Carnot, who were greatly impressed by his energy, sincerity and ability.
Thus the principle of Carnot involves the conclusion that a greater proportion of the heat possessed by a body at a high temperature can be converted into work than in the case of an equal quantity of heat possessed by a body at a low temperature, so that the availability of heat increases with the temperature.
Meanwhile the enthusiastic reception accorded to the young German emperor on the occasion of his visit to Rome in October 1888, and the cordiality shown towards King Humbert and Crispi at Berlin in May 1889, increased the tension of FrancoItalian relations; nor was it until after the fall of Prince Bismarck in March 1890 that Crispi adopted towards the Republic a more friendly attitude by sending an Italian squadron to salute President Carnot at Toulon.
On the 16th of June an attempt by an anarchist named Lega was made on Crispis life; on the 24th of June President Carnot was assassinated by the anarchist Caserio; and on the 3oth of June an Italian journalist was murdered at Leghorn for a newspaper attack upon anarchism a series of outrages which led the government to frame and parliament to adopt (11th July) a Public Safety Bill for the prevention of anarchist propaganda and crime.
1848) stands in the principal square, and a monument to President Carnot was erected in 1895.
On a slighter accusation than this many had perished; but an examination into the details of the mission of Bonaparte to Genoa and the new instructions which arrived from Carnot, availed to procure his release on the 10th of August.
It is now known that the plans of campaign which he had drawn up for that army had enlisted the far more influential support of Carnot on his behalf.
Carnot, the ablest administrator, but not the strongest man, soon joined Barthelemy in opposing their Jacobinical colleagues - Barras, Rewbell and Larevelliere - Lepeaux.
Events, indeed, might readily have gone in favour of the moderates had Carnot acted with decision; but he relapsed into strange inactivity, while Barras and his military tool prepared to coerce the majority.
Carnot, on receiving timely warning, fled from the Luxemburg palace and made his way to Switzerland.
The election of Merlin of Douay and Francois of Neufchatel as Directors, in place of Carnot and Barthelemy, gave to that body a compactness which enabled it to carry matters with a high hand, until the hatred felt by Frenchmen for this soulless revival of a moribund Jacobinism gradually endowed the Chambers with life and strength sufficient to provoke a renewal of strife with the Directory.
Carnot alone in the tribunate protested against the measure.
Some persons_ (as, for instance, Carnot, Pasquier, Lavalette and Thiebault) thought him prematurely aged and enfeebled.
When Carnot became president of the Republic in 1887 he asked Tirard to form a ministry.
Rankine was the earliest of the three founders of the modern science of Thermodynamics on the bases laid by Sadi Carnot and J.
During the Hundred Days, however, he served under Carnot at the ministry of the interior.
After the resignation of President Grevy (2nd of December 1887), he was a candidate for the presidency of the republic, but the radicals refused to support him, and he withdrew in favour of Sadi Carnot.
There are also monuments to those inhabitants of Dijon who fell in the engagement before the town in 1870, and to President Carnot and Garibaldi.
The object of the present article is to illustrate the practical application of the two general principles - (I) Joule's law of the equivalence of heat and work, and (2) Carnot's principle, that the efficiency of a reversible engine depends only on the temperatures between which it works; these principles are commonly known as the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
This is the cycle employed by Carnot for the establishment of his fundamental principle of reversibility as the criterion of perfect efficiency in a heat engine.
Application of Carnot's Principle.
- Carnot adopted as the analytical expression of his principle the statement that the efficiency W/H, or the work obtainable per unit of heat by means of a perfect engine taking in heat at a temperature t° C. and rejecting heat at o° C., must be some function F(t) of the temperature t, the lower limit o° C. being supposed constant.
It simply asserts that the efficiency function F'(t), which is known as Carnot's function, is the same for all substances at the same temperature.
Joule (1845) was the first to prove it approximately by direct experiment, but did not see his way to reconcile Carnot's principle, as stated by Clapeyron, with the mechanical theory.
Kelvin had previously proposed to define an absolute scale of temperature independent of the properties of any particular substance in terms of Carnot's function by making F'(t) constant.
He now proposed to define absolute temperature as proportional to the reciprocal of Carnot's function, so as to agree as closely as possible with the scale of the gas thermometer.
With this definition of temperature 0, if the heat H is measured in work units, the expression of Carnot's principle for an infinitesimal cycle of range do reduces to the simple form dW/d9=H/0.
Combining this with the first law, for a Carnot cycle of finite range, if H is the heat taken in at 0', and H" is the heat rejected at 0", the work W done in the cycle is equal to the difference H' - H", and we have the simple relations, W/(0' - o") =H'/o' =H" o".
In all such cases there is necessarily, by Carnot's principle, a loss of efficiency or available energy, accompanied by an increase of entropy, which serves as a convenient measure or criterion of the loss.
SADI NICOLAS LEONHARD CARNOT (1796-1832), French physicist, elder son of L.
Carnot, was born at Paris on the 1st of June 1796.
Carnot, in 1878.
"Carnot's principle" is fundamental in the theory of thermodynamics.
The coup d'etat of Fructidor (September 1797) had perpetuated the Directory and led to the exclusion of the two "moderate" members, Carnot and Barthelemy; but Talleyrand saw that power belonged really to the general who had brought about the coup d'etat in favour of the Jacobinical Directors headed by Barras.
The principal educational establishments, besides that of the mosque of the Olive Tree, are the Sadiki College, founded in 1875, for free instruction in Arabic and European subjects, the Lycee Carnot in the Avenue de Paris, formerly the College of St Charles (founded by Cardinal Lavigerie), open to Christians and Moslems alike, and the normal school, founded in 1884 by the reigning bey, for the training of teachers in the French language and European ideas.
'LAZARE NICOLAS MARGUERITE CARNOT (1753-1823), French general, was born at Nolay in Burgundy in 1753.
But as the result of a controversy with Montalembert, Carnot abandoned the official, or Vauban, theories of the art of fortification, and went over to the "perpendicular" school of Montalembert.
Carnot was a stern and sincere republican, and voted for the execution of the king.
His labours were incessant; practically every military document in the archives of the committee was Carnot's own work, and he was repeatedly in the field with the armies.
When Carnot's arrest was demanded in May 1 795, a deputy cried "Will you dare to lay hands on the man who has organized victory?"
Carnot had just accepted promotion to the rank of major in the engineers.
Carnot was elected one of the five Directors in November 1795, and continued to direct the war department during the campaign of 1796.
This "Carnot wall," and, in general, Carnot's principle of active defence, played a great part in the rise of modern fortification.
He did not seek employment in the field in the aggressive wars of Napoleon, remaining a sincere republican, but in 1814, when France itself was once more in danger, Carnot at once offered his services.
Carnot (Paris, 1816); Serieys, Carnot, sa vie politique et prive'e (Paris, 1816); Mandar, Notice biographique sur le general Carnot, &c. (Paris, 1818); W.
Tissot, Memoires historiques et militaires sur Carnot (Paris, 1824); Arago, Biographic de Carnot (Paris, 1850); Hippolyte Carnot, Memoires sur Carnot (Paris, 1863); C. Remond, Notice biographique sur le grand Carnot (Dijon 1880); A.
Picaud, Carnot, l'organisateur de la victoire (Paris, 1885 and 1887); A.
Hennet, Lazare Carnot (Paris, 1888); G.
Dreyfous, Les Trois Carnot (Paris, 1888); M.
Bonnal, Carnot, d'apres les archives, &c. (Paris, 1888); and memoir by E.
Marie Francois Sadi Carnot >>
Mayer entirely ignored the grand fundamental principle laid down by Sadi Carnot - that nothing can be concluded as to the relation between heat and work from an experiment in which the working substance is left at the end of an operation in a different physical state from that in which it was at the commencement.
In May 1894 he again became premier and minister of the interior; and he was by President Carnot's side when the latter was stabbed to death at Lyons in June.
LAZARE HIPPOLYTE CARNOT (1801-1888), French statesman, the second son of L.
Carnot (q.v.), was born at SaintOmer on the 6th of October 1801.
Hippolyte Carnot lived at first in exile with his father, returning to France only in 1823.
Carnot set to work to organize the primary school systems, proposing a law for obligatory and free primary instruction, and another for the secondary education of girls_ But he declared himself against purely secular schools, holding that "the minister and the schoolmaster are the two columns on which rests the edifice of the republic."
Carnot (q.v.), to the presidency of the republic. He had published Le Ministere de l'instruction publique et des cultes du 24 e fevrier au 5e juillet 1848, (1849), Memoires sur Lazare Carnot (2 vols., 1861-1864), Memoires de Barere (with David Angers, 4 vols., 1842-1843).
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot >>
Count Lazare Carnot died here in exile, and was buried in the cemetery, but his remains were exhumed in 1889 and conveyed to Paris.
In 1793 Carnot and Saint Just were sent to find roturier generals who could be successful; Carnot discovered Jourdan, and Saint Just discovered Hoche and Pichegru.
The highest thermodynamic efficiency will be reached when the working substance is at the top of its temperature range while any heat is being received and at the bottom while any heat is being rejected - as is the case in the cycle of operations of the theoretically imagined engine of Carnot.
In early life he took an interest in politics, and the approval extended by Hippolyte Carnot to his Manuel rdpublicain de l'homme et du citoyen (1848) was the occasion of that minister's fall.
In 1890 he began to write for the Revolte, but his anarchist sympathies were definitely checked by the murder of President Carnot in 1894.
Carnot, appeared in 1837 (2 vols.).
He was fellow or foreign corresponding member of the French Institute, the academies of Berlin, GÃ¶ttingen, St Petersburg, Milan, Rome, Leiden, Upsala and Hungary; and he was nominated an officer of the Legion of Honour by President Carnot.
MARIE FRANCOIS SADI CARNOT (1837-1894), fourth president of the third French Republic, son of L.
Hippolyte Carnot, was born at Limoges on the 11th of August 183 7.
When the Wilson scandals occasioned the downfall of Grevy in December 1887, Carnot's high character for integrity marked him out as a candidate for the presidency, and he obtained the support of Clemenceau and of all those who objected to the candidatures of men who have been more active in the political arena, so that he was elected by 616 votes out of 827.
Carnot seemed to be arriving at the zenith of popularity, when on the 24th of June 1894, after delivering at a public banquet at Lyons a speech in which he appeared to imply that he nevertheless would not seek re-election, he was stabbed by an Italian anarchist named Caserio and expired almost immediately.
His son, Francois Carnot, was first elected deputy for the Cote d'Or in 1902.
Zevort, Histoire de la Troisieme Republique, tome iv., "La Presidence de Carnot" (Paris, 1901).
Sadi Nicolas Leonhard Carnot >>
Pitt, on the other hand, as Lord Russell truly says, treated Robespierre and Carnot as he would have treated any other French rulers, whose ambition was to be resisted, and whose interference in the affairs of other nations was to be checked.
In July the Committee was renewed and Danton fell out; but soon afterwards it was reinforced by two officers, Carnot, who undertook the organization of the army, and Prieur of the Cote d'Or, who undertook its equipment.
The energy of Danton, the organizing skill of Carnot, and the high spirit of the French nation, resolute at all costs to avoid dismemberment, had well employed the respite given by the sluggishness of the Allies.
The persons chosen were Rewbell, Barras, La Revelliere Lepeaux, Carnot and Letourneur.
Rewbell was an able, although unscrupulous, man of action, Barras a dissolute and shameless adventurer, La Revelliere Lepeaux the chief of a new sect, the Theophilanthropists, and therefore a bitter foe to other religions, especially the Catholic. Severe integrity and memorable public services raised Carnot far above his colleagues, but he was not a statesman and was hampered by his past.
Rewbell, Barras and La Revelliere Lepeaux had a full measure of the Jacobin spirit; Carnot and Letourneur favoured a more temperate policy.
Among the directors the lot fell on Letourneur to retire, and he was succeeded by Barthelemy, an eminent diplomatist, who allied himself with Carnot.
Carnot made good his escape.
Bigeon, Sieyes (Paris, 1893) Memoirs of Carnot, by his son (2 vols., Paris, 1861-1864).
Working~ hand il hand with these politicians, not always in accordance with them, but preserving a solid front, were the specialists, Carnot, Robert Lindet, Jean Bon SaintAndr and Prieur de la Cte dOr, honorable men, anxious above all to safeguard their country.
Finally, there was no real government on the part of the five directors: La Rvellire-Lpeaux, an honest man but weak; Reubell, the negotiator of the Hague; Letourneur, an officer of talent; Barras, a man of intrigue, corrupt and without real convictions; and Carnot, the only really worthy member.
England remaining invulnerable in her insular position despite Hoches attempt to land in Ireland m 1796, the Directory resumed the traditional policy against Austria of conquering the natural frontiers, Carnot furnishing the plans; hence the war in southern Germany, in which Jourdan and Moreau were repulsed by an inferior force under the archduke Charles, and Bonapartes triumphant Italian campaign.
Carnot and Barthlemy wished to meet ecclesiastical opposition by legal measures only, and demanded peace; while Barras, La Rvellire and Reubell saw no other remedy save military force.
whole army, stopped the elections in forty-nine ~~dOr departments, and deported to Guiana many deputies of both councils, journalists and non-juring priests, as well as the director Barthlemy, though Carnot escaped into Switzerland.
precedes d'une notice historique (Paris, 1824-1844) are false, but contain valuable information; Carnot's Notice, which is very good, was published separately in 1842.
On the 14th of August 1793 he became a member of the committee of public safety, where he allied himself closely with Lazare Carnot in the organization of national defence, being especially charged with the provision of the munitions of war.
Charavay, Correspondance de Carnot, vol.
Sadi Carnot with the conclusions of Count Rumford, Sir H.
This theory of working is founded on the Carnot cycle for a perfect heat motor, a perfect refrigerating machine being simply a reversed heat motor.
A vapour compression machine does not, however, work precisely in the reversed Carnot cycle, inasmuch as the fall in temperature between the condenser and the refrigerator is not produced, nor is it attempted to be produced, by the adiabatic expansion of the agent, but results from the evaporation of a portion of the liquid itself.
Carnot's military masterpiece De la dÃ©fense des places fortes was published in 1809.
Clausius and Lord Kelvin on the basis of "Carnot's principle" (1824), modified in expression so as to be consistent with the conservation of energy (see Energetics).
- Carnot adopted as the analytical expression of his principle the statement that the efficiency W/H, or the work obtainable per unit of heat by means of a perfect engine taking in heat at a temperature tÃ‚° C. and rejecting heat at oÃ‚° C., must be some function F(t) of the temperature t, the lower limit oÃ‚° C. being supposed constant.
Carnot verified this by calculating the values of F'(t) at various temperatures from the known properties of vapours and gases, and showed that the efficiency function diminished with rise of temperature, as measured on the scale of the mercury or gas thermometer, from about 1.40 kilogrammetres per kilo-calorie per degree C. at oÃ‚° C. to about I 11 at IooÃ‚° C., according to the imperfect data available in his time.
By Carnot's principle, in all irreversible processes, dH/0 must be algebraically less than do, otherwise it would be possible to devise a cycle more efficient than a reversible cycle.
Such an arrangement may be put through a cycle of operations as in Carnot's engine (see Thermodynamics) and all the laws of reversible engines applied to it.
His second son, Marie Adolphe Carnot (b.
In May 1869 he was returned to the Assembly, both by the first circumscription of Paris and by Marseilles, defeating Hippolyte Carnot for the former constituency and Thiers and Lesseps for the latter.
(See Thermodynamics and Steam-Engine.) In Carnot's cycle the substance takes in heat at its highest temperature, then passes by adiabatic expansion from the top to the bottom of its temperature range, then rejects heat at the bottom of the range, and is finally brought back by adiabatic compression to the highest temperature at which it again takes in heat, and so on.
He was fellow or foreign corresponding member of the French Institute, the academies of Berlin, GÃƒ¶ttingen, St Petersburg, Milan, Rome, Leiden, Upsala and Hungary; and he was nominated an officer of the Legion of Honour by President Carnot.
The perfect success of both was regarded, not unreasonably, as a popular ratification of the republic, and though continually harassed by the formation and dissolution of ephemeral ministries, by socialist outbreaks, and the beginnings of anti-Semitism, Carnot had but one serious crisis to surmount, the Panama scandals of 1892, which, if they greatly damaged the prestige of the state, increased the respect felt for its head, against whose integrity none could breathe a word.
The two met in 1987 at Paris' Lycee Carnot secondary school, where they formed a band with schoolmate Laurent Brancowitz (who would later go on to find fame with Phoenix).
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.