the chief town of a countship that was for long the subject of dispute between-Flanders and Ponthieu.
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  • Lger was put to death in 678, and the Austrasians, commanded by the Carolingian Pippin II., with whom many of the chief Neustrians had taken refuge, were dispersed near Laon (680).
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  • Descended as he was from Arnuif, bishop of Metz, he was before all things a churchman, and behind his armies marched the missionaries to whom the Carolingian dynasty, of which he was the founder, were to subject all Christendom.
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  • And Boniface also helped on the alliance between the papacy and the Carolingian dynasty, which, more momentous even than that between Clovis and the bishops of Gaul, was to sanctify might by right.
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  • An unexpected event re-established unity in the Carolingian family.
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  • The Carolingian sovereignty was thus neither hereditary nor elective, but was handed down by the will of the reigning king, and by a solemn acceptance of the future king on the part of the nobles.
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  • The work of organizing the three great Carolingian conquests Aquitaine, Italy and Saxonyhad yet to be done.
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  • after putting out his eyes, and the throne might be considered vacant; while on the other hand, Pope Leo III., who had been driven from Rome by a revolt in 799, and had only been restored by a Frankish army, counted for little beside the Frankish monarch, and could not but submit to the wishes of the Carolingian court.
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  • Twenty- Causes for nine years after his death the Carolingian Empire had the disbeen divided into three kingdoms; forty years later solution one alone of these kingdoms had split into seven; ~ while when a century had passed France was a litter of tiny states each practically independent.
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  • This first Carolingian restoration took place on the 28th of January 893, and thenceforward throughout this warlike period from 888 to 936 the crown passed from one dynasty to the other according to the interests of the nobles.
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  • Louiss sudden death in 954 once more placed the Carolingian line in peril, since he had not had time to have his son Lothair crowned.
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  • His death and the minority of his sons, Hugh Capet and Eudes, gave the Carolingian dynasty thirty years more of life.
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  • contrast to the landless Carolingian, and his power, like that of the future kings of Prussia and Austria, was based on military authority, for he had a frontier that of Anjou.
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  • At the same time the contrast between the vast proportions of the Carolingian empire and its feeble administrative control over a still uncivilized community became more and more accentuated.
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  • The new dynasty was thus the poorest and weakest of the great civil and ecclesiastical lordships which occupied the country from the estuary of the Scheldt to that of the Liobregat, and bounded approximately by the Meuse, the Sane and the ridge of the Cvennes; yet it cherished a great ambition which it revealed at times during its first century (987Ifo8)a determination not to repeat the Carolingian failure.
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  • The new dynasty thus at first gave the impression rather of decrepitude than of yot~th, seeming more a continuation of the Carolingian monarchy than a new departure.
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  • The insubordination of several great vassalsthe count of Vermandois, the duke of Burgundy, the count of Flanderswho treated him as he had treated the Carolingian king; the treachery of Arnuif, archbishop of Reims, who let himself be won over by the empress Theophano; the papal hostility inflamed by the emperor against the claim of feudal France to independence,all made it seem for a time as though the unity of the Roman empire of the West would be secured at Hughs expense and in Ottos favor; but as a matter of fact this papal and imperial hostility ended by making the Capet dynasty a national one.
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  • After this, in four campaigns from transformed his Carolingian feudal and federal empire into one modelled on the Roman empire.
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  • In the earliest times their most pressing foe was not the Arab or Berber so much as the Carolingian.
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  • To the east of it, the Navarrese, having rid themselves of the Carolingian counts and marchers, had made a kingdom in their mountains, and beyond them the little free territorias of the central Pyrenees were advancing, in subordination to the Navarrese king at Pamplona.
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  • He fought with the Carolingian counts of the marches, and in alliance with the Spanish Mahommedan Beni Casi of Saragossa.
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  • A commentary on Virgil (frequently quoted by Servius) and Scholia to Persius are also attributed to him; the latter, however, are of much later date, and are assigned by Jahn to the Carolingian period.
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  • Henceforth Rome was linked with the Carolingian house in an alliance which culminated in the coronation of Charlemagne by the pope on the 25th of December Soo.
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  • drapery folds are very similar to those on miniatures of the earliest group of Carolingian illuminated manuscripts.
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  • Even the Carolingian empire of the early ninth century had only been a failed successor state to the Western Roman Empire.
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  • pity that Carolingian authors are silent in too much of this book.
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  • During the Carolingian epoch, indeed, advocatus and vice-dominus were interchangeable terms; and it was only in the 11th century rthat they became generally differentiated: the title of avoue being commonly reserved for nobles charged with the protection of an abbey, that of vidame for those guarding an episcopal see.
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  • The complete conversion was, however, in the end due rather to the arms of the Carolingian kings than to the unaided efforts of the missionaries.
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  • It is a melancholy history, telling of the invasion of the Northmen, and of the dynastic struggles between the petty feudal sovereigns who carved out counties and lordships Growth of the for themselves during the dark centuries which feudal followed the fall of the Carolingian empire.
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  • When Louis V., king of the Franks, died in 987, the Franks, setting aside the Carolingians, passed over his brother Charles, and elected Hugh Capet, son of Hugh the Great, as their king, and crowned him at Reims. Avoiding the pretensions which had been made by the Carolingian kings, the Capetian kings were content, for a time, with a more modest position, and the story of the growth of their power belongs to the history of France.
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  • But it would be a mistake to regard the Crusades (as it would be a mistake to regard the Carolingian empire) as a pure creation of the Church, or as merely due to the policy of a theocracy directing men to the holy war which is the only war possible for a theocracy.
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  • (Leipzig, 1894-1908), was a masterly study in constitutional history as well as a literary work of high merit, which carries the narrative down to the dissolution of the Carolingian empire.
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  • Gilds are first mentioned in the Carolingian capitularies of 779 and 789, and in the enactments made by the synod of Nantes early in the 9th century, the text of which has been preserved in the ecclesiastical ordinances of Hincmar of Rheims (A.D.852).
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  • These journeys and campaigns, however, were but interludes in the long and stubborn struggle between Charles and the Saxons, which began in 772 and ended in 804 with the incorporation of Saxony in the Carolingian empire (see Saxony).
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  • Shortly after his death (875) fresh upheavals reduced to nothing the power of the Carolingian princes; the clergy of Rome found itself without a protector, exposed to the animosity of the lay aristocracy.
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  • His attention having been drawn to questions of authenticity by the forgeries of Vrain Lucas, he devoted himself to tracing the spurious documents that encumbered and perverted Merovingian and Carolingian history.
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  • The connecting link between the general use of the signet, which was required by the Roman law for legal purposes, but which had died out by the 7th century, and the revival of seals in the middle ages is to be found in the chanceries Early of the Merovingian and Carolingian sovereigns, where s m $d seval the practice of affixing the royal seal to diplomas appears to have been generally maintained (see Diplomatic).
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  • of Heristal, who founded a Carolingian empire fated to be as ephemeral as that of the Merovingians.
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