Rome as cardinal protector of the Spanish nation.
He became dean of Toledo early, and was made cardinal on the 5th of August 1669.
received the cardinal archbishop of Bordeaux and determined to support the cardinals at Pisa against both popes.
Giving him the title of senator, he sent him to Italy with the legate, Cardinal Albornoz, and having collected a few mercenary troops on the way, Rienzi entered Rome in August 13 54.
The pope would have appointed Lucifer a cardinal with what was done to that woman.'
Then he turned to the cardinal and said, Now, I am ready.
Cardinal Consalvi's Memoires were published in two vols.
in July 1492 and opposed the election of Cardinal Borgia.
Giovanni's younger brother Giuliano was placed at the head of the republic, but the cardinal actually managed the government.
While Piero found refuge at Venice and Urbino, Cardinal Giovanni travelled in Germany, in the Netherlands and in France.
In a variety of ways it does a great deal of social service similar to that of gilds of help. Its administration has always been in the hands of laymen, and it works through local "conferences" or branches, the general council having been suspended because it declined to accept a cardinal as its official head.
was alive, he successfully protested against Beaufort's being made a cardinal and legate a latere to supersede the legatine jurisdiction of Canterbury.
The death of Lorenzo on the 8th of April, however, called the seventeen-year-old cardinal to Florence.
But during the regency, after Henry VI's accession, Beaufort was successful, and in 1426 became cardinal and legate.
At Naples there grew up a Cartesian school, of which the best known members are Michel Angelo Fardella (1650-1708) and Cardinal Gerdil (1718-1802), both of whom, however, attached themselves to the characteristic views of Malebranche.
Soon after his mind began to give way, but during frequent intervals of lucidity he made new corrections in his great work, of which a third edition appeard in 1744, prefaced by a letter of dedication to Cardinal Trojano Acquaviva.
The pope was above all a religious man, of a gentle and contemplative character; the cardinal was pre-eminently a man of affairs.
The archbishop was one of the "undertakers" who controlled the Irish House of Commons, and although he did not regain the almost dictatorial power he had exercised at an earlier period, which had suggested a comparison between him and Cardinal Wolsey, he continued to enjoy a prominent share in the administration of Ireland until his death, which occurred in London on the 19th of December 1764.
After studying the arts at Toulouse and law at Orleans and Bologna, he became a canon at Bordeaux and then vicar-general to his brother the archbishop of Lyons, who in 1294 was created cardinal bishop of Albano.
In this his diplomatic ability was conspicuously evident, and it was also largely owing to his influence that Cardinal Chiaramonte was elected as Pius VII.
GUILLAUME DUBOIS (1656-1723), French cardinal and statesman, was born at Brive, in Limousin, on the 6th of September 1656.
His policy was steadily directed towards maintaining the peace of Utrecht, and this made him the main opponent of the schemes of Cardinal Alberoni for the aggrandizement of Spain.
made a pretence of withdrawing from the support of his grandson, the cardinal made a great display of loyalty.
The chapter on the infallibility was only added at the request of the bishops and after long hesitation on the part of the cardinal presidents.
died in February 1513, and the conclave, after a stormy seven day's session, united on Cardinal de' Medici as the candidate of the younger cardinals.
ERCOLE CONSALVI (1757-1824), Italian cardinal and statesman, was born at Rome on the 8th of June 1757.
The emperor was irritated; and his ambassador, Cardinal Fesch, kept up the irritation by perpetual complaints directed more especially against Consalvi himself.
The cardinal de Retz in his leisurely age at Commercy found amusement in presiding at disputations between the more moderate Cartesians and Don Robert Desgabets, who interpreted Descartes in an original way of his own.
The cardinal grosbeak, or Virginian nightingale, Cardinalis virginianus, claims notice here, though doubts may be entertained as to the family to which it really belongs.
LUIS MANUEL FERNANDEZ DE PORTOCARRERO (1635-1709), cardinal archbishop of Toledo, was a younger son of the marquis of Almenara and was born on the 8th of January 163 5.
In 1717, however, Cardinal Alberoni retook Cagliari for Spain; but this state of things was short-lived, for in 1720, by the treaty of London, Sardinia passed in exchange for Sicily to the dukes of Savoy, to whom it brought the royal title.
The minority, among whom were prominent Ca" "pals Rauscher and Schwarzenberg, Hefele, bishop of Rotterdam (the historian of the councils) Cardinal Mathieu, Mgr Dupanloup, Mgr Maret, &c., &c., did not pretend to deny the papal infallibility; they pleaded the inopportuneness of the definition and brought forward difficulties mainly of an historical order, in particular the famous condemn ion of Pope Honorius by the 6th ecumenical council of Const: ntinople in 680.
Less resolute and reliable than his brother Guillaume, the cardinal had brilliant qualities, and an open and free mind.
He had expressed an opinion that the true art of memory was not to be gained by technical devices, but by a philosophical apprehension of things; and the cardinal de Berulle, the founder of the Congregation of the Oratory, was so struck by the tone of the remarks as to impress upon the speaker the duty of spending his life in the examination of truth.
The second brief visit, in 1647, partly on literary, partly on family business, was signalized by the award of a pension of 3000 francs, obtained from the royal bounty by Cardinal Mazarin.
Everyone in the crowded room knew Pastor Humphries and treated him with the reverence as a visiting cardinal.
(The valley was in those days the favourite residence of the consuls.) At the Petit Seminaire, on the site of the old French consulate, Cardinal Lavigerie died (1892).
Cardinal (under glass) e.
Here Consalvi soon became one of the cardinal's favourite proteges.
Leo at once formed a new league with the emperor and the king of Spain, and to ensure English support made Wolsey a cardinal.
In 1535 he received his cardinal's hat; in1536-1537he was nominated "lieutenant-general" to the king at Paris and in the Ile de France, and was entrusted with the organization of the defence against the imperialists.
He later took orders, and, through the favour of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother of Nicholas V., obtained from Paul II.
It excited the admiration of Gonzales Clavijo, the Spanish envoy, when he passed through it on his way to visit the court of Timur at Samarkand (Clavijo, Historia del gran Tamorlan, p. 84); and Cardinal Bessarion, who was a native of the place, in the latter part of his life, when the city had passed into the hands of the Mahommedans, and he was himself a dignitary of the Roman Church, so little forgot the impression it had made upon him that he wrote a work entitled "The Praise of Trebizond" ('E-yac c uLovTpaire oiivros), which exists in manuscript at Venice.
His works were collected by Cardinal Cajetan, and were published in four volumes at Rome (1606-1615), and then at Paris in 1642, at Venice in 1743, and there are other editions.
A few years later Cardinal St Croix reckoned that the Huguenots were one half of the population.
The city is built with its streets running between the cardinal points of the compass and crossing each other at right angles.
JOHN MORTON (c. 1420-1500), archbishop of Canterbury, cardinal and statesman, belonged to a family which had migrated from Nottinghamshire into Dorset, and was born either at Bere Regis or Milborne St Andrew.
In 1493 he was created a cardinal, and in 1495 was elected chancellor of the university of Oxford.
three councils - the Council of State, the Privy Council and the Council of Finance, but in reality all power had been placed by Philip in the hands of three confidential councillors styled the Consulta - Barlaymont, president of the Council of Finance, Viglius, president of the Privy Council, and Antony Perrenot, bishop of Arras, better known by his later title as Cardinal Granvelle.
William, Egmont, and Hoorn therefore placed themselves at the head of a league of nobles against Granvelle (who had become cardinal in 1561) with the object of undermining his influence and driving him from power.
The duchess, herself aggrieved by the dictatorial manners of the cardinal, likewise urged upon her brother the necessity of the retirement of the unpopular minister.
Groen van Prinsterer, Archives ou correspondance ine'dite de la maison d'0range, P serie (9 vols., 1841-1861); Poullet et Piot, Correspondance du cardinal Granvelle (12 vols., 1879-1899); J.
CARDINAL GUALO (fl.
Made cardinal deacon of Sant Angelo in Pescheria by Paschal II.
appointed him one of the ambassadors who made peace with the Empire and drew up the Concordat of Worms (1122), and in the following year, with his later enemy Cardinal Peter Pierleoni, he was papal legate in France.
In 1529 he was Wolsey's chaplain, and he was with the cardinal at Cawood at the time of his arrest.
It has a fine Renaissance facade, constructed about 1500 by Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici (afterwards Pope Leo X.), and some good terra cottas by the Della Robbia.
The love of right reason is the supreme virtue, whence flow the cardinal virtues, diligence, obedience, justice and humility.
Chief of the cardinal virtues is humility, a confession of our own helplessness and submission to God.
In 1622 he was made a cardinal, and soon afterwards became bishop of Oviedo, a position which he retained until his death, which occurred at Oviedo on the 2nd of August 1655.
Two years later he was canonized by Gregory IX., whom, as Cardinal Hugolino of Ostia, he had chosen to be the protector of his order.
made him cardinal (1596) and later vicar in Rome and inquisitor.
Fraknoi, The Embassies of Cardinal Carvajal to Hungary (Hung., Budapest, 1889); Marzio Galeotti, De egregie sapienter et jocose dictis ac factis Matthiae regis (Script.
6 suburbicarian seesOstia and Velletri, Porto and Sta Rufina, Albano, Frascati, Palestrina, Sabinaall held by cardinal bishops.
datory expeditions of Bertrand du Poiet and Robert of Geneva were as ineffective as the descents of the emperors; and, though the cardinal Albornoz conquered Romagna and the March in 1364, the legates who resided in those districts were not long able to hold them against their despots.
and his minister Cardinal Consalvi oppression had not been very severe, and Metternichs proposal to establish a central inquisitorial tribunal for political offences throughout Italy had been rejected by the papal government.
before the arrival of Cardinal Gaysruck, Austria s mouthpiece, and in June elected Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti as Pius IX.
Rumours of a reactionary plot by Austria and the Jesuits against Pius, induced him to create a national guard and to appoint Cardinal Ferretti as secretary of state.
At the same time the Austrians evacuated the Legations and Cardinal Milesi, the papal representative, departed.
Cardinal Antonelli would have come to terms, but the pope decided on making a sufficient show of resistance to prove that he was yielding to force.
The secretary-general of the Italian foreign office, Baron Blanc, who had accompanied General Cadorna to Rome, was received almost daily by Cardinal Antonelli, papal secretary of state, in order to settle innumerable questions arising out of the Italian occupation.
The royal commissioner for finance, Giacomelli, had, as a precautionary measure, seized the pontifical treasury; but upon being informed by Cardinal Antonelli that among the funds deposited in the treasury were 1,000,000 crowns of Peters Pence offered by the faithful to the pope in person, the commissioner was authorized by the Italian council of state not only to restore this sum, but also to indemnify the Holy See for moneys expended for the service of the October coupon of the pontifical debt, that debt having been taken over by the Italian state.
On the 29th of September Cardinal Ant onelli further apprised Baron Blanc that he was about to issue drafts for the monthly payment of the 50,000 crowns inscribed in the pontifical budget for the maintenance of the pope, the Sacred College, the apostolic palaces and the papal guards.
The cardinals thereupon overruled their former decision, and the conclave was held in Rome, the new pope, Cardinal Pecci, being elected on the 20th of February 1878 without let or hindrance.
On the 15th of June the pope addressed to Cardinal Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of state, a letter reiterating in uncompromising terms the papal claim to the temporal power, and at the end of July Cardinal Rampolla reformulated the same claim in a circular to the papal nuncios abroad.
died, and that same Cardinal Sarto became pope under the style of Pius X.
According to Strype, he was invited about this time to become a fellow of the college founded by Cardinal Wolsey at Oxford; but Dean Hook shows that there is some reason to doubt this.
Important, as showing his views on a cardinal doctrine, was the Defence of the True and Catholic Doctrine of the Sacrament, which he published in 1550.
For De Maillet not only has a definite conception of the plasticity of living things, and of the production of existing species by the modification of their predecessors, but he clearly apprehends the cardinal maxim of modern geological science, that the explanation of the structure of the globe is to be sought in the deductive application to geological phenomena of the principles established inductively by the study of the present course of nature.
He was born at Rome while his father was cardinal, and on the latter's elevation to the papacy (1492) he was created archbishop of Valencia, and a year later cardinal.
He was attacked by assassins on the steps of St Peter's and badly wounded; attendants carried him to a cardinal's house, and, fearing poison, he was nursed only by his wife and Sancha, his sister-in-law.
Over the rest of western continental Europe and in the colonies of Spain, Portugal and France, ecclesiastical jurisdiction remained generally in the state which we have already described the court of the cardinal vicar-general consists of such vicargeneral and four other prelates (Smith, ubi supra).
It results that besides a horizontal distribution of plants, there is also an altitudinal: a fact of cardinal importance, the first observation of which has been attributed to Tournefort.
Being nephew to the well-known cardinal of the same name, he early displayed an attraction for the Dominican order; and, as soon as allowed, he joined the Friars Preachers in their convent at Valladolid.
Esprit Flechier, bishop of Nimes, in this Histoire du cardinal Jimenes (Paris, 1693), says that Torquemada made her promise that when she became queen she would make it her principal business to chastise and destroy heretics.
Created cardinal by Urban VI., he was elected successor to the latter on the 2nd of November 1389.
In 1553, on the recommendation of the Cardinal of Lorraine, he was named master of the requests, and afterwards president of the chambre des comptes.
In the i 1 th century this new form of devotion was extolled by some of the most ardent reformers in the monastic houses of the west, such as Abbot Popon of Stavelot, St Dominic Loricatus (so called from his practice of wearing next his skin an iron lorica, or cuirass of thongs), and especially Cardinal Pietro Damiani.
It is not likely that he would write in support of Cardinal Beaton's policy, and the dialect is an exaggerated form of Latinized Middle Scots, differing materially from the language of the Compendious Book.
ANTOINE PERRENOT GRANVELLA, CARDINAL DE (1517-1586), one of the ablest and most influential of the princes of the church during the great political and ecclesiastical movements which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe, was born on the 20th of August 1517 at Besancon, where his father, Nicolas Perrenot de Granvella (1484-1550), who afterwards became chancellor of the empire under Charles V., was practising as a lawyer.
A commission for publishing the whole of the letters and memoirs was appointed by Guizot in 1834, and the result has been the issue of nine volumes of the Papiers d'Etat du cardinal de Granvelle, edited by C. Weiss (Paris, 1841-1852).
They form a part of the Collection de documents inedits sur l'histoire de France, and were supplemented by the Correspondance du cardinal Granvelle, 1565-1586, edited by M.
See also the anonymous Histoire du cardinal de Granville, attributed to Courchetet D'Esnans (Paris, 1761); J.
subsequently made him cardinal secretary of state.
Henry meanwhile, however, had sent William Knight, his secretary, on a separate mission to Rome to obtain facilities for his marriage with Anne; and on the cardinal's return in August he found her installed as the king's companion and proposed successor to Catherine of Aragon.
From this time (1509) down to our own days, except for the interruptions caused by the wars of the French Revolution, Ravenna continued subject to the papal see and was governed by a cardinal legate.
1856), who has also written the Life and Times of Cardinal Wiseman; and Ten Personal Studies (1908).
(Giacinto Bobo), pope from 1191 to 1198, was cardinal deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin as early as 1144, and had reached the age of eighty-five when chosen on the 30th of March 1191 to succeed Clement III.
On the other hand, the opinion of Cardinal Pitra, who referred the Physiologus to the more orthodox though somewhat peculiar teaching of the Alexandrians, is fully borne out by a close examination of the irregularities of doctrine pointed out in the Physiologus by Cahier, all which are to be met with in Origen.
He was made archbishop of his native place and cardinal by Paul V., whom he succeeded as pope on the 9th of February 1621.
He was canonized in 1234 by Gregory IX., who, as Cardinal Ugolino, had been the great friend and supporter both of Dominic and of Francis of Assisi.
His ecclesiastical preferment he owed to the influence of an uncle, Cardinal Oliviero Caraffa.
An unworthy nephew, Carlo Caraffa, was made cardinal, and other relatives were invested with the duchies of Paliano and Montebello.
This is the tomb with recumbent effigy of the Cardinal Brago or De Braye (1282), with much beautiful sculpture and mosaic. It is signed Hoc oPVs Fecit Arnvlfvs.
The fortress built in 1364 by Cardinal Albornoz has been converted into a public garden.
Towards the end of Herod's life two rabbis attempted to uphold by physical force the cardinal dogma of Judaism, which prohibited the use of images.
COUNT MARIANO DEL TINDARO RAMPOLLA (1843-), Italian cardinal, was born on the, 7th of August 1843, at Polizzi, in the Sicilian diocese of Cefalu.
Consecrated titular archbishop of Heraclea in 1885, he returned to Madrid as nuncio, but was shortly afterwards created cardinal and appointed to the papal secretaryship of state.
Cardinal Rampolla at once resigned his office as secretary of state, being succeeded by Cardinal Merry del Val, and ceased to play any conspicuous part in the Curia.
It was an elaborate construction of polished brass, and, contrary to the usual custom, seems to have been placed in the centre of the altar-step, long branches stretching out towards the four cardinal points, bearing smaller candles.
This pope reigned only ten months; his successor, John XXIII., raised Pierre d'Ailly to the rank of cardinal (June 6, 1411), and further, to indemnify him for the loss of the bishopric of Cambrai, conferred upon him the administration of that of Limoges (November 3, 1412), which was shortly after exchanged for the bishopric of Orange.
From this point of view Pierre d'Ailly, together with his compatriot Cardinal Fillastre, took the preponderating part during the first.
He was a man of learning, writing in favour of Henry's divorce, and with Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of Durham, a treatise against Cardinal Pole.
Returning to Paris, he became professor in the college of Cardinal Lemoine.
In 1507 he took up his residence in the Benedictine Abbey of St Germain des Pres, near Paris; this was due to his connexion with the family of Brigonnet (one of whom was the superior), especially with William Brigonnet, cardinal bishop of St Malo (Meaux).
Among the song-birds are the mocking-bird, the Carolina wren and the cardinal grosbeak (or red bird); there are plenty of quail or " bob white " (called partridge in the South).
The use of the word "clergy" as a plural, though the New English Dictionary quotes the high authority of Cardinal Newman for it, is less rare than wrong; in the case cited "Some hundred Clergy" should have been "Some hundred of the Clergy."
In this they were much hindered by the lack of correct translations of Ptolemy's works; and in 1462 Regiomontanus accompanied Cardinal Bessarion to Italy in search of authentic manuscripts.
THOMAS WOLSEY (c. 1475-1530), English cardinal and statesman, born at Ipswich about 1475, was son of Robert Wolsey (or Wuley, as his name was always spelt) by his wife Joan.
Giustiniani explains that he had to make proposals to the cardinal before he broached them to Henry, lest Wolsey "should resent the precedence conceded to the king."
His palaces outshone those of his king, and few monarchs could afford such a display of plate as commonly graced the cardinal's table.
The library, founded by a nephew of Cardinal Passionei, contains some antiquities.
Montepulciano is famous for its wine, and was the birthplace of the scholar and poet Angelo Anbrogini (1454-1494), generally known as Poliziano (Politian) and of Cardinal Bellarmine (1542-1621).
Of its old houses, the Tambour mansion, and a portion of that which belonged to the cardinal of Ferrara, both of the 16th century, are still preserved; apart from the palace, the public buildings are without interest.
Meantime, while recurring again and again, as was his custom, to this cardinal difficulty, Mill worked indefatigably in other directions where he saw his way clear.
in 1528, and was one of the Cambridge scholars whom Wolsey wished to transplant to his newly founded Cardinal College at Oxford.
Cardinal David Beton, the head of the French and Catholic party and therefore Mary of Lorraine's friend and ally, produced a will of the late king in which the primacy in the regency was assigned to himself.
The queen dowager and her daughter were carefully watched at Linlithgow, but on the 23rd of July 1543 they escaped, with the help of Cardinal Beton, to the safer walls of Stirling castle.
She made fresh alliances with the earl of Angus and Sir George Douglas, and in 1544 she made a premature attempt to seize the regency; but a reconciliation with Arran was brought about by Cardinal Beton.
It was performed by Fesch, now a cardinal; but Napoleon could afterwards urge the claim that all the legal formalities had not bten complied with; and the motive for the marriage may probably be found in the refusal of the pope to appear at the coronation unless the former civil contract was replaced by the religious rite.
The foundations and some of the architectural fragments of the temple were still in existence until 1777, when they were used to build the Passionist monastery by Cardinal York.
Cardinal Bessarion became his disciple; he produced a great impression upon Cosimo de' Medici; and though not himself making any very important contribution to the study of Plato, he effectually shook the exclusive domination which Aristotle had exercised overEuropean thought for eight centuries.
The importance of great cardinal features of the life-history as indicative of relationship leads us to consider the Endopterygota as a natural assemblage of orders.
Here he came under the influence of Jacobus Faber (Stapulensis), on whose recommendation he was appointed professor in the college of Cardinal Lemoine.
We may date the true foundation of the library to the donation of Cardinal Bessarion.
The cardinal therefore obtained a bull from Pope Paul II., permitting him to recall his original donation, and in a letter dated from the baths of Viterbo, May 13th, 1468, he made over his library to the republic. The principal treasures of the collection, including splendid Byzantine book-covers, the priceless codices of Homer, the Grimani Breviary, an early Dante, &c., are exhibited under cases in the Sala Bessarione in the Zecca or mint where the library has been installed.
He misjudged the character both of the colonists and of the natives, his cardinal mistake being in regarding the African as little removed from the European in intellect and capacity.
The original leader of the Crusade was John of Brienne, king of Jerusalem (who had succeeded Amalric II., marrying Maria, the daughter of Amalric's wife Isabella by her former husband, Conrad of Montferrat); but after the end of 1218 the cardinal legate Pelagius, fortified by papal letters, claimed the command.
In spite of dissensions between the cardinal and the king, and in spite of the offers of Malik-al-Kamil (who succeeded Malik-al-Adil at the end of 1218), the crusaders finally carried the siege to a successful conclusion by the end of 1219.
In 1221 Hermann of Salza, the master of the Teutonic order, along with the duke of Bavaria, appeared in the camp before Damietta; and as it seemed useless to wait any longer for Frederick II., 4 the cardinal, in spite of the opposition of King John, gave the signal for the march on Cairo.
The letter of the pope informing Pelagius of this delay is dated the 10th of June: it would probably reach his hands after his departure from Damietta; and thus the Cardinal gave the signal for the march, when, as he thought, the emperor's coming was imminent.
An army of cosmopolitan adventurers, led by the Cardinal Caesarini, joined the 1 The dream of a Crusade to Jerusalem survived de Mezieres; a society which read "romaunts" of the Crusades, could not but dream the dream.
There were four entrances through the railing, facing the cardinal points, and each one protected by the railing coming out at right angles, and then turning back across it in the shape of the letter L.
In 1527 he joined in the movement for the expulsion of the family and was instrumental in defeating the Medicean troops under Cardinal Passerini, who were attacking the Palazzo della Signoria.
He became the financier of his party, preached unceasingly his cardinal doctrines of simplicity and economy, and was an effective critic of the measures of government.
Of several interesting mansions in the vicinity one, the Great House, belonged to Cardinal Wolsey, and a former Pengelly House was the residence of Richard Cromwell the Protector after his resignation.
JOHN FISHER (c. 1469-1535), English cardinal and bishop of Rochester, born at Beverly, received his first education at the collegiate church there.
Paul III., who had begun his pontificate with the intention of purifying the curia, was unaware of the grave danger in which Fisher lay; and in the hope of reconciling the king with the bishop, created him (loth of May 1535) cardinal priest of St Vitalis.
The cardinal was brought to trial at Westminster (17th of June 1535) on the charge that he did "openly declare in English that the king, our sovereign lord, is not supreme head on earth of the Church of England," and was condemned to a traitor's death at Tyburn, a sentence afterwards changed.
The rapid excretion by the kidneys is one of the cardinal conditions of safety, and also necessitates the very frequent administration of the drug.
He studied law at Bologna, and after his uncle's election he was created successively bishop, cardinal and vice-chancellor of the church, an act of nepotism characteristic of the age.
Before his elevation to the papacy Cardinal Borgia's passion for Vannozza somewhat diminished, and she subsequently led a very retired life.
Cesare, then a youth of sixteen and a student at Pisa, was made archbishop of Valencia, his nephew Giovanni received a cardinal's hat, and for the duke of Gandia and Giuffre the pope proposed to carve fiefs out of the papal states and the kingdom of Naples.
In this he was opposed by Cardinal della Rovere, whose candidature for the papacy had been backed by Ferdinand.
Alexander now feared that the king might depose him for simony and summon a council, but he won over the bishop of St Malo, who had much influence over the king, with a cardinal's hat, and agreed to send Cesare, as legate, to Naples with the French army, to deliver Jem to Charles and to give him Civitavecchia (January 16, 1495).
The process was a simple one: any cardinal, nobleman or official who was known to be rich would be accused of some offence; imprisonment and perhaps murder followed at once, and then the confiscation of his property.
As soon as Alexander heard the news he decoyed Cardinal Orsini to the Vatican and cast him into a dungeon, where he died.
Cardinal Michiel, who was poisoned in April, J.
da Santa Croce, who had helped to seize Cardinal Orsini, and Troches or Troccio, one of the family's most faithful assassins; all these murders brought immense sums to the pope.
About Cardinal Ferrari's death there is more doubt; he probably died of fever, but the pope immediately confiscated his goods.
1294) and in Cardinal Pierre d'Ailly's De imagine Mundi 0410).
The learned Cardinal Nicolaus Krebs, of Cusa (Cues) on the Moselle, who died 1464, drew a map of Germany which was first published in 1491; D.
duly convoked it for this date to the town of Basel, and selected to preside over it the cardinal Julian Cesarini, a man of the greatest worth, both intellectually and morally.
During this time the council of Basel, though abandoned by Cesarini and most of its members, persisted none the less, under the presidency of Cardinal Aleman, in affirming its oecumenical character.
Perouse, Le Cardinal Louis Aleman, president du concile de Bole (Paris, 1904).
He and his elder brother Giuseppe (known as Cardinal Pecci) received their earliest education from the Jesuits at Viterbo, and completed their education in Rome.
On his arrival in Rome he would, at the request of King Leopold, have been created cardinal but for the death of Gregory XVI.
Nevertheless, he remained in the comparative obscurity of his episcopal see until the death of Cardinal Antonelli; but in 1877, when the important papal office of camerlengo became vacant, Pius IX.
appointed to it Cardinal Pecci, who thus returned to reside in Rome, with the prospect of having shortly responsible functions to perform during the vacancy of the Holy See, though the camerlengo was traditionally regarded as disqualified by his office from succeeding to the papal throne.
died (7th February 1878) Cardinal Pecci was elected pope at the subsequent conclave with comparative unanimity, obtaining at the third scrutiny (loth February) forty-four out of sixty-one votes, or more than the requisite two-thirds majority.
led some of the cardinals to vote for Pecci, since his age (within a few days of sixty-eight) and health warranted the expectation that his reign would be comparatively brief; but he had for years been known as one of the few "papable" cardinals; and although his long seclusion at Perugia had caused his name to be little known outside Italy, there was a general belief that the conclave had selected a man who was a prudent statesman as well as a devout churchman; and Newman (whom he created a cardinal in the year following) is reported to have said, "In the successor of Pius I recognize a depth of thought, a tenderness of heart, a winning simplicity, and a power answering to the name of Leo, which prevent me from lamenting that Pius is no longer here."
On the 10th of December 1538 he was appointed a cardinal priest by Pope Paul III., under the title of St Stephen in the Coelian Hill.
He was the only Scotsman who had been named to that high office by an undisputed right, Cardinal Wardlaw, bishop of Glasgow, having received his appointment from the anti-pope Clement VII.
On the death of Archbishop James Beaton in 1539, the cardinal was raised to the primatial see of Scotland.
The cardinal was, by order of the regent, committed to the custody of Lord Seaton; but his imprisonment was merely nominal, and he was soon again at liberty and at the head of the party opposed to the English alliance.
Arran too was soon won over to his views, dismissed the preachers by whom he had been surrounded, and joined the cardinal at Stirling, where in September 1543 Beaton crowned the young queen.
Unfortunately politics were inextricably interwoven with the religious controversies of the time, and resistance to English influence involved resistance to the activities of the reformers in the church, whose ultimate victory has obscured the cardinal's genuine merits as a statesman.
These barons, with the knowledge and approbation of King Henry, were engaged in a plot to assassinate the cardinal, and in this plot Wishart is now proved to have been a willing agent.
The cardinal, though ignorant of the details of the plot, perhaps suspected Wishart's knowledge of it, and in any case was not sorry to have an excuse for seizing one of the most eloquent supporters of the new opinions.
On the 28th of February 1546 Wishart was brought to trial in the cathedral before the cardinal and other judges, the regent declining to take any active part, and, being found guilty of heresy, was condemned to death and burnt.
The death of Wishart produced a deep effect on the Scottish people, and the cardinal became an object of general dislike, which encouraged his enemies to proceed with the design they had formed against him.
The conspirators, the chief of whom were Norman Leslie, master of Rothes, and William Kirkaldy of Grange, contrived to obtain admission at daybreak of the 29th of May 1546, and murdered the cardinal under circumstances of horrible mockery and atrocity.
A son of John Bethune of Auchmuty and a nephew of Cardinal Beaton, James was a trusted adviser of the Scottish regent, Mary of Lorraine, widow of James V., and a determined foe of the reformers.
The cardinal point of his doctrine was the identity of religion and philosophy.
The divisions shown above were adopted on the 21st of December 1827, the legations being ruled by a cardinal and the delegations by a prelate.
The cardinal doctrines of the Kabbalah embrace the nature of the Deity, the Divine emanations or Sephiroth, the cosmogony, the creation of angels and man, their destiny, and the import of the revealed law.
Also in addition to the cardinal numbers there are the ordinal numbers: the fifth apple and the tenth pear claim thought.
A critical defence of them would require a volume.1 Cardinal Numbers.
Two classes between which a one-one relation exists have the same cardinal number and are called cardinally similar; and the cardinal number of the class a is a certain class whose members are themselves classes - namely, it is the class composed of all those classes for which a one-one correlation with a exists.
Thus the cardinal number of a is itself a class, and furthermore a is a member of it.
Thus the cardinal number one is the class of unit classes, the cardinal number two is the class of doublets, and so on.
The cardinal number zero is the class of classes with no members; but there is only one such class, namely - the null class.
Thus this cardinal 1 Cf.
The operations of addition and multiplication of two given cardinal numbers can be defined by taking two classes a and 13, satisfying the conditions (1) that their cardinal numbers are respectively the given numbers, and (2) that they contain no member in common, and then by defining by reference to a and (3 two other suitable classes whose cardinal numbers are defined to be respectively the required sum and product of the cardinal numbers in question.
Cardinal numbers form a class.
Zero is a cardinal number.
If a is a cardinal number, a+I is a cardinal number.
If s is any class and zero is a member of it, also if when x is a cardinal number and a member of s, also x-}-I is a member of s, then the whole class of cardinal numbers is contained in s.
If a and b are cardinal numbers, and a+I =b+1, then a =b.
If a is a cardinal number, then ad-i #o.
For there is no self-contained science of cardinal numbers.
They are excellent principles of the highest value, but they are in no sense the necessary premisses which must be proved before any other propositions of cardinal numbers can be established.
R and R', x and x', &c. It is evident that the ordinal similarity of two relations implies the cardinal similarity of their fields, but not conversely.
The relation-number of a relation should be compared with the cardinal number of a class.
Now if n be any finite cardinal number, it can be proved that the class of those serial relations, which have a field whose cardinal number is n, is a relation-number.
Thus, corresponding to the cardinal numbers 2, 3, 4.
The definition of the ordinal number requires some little ingenuity owing to the fact that no serial relation can have a field whose cardinal number is 1; but we must omit here the explanation of the process.
But the definition of the cardinal number of a class applies when the class is not finite, and it can be proved that there are different infinite cardinal numbers, and that there is a least infinite cardinal, now usually denoted by o where to is the Hebrew letter aleph.
Contrasting the above definitions of number, cardinal and ordinals, with the alternative theory that number is an ultimate idea incapable of definition, we notice that our procedure exacts a greater attention, combined with a smaller credulity; for every idea, assumed as ultimate, demands a separate act of faith.
If m and n are finite cardinal numbers, the rational number m/n is the relation which any finite cardinal number x bears to any finite cardinal number y when n X x = m X y.
Thus the rational number one, which we will denote by ' r, is not the cardinal number I; for t r is the relation I/I as defined above, and is thus a relation holding between certain pairs of cardinals.
In the above example 2 R is an integral real number, which is distinct from a rational integer, and from a cardinal number.
Such a number is a "one-many" relation which relates n signed real numbers (or n algebraic complex numbers when they are already defined by this procedure) to the n cardinal numbers I, 2..
n in the example, but that each cardinal is only correlated with one signed number.
For example, the application of the theory of cardinal numbers to classes of physical entities involves in practice some process of counting.
Indeed, it is only by experience that we can know that any definite process of counting will give the true cardinal number of some class of entities.
Whatever be the historical worth of this story, it may safely be said that it cannot be disproved by deductive reasoning from the premisses of abstract logic. The most we can do is to assert that a universe in which such things are liable to happen on a large scale is unfitted for the practical application of the theory of cardinal numbers.
The pope urged the king of Hungary to take advantage of this favourable opportunity by breaking the truce solemnly agreed upon, and nineteen days after it had been concluded a coalition was formed against the Turks; a large army headed by Ladislaus I., king of Hungary, Hunyadi, voivode of Walachia, and Cardinal Cesarini crossed the Danube and reached Varna, where they hoped to be joined by the Greek emperor.
The battle was hotly contested; but, in spite of the prowess of Hunyadi, the rout of the Christians was complete; the king of Hungary and Cardinal Cesarini were among the killed.
Turkey's progress in the path of reform was viewed with some uneasiness in Russia, the cardinal principle of whose policy since 1829 had been to maintain her own influence at Constantinople by keeping the Otto- Policy man government weak.
So urgent was the need of restoring union at any cost that even prelates who had taken an active part in the work of the council of Pisa, such as Pierre d'Ailly, cardinal bishop of Cambrai, were forced to admit, in view of the fact that the decisions of that council had been and were still contested, that the only possible course was to reconsider the question of the union de novo, entirely disregarding all previous deliberations on the subject, and treating the claims of John and his two competitors with the strictest impartiality.
But at the end of three days the conclave resulted in the election of Cardinal Otto Colonna, who took the name of Martin V.
This belief in positions was the cardinal principle of Prussian strategy in those days.
The earlier part of it treated of the mythical adventures of Aeneas in Sicily, Carthage and Italy, and borrowed from the interview of Zeus and Thetis in the first book of the Iliad the idea of the interview of Jupiter and Venus; which Virgil has made one of the cardinal passages in the Aeneid.
Of the mansion-house founded by William of Waynflete, bishop of Winchester (c. 1450), in which Cardinal Wolsey resided for three or four weeks after his sudden fall from power in 1529, only the gatehouse remains.
On the 1st of August 1431 a large army of crusaders, under Frederick, margrave of Brandenburg, whom Cardinal Cesarini accompanied as papal legate, crossed the Bohemian frontier; on the 14th of August it reached the town of Domazlice (Tauss); but on the arrival of the Hussite army under Prokop the crusaders immediately took to flight, almost without offering resistance.
CAESAR BARONIUS (1538-1607), Italian cardinal and ecclesiastical historian, was born at Sora, and was educated at Veroli and Naples.
Clement VIII., whose confessor he was, made him cardinal in 1596 and librarian of the Vatican.
c, c', cardinal process; b', b', hinge-plate; s, dental sockets; 1, loop; q, crura; a, a', adductor impressions; c, accessory divaricator; b, peduncle muscles; ss, septum.
A, ventral, B, dorsal valves; 1, loop; q, crura; ss, septum; c, cardinal process.
1, loop; b, hinge-plate; c, cardinal process.
Two other pairs have been termed divaricators by Hancock, or cardinal muscles (" muscles diducteurs " of Gratiolet), and have for function the opening of the valves.
The divaricators proper are stated by Hancock to arise from the ventral valve, one on each side, a little in advance of and close to the adductors, and after rapidly diminishing in size become attached to the cardinal process, a space or prominence between the sockets in the dorsal valve.
The accessory divaricators are, according to the same authority, a pair of small muscles which have their ends attached to the ventral valve, one on each side of the median line, a little behind the united basis of the adductors, and again to the extreme point of the cardinal process.
The place was dismantled in 1652 by order of Cardinal Mazarin.
GIROLAMO ALEANDRO (HIERONYMUS ALEANDER) (1480-1542), Italian cardinal, was born at Motta, near Venice, on the 13th of February 1480.
He was created cardinal in 1536 by Paul III.
Its principal building, the former episcopal residence, rebuilt by Cardinal de Rohan in 1779, is now used as barracks.
Mgr Meignan, then bishop of Chalons, afterwards cardinal and archbishop of Tours, ordained him priest in 1879.
15th, 1900), the first of a series intended to correct and replace Renan's presentation of that great subject, was promptly censured by Cardinal Richard, archbishop of Paris; and though scholarly and zealous ecclesiastics, such as the Jesuit Pere Durand and Monseigneur Mignot, archbishop of Albi, defended the general method and several conclusions of the article, the aged cardinal never rested henceforward till he had secured a papal condemnation also.
On the 2 1st of January 1903 Cardinal Richard publicly condemned the book, as not furnished with an imprimatur, and as calculated gravely to trouble the faith of the faithful in the fundamental Catholic dogmas.
The pope refused to interfere directly, and the nuncio, Mgr Lorenzelli, failed in securing more than ten public adhesions to the cardinal's condemnation from among the eighty bishops of France.
Cardinal Sarto became Pope Pius X.
The second and third, addressed respectively to a cardinal (Perraud) and a bishop (Le Camus), are polemical or ironical in tone; the others are all written to friends in a warm, expansive mood; the fourth letter especially, appropriated to Mgr Mignot, attains a grand elevation of thought and depth of mystical conviction.
The pope's secretary of state had on the 19th December, in a letter to Cardinal Richard, recounted the causes of the condemnation in the identical terms used by the latter himself when condemning the Religion d'Israel three years before.
On the 27th of March 1882 the dignity of cardinal was conferred upon Lavigerie, but the great object of his ambition was to restore the see of St Cyprian; and in that also he was successful, for by a bull of 10th November 1884 the metropolitan see of Carthage was re-erected, and Lavigerie received the pallium on the 25th of January 1885.
Cardinal Siffrein, who is known as the Abbe Maury (1746-1817), resumed all the known artifices of sermon-style in a volume which has a permanent historical value, the well-known Essai sur l'eloquence de la chaire (1810); he was himself rather a fiery politician than a persuasive divine.
approved, and Cardinal Schonberg transmitted to the author a formal demand for full publication.
In 1509 he went with Cardinal Christopher Bainbridge, archbishop of York, to Rome, where he won the esteem of Pope Leo X., who advised Henry VIII.
PIERRE DE BERULLE (1575-1629), French cardinal and statesman,was born at Serilly, near Troyes, on the 4th of February 1 575.
Soon after his ordination in 1599, he assisted Cardinal Duperron in his controversy with the Protestant Philippe de Mornay, and made numerous converts.
de Berulle et les Carmelites; Le Pre de Berulle et l'oratoire de Jesus; Le Cardinal de Berulle et Richelieu (3 vols., 1872-1876), by the Abbe M.
Petronio; and in 1562, by order of Pius IV., the university itself was constructed close by, by Carlo Borromeo, then cardinal legate.
He now set out once more for Scotland, but was intercepted by the Florentine cardinal Luigi Capponi, who induced him to remain at Bologna as professor of Humanity.
In 1447 he migrated to Italy, where Cardinal Bessarion gave him his patronage.
Remains of a monastery of the Cordeliers (15th and 17th centuries), of a building (13th century)known as the Palais Cardinal, and a square keep (the chief relic of a stronghold founded by Louis VIII.) are also to be seen.
In 1905 the archbishop of Rio de Janeiro was made a cardinal.
by Pope Julius II., and the jewels restored to Scotland on the death (1807) of Cardinal York, the last of the Stuarts.
The Piccolomini Library, adjoining the duomo, was founded by Cardinal Francesco Piccolomini (afterwards Pius III.) in honour of his uncle, Pius II.
Through the favour of Leo X., he was succeeded by his cousin Raffaello Petrucci, previously governor of St Angelo and afterwards a cardinal.
He caused Borghese and a younger son named Fabio to be proclaimed as rebels, while a third son, Cardinal Alphonso, was strangled by order of Leo X.
There three bishops were consecrated in 1528 by Peter Magnusson, who had himself been consecrated by a cardinal with the pope's approval at Rome in 1524, for the see of Westiras, to which he had been elected by the chapter.
The case first came under consideration when Cardinal Pole returned to England early in Mary's reign with legatine authority for reconciling the realm to the Holy See.
Moreover, in a letter to Cardinal Richard, archbishop of Paris, the pope affirms that this his solemn decision is " firm, authoritative and irrevocable."
Hutton, The Anglican Ministry, with a preface by Cardinal J.
Cardinal Granvella, who was a native of the city, became archbishop in 1584, and founded a university which existed until the French Revolution.
Pierre d'Ailly (1350-1425) and John Gerson (Jean Charlier de Gerson, 1363-1429), both chancellors of the university of Paris, and the former a cardinal of the church, are the chief figures among the later Nominalists.
They belong indeed (Gerson in particular) to the history of mysticism rather than of Scholasticism, and the same may be said of another cardinal, Nicolaus of Cusa (1401-1464), who is sometimes reckoned among the last of the Scholastics, but who has more affinity with Erigena than with any intervening teacher.
The experienced diplomatist Cardinal Cesarini was accordingly sent to Hungary to reconcile Wladislaus with the emperor.
Unfortunately, two days later, Cardinal Cesarini absolved the king from the oath whereby he had sworn to observe the peace of Szeged, and was thus mainly responsible for the catastrophe of Varna, when four months later (Nov.
The primate Cardinal, Janos Vitez (1408-1472), at the beginning, and the primate, Cardinal Tamas Bakocz, at the end of the reign were men of eminent ability and the highest culture.
Kollonich, who had been created a cardinal in 1685, archbishop of Kalocsa in 1691 and archbishop of Esztergom (Gran) and primate of Hungary in 1695, was now at the head of affairs, and his plan was to germanize Hungary as speedily as possible by promoting a wholesale immigration into the recovered provinces, all of which were in a terrible state of dilapidation.'
(Pozsony, 1847), John Czech, Gustavus Wenczel, Frederick Pesty and Paul Szlemenics as writers on legal history; Joseph Bajza, who in 1845 commenced a History of the World; Alexander Szilagyi, some of whose works, like those of Ladislaus KOvary, bear on the past of Transylvania, others on the Hungarian revolution of 1848-1849; Charles L, nyi and John Pauer, authors of treatises on Roman Catholic ecclesiastical history; John Szombathi, Emeric Revesz and Balogh, writers on Protestant church history; William Fraknoi, biographer of Cardinal Pazman, and historian of the Hungarian diets; and Anthony Gevay, Aaron Sziladi, Joseph Podhradczky, Charles Szabo, John Jerney and Francis Salamon, who have investigated and elucidated many special historical subjects.
ARMAND JEAN DU PLESSIS DE, CARDINAL RICHELIEU (1585-1642), French statesman, was born of an ancient family of the lesser nobility of Poitou.
The family produced not a few turbulent warriors during the Hundred Years' War, and the cardinal's father, Francois du Plessis, seigneur de Richelieu, began his career by killing the murderer of his elder brother and then fighting through the wars of religion, first as a favourite of Henry III., and after his death under Henry IV.
The mother of the cardinal, Susanne de La Porte, belonged to a family of the magistrature, her father, Francois de La Porte, being one of the first advocates of the parlement of Paris.
Luynes and the king recalled him to the post at Angouleme with the queen-mother, who received him ungraciously but who soon yielded to his judgment and allowed him to sign the treaty of Angouleme with the Cardinal de la Rochefoucauld, acting for the king.
La Vieuville thought to compromise by forcing the cardinal into a "council of despatches," with merely the privilege of advising the king's council but entrusted with no power.
But the religious toleration of the edict of Nantes was reaffirmed while its political privilegeswere destroyed, and Huguenot officers fought loyally in the foreign enterprises of the cardinal.
But before taking further steps he retired to Versailles, then a hunting lodge, and there, listening to two of Richelieu's friends, Claude de Saint-Simon, father of the memoir writer, and Cardinal La Valette, sent for Richelieu in the evening, and while the salons of the Luxembourg were full of expectant courtiers the king was reassuring the cardinal of his continued favour and support.
The queen-mother followed the king and cardinal to Compiegne, but as she refused to be reconciled with Richelieu she was left there alone and forbidden to return to Paris.
This vain young favourite of the king was treated as though he were really a formidable traitor, and his friend, De Thou, son of the historian, whose sole guilt was not to have revealed the plot, was placed in a boat behind the stately barge of the cardinal and thus conveyed up the Rhone to his trial and death at Lyons.
To humble the Habsburgs he aided the Protestant princes of Germany against the emperor, in spite of the strong opposition of the disappointed Catholic party in France, which had looked to the cardinal as a champion of the faith.
When this devout maiden began to denounce the ungodly cardinal who was allied with heretics, her confessor - in Richelieu's service - succeeded in inducing her to become a nun.
His frame was sickly and wasted with disease, yet when clad in his red cardinal's.
A clear conscience, not less than a sense of his own superiority to others at the court of Louis XIII., made the cardinal haughtily assert his ascendancy, and the king shared his belief in both.
He lived in imperial state, building himself the great Palais Cardinal, now the Palais Royal, in Paris, another at Rueil near Paris, and rebuilding his ancestral chateau in Poitou.
of Marie de Medici and Louis XIII.), sometimes attributed to Mezeray, published at Amsterdam in 1730 and, under the title Histoire de la regence de reine Marie de Medicis, femme de Henry IV., at the Hague in 1743 Memoires sur la regne de Louis XIII., extending from 1610 to 1638, and of which the earlier portion is a reprint of the Histoire de la mere et du fils, published in Petitot's collection (Paris, 1823 seq.); Testament politique d'Armand du Plessis, cardinal de Richelieu (Amsterdam, 1687 seq.); Journal de 1630-31 (Paris, 1645); "Lettres, instructions diplomatiques, et papiers d'etat," published by G.
Hanotaux, Cardinal Richelieu (1893), one volume of the four then promised, an exhaustive history of the period down to 1614; and G.
Y is represented by the length of the ordinate NP, so that the representation is cardinal; but this ordinate really corresponds to the point N, so that the representation of X is ordinal.
It was the cardinal Louis de Rohan, formerly ambassador at Vienna, whence he had been recalled in 1774, having incurred the queen's displeasure by revealing to the empress Maria Theresa the frivolous actions of her daughter, a disclosure which brought a maternal reprimand, and for having spoken lightly of Maria Theresa in a letter of which Marie Antoinette learned the contents.
After his return to France the cardinal was anxious to regain the favour of the queen in order to obtain the position of prime minister.
This adventuress soon gained the greatest ascendancy over the cardinal, with whom she had intimate relations.
The comtesse de Lamotte assured the cardinal that she was making efforts on his behalf, and soon announced to him that he might send his justification to Marie Antoinette.
The tone of the letters became very warm, and the cardinal, convinced that Marie Antoinette was in love with him, became ardently enamoured of her.
He begged the countess to obtain a secret interview for him with the queen, and a meeting took place in August 1784 in a grove in the garden at Versailles between him and a lady whom the cardinal believed to be the queen herself.
In any case the countess profited by the cardinal's conviction to borrow from him sums of money destined ostensibly for the queen's works of charity.
It is still an unsettled question whether she simply mystified people, or whether she was really employed by the queen for some unknown purpose, perhaps to ruin the cardinal.
Madame de Lamotte had told the cardinal that Marie Antoinette would make him a sign to indicate her thanks, and Rohan believed that she did make him a sign.
But it is certain that the cardinal, convinced that he was acting for the queen, had engaged the jewellers to thank her; that Boehmer and Bassenge, before the sale, in order to be doubly sure, had sent word to the queen of the negotiations in her name; that Marie Antoinette had allowed the bargain to be concluded, and that after she had received a letter of thanks from Boehmer, she had burned it.
When the time came to pay, the comtesse de Lamotte presented the cardinal's notes; but these were insufficient, and Boehmer complained to the queen, who told him that she had received no necklace and had never ordered it.
On the 15th of August 1785, Assumption day, when the whole court was awaiting the king and queen in order to go to the chapel, the cardinal de Rohan, who was preparing to officiate, was arrested and taken to the Bastille.
The cardinal de Rohan accepted the parlement of Paris as judges.
A sensational trial resulted (May 31, 1786) in the acquittal of the cardinal, of the girl Oliva and of Cagliostro.
People, however, persisted in the belief that the queen had used the countess as an instrument to satisfy her hatred of the cardinal de Rohan.
In 1419 Louis of Bar, brother of the last-named, a cardinal and bishop of Chalons, gave the duchy of Bar to Rene of Anjou, the grandson of his sister Yolande, who married Isabella, duchess of Lorraine.
about the year 820, and again by Cardinal Sfondrati in 1599.
In later times it was renowned for its richly endowed university, founded by Cardinal Jimenes de Cisneros in 1510, which at the height of its prosperity numbered 12,000 students, and was second only to that of Salamanca.
After the removal of the university to Madrid in 1836 the town rapidly declined, and the government turned most of the principal buildings erected by Cardinal Jimenes in the 16th century into a depot for the archives of various state departments.
JEAN FRANCOIS PAUL DE GONDI RETZ, CARDINAL DE (1614-1679), French churchman and agitator, was born at Montmirail in 1614.
The family of Retz had military traditions, but it had also much church influence, and, despite the very unclerical leanings of the future cardinal, which were not corrected by the teachings of his tutor St Vincent de Paul, the intentions of his family never varied respecting him.
He was made cardinal almost by accident, and under a misapprehension on the pope's part.
La Rochefoucauld's character of the cardinal is on the whole harsh but scarcely unjust, and one of its sentences formulates, though in a manner which has a certain recoil upon the writer, the great defect of Retz's conduct: "Il a suscite les plus grands desordres dans l'etat sans avoir un dessein forme de s'en prevaloir."
The Memoirs of the cardinal de Retz were first published in a very imperfect condition in 1717 at Nancy.
Towards the end of the 11th century Cardinal Benno, the opponent of Hildebrand, is said to have made him the first of a long line of magician popes.
The reform leaders in the Transvaal, down to and including the Johannesburg rising, had always recognized as a cardinal principle the maintenance of the independence of the state.
At the opening of 1354 he was sent with the cardinal of Boulogne, Pierre I., duke of Bourbon, and Jean VI., count of Vendome, to Mantes to treat with Charles the Bad, king of Navarre, who had caused the constable, Charles of Spain, to be assassinated, and from this time dates his connexion with this king.
Attaching himself afterwards to Cardinal de Tournon, he accompanied him in 1554 to Italy, whence he was several times sent on embassies to the king, with reports on the siege of Siena.
The first mention of his name occurs in the accounts of the church of St Maclou at Rouen in the year 1540, and in the following year he was employed at the cathedral of the same town, where he added to the tomb of Cardinal d'Amboise a statue of his nephew Georges, afterwards removed, and possibly carved portions of the tomb of Louis de Breze, executed some time after 1 545.
GIACOMO ANTONELLI (1806-1876), Italian cardinal, was born at Sonnino on the 2nd of April 1806.
Created cardinal (11th June 1847), he was chosen by Pius IX.
Here we recognize the true Greek But this artistic completeness was closely connected with the third cardinal virtue of Hippocratic medicine - the clear recognition of disease as being equally with life a process governed by what we should now call natural laws, which could be known by observation, and which indicated the spontaneous and normal direction of recovery, by following which alone could the physician succeed.
The times at which crises were to be expected were naturally looked for with anxiety; and it was a cardinal point in the Hippocratic system to foretell them with precision.
The cardinal line of the poem, "Tantum religio potuit suadere malorum," is elicited from him as his protest against the sacrifice of Iphigenia by her father.
JACQUES DAVY DUPERRON (1556-1618), French cardinal, was born at St L6, in Normandy, on the 15th of November 1556.
On the death of Henry III., after having supported for some time the cardinal de Bourbon, the head of the league against the king, Duperron became a faithful servant of Henry IV., and in 1591 was created by him bishop of Evreux.
He instructed Henry in the Catholic religion; and in 1594 was sent to Rome, where with Cardinal d'Ossat (1536-1604) he obtained Henry's absolution.
While still at Rome he was made a cardinal, and in 1606 became archbishop of Sens.
See Les Diverses Ouvres de l'illustrissime cardinal Duperron (Paris,.
1622); Pierre Feret, Le Cardinal Duperron (Paris, 1877).
Upon the death of Henry Stuart, Cardinal York, the last of James II.'s descendants, in 1807, the rightful occupant of the British throne according to legitimist principles was to be found among the descendants of Henrietta, daughter of Charles I., who married Philip I., duke of Orleans.
In 1279 Pope Nicholas sent his nephew, the friar preacher Latino Frangipani Malabranca, whom he had created cardinal bishop of Ostia the same year, to reconcile the parties in Florence once more.
Cardinal Latino to some extent succeeded, and was granted a kind of temporary dictatorship. He raised the 12 buoni uomini to 14 (8 Guelphs and 6 Ghibellines), to be changed every two months; and they were assisted by a council of loo.
They turned the tables on the pope by engaging Hawkwood, and although the Bretons by order of Cardinal Robert of Geneva (afterwards the anti-pope Clement VII.) committed frightful atrocities in Romagna, their captains were bribed by the republic not to molest its territory.
Gregory refused, but after consulting a committee of theologians who declared him to be a heretic, the council promoted by Cardinal Cossa and other independent prelates met at Pisa.
Alexander having died in May before entering the Eternal City, Cardinal Cossa was elected as John XXIII.; Florence without offending him made peace with Ladislas, who had ceased to be dangerous, and purchased Cortona of the pope.
A Spanish army under Raymundo de Cardona and accompanied by Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici and his brother Giuliano entered the republic's territory and demanded ioo,000 florins, the dismissal of Soderini, and the readmission of the Medici.
At his death in 1519 Cardinal Giulio de' Medici (son of the Giuliano murdered in the Pazzi conspiracy) took charge of the government; he met with some opposition and had to play off the Ottimati against the Piagnoni, but he did not rule badly and maintained at all events the outward forms of freedom.
and sent his relatives Ippolito and Alessandro, both minors and bastards, to Florence under the tutorship of Cardinal Silvio Passerini.
Nicholas was selected to deliver the oration at the reception of Cardinal Pole's visitors by the university in 1557, and soon after Elizabeth's accession he went to Rome where he was befriended by Pole's confidant, Cardinal Morone; he also owed much to the generosity of Sir Francis Englefield.
He was ordained priest at Rome, and was, even before the end of 1550, mentioned as a likely candidate for the cardinal's hat.
For the next few years he was employed by Cardinal Hosius, the learned Polish prelate, in his efforts to check the spread of heresy in Poland, Lithuania and Prussia.
See Lewis's Introduction (1877); Calendars of Irish, Foreign and Spanish State Papers, and of the Carew MSS.; Knox's Letters of Cardinal Allen; T.
- c. 1521?), known also as Corneto from his birthplace, Italian cardinal and writer, was sent by Innocent VIII.
and was made by him cardinal (May 31, 1503).
Of the three, Cardinal Adrian was the first to fall ill, the pope succumbing a week after.
the cardinal was implicated in the conspiracy of Cardinal Petrucci against the pope, and confessed his guilt; but, pardon being offered only on condition of the payment of 25,000 ducats, he fled from Rome and was subsequently deposed from the cardinalate.
as a residence for the English ambassador to the Holy See; and on his flight Henry VIII., who had quarrelled with him, gave it to Cardinal Campeggio.
His first recorded appearance in political affairs was in 1218 I 219, when he was associated with Cardinal Hugolinus (afterwards Gregory IX.) in negotiating a peace between Genoa and Pisa.
In September of the same year he was created cardinal priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina.
(July 1492); men's minds were full of anxiety, an anxiety increased by the scandalous election of Cardinal Borgia to the papal chair.
See Francis William Bain, Queen Christina of Sweden (London, 1890); Robert Nisbet Bain, Scandinavia (Cambridge, 1905); Christina de Suede et le Cardinal Azzolino (Paris, 1899); Claretta Gaudenzio, La Regina Christina de Suezia in Italia (Turin, 1892); Hans Emil Friis, Dronning Christina (Copenhagen, 1896); C. N.
The best known are the Annales Ecclesiastici, written by Cardinal Baronius as a rejoinder to and refutation of the Historia ecclesiastica or "Centuries" of the Protestant theologians of Magdeburg (12 vols., published at Rome from 1788 to 1793; Baronius's work stops at the year 1197).
The first step in this direction is to arrange scientific method and positive knowledge in order, and this brings us to another cardinal element in the Comtist system, the classification of the sciences.
Comte's immense superiority over such praeRevolutionary utopians as the Abbe Saint Pierre, no less than over the group of post-revolutionary utopians, is especially visible in this firm grasp of the cardinal truth that the improvement of the social organism can only be effected by a moral development, and never by any changes in mere political mechanism, or any violences in the way of an artificial redistribution of wealth.
On the death of Cardinal Allen in 1594 he made strenuous efforts to be appointed his successor.
Manning, afterwards cardinal archbishop. The State in its Relations with the Church was his practical contribution to a controversy in which his deepest convictions were involved.
about 1527 and made the acquaintance of the future Cardinal Pole.
In 1667 he became a Dominican (as Vincentius Maria), studied theology and philosophy, was made a cardinal in 1672 and archbishop of Benevento in 1686.
Diane, Montmorency and the Guises were all-powerful, and dismissed Cardinal de Tournon, de Longueval, the duchesse d'Etampes and all the late king's friends and officials.
Now one of the cardinal rules of politeness is to avoid burdening a stranger with the weight of ones own woes.
- In the kata-kiri-bori every line has its proper value in the pictorial design, and strength and directness become cardinal elements in the strokes of the burin just as they do in the brushwork of the picture-painter.
The royal favour then elevated Anne de Montmorency and Philippe de Chabot, and in the last years of the reign Marshal d'Annebaud and Cardinal de Tournon.
From that time, in spite of occasional indulgences shown to the Reformers, due to his desire to conciliate the Protestant powers, Francis gave a free hand to the party of repression, of which the most active and most pitiless member was Cardinal de Tournon; and the end of the reign was sullied by the massacre of the Waldenses (1545) Francis introduced new methods into government.
But though he thus sacrificed his own prospects to the cardinal's good pleasure, Dlugosz was far too sagacious to approve of the provocative attitude of Olesnicki, and frequently and fearlessly remonstrated with him on his conduct.
In his account, however, of the quarrel between Casimir and Olesnicki concerning the question of priority between the cardinal and the primate of Poland he warmly embraced the cause of the former, and even pronounced Casimir worthy of dethronement.
The office of administering the cardinal's estate was a very ungrateful one, for the family resented the liberal benefactions of their kinsman to the Church and the univesity, and accused Dlugosz of exercising undue influence, from which charge he triumphantly vindicated himself.
In the centre of the old town is the Place d'Armes, in which stands the former hotel-de-ville (rebuilt in 174.0, restored in 1867), with busts of Eustache de St Pierre, Francis, duke of Guise, and Cardinal Richelieu.
He withdrew from Paris, but soon afterwards returned, the decree against him being cancelled through the influence of the cardinal of Lorraine.
Ricci, Francesco Nazzari, the future cardinal, established in 1668 the Giornale de' letterati upon the plan of the French Journal des savants.
de Peiresc, who recommended him to Cardinal Francesco Barberini, papal nuncio and the possessor of the most important private library in Rome.
On the cardinal's return in 1627 he took Holstenius to live with him in his palace and made him his librarian.
St Peter's church, a Perpendicular building, is said to have been the scene of the ordination of Cardinal Wolsey in 1498.
In 1561 he went to teach theology in Rome, reckoning among his pupils Robert Bellarmine, afterwards cardinal; then passed into Sicily; and in 1569 he was sent to Paris, where his expositions of the writings of Thomas Aquinas attracted large audiences.
The sermons of these men were largely scriptural, the cardinal evangelical truths being emphasized with reality and vigour, but with a tendency to abstract theology rather than concrete religion.
HENRY EDWARD MANNING (1808-1892), English Roman Catholic cardinal, was born at Totteridge, Hertfordshire, on the 15th of July 1808, 1 being the third and youngest son of William Manning, a West India merchant, who was a director of the Bank of England and governor, 1812-1813, and who sat in Parliament for some thirty years, representing in the Tory interest Plympton Earle, Lymington, Evesham, and Penryn consecutively.
On the following Sunday he was confirmed and received to communion by Cardinal Wiseman, who also, within ten weeks of his reception, ordained him priest.
During his visits to England he was at the disposal of Cardinal Wiseman, who through him, at the time of the Crimean War, was enabled to obtain from the government the concession that for the future Roman Catholic army chaplains should not be regarded as part of the staff of the Protestant chaplain-general.
The community was thus of the greatest service to Cardinal Wiseman, whose right-hand man Manning thenceforward became.
acting always, however, in subordination to Cardinal Wiseman; and on the latter's death (Feb.
In 1875 he published a reply to Gladstone's attack on the Vatican decrees; and on the 15th of March in that year he was created cardinal, with the title of SS.
7, 1878); and in the subsequent conclave, while some Italian cardinals were prepared to vote for his election to fill the vacant chair, he himself supported Cardinal Pecci, afterwards known as Leo XIII.
That he was such he denied more than once (Lemire, Le Cardinal Manning et son action sociale, Paris, 1893, p. 210), nor was he ever a Socialist in principle; but he favoured some of the methods of Socialism, because they alone seemed to him practically to meet the case of that pressing poverty which appealed to his heart.
The Roman Catholic Cathedral at Westminster is his joint memorial with his predecessor, Cardinal Wiseman.
Realizing his folly he abdicated on the 6th of December 1796, and retired to Sardinia, That princess, in spite of her French origin, resisted the attempts of France, then dominated by Cardinal Richelieu, to govern Savoy, but her quarrels with her brothers-in-law led to civil war, in which the latter obtained the help of Spain, and Christina that of France.
Cardinal Pole had to leave the council because he advocated the doctrine of justification by faith.
Even at the later sessions the cardinal of Lorraine with the French prelates supported the German representatives in requests for the cup for the laity,the permission of the marriage of priests, and the revision of the breviary.
(Carlo della Torre Rezzonico), pope from 1758 to 1769, was born in Venice, on the 7th of March 1693, filled various important posts in the Curia, became cardinal in 1737, bishop of Padua in 1743, and succeeded Benedict XIV.
The Order thus reached the highest pinnacle of its fame, and new knights flocked to be enrolled therein from the flower of the nobility of Europe; La Valette refused a cardinal's hat, determined not to impair his independence.
In the Christian era the years are simply distinguished by the cardinal numbers; those before Christ being marked B.C. (Before Christ), or A.C. (Ante Christum), and those after Christ A.D.
But at the end of 1499 Cardinal Jimenez insisted on adopting coercive measures.
Ochino was at once cited, but was deterred from presenting himself at Rome by the warnings of Peter Martyr and of Cardinal Contarini, whom he found at Bologna, dying of poison administered by the reactionary party.
CAJETAN (GAETANUS), CARDINAL (1470-1534), was born at Gaeta in the kingdom of Naples.
made him a cardinal and archbishop of Palermo.
In conjunction with Cardinal Giulio de' Medici in the conclave of 1521-1522, he secured the election of Adrian Dedel, bishop of Tortosa, as Adrian VI.
During his minority his grandmother Queen Catherine and his great uncle the Cardinal Prince Henry acted jointly as regents.
The cardinal Giovanni de' Medici, who was present at the battle of Ravenna, brought a Spanish army into Tuscany.
and his cousin, the cardinal Giulio de' Medici, were much perplexed about the management of the republic. It seemed necessary, if possible, in the gradual extinction of their family to give the city at least a semblance of self-government.
In the same year, 1520, Machiavelli, at the instance of the cardinal Giulio de' Medici, received commission from the officers of the Studio pubblico to write a history of Florence.
JOHN KEMPE (c. 1 3 80 - 1 454), English cardinal, archbishop of Canterbury, and chancellor, was son of Thomas Kempe, a gentleman of 011antigh, in the parish of Wye near Ashford, Kent.
In December 1439 he was created cardinal, and during the next few years took less share in politics.
He supported Suffolk over the king's marriage with Margaret of Anjou; but afterwards there arose some difference between them, due in part to a dispute about the nomination of the cardinal's nephew, Thomas Kempe, to the bishopric of London.
As Richard of York gained influence, Kempe became unpopular; men called him "the cursed cardinal," and his fall seemed imminent when he died suddenly on the 22nd of March 1454.
In 1564 he was made cardinal by Pius IV., and, in the following year, sent to Spain as legate.
After completing his studies in Paris, he was appointed by Cardinal Richelieu inspector of the printing-press at the Louvre.
(Paolo Scolari), pope from 11 87 to 1191, a Roman, was made cardinal bishop of Palestrina by Alexander III.
1443), cardinal archbishop of Rouen and chancellor of France, was found on the side of the English in their struggle against France.
Among birds common in Texas as well as in the other Southern States are the cardinal, golden-fronted woodpecker, Mississippi kite, mourning-dove, and turkey-buzzard.
ANTOINE DU PRAT (1463-1535), chancellor of France and cardinal, was born at Issoire on the 17th of January 1463.
He began life as a lawyer, and rose rapidly in the legal hierarchy owing to the influence of his cousin Antoine Bohier, cardinal archbishop of Bourges.
After the death of his wife in 1507 Du Prat had taken orders; he received the bishoprics of Valence, Die, Meaux and Albi, and the archbishopric of Sens (1525); in 1527 he became cardinal, and in 1530 papal legate.
Louis Charles d'Albert (1620-1690), duke of Luynes, son of the constable, was an ascetic writer and friend of the Jansenists; Paul d'Albert de Luynes (1703-1788), cardinal and archbishop of Sens, an astronomer; Michel Ferdinand d'Albert d'Ailly (1714-1769), duke of Chaulnes, a writer on mathematical instruments, and his son Marie Joseph Louis (1741-1793), a chemist; and Honore Theodore Paul Joseph (1802-1867), duke of Luynes, a writer on archaeology.
There was an end to the calumnies circulated against her, based on the poetical homage rendered her by Theobald IV., count of Champagne, and the prolonged stay in Paris of the papal legate, Romano Bonaventura, cardinal of Sant' Angelo.
Pierre de Gondi, brother of the first duc de Retz, became bishop of Paris in 1570 and cardinal in 1587.
1654), for whom the episcopal see of Paris was erected into an archbishopric in 1622, and by his great-nephew, Jean Francois Paul de Gondi, the famous cardinal de Retz.
Jean Francois Paul De Gondi, Cardinal De Retz >>
LOUIS ALEMAN (c. 1390-1450), French cardinal, was born of a noble family at the castle of Arbent near Bugey about the year 1390.
He was successively bishop of Maguelonne (1418), archbishop of Arles (1423) and cardinal priest of St Cecilia (1426).
He was a prominent member of the council of Basel, and, together with Cardinal Julian, led the party which maintained the supremacy of general councils over the pope's authority.
finally abdicated on Aleman's advice, and Nicholas V.,who had succeeded in 1447, restored the cardinal to all his honours and employed him as legate to Germany in 1449.
The pope's representative, Cardinal Cajetan, made it clear that the only safety lay in the collection of a tenth from the clergy and a twentieth from laymen; but the diet appointed a committee to consider the matter and explain why they proposed to refuse the pope's demands.
English Church with the papal monarchy; the pope's legate, Cardinal Pole, was primate of all England.
While hundreds were imprisoned or burned, Protestants seemed steadily to increase in numbers, and finally only the expostulations of the parlement of Paris prevented the king from introducing the Inquisition in France in accordance with the wishes of the pope and the cardinal of Lorraine.
Du Bourg and others ventured warmly to defend the Protestants in the parlement of Paris in the very presence of the king and of the cardinal of Lorraine.
GEORGES D AMBOISE' (1460-1510), French cardinal and minister of state, belonged to a noble family possessed of considerable influence.
In 1498 the duke of Orleans mounted the throne as Louis XII., and d'Amboise was suddenly raised to the high position of cardinal and prime minister.
et du cardinal d'Amboise (Brussels, 1712); L.
Legendre, Vie du cardinal d'Amboise (Rouen, 1726); E.
The city is laid out with almost unbroken regularity and is compactly built - the streets running nearly with the cardinal points of the compass.
A good summary of his position is found in his First Answer to Cardinal Perron, who had challenged James I.'s use of the title "Catholic."
Its early controversialists - like Driedo or Cardinal Bellarmine - meet assertions such as Gerhard's with a flat denial.
refused him the cardinal's hat, and rebuked him for his liberalism in a letter which was probably not intended for publication.
He was a Roman named Conrad, son of Benedictus, and at the time of his election, on the 9th of July 1153, was cardinal bishop of Sabina.
Anastasius died on the 3rd of December 1154, and was succeeded by Cardinal Nicholas of Albano as Adrian IV.
P. Gachard, Mimoire historique sur les Bollandistes (Brussels, 1835); van Hecke, " De ratione operis Bollandiani (A eta Sanctorum Octobris, vii.); and Cardinal J.
The principal educational establishments, besides that of the mosque of the Olive Tree, are the Sadiki College, founded in 1875, for free instruction in Arabic and European subjects, the Lycee Carnot in the Avenue de Paris, formerly the College of St Charles (founded by Cardinal Lavigerie), open to Christians and Moslems alike, and the normal school, founded in 1884 by the reigning bey, for the training of teachers in the French language and European ideas.
With the consent of his partner he resolved to go to Spain on behalf of the oppressed natives, and the result of his representations was that in 1516 Cardinal Jimenes caused a commission to be sent out for the reform of abuses, Las Casas himself, with the title of "protector of the Indians," being appointed to advise and report on them.