How to use Carolina in a sentence
Salem was founded in 1766 by Friedrich Wilhelm von Marschall (1721-1802), a friend of Zinzendorf, and the financial manager of the board controlling the Moravian purchase made in North Carolina in 1753, consisting of 100,000 acres, and called Wachovia.
At last Charleston, in South Carolina, was taken by the British.
In 1869-1879 he was professor of Hebrew in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary (first in Greenville, South Carolina, and after 1877 in Louisville, Kentucky), and in 1880 he became professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages in Harvard University, where until 1903 he was also Dexter lecturer onzbiblical literature.
His refusal soon after his inauguration to honour the requisition of the governor of Virginia for three persons charged with assisting a slave to escape from Norfolk, provoked retaliatory measures by the Virginia legislature, in which Mississippi and South Carolina soon joined.
It is chiefly found in the tropical parts of Asia and Africa, but has also been met with in South Carolina and several of the West Indian islands.Advertisement
By marrying her daughter, Maria Amelia, to the young duke of Parma, and another daughter, Maria Carolina, to Ferdinand of Naples, Maria Theresa consolidated Habsburg influence in the north and south of the peninsula.
Napoleon then turned fiercely against Maria Carolina of Naples upbraiding her with her perfidy.
Lord William Bentinck finally took over large administrative powers, seeing that Ferdinand, owing to his dulness, and Maria Carolina, owing to her very suspicious intrigues with Napoleon, could never be trusted.
Being ordered to co-operate with Sherman in North Carolina, Schofield moved his corps by rail and sea to Fort Fisher, North Carolina, in seventeen days, occupied Wilmington on the 22nd of February 1865, fought the action at Kinston on the 8 - 10th of March, and on the 23rd joined Sherman at Goldsboro.
Partly on account of his inability to share in the amusements of his fellows by reason of a deformity due to vaccine poisoning before he was five (the poison permanently arresting the growth and development of his legs), he was an eager student, and in 1814 he graduated at the College of South Carolina with the highest rank in his class and with a reputation throughout the state for scholarship and eloquence.Advertisement
He studied law for three years in South Carolina, and then spent two years abroad, studying French and Italian in Paris and jurisprudence at Edinburgh.
In1820-1822and in1824-1830he was a member of the South Carolina legislature.
In1830-1832he was attorney-general of South Carolina, and, although a State's Rights man, he strongly opposed nullification.
In 1837-1839, as a Union Democrat, he was a member of the national House of Representatives, and there ably opposed Van Buren's financial policy in spite of the enthusiasm in South Carolina for the sub-treasury project.
The first American-built loccmotive, the Best Friend, of Charleston, was made at the West Point Foundry, New York, in 1830, and was put to work on the South Carolina railroad in that year.Advertisement
A second engine, the West Point, also built at West Point Foundry for the South Carolina railroad, differed from the Best Friend in having a horizontal boiler with 6 or 8 tubes, though in other respects it was similar.
Miller, delivered to the South Carolina railroad in 1834, presented a feature which has remained characteristic of American locomotives - the front part was supported on a four-wheeled swivelling bogie-truck, a device, however, which had been applied to Puffing Billy in England when it was rebuilt in 1815.
Graduating at the university of North Carolina in 1816, he studied law in the famous Litchfield (Connecticut) law school, and in 1819 was admitted to practice in Southampton county, Virginia.
The territorial limits were extended on the north to the state of Tennessee in 1804 by the acquisition of the west cessions of South Carolina and Georgia, and on the south to the Gulf of Mexico by the seizure of West Florida in 1810-1813, 1 but were restricted on the east by the formation of the Territory of Alabama in 1817.
On the death of John C. Calhoun in 1850 the state, under the leadership of Jefferson Davis, began to rival South Carolina as leader of the extreme pro-slavery States' Rights faction.Advertisement
The " Fall Line," the boundary between the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont Plateau, has a very irregular course across North Carolina, but lies in a general S.W.
In North Carolina five of the seven life-zones into which North America has been divided are represented, but more of its area belongs to the upper-austral than to any other zone.
There was a Smith and a Jones, each with local addresses that sounded fake, and Zeke Ambrowski of Raleigh, North Carolina.
The Associate Reformed Synod of the South has the Erskine Theological Seminary (1837) in Due West, South Carolina.
In reply to the very natural question why the Moravians began their work in England, the answer given by history is that John Wesley, on his voyage to Georgia (1735) met some Moravian emigrants; that on his return he met Peter Boehler, who was on his way to North Carolina; that through Boehler's influence both John and Charles Wesley were "converted" (1738).Advertisement
At present the Moravian Church is divided into four provinces, German, British, American North and American South (North Carolina).
Under English rule there was an extensive immigration into this region from England, Ireland, Georgia and South Carolina.
In North Carolina's flora are many species common to sub-tropical regions and many common to temperate regions, and the variety is consequently very great.
All of the species of pine and of magnolia, and nearly all of the species of oak, of hickory and of spruce, indigenous to the United States, are found in North Carolina.
Among the song-birds are the mocking-bird, the Carolina wren and the cardinal grosbeak (or red bird); there are plenty of quail or " bob white " (called partridge in the South).
North Carolina has a climate which varies from that of the S.E.
In Caswell county, North Carolina, " lemon yellow " tobacco was first produced in 1852, and the demand for this " bright " variety became so great that except during the interruption of the Civil War its culture spread rapidly.
Several other pines are found, and among the less important timber trees are black spruce, Carolina balsam, beeches, ashes, sycamore or button wood, sweet gum and lindens.
The State Geological and Economic Survey has made a careful study of the fishes of North Carolina, of the shad fisheries, of oyster culture, and of the development of terrapin.
During the first half of the 19th century North Carolina was a mining state of the first importance; in 1804 it was the only state in the United States from which gold was obtained.
In 1870 North Carolina's mica mines were reopened, and they produce the best grade of sheet mica for glazing and a large percentage of the country's yield of this mineral.
North Carolina is also the leading state in the Union in the production of monazite.
It was along the coast of North Carolina that Europeans in 1585 made the first discovery of iron ore within the present limits of the United States.
The population 1 of North Carolina increased from 1,399,750 in 1880 to 1, 61 7,949 in 1890, or 15.6%; to 1,893,810 in 1900, a further increase of 17.1%; and to 2,206,287 in 1910, an increase of 16.5% since 1900.
Until nearly a century after the founding of the Carolinas there was not a town in North Carolina that had a population of 1000, and the urban population of the state was exceptionally small at the beginning of the rapid rise of the manufacturing industries about 1880.
North Carolina has been governed under the charters of 1663 and 1665 (1663-1729), under commissions and instructions from the crown (1729-1776), and under the state constitutions of the 18th of December 1776 (amended in 1835, in 1856, and in the Secession Convention of 1861) and of April 1868 (amended in 1872-1873, 1875, 2 1819 i 1888 and 1899).
Furthermore, in North Carolina the governor has no veto power.
The North Carolina State Hospital (for the insane) at Raleigh was opened in 1856 as a result of the labours of Miss Dorothea Lynde Dix (1805-1887); in connexion with it there is an epileptic colony.
Other state educational institutions are the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (1889) at West Raleigh, which in1907-1908had 42 instructors and 436 students; the State Normal and Industrial College (1892) for women, at Greensboro; and the East Carolina Teachers' Training School (1907), at Greenville.
The state owned, in 1909, 30,002 shares of stock in the North Carolina Railroad Company,' with a market value (1907) of $5,580,372 (the stock being quoted at 186), and an annual income of $210,014 and 12,666 shares of stock in the Atlantic & North Carolina Railroad Company, from which the annual income is $31,665.
North Carolina is one of the few states to experiment with the inheritance tax, but the last law dealing with that subject was repealed in 1899.
Another state could do so, however, and in 1904, certain creditors having given ten of their bonds to South Dakota, the case of South Dakota versus North Carolina came before the Supreme Court.
The Atlantic & North Carolina, the second great internal improvement undertaken by the state, was chartered in 1853, and was opened from Goldsboro to Morehead City (95 m.) in 1858; it was in 1910 a part of the Norfolk & Southern system.
Although the state of North Carolina owns 70.3% of the stock (besides this Craven county holds 7.7%; Lenoir, 2.8%; and Pamlico county, 1.13%), the state casts only 35 o votes to the 700 of the private stockholders.
It is possible that some of the early French and Spanish explorers visited the coast of North Carolina, but no serious attempt was made by Europeans to establish a settlement until near the close of the 16th century.
They returned in September with a glowing account of what is now the coast of North Carolina, and on the 9th of April 1585 a colony of about 108 men under Ralph Lane (c. 1530-1603) sailed from Plymouth in a fleet of seven small vessels commanded by Sir Richard Grenville.
The northern section was first called Albemarle, then " that part of our province of Carolina that lies north and east of Cape Fear," and about 1689 North Carolina.
In 1691 one governor was placed over both settlements, but it was found necessary to appoint a deputy for North Carolina, and finally in 1712 again to allow her a governor of her own.
The first steps were taken in that direction just after the close of the proprietary period in 1729, but the work was not completed until 1815.1 The first permanent English colony in North Carolina was established at Albemarle on the Chowan river about 1660 by people from Virginia.
So that while the king was governmental head of the whole of North Carolina from 1729 to 1776 he was, after 1744, territorial lord of only the southern half.
The colonists were also angered by the attempt to 1 Between 1735 and 1746 the southern boundary was first definitely established by a joint commission of North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.
The boundary between North Carolina and Tennessee was surveyed in 1 799 and 1821.
As for the " Declaration," the original records of the transactions of Mecklenburg county were destroyed by fire in 1800, but it is claimed that a copy of the " Declaration " was made from memory in the same year, and when, in 1819, a controversy had arisen as to where the movement for independence originated, this copy was published, first in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette and then in many other newspapers.
Their labours ended, however, in another provincial government by a Council of Safety, and the drafting of North Carolina's first state constitution was left to a constitutional convention which assembled at Halifax on the 12th of November.
The territory now comprising the state of Tennessee belonged to Carolina under the charters of 1663 and 1665, and fell to North Carolina when the original province was divided.
To this ' The 10th of May has been made a holiday in North Carolina, and the date appears on the state flag and the state seal; and a statue has been erected at Charlotte in memory of the signers of the " Declaration."
In 1776 this was formally annexed to North Carolina, but in 1784 the state ceded this district to the national government on condition that it should be accepted within two years.
The inhabitants of the district, however, objected to the cession, especially to the terms, which, they contended, threatened them with two years of anarchy; declared their independence of North Carolina and organized for themselves the state of Franklin.
North Carolina sent delegates to the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention of 1787, but the state convention, at Hillsboro, called to pass upon the constitution for North Carolina, did not meet until the 21st of July 1788, when ten states had already ratified.
By reason of this rejection the relations of North Carolina with the other states were severed upon the dissolution of the Confederation, and it took no part in the first election or in the organization of the new government.
The fundamental points of difference between North Carolina and South Carolina were exemplified in the slavery conflict.
South Carolina led the extreme radical element in the South and was the first state to secede.
Thompson, From the Cotton Field to the Cotton Mill, a Study of the Industrial Transition in North Carolina (New York, 1906), contains some interesting observations on the changes in social conditions resulting from the growth of the cotton-manufacturing industry.
A'Court Ashe, History of North Carolina (2 vols., Greensboro, 1908) are general surveys.
Cornelia P. Spencer, First Steps in North Carolina History (6th ed., Raleigh, 1893), is a brief elementary book written for use in the public schools.
Bassett, Constitutional Beginnings of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1894); The Regulators of North Carolina (Washington, 1894); and Slavery in the State of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1899), are all trustworthy.
Weeks deals with the religious history in his Religious Development in the Province of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1892), Church and State in North Carolina (Baltimore, 1893) and Southern Quakers and Slavery (Baltimore, 1896); he is anti-Anglican, but judicial.
Sikes, The Transition of North Carolina from Colony to Commonwealth (Baltimore, 1898), based on the public records, is accurate, though dull.
Cooke (ed.), Revolutionary History of North Carolina (Raleigh and New York, 1853), containing a defence of the Regulators.
His first literary work, except the bombastic but eloquent Essai sur le despotisme (Neufchatel, 1 775), was a translation of Robert Watson's Philip II., done in Holland with the help of Durival; his Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus (London, 1788) was based on a pamphlet by Aedanus Burke (1743-1802), of South Carolina, who opposed the aristocratic tendencies of the Society of the Cincinnati, and the notes to it were by Target;, his financial writings were suggested by the Genevese exile, Claviere.
He was a Free Soil candidate for Congress (1850), but was defeated; was indicted with Wendell Phillips and Theodore Parker for participation in the attempt to release the fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, in Boston (18J3); was engaged in the effort to make Kansas a free state after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854; and during the Civil War was captain in the 51st Massachusetts Volunteers, and from November 1862 to October 1864, when he was retired because of a wound received in the preceding August, was colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers, the first regiment recruited from former slaves for the Federal service.
The tariff of 1828 aroused bitter opposition in South Carolina, and called from Vice-President Calhoun the statement of the doctrine of nullification which was adopted by the South Carolina legislature at the close of the year and is known as the South Carolina Exposition.
South Carolina, however, insisted that its doctrine was sound, and in November 1832 passed an ordinance declaring the revenue laws of the United States null and void.
President Jackson responded with a proclamation denying the right of nullification, and asked Congress for authority to collect the revenue in South Carolina by force if necessary.
Webster, strongly opposed to yielding in this way, made a vigorous speech against the bill, but it passed and South Carolina claimed a victory.
In 1727 he was appointed one of the commission (of which William Fitzwilliams and William Dandridge were the other members) to mark the boundary between North Carolina and Virginia, concerning which undertaking he wrote (probably in 1737) The History of the Dividing Line.
He was educated at Franklin College, Athens, Georgia, and at South Carolina College, Columbia, and was admitted to the bar in 1829.
At the close of his term he retired to his home at Edgefield, South Carolina, where he died on the 25th of January 1869.
Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
Nothing definite can be said with regard to a rotation of crops Sea Island Cotton - Carolina Sea Island Florida „ „ Georgia „ Barbados „ „ Egyptian Cottons Yannovitch.
Planting may be done as late as April 15 in the Piedmont region of North Carolina, and continue as late as the end of May.
It may not begin until September ro in Piedmont, North Carolina.
Rivers of James Island, South Carolina, has resulted in the production of disease-resistant races.
Carolina; the greatest care is taken to enhance the quality of the lint, which has been gradually improved in length, fineness and silkiness.
Carolina; but, through the selection of seed from early maturing individual plants, the cotton has been rendered much earlier, until now it is thoroughly adapted to the existing conditions.
Carolina, and so successful has the cultivation been that from some of the islands West Indian Sea Island cotton obtains a Taken with some modifications from the Agricultural News (1907), vi.
In 1903, according to the statistics of the United States Department of Agriculture, Indian corn ranked next to fruits .(as given in the state reports), but its product as compared with that of various other states is unimportant - in 1907 it amounted to 7,017,000 bushels only; rice is the only other cereal whose yield in 1899 was greater than that of 1889, but the Florida product was surpassed (in 1899) by that of the Carolinas, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas; in 1907 the product of rice in Florida (69,000 bushels) was less than that of Texas, Louisiana, South Carolina, Arkansas and Georgia severally.
In the following year, Jean Ribaut (1520-1565), with a band of French Huguenots, landed first near St Augustine and then at the mouth of the St Johns river, which he called the river of May, and on behalf of France claimed the country, which he described as " the fairest, fruitfullest and pleasantest of all the world "; but he made his settlement on an island near what is now Beaufort, South Carolina.
In 1702, when Great Britain and Spain were contending in Europe, on opposite sides, in the war of the Spanish Succession, a force from South Carolina captured St Augustine and laid siege to the fort, but being unable to reduce it for lack of necessary artillery, burned the town and withdrew at the approach of Spanish reinforcements.
In 1706 a Spanish and French expedition against Charleston, South Carolina, failed, and the Carolinians retaliated by invading middle Florida in 1708 and again in 1722.
Several plans were made to invade South Carolina and Georgia, but none matured until 1778, when an expedition was organized which co-operated with British forces from New York in the siege of Savannah, Georgia.
In1671-1673he had visited the American plantations from Carolina to Rhode Island and had preached alike to Indians and to settlers; in 1674 a portion of New Jersey was sold by Lord Berkeley to John Fenwicke in trust for Edward Byllynge.
In London he met Peter Miller who had been ordained by Zinzendorf for work in Carolina.
Levi Coffin (1798-1877), a native of North Carolina (whose cousin, Vestal Coffin, had established before 1819 a "station" of the Underground near what is now Guilford College, North Carolina), in 1826 settled in Wayne County, Ohio; his home at New Garden (now Fountain City) was the meeting point of three "lines" from Kentucky; and in 1847 he removed to Cincinnati, where his labours in bringing slaves out of the South were even more successful.
These state laws were one of the grievances officially referred to by South Carolina (in Dec. 1860) as justifying her secession from the Union.
Carolina and Honduras rices were practically the only varieties until after 1896.
The general assembly of the state met at Fayetteville in 1787, 1788 and 1789 (Newbern, Tarboro, Hillsboro and Fayetteville all being rivals at this time for the honour of becoming the permanent capital); and in 1789 the Federal constitution was here ratified for North Carolina.
Sir Robert Wilson with 4000 Portuguese from Salamanca, and a Spanish force under Venegas (25,000) from Carolina, were to co-operate and occupy Joseph, by closing upon Madrid.
Subsequently he was governor of South Carolina in 1787-1789; presided over the state convention which ratified the Federal constitution in 1788; was a member of the state legislature in 17 9 1; and was United States minister to Great Britain in 1792-17 9 6.
Pinckney, like many other South Carolina revolutionary leaders, was of aristocratic birth and politics, closely connected with England by ties of blood, education and business relations.
In 1904 Bloemhof was officially included in Wolmaransstad; Bethel in Standerton; Piet Retief in Wakkerstroom, and Carolina in Ermelo.
In 1806 Friends from North Carolina and Pennsylvania settled near here, and Richmond was platted in 1816.
Although similar teeth occur in the phosphorite beds of South Carolina, which may have been transported from elsewhere, no undoubted remains of Megatherium are known from North America.
In the autumn, after the capture of Atlanta, all the prisoners who could be moved were sent to Millen, Georgia and Florence, South Carolina.
He was a member of the South Carolina legislature almost continuously from 1760 to 1780, and represented his province in the Stamp Act Congress of 1765 and in the Continental Congress in 1774-1776.
In February 1776 he was placed in command of all the military forces of South Carolina, and in October of the same year was commissioned a brigadier-general and was taken into the Continental service; but on account of a dispute arising out of a conflict between state and Federal authority resigned his command in 1777.
In 1782 Gadsden was again elected a member of his state legislature; he was also elected governor, but declined to serve on the ground that he was too old and infirm; in 1788 he was a member of the convention which ratified for South Carolina the Federal constitution; and in 1790 he was a member of the convention which framed the new state constitution.
It is near the great mineral deposits of Virginia, Tennessee, West Virginia, Kentucky and North Carolina; an important distributing point for iron, coal and coke; and has tanneries and lumber mills, iron furnaces, tobacco factories, furniture factories and packing houses.
Sherman defeated him and reached Raleigh, the capital of North Carolina, on the r3th of April, having marched nearly 500 m.
Immediately after South Carolina's secession, Blair, believing that the southern leaders were planning to carry Missouri into the movement, began active efforts to prevent it and personally organized and equipped a secret body of l000 men to be ready for the emergency.
Its use was proposed as early as 1818 and 1819 by Hare and Henry; Percy advocated it in 1869, and Davis adopted it on the large scale at a works in Carolina in 1880.
The original seceders in Virginia and North Carolina bore for a time the name "Republican Methodists," and then called themselves simply "Christians," a designation which with the pronunciation "Christ-yans" is still of ten applied to them.
The result was the disputed election of 1876, when two sets of returns were sent to Washington from the states of Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina and Oregon.
In 1733 he had established a press in Charleston, South Carolina, and soon after did the same in Lancaster, Pa., in New Haven, Conn., in New York, in Antigua, in Kingston, Jamaica, and in other places.
Through his father's relatives in South Carolina, McGillivray received a good education, but at the age of seventeen, after a short experience as a merchant in Savannah and Pensacola, he returned to the Muscogee Indians, who elected him chief.
The textile industries (the making of carpets and rugs, cotton goods, cotton smallwares, dyeing and finishing textiles, felt goods, felt hats, hosiery and knit goods, shoddy, silk and silk goods, woollen goods, and worsted goods), employed 32.5% of all manufacturing wage earners in 1905, and their product ($271,369,816) was 24.1% of the total, and of this nearly one-half ($129,171,449) was in cotton goods, being 28.9% of the total output of the country, as compared with I I% for South Carolina, the nearest competitor of Massachusetts.
But the Huguenots, under the inspiration of Coligny, made three attempts to found colonies to the south - at Rio de Janeiro in 1555-1567, near the present Beaufort, South Carolina, in 1562, and in Florida in 1565.
His colony at Roanoke, in what is now the state of North Carolina, was unsuccessful, and after his fall his patent reverted to the crown, but the new Virginia Company carried on his schemes.
In the Arctic and Pacific coast provinces, about Lake Superior, in Virginia and North Carolina, as well as in ruder parts of Mexico and South America, metals were cold-hammered into plates, weapons, rods and wire, ground and polished, fashioned into carved blocks of hard, tenacious stone by pressure or blow, overlaid, cold-welded and plated.
In South Carolina, where there are important deposits of phosphate, formerly more productive than at present, the " land rock " is worked near Charleston, and the " river rock " in the Coosaw River and other streams near Beaufort.
Phosphate mining began in South Carolina in 1868, and for twenty years that state was the principal producer.
From North Carolina, Alabama and Pennsylvania, also, phosphates have been obtained but only in comparatively small quantities.
Soon after the engagement began a large part of the Americans, mostly North Carolina and Virginia militia, fled precipitately, carrying Gates with them; but Baron De Kalb and the Maryland troops fought bravely until overwhelmed by numbers, De Kalb himself being mortally wounded.
A state dispensary, similar to that of South Carolina, was established in 1898 by a vote of 22,170 to 20,557, but it proved ineffective and was superseded in 1900 by the licence system.
The compromise served its turn in allaying political bitterness and staving off a direct conflict between the United States and South Carolina.
In North America the Carolina parakeet, Conurus carolinensis, at the beginning of the i 9th century used to range in summer as high as the shores of lakes Erie and Ontario - a latitude equal to the south of France; and even much later it reached, according to trustworthy information, the junction of the Ohio and the Mississippi, though now its limits have been so much curtailed that its occurrence in any but the Gulf States is doubtful.
They had one child, a daughter, Theodosia, born in 1783, who became widely known for her beauty and accomplishments, married Joseph Alston of South Carolina in 1801, and was lost at sea in 1813.
Many species of ducks are also still found; and the reed-bird (bobolink), " partridge " (elsewhere called quail or " Bob White "), ruffed grouse (elsewhere called partridge), woodcock, snipe, plover and Carolina rail still abound.
The leading agricultural pursuits are the growing of Indian corn and wheat and the raising of livestock, yet it is in the production of fruits, vegetables and tobacco, that Maryland ranks highest as an agricultural state, and in no other state except South Carolina is so large a per cent.
The Confederacy consisted of eleven states (Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas and Tennessee).
There had been severalcoastal successes in 1861,notably the occupation of Hatteras Inlet, North Carolina, by Commodore S.H.
This place guarded the approaches to Wilmington, North Carolina.
On the 17th of June 1863 after a brief action the monitor "Weehawken" captured the Confederate ironclad "Atlanta" in Wassaw Sound, South Carolina.
In March 1 775 Richard Henderson and some North Carolina land speculators met about 1200 Cherokee Indians in council on the Watauga river and concluded a treaty with them for the purchase of all the territory south of the Ohio river and between the Kentucky and Cumberland rivers.
It grows to a length of three feet and inhabits marshes in North and South Carolina, Florida and Texas.
An isolated attack on Charleston, South Carolina, had been made by Sir Henry Clinton and Sir Peter Parker as early as June 1776, but this was foiled by the spirited resistance of General William Moultrie; after 1778 the southern attempts, stimulated in part by the activity of the French in the West Indies, were vigorously sustained.
The prestige thus won by the British in the south in 1779 was immensely increased in the following year, when they victoriously swept up through South and North Carolina.
The apparent submission of South Carolina followed.
In June Clinton returned to New York, leaving Cornwallis in command, with instructions to reduce North Carolina also.
The dashing rider, Colonel Banastre Tarleton, cut to pieces (April 14, 1780) a detachment of Lincoln's cavalry, and followed it up by practically destroying Buford's Virginia regiment near the North Carolina border.
By the month of August 1780, with the main British force encamped near the North Carolina line, the field seemed clear for the next advance.
Two thousand men, mainly the Maryland line, were hurried down from Washington's camp under Johann de Kalb; Virginia and North Carolina put new men into the field, and the entire force was placed under command of General Gates.
Cornwallis marched leisurely into North Carolina, but before meeting Greene some months later he suffered the loss of two detachments sent at intervals to disperse various partisan corps of the Americans.
C., near the North Carolina line, by bands of riflemen under Colonels Isaac Shelby, James Williams, William Campbell and others, and after a desperate fight on the wooded and rocky slopes, surrendered.
Despite the weakening his army suffered by these losses, Cornwallis marched rapidly through North Carolina, giving Greene a hard chase nearly to the Virginia line.
Instead of remaining in Carolina he determined to march into Virginia, justifying the move on the ground that until Virginia was reduced he could not firmly hold the more southern states he had just overrun.
Farther south, the mountain belt widens and attains its greatest development, a true highland district, in North Carolina, where it includes several strong mountain groups.
The height and massiveness of the mountains decrease to the south-west, where the piedmont belt sweeps westward around them in western Georgia and eastern Alabama Some of the residual mountains hereabouts are reduced to a mere skeleton or framework by the retrogressive penetration of widening valleys between wasting spurs; the very type of vanishing forms, Certain districts within the mountains, apparently consisting of less resistant crystalline rocks, have been reduced to basin-like peneplains in the same time that served only to grade the slopes and subdue the summits of the neighboring mountains of more resistant rocks; the best example of this kind is the Asheville peneplain in North Carolina, measuring about 40 by 20 m.
It is a peculiar feature of the drainage in North Carolina that the headwaters lie to the east of the highest mountains, and that the chief rivers flow north-westward through the mountains to the broad valley lowland of the stratified belt and then through the plateau, as the members of the Mississippi system.
A section of the coastal plain, from North Carolina to southern New Jersey, resembles the plain farther south in general form and quality of soils, but besides being narrower, it is further characterized by several embayments or arms of the sea, caused by a slight depression of the land after mature valleys had been eroded in the plain.
Dismal Swamp, on the border of North Carolina and Virginia, is the largest example.
The Hudsonian zone covers the upper slopes of the higher mountains of New England, New York and North Carolina and larger areas on the elevated slopes of the Rocky and Cascade Mountains; and on the western mountains it is the home of the mountain goat, mountain sheep, Alpine flying-squirrel, nutcracker, evening grosbeak and Townsends solitaire.
The Canadian zone crosses from Canada into northern and northwestern Maine, northern and central New Hampshire, northern Michigan, and north-eastern Minnesota and North Dakota, covers the Green Mountains, most of the Adirondacks and Catskills, the higher slopes of the mountains in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee, the lower slopes of the northern Rocky and Cascade Mountains, the upper slopes of the southern Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains, and a strip along the Pacific coast as far south as Cape Mendocino, interrupted, however, by the Columbia Valley.
The Caiolinian area extends from southern Michigan to northern Georgia and from the Atlantic coast to Western Kansas, comprising Delaware, all of Maryland except the mountainous Western portion, all of Ohio except the north-east corner, nearly the whole of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri, eastern Nebraska and Kansas, south-eastern South Dakota, western central Oklahoma, northern Arkansas, middle and eastern Kentucky, middle Tennessee and the Tennessee valley in eastern Tennessee, middle Virginia and North Carolina, western \Vest Virginia, north-eastern Alabama.
A southern portion of this zone, comprising a narrow strip along the Gulf Coast from Texas to Florida and up the Atlantic coast to South Carolina, is semi-tropical, and is the northernmost habitation of several small mammals, the alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the ground dove, white-tailed kite, Florida screech owl and Chapman s night-hawk.
In 1900 the percentage of resident natives varied from 92.7% in South Carolina to 15% in Oklahoma; almost all of the Southern states having high percentages.
In Alabama (70.8% in 1880), North and South Carolina, amid Arkansas the ratio exceeded 5o% in 1900.
The first mining excitement of the United States dates back to the discovery of gold by the whites in the Southern states, along the eastern border of the Appalachian range, in Virginia, and in North and South Carolina.
The red and brown ores are widely distributed, every state in the Union in 1907, save Ohio and North Carolina, producing one or both.
North Carolina, bills passed by the two houses must be submitted to the state governor for his approval.
In other states the common law judges have also equity jurisdiction; and in four states New York, North Carolina, California and Idahothere has been a complete fusion of law and equity.
During the democratizing period from 1820 to 1860 the system of popular election was extended, especially in the new states, and at present this system prevails in thirty-six states, including practically all of the new states and five of the original statesNew York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, North Carolina and Georgia.
In the early days the electors were chosen in many states by the legislatures, but by 1832 South Carolina was the only state retaining this method, and in 1868 she also dropped it.
Johnston in North Carolina, the command of the whole of General Lee's cavalry devolved upon Fitzhugh Lee early in 1865, but the surrender of Appomattox followed quickly upon the opening of the campaign.
Coarse sapphire is found in many parts of the United States, and the mineral occurs of gem quality in North Carolina and Montana.
Augusta is served by the Southern, the Augusta Southern (controlled by the Southern), the Atlantic Coast Line, the Charleston & Western Carolina (controlled by the Atlantic Coast Line), the Georgia and the Central of Georgia railways, by an electric line to Aiken, South Carolina, and by a line of steamers to Savannah.
The city extends along the river bank for a distance of more than 3 m., and is connected by a bridge with Hamburg, and with North Augusta, South Carolina, two residential suburbs.
The Carolina colonists had a trading post in its vicinity before the settlement by Oglethorpe.
During the colonial period several treaties with Indians were made at Augusta; by the most important, that of 1763, the Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, Cherokees and Catawbas agreed (in a meeting with the governors of North and South Carolina, Virginia and Georgia) to the terms of the treaty of Paris.
An excited controversy having arisen about the result of the balloting in the states of South Carolina, Florida, Oregon and Louisiana, the two parties in Congress in order to allay a crisis dangerous to public peace agreed to pass an act referring all contested election returns to an extraordinary commission, called the "Electoral Commission" (q.v.), which decided each contest by eight against seven votes in favour of the Republican candidates.
The English, too, claimed the region north of the Gulf of Mexico, and the territory of modern Alabama was included in the province of Carolina, granted by Charles II.
English traders of Carolina were frequenting the valley of the Alabama river as early as 1687.
The Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians, however, remained the faithful allies of the whites, and volunteers from Georgia, South Carolina and Tennessee, and later United States troops, marched to the rescue of the threatened settlements.
The "Unionists" were successful in the elections of 1851 and 1852, but the feeling of uncertainty engendered in the south by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill and the course of the slavery agitation after 1852 led the State Democratic convention of 1856 to revive the "Alabama Platform"; and when the "Alabama Platform" failed to secure the formal approval of the Democratic National convention at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1860, the Alabama delegates, followed by those of the other cotton "states," withdrew.
The acreage and product of tobacco and peanuts increased from 1890 to 1900 respectively 188% and 319.2%, and 92.6% and 129.9%, and in the production of sweet potatoes Georgia was in 1899 surpassed only by North Carolina.
Its formation was due to a desire of the British government to protect South Carolina from invasion by the Spaniards from Florida and by the French from Louisiana, as well as to the desire of James Edward Oglethorpe to found a refuge for the persecuted Protestant sects and the unfortunate but worthy indigent classes of Europe.
Then the Troup faction under the name of States Rights party, endorsed the nullification policy of South Carolina, while the Clarke faction, calling itself a Union party, opposed South Carolina's conduct, but on the grounds of expediency rather than of principle.
The young tailor went to Laurens Court House, South Carolina, in 1824, to work at his trade, but returned to Raleigh in 1826 and soon afterward removed to Greeneville in the eastern part of Tennessee.
On the 12th of October 1864 he assumed command of the North Atlantic blockading squadron, then about to engage in a combined military and naval expedition against Fort Fisher, North Carolina.
Carolina until 1700, and then, it is said, by accident, although at one time the southern United States furnished a large proportion of the rice introduced into commerce.
When in 1866 the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore considered the matter of new diocesan developments, he was selected to organize the new Vicariate Apostolic of North Carolina; and was consecrated bishop in August 1868.
He was a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, and to the Continental Congress in 1774-77 and 1782-83; he was chairman of the committee which framed the state constitution of 1776, and the first "president" (governor) of South Carolina in 1776-78.
Rutledge championed the Constitution in the South Carolina convention by which that instrument was adopted on behalf of the state.
He was associate justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1789-91, and chief justice of the supreme court of South Carolina in 1791-95.
As captain of artillery and later as lieutenant-colonel he served against the British in South Carolina in 1779-80, but he was captured near Charleston in 1780, and was imprisoned at St Augustine, Florida, for a year.
He was a member of the state legislature from 1782 to 1798, and in 1791 drafted the act which abolished primogeniture in South Carolina.
From 1798 until his death in Charleston, on the 23rd of January 1800, he was governor of South Carolina.
He died of yellow fever at Beaufort, South Carolina, on the 30th of October 1862.
Bonham, a native of South Carolina, who was killed in the Alamo.
The compromise tariff of 1833, made necessary by the hostile attitude of South Carolina, owed its inception largely to him, but he voted against the "force bill," an act for enforcing the collection of duties, being the only senator whose vote was so recorded.
His hostility to a high tariff policy, however, did not prevent him from condemning the South Carolina ordinance of nullification; and in the presidential election of 1832 he supported Andrew Jackson, to whose political principles and methods, as to those of his advisers, he was invincibly opposed, as the "least objectionable" of the various candidates..
The vigorous course of the president towards South Carolina, however, led him, after 1833, to act more and more with the opposition which presently became the Whig party; but he was never at heart a Whig, at least as Whig principles came later to be defined, and his place is with the Democrats of the Calhoun school.
It is served by the Charleston & Western Carolina railway, has inland water communication with Savannah, Georgia, and its harbour,.
Port Royal Sound (between Bay Point on the north-east and Hilton Head on the south-west), is one of the largest and best on the coast of South Carolina.
Carolina, Washington and Maryland - the order being that of rank in number of communicants.
In South Carolina he was a judicial officer, but the office no longer exists, as South Carolina has now a probate court.
After his release in October he commanded cavalry in East Tennessee, making successful raids into Virginia and North Carolina, and on the 12th of April 1865 defeated a Confederate force near Salisbury, North Carolina, and captured a large number of prisoners.
There is a United States assay office, established as a branch mint in 1837, during the days of North Carolina's great importance as a gold producing state, and closed from 1861 to 1869.
The state of Virginia is the chief producer, followed successively by Georgia, North Carolina, Colorado, Massachusetts, California, Missouri, New York, &c. From Indiana and Ohio a quantity of pyrites is obtained as a by-product in coalmining.
In1832-1833the "Union" party of South Carolina was composed of those who rejected nullification, holding to secession as the only remedy; and from 1830 to 1860 certain radical abolitionists advocated a division of the Union.
When two years old she was taken with the rest of the family to Charleston, South Carolina.
Carolina in 1726, and was a delegate to the Continental Congress from Georgia, but opposed independence and was banished from Savannah in 1777.
For a short time during the War of 1812 against Great Britain, he was captain in the Third South Carolina Regiment.
He vigorously opposed the tariff of 1832, was a member of the South Carolina Nullification Convention of November 1832, and reported the ordinance of nullification passed by that body on the 24th of November.
There was much opposition in these states to such a course, but the secessionists triumphed, and by the time President Lincoln was inaugurated, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas had formally withdrawn from the Union.
The persons in these three States - Georgia, Florida and South Carolina - heretofore 2 In November 1861 the president drafted a bill providing (i) that all slaves more than thirty-five years old in the state of Delaware should immediately become free; (2) that all children of slave parentage born after the passage of the act should be free; (3) that all others should be free on attaining the age of thirty-five or after the 1st of January 1893, except for terms of apprenticeship; and (4) that the national government should pay to the state of Delaware $23,200 a year for twenty-one years.
Burnside took possession of Roanoke island on the North Carolina coast (7th February).
On the 1st day of January 1863 the final proclamation of emancipation was duly issued, designating the States of Arkansas, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and certain portions of Louisiana and Virginia, as "this day in rebellion against the United States," and proclaiming that, in virtue of his authority as commander-inchief, and as a necessary war measure for suppressing rebellion, "I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated states and parts of states are and henceforward shall be free," and pledging the executive and military power of the government to maintain such freedom.
Sherman, commanding the bulk of the Union forces in the Mississippi Valley, swept in a victorious march through the heart of the Confederacy to Savannah on the coast, and thence northward to North Carolina.
Slocum, and in 1865 received a captain's brevet for "efficient services during the campaigns in North Carolina and Georgia."
In Perry Street, mounted on a granite pedestal, is the "Swamp Angel," the great gun used by Federal troops in the marshes near Charleston, South Carolina, during their attack on that city in August 1863.
He was a member of the first South Carolina provincial congress in 1775, served as colonel in the South Carolina militia in 1776-1777, was chosen president of the South Carolina Senate in 1779, took part in the Georgia expedi tion and the attack on Savannah in the same year, was captured at the fall of Charleston in 1780 and was kept in close confinement until 1782, when he was exchanged.
Subsequently Pinckney bore a prominent part in securing the ratification of the Federal constitution in the South Carolina convention called for that purpose in 1788 and in framing the South Carolina State Constitution in the convention of 1790.
Charles Pinckney, the father, was long prominent in colonial affairs; he was attorney-general of the province in 1733, speaker of the assembly in 1736-1738 and in 1740, chief justice of the province in 1752-1753, and agent for South Carolina in England in 1 7531758.
Eliza Lucas Pinckney (c. 1722-1793) was the daughter of Lieut.-Colonel George Lucas of the British army, who about 1738 removed from Antigua to South Carolina, where he acquired several plantations.
She is said to have been the first to introduce into South Carolina (and into continental North America) the cultivation and manufacture of indigo, and she also imported silkworms-in 1753 she presented to the princess of Wales a dress made of silk from her plantations.
The call issued by the South Carolina legislature just after the election of Lincoln for a state convention to decide upon the advisability of secession brought forward the most serious question of Buchanan's administration.
He disapproved of Major Anderson's removal of his troops from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter in December 1860; but there is probably no basis for the charge made by Southern writers that the removal itself was in violation of a pledge given by the president to preserve the status quo in Charleston harbour until the arrival of the South Carolina commissioners in Washington.
When he was seven his parents moved into Edgefield district, South Carolina, and four years later into Columbus (disambiguation)|Columbus county, Georgia.
The regency ended in 1767, and the following year Ferdinand married the masterful and ambitious Maria Carolina, daughter of the empress Maria Theresa.
In 1796 peace with France was concluded, but in 1798, during Napoleon's absence in Egypt and after Nelson's victory at Aboukir, Maria Carolina induced Ferdinand to go to war with France once more.
Ferdinand and Maria Carolina fled to Palermo in January 1805; in February 1806 Joseph Bonaparte entered Naples as king.
Ferdinand and Maria Carolina had continued to reign in Sicily, where the extravagance of the court and the odious Neapolitan system of police espionage rendered their presence a burden instead of a blessing to the island.
He studied law at Salisbury, North Carolina, was admitted to the bar there in 1787, and began to practise at McLeansville, Guilford county, North Carolina, where for a time he was a constable and deputy-sheriff.
In 1788, having been appointed prosecuting attorney of the western district of North Carolina (now the state of Tennessee),he removed to Nashville, the seat of justice of the district.
Jackson in the meantime had learned that Calhoun as secretary of war had wished to censure him for his actions during the Seminole war in Florida in 1818, and henceforth he regarded the South Carolina statesman as his enemy.
In 1832, when the state of South Carolina attempted to "nullify" the tariff laws, Jackson at once took steps to enforce the authority of the federal government, ordering two war vessels to Charleston and placing troops within convenient distance.
He also issued a proclamation warning the people of South Carolina against the consequences of their conduct.
His father, a native of France, died when the boy was in his sixth year, and his mother, a member of an aristocratic Virginia family, then removed to Charleston, South Carolina.
Tungsten trioxide, W0 31 occurs in nature as wolframine, a yellow mineral found in Cumberland, Limoges, Connecticut and in North Carolina.
The English settlements in Virginia, New England, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Delaware, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia had, between the first decade of the 17th and the seventh decade of the 18th century, developed into a new nation, the United States of America.
In 1852 the college was empowered to grant degrees; in 1856 it became the property of the North Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South; in 1859 it received its present name; and in 1892 it was removed to a park near Durham, included in 1901 in the corporate limits of the city.
The North Carolina Journal of Education and the Papers of the Trinity College Historical Society also are edited by members of the college faculty.
Red-headed and red-bellied woodpeckers, orchard orioles, yellowwinged sparrows, the cardinal, the blue grosbeak, the Carolina wren and the mocking-bird are characteristic of the lower elevations.
Tobacco was an important crop in the earlier history of the colony, and Virginia continued to be the leading tobacco-producing state of the Union (reporting in 1850 28.4% of the total crop) until after the Civil War, which, with the division of the state, caused it to fall into second place, Kentucky taking the lead; and in 1900 the crop of North Carolina also was larger.
Of the inhabitants born in the United States 53,235 were natives of North Carolina, 12,504 were natives of Maryland, and 10,273 were natives of Pennsylvania.
From 1583 to 1588 attempts had been made by Sir Walter Raleigh and others to establish colonies on the coast of what is now North Carolina.
The great majority of whites were small farmers whose condition was anything but desirable and who constantly encroached upon the Indian lands in the Rappahannock region or penetrated the forests south of the James, several thousand having reached North Carolina.
This office he held nominally for about a year; but he never went to South Carolina, and in June 1760 he returned to England.
After 1818 his parents lived in Charleston, South Carolina, and he went to Yale in 1825 for his education, but left without taking a degree, and entered an attorney's office in New Orleans.
From Virginia they removed in 1756 to South Carolina and settled on Long Cane Creek, in Granville (now Abbeville) county.
The opportunities for obtaining a liberal education in the remote districts of South Carolina at that time were scanty.
In 1808 and 1809 he was a member of the South Carolina legislature, and from 1811 to 1817 was a member of the national House of Representatives.
The failure of the Jackson administration to reduce the Tariff of 1828 drew from Calhoun his "Address to the People of South Carolina" in 1831, in which he elaborated his views of the nature of the Union as given in the "Exposition."
The people of South Carolina were not satisfied, and Calhoun in a third political tract, in the form of a letter to Governor James Hamilton (1786-1857) of South Carolina, gave his doctrines their final form, but without altering the fundamental principles that have already been stated.
Calhoun, in turn, introduced resolutions upholding the doctrine held by South Carolina, and it was in the debate on the first-named measure, termed the "Force Bill," and on these resolutions, that the first intellectual duel took place between Daniel Webster and Calhoun.
Congress passed an act gradually reducing the duties to a revenue basis, and South Carolina repealed her nullification measures.
He graduated from the university of North Carolina in 1818, studied law in the office of Felix Grundy (1777-1840) at Nashville in 1819-1820, was admitted to the bar in 1820, and began to practise in Columbia, the county-seat of Maury county.
The city is a jobbing centre and wholesale market for a considerable area in southern Virginia and northern North Carolina, and is probably the largest loose-leaf tobacco market in the country, selling about 40,000,000 lb annually.
His speech in behalf of the measure was for years a protection text-book; but the measure itself reduced the revenue so little and provoked such serious threats of nullification and secession in South Carolina, that, to prevent bloodshed and to forestall a free trade measure from the next Congress, Clay brought forward in 1833 a compromise gradually reducing the tariff rates to an average of 20%.
He sided with the president in his nullification controversy with South Carolina and in his removal of the Indians from Georgia, but not in his withdrawal of the government deposits from the United States Bank.
Persecution led to migration, Screven and some of the members making their way to South Carolina, where, with a number of English Baptists of wealth and position, what became the First Baptist church in Charleston, was organized (about 1684).
By 1727 they had invaded North Carolina and a church was constituted there.
With Marshall, his brother-in-law, and about a dozen fellow-believers he settled at Sandy Creek, North Carolina, and in a few years had built up a church with a membership of more than six hundred.
From these centres "Separate" Baptist influence spread throughout North and South Carolina and across the Georgia border, Marshall himself finally settling and forming a church at Kiokee, Georgia.
From North Carolina as a centre "Separate" Baptist influence permeated Virginia and extended into Kentucky and Tennessee.
The General Association of Virginia and the Congaree Association of South Carolina now took their places side by side with the Sandy Creek.
The most noted leader of the Baptists of South Carolina during the four decades following the War of Independence was Richard Furman (1755-1825), pastor of the First Church, Charleston.
The remarkable numerical progress of Baptists in South Carolina from 1787 to 1812 (from 1620 members to 11,325) was due to the "Separate" Baptist movement under Stearns and Marshall far more than to the activity of the churches of the Charleston Association.
Other states with important oyster interests are Rhode Island, North Carolina, Louisiana and California.
In 1585 or 1586, potato tubers were brought from what is now North Carolina to Ireland on the return of the colonists sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh, and were first cultivated on Sir Walter's estate near Cork.
It is a native of North America, and ranges from Canada to the mountains of Virginia and Carolina.
The University of South Carolina, organized in 1801 and opened in 1805, was known as South Carolina College in 1805-1863, 1878-1887 and 1891-1906, and as the university of South Carolina in 1866-1877, 1888-1891 and after 1906; in 1907-1908 it had departments of arts, science, pedagogy and law, an enrolment of 285 students, and a faculty of 25 instructors.
He studied at the college of New Jersey (now Princeton University) from 1774 to 1776, when the institution was closed on account of the outbreak of the War of Independence; served for a short time in a New Jersey militia company; studied law at Bute Court-house, North Carolina, in 1 7771 7 80, at the same time managing his tobacco plantation; was a member of a Warren county militia company in 1780-1782, and served in the North Carolina Senate in 1781-1785.
He at first opposed the adoption of the Ftderal constitution of 1787, as a member of the faction led by Willie Jones (1731-1801) of Halifax, North Carolina, but later withdrew his opposition.
He was president of the North Carolina constitutional convention in 1835, and was an elector on the Van Buren ticket in 1836.
He died at his home, Buck Springs, Warren county, North Carolina, on the 29th of June 183 7.
The disaffection soon spread and led to the so-called " disorganizing" assembly in 1672, which went so far as to choose James Carteret, a landgrave of Carolina and presumably a natural son of Sir George, as " President."
Philip Carteret returned to England and laid the case before the proprietors; they ordered President Carteret to continue on his way to Carolina and confirmed as governor John Berry, whom Governor Carteret had left behind as deputy.
Spartanburg is served by the Southern, the Charleston & Western Carolina (controlled by the Atlantic Coast line), the Glenn Springs, the Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio, and inter-urban (electric) railways.
Four miles south of the city, at Cedar Spring, is the South Carolina Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Blind, founded as a private institution in 1849 and taken over by the state in 1857.
Aiken was settled in the early part of the 19th century, but was not incorporated until 1835, when it was named in honour of William Aiken, Sr. (1779-1831), first president of the South Carolina Railroad and Canal Co.
As a politician he excited bitter opposition, and was charged, apparently with justice, with corruption and venality in conniving at and sharing the profits of illicit trade with the Confederates carried on by his brother at New Orleans and by his brother-in-law in the department of Virginia and North Carolina, while General Butler was in command.
After the battle of Camden, however, he joined Gates (then in command in the South) at Hillsborough, North Carolina, and on the 1st of October took command of a corps.
Breveted major-general in 1865, he remained in the army for a year as commander of the military district of Charleston, South Carolina.
Thus Drosophyllum occurs only in Portugal and Morocco, Byblis in tropical Australia, and, although Aldrovanda is found in Queensland, in Bengal and in Europe, a wide distribution explained by its aquatic habit, Dionaea is restricted to a few localities in North and South Carolina.
Brooks (1819-1857), a congressman from South Carolina, suddenly confronted Sumner as he sat writing at his desk in the Senate chamber, denounced his speech as a libel upon his state and upon Butler, his relative, and before Sumner, pinioned by his desk, could make the slightest resistance, rained blow after blow upon his head, till his victim sank bleeding and unconscious upon the floor.
The following year he married Maria Carolina, daughter of the empress Maria Theresa.
Tanucci, who attempted to thwart her, was dismissed in 1777, and the Englishman Sir John Acton (1736), who in 1779 was appointed director of marine, succeeded in so completely winning the favour of Maria Carolina, by supporting her in her scheme to free Naples from Spanish influence and securing a rapprochement with Austria and England, that he became practically and afterwards actually prime minister.
But when the French monarchy was abolished and the royal pair beheaded, Ferdinand and Carolina were seized with a feeling of fear and horror and joined the first coalition against France in 1793.
The savage punishment of the Neapolitan Republicans is dealt with in more detail under Naples, Nelson and Caracciolo, but it is necessary to say here that the king, and above all the queen, were particularly anxious that no mercy should be shown to the rebels, and Maria Carolina made use of Lady Hamilton, Nelson's mistress, to induce him to execute her own spiteful vengeance.
He was soon made president of the South Carolina council of safety, and in 1776 vice-president of the state; in the same year he was sent as a delegate from South Carolina to the general continental congress at Philadelphia, of which body he was president from November 1777 until December 1778.
His son, John Laurens (1754-1782), American revolutionary officer, was born at Charleston, South Carolina, on the 28th of October 1754.
He opposed the Alien and Sedition Laws, introduced legislation on behalf of American seamen, and in 1800 attacked the president for permitting the extradition by the British government of Jonathan Robbins, who had committed murder on an English frigate, and had then escaped to South Carolina and falsely claimed to be an American citizen.
He was printer for the state of North Carolina from 1887 to 1893, and then for two years, under President Cleveland's administration, was chief clerk of the Department of the Interior.
When, a few years later, this portage came to be generally used by traders, the necessity of establishing a base on the upper Wabash as a defence against the Carolina and Pennsylvania traders, who had already reached the lower Wabash and incited the Indians to hostility against the French, became evident; but it was not, apparently, until the second decade of the 18th century that any permanent settlement was made.
The grandfather, Arthur Middleton (1681-1737), was president of the Council in 1721-1730 and as such was acting governor in 1725-1730, and the father, Henry Middleton (1717-1784), was speaker of the Assembly in 1745-1747 and again in 1 7541 755, a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1774-1776, and its president from October 1774 to May 1775, a member of the South Carolina Committee of Safety, and in 1775 president of the South Carolina Provincial Congress.
He then returned to South Carolina, but soon afterwards went back to England to live, and travelled on the Continent.
In 1773 he again returned to South Carolina, and in the controversies between the colonists and the home government became a leader of the Whigs.
In 1778 he was elected governor of South Carolina, but owing to his dissatisfaction with the new state constitution he declined to serve.
His eldest SOn, Henry Middleton (1770-1846), was an orator of ability, was governor of South Carolina in 1810-1812, a representative in Congress in 1815-1819, and the United States minister to Russia from 1820 to 1830, negotiating in 1824 a convention "relative to navigation, fishing and trading in the Pacific Ocean, and to establishments on the North-West Coast."
In the United States the turpentineyielding pines are the swamp pine, P. australis, and the loblolly, P. Taeda, both inhabiting North and South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama.
In every state the opposition to the Constitution was strong, and in two - North Carolina and Rhode Island - it prevented ratification until the definite establishment of the new government practically forced their adhesion.
Subsec;uently he served in South Carolina under Colonel Lee.
After graduating at South Carolina College in 1826, the son practised law in his native state and at Helena, Arkansas, and in 1839 settled in Washington county, Virginia, which in1847-1849and again in 1853 he represented in the state legislature.
It is served by the Southern, the Greenville & Knoxville and the Charleston & Western Carolina railways.
C., in 1827, and named in honour of Richard Furman (1755-1825), a wellknown Baptist clergyman of South Carolina, whose son, James C. Furman (1809-1891), was long president of the University.
South Carolina is mainly in the Coastal Plain, and Piedmont Plateau regions, but in the north-west it extends slightly into the Appalachian Mountain region.
This line, at which the south-east flowing rivers fall from higher levels in the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont Plateau down to somewhat lower levels in the softer rocks of the Coastal Plain, passes in a general south-west direction from the North Carolina border north-east of Cheraw through Camden and Columbia to the Savannah river opposite Augusta, Georgia.
In the small section of South Carolina which is traversed by the Appalachian Mountain region a few mountains of the Blue Ridge rise abruptly from the foot-hills to 3413 ft.
The highest point in the state is Sassafras Mountain (3548 ft.) in the Blue Ridge and on the North Carolina state line.
In the middle section the Santee river is formed by the confluence of the Wateree, which is known in North Carolina as the Catawba, and the Congaree, which is in turn formed by the Broad and the Saluda, and the basin of this system embraces about one-half the area of the state.
In the north-east the Great Pedee and its tributaries - the Little Pedee, Waccamaw and Lynches - are wholly within the Coastal Plain, but the main stream is a continuation below the Fall Line of the Yadkin river, which rises in the mountains of North Carolina.
The principal animals and birds in South Carolina are deer, rabbits, squirrels, opossums, musk-rats, raccoons, minks, geese, ducks, wild turkeys, " partridge " (quail or bobwhite), woodcock and snipe.
From the number of palmettoes along the coast South Carolina has become popularly known as the Palmetto state.
The number of farms in South Carolina was 93,864 in 1880, 115,008 in 1890 and 154,166 in 1900 - the number for the two last named years not including farms of less than 3 acres and of relatively small productivity.
The state long out-ranked all other states in the growing of rice, but this industry has declined, and South Carolina is now surpassed by both Louisiana and Texas.
The number of factories in South Carolina in 1900 was 1369, in 1905, 1399 1; the amount of capital invested in such establishments was $62,750,027 in 1900, and in 1905 $113,422,224; the value of products in 1900 was $53,335,811; in 1905, $79,376,262; and the average number of wage earners in 1 The special census of 1905 was confined to manufactures under the factory system, and the statistics above for 1900 have been reduced to the same standard to make them comparable with the statistics for 1905.
Forests.-The principal lumber resource of South Carolina is yellow (or " southern ") pine, and there is also a small quantity of cypress.
Transportation.-The chief railway systems of South Carolina are the Southern, the Seaboard Air line and the Atlantic Coast line.
Of the inhabitants born in the United States, 29,521 were natives of North Carolina, and 13,544 were natives of Georgia, and of the foreign-born 2075 were Germans, and 1131 were natives of Ireland.
Administration.-South Carolina was governed from 1670 to 1719 under the Carolina provincial charter of 1665, from 1719 to 1776 under commissions and instructions from the Crown, and after 1776 under the constitutions of 1 77 6, 1 77 8, 1790, 1865, 1868 and 1895.
The unit of local government in South Carolina is the county, which, the state constitution provides, " shall be a body politic and corporate."
A fourth unusual feature is that South Carolina has applied the principle of direct primary nominations to all elective officials from governor down.
South Carolina is the only state in which divorce is not allowed in any circumstances; this is a constitutional provision.
The state supports wholly or in part, the university of South Carolina (before 1906 South Carolina College), established at Columbia in 1801; the South Carolina Military Academy (locally called " The Citadel ") established at Charleston in 1845, Clemson Agricultural College (1889), at Clemson, Oconee county, with departments of agriculture, chemistry, mechanics and electricity, textiles and military, and academic and preparatory courses; Winthrop Normal and Industrial College for Girls (1895) at Rock Hill, and the Coloured Normal, Industrial, Agricultural and Mechanical College (1896) at Orangeburg.
It was largely due to the Barbadian connexion that South Carolina was for many years more closely associated with the island than with the continental colonies.
Theoretically South Carolina and North Carolina constituted a single province, but, as the settlements were far apart, there were always separate local governments.
In the summer of 1776 the British, under Sir Henry Clinton and Sir Peter Parker attempted to capture Charleston and summon the South Carolina Loyalists to their standard, but on the 28th of June the fleet was repulsed in an assault on Fort Moultrie.
The most significant feature in the early history of the state was the struggle between the Low Country, which centred about Charleston, and the Up Country, which was settled largely by Scotch-Irish, who came down the mountain valleys from North Carolina, Virginia and Pennsylvania.
From about 1828 to 1861 South Carolina superseded Virginia as the leader of the South.
Although few battles were fought within her limits, because of the distance from the frontier, South Carolina made many sacrifices in the interest of her section.
There is no general history of South Carolina.
Rivers, Sketch of the History of South Carolina to the Close of the Proprietary Government, 1719 (Charleston, 1856), which was utilized by McCrady in his first volume and was the first history of the colony based on the documents in the Public Records Office.