Cardinals sentence example

cardinals
  • He sold cardinals' hats.
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  • At Avignon, where he appeared in August 1352, Rienzi was tried by three cardinals, and was sentenced to death, but this judgment was not carried out, and he remained in prison in spite of appeals from Petrarch for his release.
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  • With unbending dignity, however, he retained his antagonism; and shortly afterwards he was one of the thirteen cardinals who refused to attend the ceremony of the emperor's marriage with Marie Louise.
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  • On the 3rd of July 1517 he published the names of thirty-one new cardinals, a number almost unprecedented in the history of the papacy.
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  • The pope was accused of having exaggerated the conspiracy of the cardinals for purposes of financial gain, but most of such accusations appear to be unsubstantiated.
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  • Declaring that the cardinals had been intimidated, Innocent refused to recognize their choice; by June, however, he was obliged to flee to France.
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  • The cause of the republic was brilliantly advocated by Fra Paolo Sarpi, counsellor of state; the defenders of the papal theory were Cardinals Baronius and Bellarmine.
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  • The eighteen cardinals who met to elect a successor to Clement IV.
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  • Among his first acts was the creation of nine French cardinals.
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  • The war of Urbino was further marked by a crisis in the relations between pope and cardinals.
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  • Equally extensive, but less important in the political sphere, were the Papal States and Veneti, the former torpid under the obscurantist rule of pope and cardinals, the latter enervated by luxury and the policy of unmanly complaisance long pursued by doge and council.
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  • The brutalities of Austrias white coats in the north, the unintelligent repression then characteristic of the house of Savoy, the petty spite of the duke of Modena, the medieval obscurantism of pope and cardinals in the middle of the peninsula and the clownish excesses of Ferdinand in the south, could not blot out from the minds of the Italians the recollection of the benefits derived from the just laws, vigorous administration and enlightened aims of the great emperor.
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  • On the 11th a constitution drawn up by a commission of cardinals, without the knowledge of the ministry, was promulgated, a constitution which attempted the impossible task of reconciling the popes temporal power with free institutions.
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  • For some time after the occupation of Rome the pope, in order to substantiate the pretence that his spiritual freedom had been diminished, avoided the creation of cardinals and the nomination of bishops.
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  • On the 22nd of December 1873, however, he unexpectedly created twelve cardinals, and subsequently proceeded to nominate a number of bishops.
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  • The cardinals thereupon overruled their former decision, and the conclave was held in Rome, the new pope, Cardinal Pecci, being elected on the 20th of February 1878 without let or hindrance.
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  • At the end of May the pope, in an allocution to the cardinals, had spoken of Italy in terms of unusual cordiality, and had expressed a wish for peace.
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  • In August 1498, Cesare in the consistory asked for the permission of the cardinals and the pope to renounce the priesthood, and the latter granted it "for the good of his soul."
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  • Cesare's position was greatly shaken, and when he tried to browbeat the cardinals by means of Don Michelotto and his bravos, they refused to be intimidated; he had to leave Rome in September, trusting that the Spanish cardinals would elect a candidate friendly to his house.
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  • Cesare, who could still count on the Spanish cardinals, wished to prevent the election of Giuliano della Rovere, the enemy of his house, but the latter's chances were so greatly improved that it was necessary to come to terms with him.
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  • Finally, a band of loo marched from Basel to Avignon to the court of Pope Clement VI., who, in spite of the sympathy shown them by several of his cardinals, condemned the sect as constituting a menace to the priesthood.
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  • In his last sickness Celestine wished to resign his office, but the cardinals protested.
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  • It was not till after the cardinals of the two colleges had led to the convocation of the general council of Pisa that Pierre d'Ailly renounced the support of Benedict XIII., and, for want of a better policy, again allied himself with the cause which he had championed in his youth.
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  • When at last the question arose of giving the Christian world a new pope, this time sole and uncontested, Pierre d'Ailly defended the right of the cardinals, if not to keep the election entirely in their own hands, at any rate to share in the election, and he brought forward an ingenious system for reconciling the pretensions of the council with the rights of the Sacred College.
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  • Bishops alone, including of course the pope and his cardinals, are entitled to wear the pretiosa and auriphrygiata; the others wear the mitra simplex.
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  • Thus the postcaval vein of the higher vertebrata is partly a new structure altogether, and is partly formed out of the pre-existing posterior cardinals.
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  • While he was preparing for it two cardinals arrived in England with a mission from Pope John XXII.
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  • The cardinals did not trust themselves across the border; their messengers, however, were courteously received by Bruce, but with a firm refusal to admit the papal bulls into his kingdom because not addressed to him as king.
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  • Nothing marks the secular attitude of the Italians at an epoch which decided the future course of both Renaissance and Reformation more strongly than the mundane proclivities of this apostolic secretary, heart and soul devoted to the resuscitation of classical studies amid conflicts of popes and antipopes, cardinals and councils, in all of which he bore an official part.
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  • Borgia's elevation did not at the time excite much alarm, except in some of the cardinals who knew him, and at first his reign was marked by a strict administration of justice and an orderly method of government in satisfactory contrast with the anarchy of the previous pontificate, as well as by great outward splendour.
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  • In order to dominate the Sacred College more completely he created twelve new cardinals, among them his own son Cesare, then only eighteen years old, and Alessandro Farnese, the brother of Giulia Bella, one of the pope's mistresses, creations which caused much scandal.
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  • This defection decided the pope to come to terms, and on the 31st of December Charles entered Rome with his troops and the cardinals of the French faction.
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  • His only success had been the capture of Ostia and the submission of the Francophile cardinals Colonna and Savelli.
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  • The pope, ever in need of money, now created twelve new cardinals, from whom he received 120,000 ducats, and fresh conquests for Cesare were considered.
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  • The study of Church history was next encouraged, and in August 1883 the pope addressed a letter to Cardinals de Luca, Pitra and HergenrOther, in which he made the remarkable concession that the Vatican archives and library might be placed at the disposal of persons qualified to compile manuals of history.
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  • The elevation of Newman to the college of Cardinals in 1879 was regarded with approval throughout the English-speaking world, both on Newman's account and also as evidence that Leo XIII.
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  • And so on for all the finite cardinals, which are thus defined successively.
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  • The definitions of the finite ordinals can be expressed without use of the corresponding cardinals, so there is no essential priority of cardinals to ordinals.
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  • Thus the rational number one, which we will denote by ' r, is not the cardinal number I; for t r is the relation I/I as defined above, and is thus a relation holding between certain pairs of cardinals.
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  • Similarly, the other rational integers must be distinguished from the corresponding cardinals.
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  • This last number exemplifies the fact that one signed real number, such as o, may be correlated to many of the n cardinals, such as 2.
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  • Feebly supported by the Italians, by the majority of the cardinals, and by the representatives of the king of France, John soon found himself in danger of being driven to abdicate.
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  • The authority of the cardinals, who were the only persons judicially invested with the right of electing the pope, emerged from the crisis through which the church had just passed in far too feeble and contested a condition to carry by its own weight the general assent.
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  • It was therefore decided that with the cardinals each nation should associate six delegates, and that the successful candidate should be required to poll two-thirds of the suffrages, not only in the Sacred College, but also in each of these five groups.
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  • The advantage of this arrangement was that the choice of the future pope would depend, not only on the vote of the cardinals, thus safeguarding tradition, but at the same time on the unanimous consent of the various nations, by which the adhesion of the whole Catholic world to the election would be guaranteed.
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  • The pastoral staff is the ensign proper of cardinals (except cardinal-deacons) and bishops; but the former are entitled to use it only in the churches from which they derive their titles,.
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  • In the 9th century appeared the pontifical gloves; in the loth, the mitre; in the 11th, the use of liturgical shoes and stockings was reserved for cardinals and bishops.
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  • He made his brother, Antonio, a distinguished soldier, and two nephews, cardinals, and gave to a third nephew, Taddeo, the principality of Palestrina.
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  • The Biblical Commission, soon enlarged so as to swamp the original critical members, and which had become the simple mouthpiece of its presiding cardinals, issued two decrees.
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  • The report of this commission was then handed over to a committee of cardinals, who pronounced unanimously for the nullity of the orders in question.
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  • Unfortunately we know nothing of his vote or of the reasons he gave for it, and outside of the Roman pale the unanimous decision of a committee of cardinals counts for very little.
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  • He issued an important constitution on the 18th of July 1289, which granted to the cardinals one-half of all income accruing to the Roman see and a share in the financial management, and thereby paved the way for that independence of the college of cardinals which, in the following century, was to be of detriment to the papacy.
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  • Finally, a great crusade was resolved upon, to defray the expenses of which it was determined that the clergy should lay aside one-twentieththe pope and the cardinals one-tenth - of their revenues for the next three years; while the crusaders were to be held free of all burdens during the period of their absence.
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  • He was designated by Gregory as one of four men most worthy to succeed him, and, after a vacancy of more than five months following the decease of Victor III., he was elected pope on the 12th of March 1088 by forty cardinals, bishops, and abbots assembled at Terracina, together with representatives of the Romans and of Countess Matilda.
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  • On the 25th of June 1243 he was elected pope by the cardinals assembled at Anagni.
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  • Of more interest are the letters, nearly four hundred in number, and addressed to kings, popes, cardinals, bishops, conventual bodies, political corporations and private individuals.
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  • In contrast to the majority of Italian cardinals of his day, Cajetan was a man of austere piety and fervent zeal; and if, from the standpoint of the Dominican idea of the supreme necessity of maintaining ecclesiastical discipline, he defended the extremist claims of the papacy, he also proclaimed that the pope should be "the mirror of God on earth."
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  • He preferred to remain in France, and as the Italian cardinals died they were replaced by Frenchmen.
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  • It included: the number, character and nationality of the cardinals, the abuse of the " reservations " made by the apostolic see, the annates, the collation to benefices, expectative favours, cases to be brought before the papal Curia (including appeals), functions of the papal chancery and penitentiary, benefices in commendam, confirmation of elections, income during vacancies, indulgences, tenths, for what reasons and how is a pope to be corrected or deposed.
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  • It found a spokesman in the vigorous Gregory of Heimburg, who accused the pope of issuing the bull so that he and his cardinals might conveniently pillage Germany unhampered by the threat of a council.
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  • After overthrowing the other two walls, Luther invites the attention of the German rulers to the old theme of the pomp of the pope and cardinals, for which the Germans must pay.
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  • When elected pope, or rather anti pope, by the cardinals of Avignon, on the 28th of September 1 394, it was he who by his astuteness, his resolution, and, it may be added, by his unswerving faith in the justice of his cause, was to succeed in prolonging the lamentable schism of the West for thirty years.
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  • The hopes he had aroused that, by a voluntary abdication, he would restore unity to the church, were vain; though called upon by the princes of France to carry out his plan, abandoned by his cardinals, besieged and finally kept under close observation in the palace of the popes (1398-1403), he stood firm, and tired out the fury of his opponents.
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  • He had been disappointed in Italy, to find that he had not much to learn from its famed scholarship; but he had made many friends in Aldus's circle - Marcus Musurus, John Lascaris, Baptista Egnatius, Paul Bombasius, Scipio Carteromachus; and his reception had been flattering, especially in Rome, where cardinals had delighted to honour him.
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  • The Park consists of about 265 acres of undulating land with natural woods and rocks, traversed by a gorge cut by Rock Creek, a tributary of the Potomac. The river and gorge extend into the country far beyond the Park, and in addition to the animals that have been introduced, there are many wild creatures living in their native freedom, such as musk rats in the creek, grey squirrels, crested cardinals and turkey buzzards.
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  • Morenas, Parallele du ministere du Cardinal Richelieu et du Cardinal de Fleury (Avignon, 1743); Nachrichten von dem Leben and der Verwaltung des Cardinals Fleury (Hamburg, 1744).
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  • That very year, 1538, a commission of cardinals, including Reginald Pole, Contarini, Sadolet, Caraffa (afterwards Paul IV.), Fregoso and others, had reported that the conventual orders, which they had to deal with, had drifted into such a state that they should all be abolished.
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  • 1245, Pope Innocent IV., accompanied by twelve cardinals, FIG.
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  • This city was also the birthplace of Pope Clement XI., of several cardinals of the Alban family, and of Bernardino Baldi, Fabretti, and other able scholars.
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  • In the case of a difference of opinion between Eugenius and the Sacred College, Otto relates that the cardinals addressed to the pope this astounding protest: " Thou must know that it is by us thou hast been raised to the supreme dignity.
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  • If we admit that the cardinals of Eugenius III.
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  • Although he had saved the papal institution from one of the gravest perils it had ever encountered, the cardinals, the court of Rome and Innocent himself could not easily pardon him for being what he had become - a private person more powerful in the Church than the pope and the bishops, and holding that power by his personal prestige.
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  • In common with all enlightened opinion, he complained bitterly of the excessive multiplication of exemptions, of the exaggerated extension of appeals to Rome, of the luxury of the Roman court, of the venality of the cardinals, and of the injury done to the traditional hierarchy by the very extent of the papal power, which was calculated to turn the strongest head.
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  • The cardinals, said Bernard, were satraps who put pomp before the truth.
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  • The sovereign direction of this enormous monarchy belonged to the pope alone, who was assisted in important affairs by the advice and collaboration of the College of Cardinals, who had become the sole electors to the papacy.
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  • In general, these engagements bore upon the limitation of the number of cardinals, the prohibition to nominate new ones without previous notification to the Sacred College, the sharing between the cardinals and the pope of certain revenues specified by a bull of Nicholas IV., and the obligatory consultation of the consistories for the principal acts of the temporal and spiritual government.
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  • Themselves Frenchmen, and surrounded by a College of Cardinals in which the French element predominated, the popes gave to their ecclesiastical administration a certain French character, till they stood in more and more danger of serving purely national interests, in cases where the obligations of their office demanded complete impartiality.
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  • By his purchase of Avignon, and the creation of numerous French cardinals, the pope consolidated the close connexion of the Roman Church with France: but the interests of that Church suffered severely through the riches and patronage which Clement lavished on his relatives, and through the princely luxury of his court.
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  • The chief responsibility for this rests with the worldly College of Cardinals, who were longing to return to France, and thence drew their inspiration.
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  • It is true that his election was immediately impugned by the cardinals on frivolous grounds; but the responsibility for this rests, partially at least, with the pope himself, whose reckless and inconsiderate zeal for reform was bound to excite a revolution among the worldly cardinals still yearning for the fleshpots of Avignon.
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  • The cardinals, excited to the highest pitch of irritation, now knew where they could look for support.
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  • There may be room for dispute, as to the extent to which the king's share in the schism was due to the instigation of the revolted cardinals; there can be not the slightest doubt that his attitude was the decisive factor in perpetuating and widening the breach.
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  • Urban, in fact - who meanwhile had created a new College of Cardinals with members of different nationalities - enjoyed one great advantage; his rival failed to hold his own in Italy, with which country the actual decision virtually lay.
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  • He excommunicated the queen as a stiff-necked adherent of the French anti-pope, and in 1381 conferred Naples on the ambitious Charles .of Durazzo, with whom he was soon inextricably embroiled; while, a little later, he fell out with his new College of Cardinals.
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  • The result of this change in the attitude of Gregory was the formation of a strong malcontent party in the College of Cardinals; to counteract whose influence, the pope - faithless to the conditions attached to his election - resorted to the plan of creating new members.
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  • Stormy discussions at Lucca followed; but they failed to prevent Gregory from nominating four fresh cardinals (May 9, 1408).
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  • The sequel was that seven of the cardinals attached to Gregory's Roman Curia withdrew to Pisa.
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  • In May 1408 France withdrew from his obedience; and it was not long before French policy succeeded in effecting a reconciliation and understanding between the cardinals of Benedict XIII.
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  • Precisely as if the Holy See were vacant, the cardinals began to act as the actual rulers of the Church, and issued formal invitations to a council to be opened at Pisa on the Feast of the Annunciation (March 25) 1409.
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  • Both popes attempted to foil the disaffected cardinals by convening councils of their own; but their efforts were doomed to failure.
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  • On the other hand, the council of the cardinals - though, by the strict rules of canonical law, its convocation was absolutely illegal - attained the utmost importance.
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  • At the synod of the dissident cardinals, assembled at Pisa, views of this type were in the ascendant; and, although protests were not lacking, the necessities of the time served as a pretext for ignoring all objections.
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  • It was in vain that this cultured prince, imbued with the principles of humanism, represented to the cardinals that this new path would lead quickly to the goal, but that this goal could not be unity but a triple schism.
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  • The cardinals at once elected his successor - Baldassare Cossa, who took the name of John XXIII.
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  • Since John's most immediate need was now protection and assistance against his terrible opponent Ladislaus, he sent, towards the close of August 1413, Cardinals Chalant and Francesco Zabarella, together with the celebrated Greek Manuel Chrysoloras, to King Sigismund, and commissioned them to determine the time and place of the forthcoming council.
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  • Emanating from an assembly without a head, which could not possibly be an ecumenical council without the assent of one of the popes (of whom one was necessarily the legitimate pope) - enacted, in opposition to the cardinals, by a majority of persons for the most part unqualified, and in a fashion which was thus distinctly different from that of the old of John councils - they can only be regarded as a coup de XXIII.
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  • Martin rendered the greatest service by his admission of a whole series of distinguished men into the College of Cardinals; but he was less fortunate in his struggles against Hussitism.
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  • It is profoundly affecting to contemplate this man, a mere wreck from gout, shrinking from no fatigue, no labour, and no personal sacrifices; disregarding the obstacles and difficulties thrown in his way by cardinals and temporal princes, whose fatal infatuation refused to see the peril which hung above them all; recurring time after time, with all his intellect and energy, to the realization of his scheme; and finally adopting the high-hearted resolve of placing himself at the head of the crusade.
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  • The College of Cardinals, and the Curia in general, grew more and more infected with worldliness during his pontificate.
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  • During the last three decades of the 15th century the Roman Curia, and the College of Cardinals in particular, became increasingly worldly.
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  • The cardinals opposed to Alexander, headed by Giuliano della Rovere, found protection and support with Charles VIII.
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  • The conflict with France led to a schism in the College of Cardinals, which resulted in the conciliabulum of Pisa.
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  • Julius adroitly checkmated the cardinals by convening a general council, which was held in the Lateran.
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  • It was, moreover, a contributing cause of the conspiracy of Cardinal Petrucci,' the suppression of which was followed (July, 1517) by the creation of 31 new cardinals in one day.
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  • This - the greatest of recorded creations - turned the scale once and for all in favour of the papal authority and against the cardinals.
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  • The number of cardinals was fixed at seventy - six bishops, fifty priests and fourteen deacons.
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  • These, though more recent, have taken precedence of the former, the work of which they have, moreover, greatly relieved; they are indeed composed of the highest dignitaries of the church, the cardinals (q.v.), and are, as it were, subdivisions of the consistory, a council in which the whole of the Sacred College takes part.
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  • - The constitution of all of these is the same; a council varying in numbers, the members of which are cardinals, who alone take part in the deliberations.
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  • One of the cardinals acts as president, or prefect, as he is called; the congregation is assisted by a secretary and a certain number of inferior officials, for secretarial and office work.
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  • Their deliberations are secret and are based on prepared documents bearing on the case, written, or more often printed, which are distributed to all the cardinals about ten days in advance.
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  • We may pass over those temporary congregations of cardinals known also as "special," the authority and existence of which extend only to the consideration of one particular question; and also those which had as their object various aspects of the temporal administration of the papal states, which have ceased to exist since 1870.
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  • It is composed of twelve cardinals, Th P P ?
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  • - Though it has been relieved of the functions allotted to the Congregations of cardinals, the old machinery of the ecclesiastical administration has not been abolished; and the process of centralization which has been accentuated in the course of the last few centuries, together with the facility of communication, ensured for them a fresh activity, new offices having even been added.
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  • The chief thing to be observed is that the prelates who were formerly at the head of these departments have almost all been replaced by cardinals.
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  • This tribunal is composed of six cardinals, one of whom is the prefect, assisted by a prelate secretary, consultors and the necessary inferior officials.
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  • It is practically only bulls of canonization which are signed by the pope and all the cardinals present in Rome; the signature of the pope is then "(Pius) Episcopus Ecclesiae catholicae," while his ordinary signature bears only his name and number, "Pius PP. X."
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  • First come the palatine cardinals, i.e.
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  • The pontifical "chapel" (capella) is the papal court for purposes of religious worship. In it the pope is surrounded by the cardinals according to their order; by the patriarchs, archbishops and bishops attending at the throne, and others; by the prelates of the Curia, and by all the clergy both secular and regular.
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  • Before this is granted the candidate is submitted to a double examination as to his fitness, first by a papal delegate at his place of residence (processus informativus in partibus electi), and afterwards by the Roman Congregation of Cardinals assigned for this purpose (processus electionis definitivus in curia).
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  • The Roman bishop ranks immediately after the cardinals; he is styled reverendissimus, sanctissimus or beatissimus.
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  • By the close of the 16th century a committee of cardinals was appointed under the name of the " Congregatio de propaganda fide," to give unity and solidity to the work of missions.
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  • On account of the poor repair of Rome, the restlessness of the Romans and the discontent of the French cardinals in Italy, he at length announced his intention of returning to France, avowedly to settle trouble between France and England.
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  • He consulted the older and graver Laurentius Andreae, who told him how "Doctor Martinus had clipped the wings of the pope, the cardinals and the big bishops," which could not fail to be pleasing intelligence to a monarch who was never an admirer of episcopacy, while the rich revenues of the church, accumulated in the course of centuries, were a tempting object to the impecunious ruler of an impoverished people.
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  • A fight between the Colonna and the Orsini, as well as hopeless dissensions among the cardinals, prevented a papal election for two years and three months after the death of Nicholas IV.
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  • As the election of any cardinal seemed impossible, on the 5th of July 1294 the Sacred College united on Pietro di Morrone; the cardinals expected to rule in the name of the celebrated but incapable ascetic. Apocalyptic notions then current doubtless aided his election, for Joachim of Floris and his school looked to monasticism to furnish deliverance to the church and to the world.
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  • The cardinals, scarcely consulted at all, were discontented.
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  • The pope, who wanted more time for his devotions, offered to leave three cardinals in charge of affairs; but his proposition was rejected.
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  • The cardinals, however, "propter honorem Communis Januae," determined to carry out this consecration on the Sunday after Easter.
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  • It is, in reality, a suit at law, pleaded before the tribunal of the Congregation of Rites, which is a permanent commission of cardinals, assisted by a certain number of subordinate officers and presided over by a cardinal.
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  • If, by the advice of the cardinals who have examined the documents, the pope pronounce his approval, the servant of God receives the title of "Venerable," but is not entitled to any manifestation of cultus.
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  • The cardinals at length proclaimed him pope against his will on the 24th of May 1086, but he was driven from Rome by imperialists before his consecration was complete, and, laying aside the papal insignia at Terracina, he retired to his beloved monastery.
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  • On the death of Clement VI., the cardinals made a solemn agreement imposing obligations, mainly in favour of the college as a whole, on whichever of their number should be elected pope.
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  • One of the things that commended his candidacy to certain cardinals was his physical vigour, which seemed to promise a long pontificate.
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  • He limited the College of Cardinals to seventy; and doubled the number of the congregations, and enlarged their functions, assigning to them the principal role in the transaction of business (1588).
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  • He promulgated the famous bull In Coena Domini in its final form, 1627; published the latest revision of the Breviary, 1631; founded the College of the Propaganda for the education of missionaries, 1627; and accorded the title of "eminence" to the cardinals, 1630.
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  • A similar ceremony is conducted by cardinals at the other jubilee churches of the city.
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  • Evidences of the change were numerous: Innocent promoted pro-Spanish cardinals; attacked the Barberini, proteges of Mazarin, and sequestered their possessions; aided in quieting an insurrection in Naples, fomented by the duke of Guise; and refused to recognize the independence of Portugal, then at war with Spain.
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  • He naturally referred the question to the cardinals about him; with whom Gardiner held long arguments, enforced, it would seem, by not a little browbeating of the College.
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  • It was through the latter's influence that he succeeded Nicholas III., after a six-months' struggle between the French and Italian cardinals.
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  • (Otto Colonna) (1417 - f431) was elected at Constance on St Martin's Day, in a conclave composed of twentythree cardinals and thirty delegates from the five different "nations" of the council.
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  • It varies in colour with the wearer's rank: white for the pope, red (or black edged with red) for cardinals, purple for bishops, black for the lesser ranks; members of religious orders, however, whatever their rank, wear the colour of their religious habit.
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  • Thus he may grant indulgences, issue censures, give dispensations, canonize saints, institute bishops, create cardinals - in short, perform all the acts of his jurisdiction, even though he be no more than a layman; but by custom certain of his more solemn acts are postponed till after the ceremony of his coronation, from which his pontificate is officially dated.
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  • At the head of this is the college of cardinals, who are the princes and senators of the Church, the counsellors of the pope, and his vicars in the functions of the pontificate.
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  • But among Paul's cardinals were three remarkable men, the Italians Contarini and Sadolet, and the Englishman Reginald Pole, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury under Mary.
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  • Men trained in this school were not likely to be tender towards vested interests in darkness, least of all when they stood in the way of a reconciliation with the Protestants: for the cardinals thought that the strength of the Reformation lay much less in the attractiveness of Luther's doctrines than in his vigorous denunciations of the vices of the clergy.
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  • Counter - In Italy, though declared Protestants were few, there was widespread sympathy with some of Luther's ideas; a committee of cardinals at Rome was accordingly organized into an Inquisition, with branches at the chief Italian towns.
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  • In 1846 Gregory died, and was succeeded by Pius IX., one of the youngest of the cardinals, and well known for his popular sympathies.
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  • On the death of Gregory XI., who had finally returned to Rome from Avignon, he was elected pope in a conclave held under circumstances of great excitement, owing to popular apprehension of an intention of the French cardinals to elect a French pope and again abandon Rome.
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  • The populace broke into the hall after the election had been made and dispersed the cardinals, but the latter returned and confirmed their action on the following day.
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  • Urban, on the other hand, remained at Rome, where he appointed twenty-six new cardinals and excommunicated Clement and his adherents.
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  • Urban succeeded in escaping to Genoa, where he put several of his cardinals to death for suspected disloyalty.
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  • He was unanimously chosen to succeed Boniface, after each of the cardinals had solemnly bound himself to employ all lawful means for the restoration of the church's unity in the event of his election, and even, if necessary, to resign the papal dignity.
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  • To the patriarchate was appended a Sacred College of 24 prelates, who were privileged to officiate in the scarlet robes of cardinals, while the patriarch wore the vestments of a second pope.
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  • The Chutuktus just mentioned correspond in many respects to the Roman cardinals.
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  • In 1153 he became papal chancellor, and was the leader of the cardinals opposed to Frederick Barbarossa.
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  • On the 7th of September 1159 he was chosen the successor of Adrian IV., a minority of the cardinals, however, electing the cardinal priest Octavian, who assumed the name of Victor IV.
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  • In March 1179 Alexander held the third Lateran synod, a brilliant assemblage, reckoned by the Roman church as the eleventh oecumenical council; its acts embody several of the pope's proposals for the betterment of the condition of the church, among them the present law requiring that no one may be elected pope without the votes of two-thirds of the cardinals.
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  • Crowned in St Peter's on the 31st of August at the age of sixty-three, he entered upon the lonely path of the reformer_ His programme was to attack notorious abuses one by one; but in his attempt to improve the system of granting indulgences he was hampered by his cardinals; and reducing the number of matrimonial dispensations was impossible, for the income had.
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  • The address caused a deep impression, and it was no doubt much in the minds of the cardinals when they assembled in conclave for the election of a new pope on the last day of Aug.
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  • The initiative came from those cardinals who had one after the other seceded either from Gregory XII.
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  • The main source for the life of Bellarmine is his Latin Autobiography (Rome, 1675; Louvain, 1753), which was reprinted with original text and German translation in the work of Dollinger and Reusch entitled Die Selbstbiographie des Cardinals Bellarmin (Bonn, 1887).
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  • After withdrawing to Fondi to reconsider the election, the cardinals finally resolved to regard Urban as an intruder and the Holy See as still vacant, and an almost unanimous vote was given in favour of Robert of Geneva (loth of September 1378), who took the name of Clement VII.
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  • Contrary to custom, the election was not made unanimous, probably because of the hostility of certain French cardinals.
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  • Clement had died in April 1314, but the cardinals assembled at Carpentras were unable to agree as to his successor.
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  • Two consultors had the duty of separately drawing up a preliminary plan for each title, these projects being twice submitted for the deliberation of the commission (or sub-commission) of consultors, the version adopted by them being next submitted to the commission of cardinals, and the whole finally sent up for the papal sanction.
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  • The abbots of Cluny and Vendome were, by virtue of their office, cardinals of the Roman church.
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  • In the case of lists and schedules the numbers are only ordinals; but in the case of mathematical or statistical tables they are usually regarded as cardinals,though, when they represent values of a continuous quantity, they must be regarded as ordinals (§§ 26, 93).
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  • Thus (writing ordinals in light type, and cardinals in heavy type) 9 comes after 4, and therefore 9 is greater than 4.
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  • And it is pointed out that during the years of the cardinals ascendancy the alliance of England was sought in turn by the great princes of the continent, and proved the make-weight in the scales.
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  • During the first few years of the cardinals ascendancy the elder race of European sovereigns, the kings with whom Henry VII.
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  • It is significant that his great college at Oxford Cardinals College as he designed to call it, Christ Church as it is named to-daywas endowed with the revenues of some score of small monasteries which he had suppressed on the ground that they were useless or ill-conducted.
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  • It is mainly a theological conception, blind to economic influences, and attaching excessive importance to the effects of the individual action of emperors and popes, kings and cardinals.
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  • In the contested election of 1159, for instance, though a majority of the cardinals had elected Cardinal Roland (Alexander III.), the defeated candidate Cardinal Octavian (Victor IV.), while his rival was modestly hesitating to accept the honour, seized the pluviale and put it on his own shoulders hastily, upside down; and it was on this ground that the council of Pavia in r 160 based their declaration in favour of Victor, and anathematized Alexander.
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  • At what date the cappa choralis developed into the cappa magna, a non-liturgical vestment peculiar to the pope, cardinals, bishops and certain privileged prelates, is not known; but mention of it is found as early as the 15th century.
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  • Its colour varies with the hierarchical rank of the wearer: - red for cardinals, purple for bishops, &c.; or, if the dignitary belong to a religious order, it follows the colour of the habit of the order.
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  • It is worn over the rochet by the pope, cardinals, bishops and prelates, the colours varying as in the case of the cappa magna.
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  • He immediately declared that election "capitulations," which cardinals had long been in the habit of affirming as rules of conduct for future popes, could affect a new pope only as counsels, not as binding obligations.
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  • Paul embellished the costume of the cardinals, collected jewels for his own adornment, provided games and food for the Roman people and practically instituted the carnival.
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  • It paints popes, cardinals, prelates, rectors, monks and friars, who call themselves followers of Peter and keepers of the gates of heaven and hell, and pale poverty-stricken people, cotless and landless, who have to pay the fat clergy for spiritual assistance, and asks if these are Peter's priests.
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  • He next travelled to Rome, where he visited St Peter's, and had prolonged negotiations with the cardinals.
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  • Unfortunately, after his custom when victor, Mazarin forgot his promises above all, Gondis cardinals hat.
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  • Seized in his turn with a longing for the cardinals hat, Dubois paid for it by the registering of the bull Unigenitus and by the persecution of the Jansenists which the regent had stopped.
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  • Galileo received, as the result of a conference between Cardinals Bellarmin and Del Monte, a semi-official warning to avoid theology, and limit himself to physical reasoning.
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  • He was condemned, as "vehemently suspected of heresy," to incarceration at the pleasure of the tribunal, and by way of penance was enjoined to recite once a week for three years the seven penitential psalms. This sentence was signed by seven cardinals, but did not receive the customary papal ratification.
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  • The senate is composed of members of three classes: (I) members by right of birth or officeprinces, nobles who possess an annual income of 60,000 pesetas (L2,400), and hold the rank of grandee (grande), a dignity conferred by the king either for life or as an hereditary honor, captains-general of the army, admirals of the navy, the patriarch of the Indies, archbishops, cardinals, the presidents of the council of state or of the Supreme Court, and other high officials, all of whom must have retained their appointments for two years; (2) members nominated by the sovereign for life; and (3) members elected three each by the 49 provinces of the kingdom, and the remainder by academies, universities, dioceses and state corporations.
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  • After the Council of Trent the old arrangements were replaced by the Congregations, permanent committees of cardinals which deal with definite branches of business.
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  • It produced no effect, although the cardinals felt that Grosseteste was too influential to be punished for his audacity.
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  • Clement yielded at once, though the whole college of cardinals had supported his policy; and Henry, who did not learn the facts till several years afterwards, testified lively gratitude for the timely and politic intervention.
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  • On the 29th of June 1408 he and seven of his colleagues broke away from Gregory XII., and together with six cardinals of the obedience of Avignon, who had in like manner separated from Benedict XIII., they agreed to aim at the assembling of a general council, setting aside the two rival pontiffs, an expedient which they considered would put an end to the great schism of the Western Church, but which resulted in the election of yet a third pope.
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  • The cardinals forced him towards Germany by the most direct road, without allowing him to go by way of Avignon as he had projected, in order to make plans with the princes of France.
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  • The three cardinals whom he charged with his defence hastily declined this compromising task.
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  • This organization, at least in so far as concerns the heretical church, had already been observed among the Fraticelli in Sicily, and in 1423 the general council of Siena affirmed with horror that at Peniscola there was an heretical pope surrounded with a college of cardinals who made no attempt at concealment.
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  • Its colour varies with the rank of the wearer, that of the pope being white, of the cardinals red, of bishops purple, and of the lower clergy black.
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  • With the extension of its use, too, the custom grew up (c. 1300) of investing clerks with the biretum as the symbol of the transfer of a benefice, a custom which survives, in Roman Catholic countries, in the solemn delivery of the red biretta by the head of the state to newly created cardinals, who afterwards go to Rome to receive the red hat.
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  • He was therefore driven to make his submission to the pope, but, again rebelling, was summoned to trial in Rome (1460) before a tribunal of hostile cardinals.
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  • But, being forewarned, Paul received him with great ceremony, and surrounded by cardinals prepared for defence; whereupon Sigismondo changed his mind, fell on his knees and implored forgiveness.
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  • This was an instruction book for cardinals, which included advice on how to design the ideal cardinal's palace.
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  • In 1536, he appointed nine cardinals to investigate the state of the church.
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  • The service ends with prayers for the new cardinals.
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  • He also considered a list of infinite cardinals: where each is the smallest cardinal which is strictly greater than.
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  • These, together with Benedict's revolting cardinals, summoned a general council at Pisa.
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  • As secretary to the conclave which assembled in the monastery of San Giorgio Maggiore at Venice, Consalvi had the difficult task of corresponding with the various governments and organizing the assembly at a time when the Revolution had confused all issues and reduced the individual cardinals to beggary.
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  • At Perugia on the 5th of June 1305 he was chosen to succeed Benedict XI.; the cardinals by a vote of ten to five electing one neither an Italian nor a cardinal, in order to end a conclave which had lasted eleven months.
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  • The chronicler Villani relates that Bertrand owed his election to a secret agreement with Philip IV., made at St Jean d'Angely in Saintonge; this may be dismissed as gossip, but it is probable that the future pope had to accept certain conditions laid down by the cardinals.
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  • Leo was deemed fortunate by his contemporaries, but an incurable malady, wars, enemies, a conspiracy of cardinals, and the loss of all his nearest relations darkened his days; and he failed entirely in his general policy of expelling foreigners from Italy, of restoring peace throughout Europe, and of prosecuting war against the Turks.
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  • The see still continues, and is indeed held by the dean of the sacred college of cardinals.
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  • His programme included these three points: (I) the celibacy of the clergy; (2) the abolition of ecclesiastical appointments made by the secular authority; (3) the vesting of the papal election in the hands of the Roman clergy and people, presided over by the curia of cardinals.
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  • At general councils bishops wear white linen mitres, cardinals mitres of white silk damask; this is also the case when bishops and cardinals in pontificalibus assist at a solemn pontifical function presided over by the pope.
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  • (Iop) granting to Hugh, archbishop of Besancon, and his seven cardinals the right to wear the mitre at the altar as celebrant, deacon and subdeacon, a similar privilege being, granted to Bishop Hartwig of Bamberg in the following year.
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  • Nevertheless Napoleon ordered the preliminary agreement to be considered as a definitive treaty, and on the 2nd of April gave instructions that one of the refractory cardinals should be carried off secretly by night from Fontainebleau, while the pontiff was to be guarded more closely than before.
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  • To his influence we may attribute the desertion of Berengar's cause by Hildebrand and the more broad-minded of the cardinals.
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  • Abandoned by a number of his cardinals, condemned by most of the powers, deprived of his dominions by condottieri who shamelessly invoked the authority of the council, the pope made concession after concession, and ended on the 15th of December 1 433 by a pitiable surrender of all the points at issue in a bull, the terms of which were dictated by the fathers of Basel, that is, by declaring his bull of dissolution null and void, and recognizing that the synod had not ceased to be legitimately assembled.
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  • Owing to the correspondence between the finite cardinals and the finite ordinals, the propositions of cardinal arithmetic and ordinal arithmetic correspond point by point.
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  • The arithmetic of the infinite cardinals does not correspond to that of the infinite ordinals.
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  • It will suffice to mention here that Peano's fourth premiss of arithmetic does not hold for infinite cardinals or for infinite ordinals.
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  • Among the enactments of the council, the most important concerned the appointment to the papal throne (Canon 1), the electoral law of 1059 being supplemented by a further provision declaring a two-thirds majority to be requisite for the validity of the cardinals' choice.
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  • The urgent necessity for healing the schism, the difficulty of uniting the colleges of cardinals, and the prolonged and futile negotiations carried on between the rival popes inevitably raised the whole question of the papal supremacy, and led to the search for a still higher ecclesiastical authority, which, when the normal system of choosing the head of the Church broke down, might re-establish that ecclesiastical unity to which all Europe as yet clung.
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  • St Charles Borromeo wrote to the presiding cardinals, on the 11th of May 1562, saying that, as France was disaffected to the Jesuits whom the pope wished to see established in every country, Pius IV.
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  • The pope followed up this breve by appointing a congregation of cardinals to take possession of the temporalities of the Society, and armed it with summary powers against all who should attempt to retain or conceal any of the property.
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  • It is conceivable that a pope of Boniface VIII.'s temperament would not submit kindly to any restriction of the discretionary power with which he was invested by tradition, and he endeavoured to make the cardinals dependent on him and even to dispense with their services as far as possible, only assembling them in consistory in cases of extreme necessity.
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  • Among the many difficulties which beset the question, not the least obvious was the length of time during which the Church must remain without a ruler, if - as Sigismund and the German nation demanded - the papal election were deferred till the completion of the internal reforms. The result was decided by the policy of the cardinals, who since May 1417 had openly devoted their whole energies to the acceleration of that election; and union was preserved by means of a compromise arranged by Bishop Henry of Winchester, the uncle of the English king.
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  • In 1904 a commission of cardinals was appointed to undertake the stupendous task of codifying the canon law (see Canon Law), and in 1908 an extensive reorganization of the Curia was x s of carried out, in order to conform its machinery more nearly to present-day needs (see Curia Romana).
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  • (2) The Consistorial Congregation (Sacra Congregatio Consistorialis), established by Sixtus V., has as its object the preparation of business to be dealt with and decided in secret consistory; notably promotions to cathedral churches and consistorial benefices, the erection of dioceses, &c. To this congregation is also subject the administration of the common property of the college of cardinals.
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  • In 1480 he was made legate to France, mainly to settle the question of the Burgundian inheritance, and acquitted himself with such ability during his two years' stay that he acquired an influence in the college of cardinals which became paramount during the pontificate of Innocent Viii.
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  • They were forestalled by the popes, who each summoned a council, the former to Cividale (in Friuli), the latter to Perpignan, so the dissident cardinals sent out antedated letters inviting Christendom to assemble at Pisa on the 25th of March 1409.
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  • In the course of a visit which he made to Innocent in this year, the bishop laid before the pope and cardinals a written memorial in which he ascribed all the evils of the Church to the malignant influence of the Curia.
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  • Clergy, from cardinals to reverend fathers, subscribe in similar numbers.
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  • Recall that " addition " for transfinite cardinals is defined in terms of set union.
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  • If you collect bird figurines, repurpose a few cardinals to perch among your evergreen spray or cascade.
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  • Smith finished his career with the Arizona Cardinals and retired in 2004.
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  • You can harvest the seeds and use them in bird feeders throughout the winter to attract cardinals, blue jays and other beautiful birds to the garden.
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  • Placing fake birds (such as cardinals) in the wreath.
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  • In June 2009, St. Louis Cardinals manager Tony La Russa discovered that a Twitter account had been opened under his name - but which he did not have any control over.
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  • Some teams, such as the Arizona Cardinals, Pittsburgh Steelers and the Chicago Bears, wore small numerals on the right shoulders rather than large numerals on the fronts of their jerseys, which was not done in earlier uniforms.
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  • From the Arizona Cardinals to the Washington Redskins, team gear is a great way to show off fan loyalty while also giving your child a usable and safe uniform to play in.
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  • The popes were henceforth to be chosen by the cardinals, the bishops by the chapters subject to the popes approval.
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