Carbonyl sentence example

carbonyl
  • The carbonyl group is not ketonic in character since it yields neither an oxime nor hydrazone.
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  • The resulting compound, nickel carbonyl, which was described to the Chemical Society in 1890, is both formed and decomposed within a very moderate range of temperature, and on this fact he based a successful process for the extraction of nickel from its ores.
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  • Compounds containing the group - CH: O are known as aldehydes (q.v.), while the group >C: O (sometimes termed the carbonyl or keto group) characterizes the ketones (q.v.).
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  • This group may be considered as resulting from the fusion of a carbonyl (:CO) and a hydroxyl (HO-) group; and we may expect to meet with compounds bearing structural resemblances to the derivatives of alcohols and aldehydes (or ketones).
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  • By transformations of the carbonyl group, and at the same time of the hydroxyl group, many interesting types of nitrogen compounds may be correlated.
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  • Thus from the acid-amides, which we have seen to be closely related to the acids themselves, we obtain, by replacing the carbonyl oxygen by chlorine, the acidamido-chlorides, R CC1 2 NH 2, from which are derived the imido-chlorides, R CC1:NH, by loss of one molecule of hydrochloric acid.
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  • The carbonyl oxygen may also be replaced by the oxime group,: N OH; thus the acids yield the hydroxamic acids, R C(OH): NOH, and the acid-amides the amidoximes, R C(NH 2): NOH.
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  • A larger and more important series of condensations may be grouped together as resulting from the elimination of the elements of water between carbonyl (CO) and methylene (CH 2) groups.
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  • Thus a double bond of oxygen, as in the carbonyl group CO, requires a larger volume than a single bond, as in the hydroxyl group - OH, being about 12.2 in the first case and 7.8 in the second.
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  • Thus oxygen varies according as whether it is linked to hydrogen (hydroxylic oxygen), to two atoms of carbon (ether oxygen), or to one carbon atom (carbonyl oxygen); similarly, carbon varies according as whether it is singly, doubly, or trebly bound to carbon atoms.
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  • The principal chromophores are the azo, -N = N -, azoxy, = N 2 O, nitro, - N02, nitroso, - NO, and carbonyl, = CO, groups.
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  • The carbonyl group by itself does not produce colour, but when two adjacent groups occur in the molecule, as for example in the a-diketones (such as di-acetyl and benzil), a yellow colour is produced.
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  • Normal values of K were given by nitrogen peroxide, N204, sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 21 silicon tetrachloride, SiC1 4, phosphorus chloride, PC1 3, phosphoryl chloride, POC1 31 nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, carbon disulphide, benzene, pyridine, ether, methyl propyl ketone; association characterized many hydroxylic compounds: for ethyl alcohol the factor of association was 2.74-2.43, for n-propyl alcohol 2.86-2.72, acetic acid 3.62 -2.77, acetone 1 .
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  • Hofmann and Schotensack decompose a mixture of phenol (3 molecules) and sodium carbonate (4 mols.) with carbonyl chloride at 140-zoo° C. When 90% of the phenol has distilled over, the residue is dissolved and hydrochloric acid added, any phenol remaining is blown over in a current of steam, and the salicylic acid finally precipitated by hydrochloric acid.
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  • Nascent hydrogen reduces them to primary alcohols, and phosphorus pentachloride replaces the carbonyl oxygen by chlorine.
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  • It is readily polymerized, small quantities of hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride, carbonyl chloride, &c. converting it, at ordinary temperatures, into paraldehyde, (C 2 H 4 0) 3, a liquid boiling at 124° C. and of specific gravity o�998 (15° C.).
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  • 00 2 H 5, is formed by the addition of well-cooled absolute alcohol to phosgene (carbonyl chloride).
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  • Chromic acid converts it into phosgene (carbonyl chloride, COC1 2).
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  • On oxidation, the molecule is split at the carbonyl group and a mixture of acids is obtained.
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  • Sodium amalgam reduces them to secondary alcohols; phosphorus pentachloride replaces the carbonyl oxygen by chlorine, forming the ketone chlorides.
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  • -The diketones contain two carbonyl groups, and are distinguished as a or I.
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  • This was burnt mouth-down in the oven., and the ashes on the ground reduced the red haematite to black magnetic oxide of iron; some traces of carbonyl in the ash helped to rearrange the magnetite as a brilliant mirror-like surface of intense black.
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  • Urea chlorides are formed by the action of carbonyl chloride on ammonium chloride (at 400° C.), or on salts of primary amines.
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  • It reacts with carbonyl compounds, giving semi-carbazones, and in consequence is frequently used for characterizing such substances.
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  • Alkyl ureas are formed by the action of primary or secondary amines on isocyanic acid or its esters: [[Conh+Nh2r= R Nhc0nh]] 2 i [[Conr+Nhr 2 =Nr 2 Co Nhr]]; by the action of carbonyl chloride on amines: COC12+2NHR2=C0(NR2)2+2HC1; and in the hydrolysis of many ureides.
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  • Those containing more than one acyl group are formed by the action of carbonyl chloride on acid amides: COC1 2 +2CH 3 Conh 2 = Co(NHCOCH3)2+2HC1.
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  • Nickel carbonyl, however, is extremely poisonous.
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  • When mesitylene is used, the reaction does not proceed beyond the aldehyde stage since hydrocarbon formation is prevented by the presence of a methyl group in the ortho-position to the -CHO group. Acids and alkalis are in general without action on nickel carbonyl.
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  • The vapour of nickel carbonyl burns with a luminous flame, a cold surface depressed in the flame being covered with a black deposit of nickel.
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  • It is prepared by the action of carbonyl chloride on dimethyl aniline in the presence of aluminium chloride: COC12+2C6H5N(CH3)2=2HC1+CO[C6H4N(CH3)2]2.
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  • Pyrocatechin readily condenses to form heterocyclic compounds; cyclic esters are formed by phosphorus trichloride and oxychloride, carbonyl chloride, sulphuryl chloride, &c.; whilst ortho-phenylenediamine, o-aminophenol, and o-aminothiophenol give phenazine, phenoxazine and thiodiphenylamine.
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  • It is readily decomposed by water and also by carbonyl chloride (Besson, Comptes rendus, 1896, 122, p. 140): 6PH 4 Br + 50001 2 = 10HCl + 5C0 + 6HBr + 2PH 3 + P 4 H 2.
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  • It is also decomposed by carbonyl chloride (Besson, loc. cit.).
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  • Of great interest are the carbonyl compounds.
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  • The aldol condensation (using aldehydes, ketones, two different carbonyl partners, and the intramolecular variant ).
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  • Deprotonation of the cysteine sulfhydryl by an adjacent histidine residue is followed by nucleophilic attack of the cysteine S on the peptide carbonyl carbonyl carbon.
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  • Note how, within the plane of the sheet, backbone carbonyl oxygen atoms point toward backbone amino N atoms of the adjacent strand.
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  • Application of the 18 electron rule to metal carbonyl complexes.
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  • To establish the viability of 18 as a ligand we reacted it with a range of transition metal carbonyl compounds with mixed results.
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  • Simultaneously, the other aspartate donates a proton to the oxygen of the peptide carbonyl group.
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  • In contrast, formation of threohydrobupropion involves carbonyl reduction but does not involve cytochrome P450 isoenzymes.
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  • What does the latter evidence indicate as regards the behavior of the carbonyl ligands at the temperature of the measurement?
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  • The camphor molecule has one polar atom (a carbonyl oxygen) and three methyl groups.
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  • In contact with chlorine monoxide it forms carbonyl chloride and thionyl chloride (P. Schiitzenberger, Ber., 1869, 2, p. 219).
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  • Hofmann and Schotensack decompose a mixture of phenol (3 molecules) and sodium carbonate (4 mols.) with carbonyl chloride at 140-zoo° C. When 90% of the phenol has distilled over, the residue is dissolved and hydrochloric acid added, any phenol remaining is blown over in a current of steam, and the salicylic acid finally precipitated by hydrochloric acid.
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  • It is readily polymerized, small quantities of hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride, carbonyl chloride, &c. converting it, at ordinary temperatures, into paraldehyde, (C 2 H 4 0) 3, a liquid boiling at 124° C. and of specific gravity o�998 (15° C.).
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  • Other reactions which introduce carboxyl groups into aromatic groups are: the action of carbonyl chloride on aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of aluminium chloride, acid-chlorides being formed which are readily decomposed by water to give the acid; the action of urea chloride Cl�CO�NH 2, cyanuric acid (CONH) 3, nascent cyanic acid, or carbanile on hydrocarbons in the presence of aluminium chloride, acid-amides being obtained which are readily decomposed to give the acid.
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  • It unites directly with chlorine, forming carbonyl chloride or phosgene (see below), and with nickel and iron to form nickel and iron carbonyls (see Nickel and IxoN).
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  • Urea chlorides are formed by the action of carbonyl chloride on ammonium chloride (at 400° C.), or on salts of primary amines.
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  • The iron and ruthenium clusters not only lost their carbonyl ligands, but their cluster cores were also fragmented.
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  • Other reactions which introduce carboxyl groups into aromatic groups are: the action of carbonyl chloride on aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of aluminium chloride, acid-chlorides being formed which are readily decomposed by water to give the acid; the action of urea chloride Cl�CO�NH 2, cyanuric acid (CONH) 3, nascent cyanic acid, or carbanile on hydrocarbons in the presence of aluminium chloride, acid-amides being obtained which are readily decomposed to give the acid.
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