Carbonic-acid sentence example

carbonic-acid
  • The quantities of oxygen and carbonic acid in the sea are nearly constant so far as we can determine.
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  • The presence of carbonic acid in a water does not affect its action on lead.
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  • He determined the percentages of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the sugar and in the products of fermentation, and concluded that sugar in fermenting breaks up into alcohol, carbonic acid and acetic acid.
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  • Another fact of considerable technical importance is, that the various races of yeast show considerable differences in the amount and proportion of fermentation products other than ethyl alcohol and carbonic acid which they produce.
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  • This is not by the supply of food alone, but also by the withdrawal of carbonic acid from the atmosphere, by which vegetation maintains the composition of the air in a state fit for the support of animal life.
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  • The fouling of the air that results from the steam-engine, owing to the production of carbonic acid gas and of sulphurous fumes and aqueous vapour, is well known, and its use is now practically abandoned for underground working.
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  • The chief interest of the place centres in its brine springs which are largely impregnated with carbonic acid gas and oxide of iron, and are efficacious in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs, in liver and stomach disorders and women's diseases.
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  • Water and carbonic acid are synthesized, under the action of sunlight, to form sugar, starch or some other carboh y drate and this is then combined with simple nitrogenous salts to form proteid.
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  • All of this is not available, for carbonic acid is present as such in solution, as bicarbonate (of magnesium mainly) and as normal carbonate.
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  • That is, the concentration of H-ions decreases and that of the HO-ions increases; the water becomes more alkaline because the carbonic acid of the bicarbonate has been abstracted by the phytoplankton to the extent that normal carbonate is left.
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  • The dead bodies of organisms fall down from the surface and are slowly resolved into products of putrefaction, which gradually pass into the mineral forms, nitrates, carbonic acid and ash.
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  • Further, the ocean and the atmosphere stand in equilibrium with each other; if there is excess of carbonic acid anywhere in the sea it is absorbed by the atmosphere and vice versa, and so also with the oxygen.
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  • The water in shallow seas, off the shores of islands or in lagoons, is saturated with calcium bicarbonate and if the amount of carbonic acid in solution be reduced by any means, normal carbonate must be precipitated.
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  • When carbonic acid is present the dissolved oxide is soon precipitated as basic carbonate, so that the corrosion of the lead becomes continuous.
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  • There is reason to believe that carbonic acid is always one of these waste products, while the others contain the remainder of the carbon, the nitrogen, the hydrogen and the other elements which may enter into the composition of the protoplasm.
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  • The acid esters of carbonic acid of the type HO CO.
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  • Iron, when exposed to moisture and air, "rusts"; but this process never takes place in the absence of air, and it is questionable whether it ever sets in in the absence of carbonic acid.
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  • Mercury, if pure, and all the "noble" metals (silver, gold, platinum and platinum-metals), are absolutely proof against water even in the presence of oxygen and carbonic acid.
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  • This is a closed vessel, into which carbonic acid gas (produced as described hereafter) is forced, and combining with the lime in the juice forms carbonate of lime.
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  • The principal improvement made of recent years in this portion of the process has been the construction of pipes through which the carbonic acid gas is injected into the juice in such a manner that they can be easily withdrawn and a clean set substituted.
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  • The carbonic acid gas injected into the highly limed juice in the saturators is made by the calcination of limestone in a kiln provided with three cleaning doors, so arranged as to allow the lime to be removed simultaneously from them every six hours.
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  • Taking magnesia alba, which he distinguished from limestone with which it had previously been confused, he showed that on being heated it lost weight owing to the escape of this fixed air (named carbonic acid by Lavoisier in 1781), and that the weight was regained when the calcined product was made to reabsorb the fixed air with which it had parted.
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  • Takarazuka - Hiogo - Carbonic Acid -..
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  • The first difficulty was to make it sufficiently light in relation to the power its machinery could develop; and several machines were built in which trials were made of steam, and of compressed air and carbonic acid gas as motive agents.
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  • It can develop vacuoles, or rather fine bubbles of carbonic acid gas in its cytoplasm, to float up to the surface of the water.
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  • Murray and Renard ascribe this to the greater abundance of carbonic acid in the deeper water, which aided by the increased pressure adds to the solvent power of the water for carbonate of lime.
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  • It is, however, a curious question how, considering the increase of carbonic acid by the decomposition of organic bodies and possible submarine exhalations of volcanic origin, the water has not in some places become saturated and a precipitate of amorphous calcium carbonate formed in the deepest water.
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  • evaporating to dryness hydrochloric acid is given off as the temperature is raised to expel the last of the water, and Tornoe found that carbonic acid was also liberated and that the loss of both acids was very variable.
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  • The water of the ocean, like any other liquid, absorbs a certain amount of the gases with which it is in contact, and thus sea-water contains dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and carbonic acid absorbed from the atmosphere.
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  • One portion is used for determining the oxygen and nitrogen, the other for the carbonic acid.
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  • The former determination is made by driving out the dissolved gases from solution and collecting them in a Torricellian vacuum, where the volume is measured after the carbonic acid has been removed.
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  • In the second portion the carbonic acid is driven out by means of a current of hydrogen, collected over mercury and absorbed by caustic potash.
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  • The facts regarding carbonic acid in sea-water are even less understood, for here we have to do not only with the solution of the gas but also with a chemical combination.
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  • Since 1851 it has been known that all sea-water has an alkaline reaction, and Torniie defined the alkalinity of sea-water as the amount of carbonic acid which is necessary to convert the excess of bases into normal carbonate.
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  • The alkalinity of North Atlantic water of 35 per mille salinity is 26.86 cc. per litre, corresponding to a total amount of carbonic acid of 49 07 cc. According to the researches of August Krogh,' the alkalinity is greatly increased by the admixture of land water.
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  • The amount of carbonic acid in solution may also be increased by submarine exhalations in regions of volcanic disturbance, but it must be remembered that the critical pressure for this gas is 73 atmospheres, which is reached at a depth of 400 fathoms, so that carbonic acid produced at the bottom of the ocean must be in liquid form.
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  • The respiration of marine animals in the depths of deep basins in which there is no circulation adds to the carbonic acid at the expense of the dissolved oxygen.
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  • a temperature of 40.1 ° F., the carbonic acid amounts to 51 J5 cc. per litre, and the oxygen only to 2.19 cc. Vegetable plankton in sunlight can reverse this process, assimilating the carbon of the carbonic acid and restoring the oxygen to solution, as was proved by Martin Knudsen and Ostenfeld in the case of diatoms. Little is known as yet of the distribution of carbonic acid in the oceans, but the amount present seems to increase with the salinity as shown by the four observations quoted: Water from Gulf of Finland of 3.2 per mille salinity =17.2 cc. C02 Western Baltic of 14.2 North Atlantic of .0, , 49'0 Eastern Mediter ranean of 39.o, , =53'0, , Unfortunately the very numerous determinations of carbonic acid made by J.
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  • Buchanan on the " Challenger " were vitiated by the incompleteness of the method employed, but they are none the less of value in showing clearly that the waters of the far south of the Indian Ocean are relatively rich in carbonic acid and the tropical areas deficient.
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  • The air was continually returned and circulated until it was too much contaminated with carbonic acid to be further used, a condition which limited the use of the apparatus to a very short period.
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  • The newer forms are based upon the principle, first enunciated by Professor Theodor Schwann in 1854, of carrying compressed oxygen instead of air, and returning the products of respiration through a regenerator containing absorptive media for carbonic acid and water, the purified current being returned to the mouth with an addition of fresh oxygen.
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  • In another form of apparatus advantage is taken of the property possessed by sodium-potassium peroxide of giving off oxygen when damped; the residue of caustic soda and potash yielded by the reaction is used to absorb the carbonic acid of the expired air.
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  • When the coal is fired by the blast of an explosion it is often necessary to isolate the mine completely by stopping up the mouths of the pits with earth, or in extreme cases it must be flooded with water or carbonic acid before the fire can be brought under.
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  • The soluble trimetallic salts are decomposed by carbonic acid into a dimetallic salt and an acid carbonate.
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  • Being soluble in water containing carbonic acid or organic acids it may be readily removed in solution, and may thus furnish plants and animals with the phosphates required in their structures.
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  • Thus, for instance, sound is refracted towards the perpendicular when passing into air from water, 0 or into carbonic acid gas from air; the converse is the case when the passage takes place the opposite way.
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  • through a convex lens formed of carbonic acid gas.
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  • p. 378), who used a collodion lens filled with carbonic acid.
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  • Calcium chloride, CaCl 2, occurs in many natural waters, and as a by-product in the manufacture of carbonic acid (carbon dioxide), and potassium chlorate.
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  • It is insoluble in water; slightly soluble in solutions of carbonic acid and common salt, and readily soluble in concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acid.
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  • Aix has thermal springs, remarkable for their heat and containing lime and carbonic acid.
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  • The solid must be at once bottled, because it attracts the moisture and carbonic acid of the air with great avidity and deliquesces.
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  • Potassium bicarbonate, Khco 3, is obtained when carbonic acid is passed through a cold solution of the ordinary carbonate as long as it is absorbed.
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  • of carbonic acid in 10,000 vols.; t=16.667°C.; B=760.137 mm.
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  • In his widely used method for the quantitative determination of carbonic acid the gaseous mixture is shaken up with baryta or lime water of known strength and the change in alkalinity ascertained by means of oxalic acid.
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  • Part of the resultant carbonic acid is again deoxidized to carbonic oxide by the surrounding fuel, CO 2 + C = 2C03 and the carbonic oxide thus formed deoxidizes more iron oxide, &c. As indicated in fig.
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  • to carbonic acid as it meets the outer air on escaping from the mouth of the converter, and generates a true flame which grows.
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  • Four miles to the north is the Lacus Palicorum, a small lake in a crater, which still sends up carbonic acid gas.
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  • by means of which they are enabled, in the presence of sunlight, to make use of the carbonic acid gas of the atmosphere as a source of carbon.
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  • On the other hand, certain undoubted animals (Stentor, Hydra, Bonellia) are provided with a green colouring matter by means of which they make use of atmospheric carbonic acid.
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  • In all cases the loss of the colouring matter is associated with an incapacity to take up carbon from so simple a compound as carbonic acid.
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  • Although algae generally are able to use carbonic acid gas as a, source of carbon, some algae, like certain of the higher plants, are capable of utilizing organic compounds for this purpose.
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  • By virtue of the possession of chlorophyll all algae are capable of utilizing carbonic acid gas as a source of carbon in the presence of sunlight.
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  • heated in a kiln until its carbonic acid has been driven off, it yields pure lime.
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  • Subsequent hardening of the mortar is caused by the gradual absorption of carbonic acid from the air by the lime, a skin of carbonate of lime being formed; but the action is superficial.
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  • As it descends it reaches a part of the kiln where the temperature is higher; here the carbonic acid of the carbonate of lime, and the combined water of the clay are driven off, and the resulting lime begins to act chemically on the dehydrated clay.
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  • It crystallizes from its solution in long yellow needles, T10H or T10H-+H 2 0, which dissolve readily in water, forming an intensely alkaline solution, which acts as a caustic, and like it greedily absorbs carbonic acid from the atmosphere.
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  • Sometimes they are made, not from soda-ash, but from Leblanc soda-liquor before " finishing " the ash, or from the crude bicarbonate of the ammonia-soda process by prolonged boiling, until nearly half of the carbonic acid has been expelled.
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  • Sulphur and salt springs occur on the slopes of Cherimai, and near Palimanan there is a cavernous hole called Guwagalang (or Payagalang), which exhales carbonic acid gas, and is considered holy by the natives and guarded by priests.
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  • The secondary fermentation proceeds slowly and the carbonic acid formed is allowed to escape by way of the bung-hole, which in order to prevent undue access of air is kept lightly covered or is fitted with a water seal, which permits gas to pass out of the cask, but prevents any return flow of air.
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  • Mach.) alcoholic fermentation, ethylic alcohol, water and carbonic acid.
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  • As regards the latter, indeed, it is nowadays held that it is at its best within a very short period of the vintage, and that when the characteristic slight " prickling " taste due to carbonic acid derived from the secondary fermentation has disappeared, the wine has lost its attraction for the modern palate.
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  • The micro-organism splits up the alcohol of the wine and some of the other constituents, forming carbonic acid and water.
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  • It is very likely that the discovery of the utility of cork for stoppering led to the invention of effervescent wine, the most plausible explanation being that Dom Perignon closed some bottles filled with partially fermented wine, with the new material, and on opening them later observed, the effects produced by the confined carbonic acid gas.
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  • In the spring-time, shortly after bottling, the rise in temperature produces a secondary fermentation, and this converts the sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid.
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  • Indeed, many connoisseurs hold that when a Moselle ceases to show signs of the somewhat prolonged secondary fermentation, characterized by the slight prickling sensation produced on the palate (caused by the presence of bubbles of carbonic acid gas in the wine), that it has passed its best.
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  • Its remarkable efficacy in healing ulcers of the mouth - for which it is the specific - has been ascribed to a decomposition effected by the carbonic acid which is given off from these ulcers.
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  • Somewhat similar effects are produced by so-called wave-baths, and at Nauheim, although the fresh movement of the water against the surface of the body is much less than in the sea, yet its stimulating effect is greatly increased by the presence of carbonic acid in it.
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  • The place, which was formerly called Rehme, owes its development to the discovery in 1830 of its five famous salt springs, which are heavily charged with carbonic acid gas.
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  • Quinine hydrochloride circulates in the alkaline blood without precipitation, probably owing to the presence of carbonic acid in the blood.
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  • This conclusion is further confirmed by the observation that the amount of carbonic acid excreted by the lungs is also diminished.
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  • Of the insoluble salts we may notice the tannate, the propionic acid ester (euquinine) and carbonic acid ester (aristoquin), the salicylic acid ester.
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  • Thus oxygen gas, at the end of the 18th century, was known as dephlogisticated air, nitrogen or azote as phlogisticated air, hydrogen as inflammable air, carbonic acid gas as fixed air.
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  • The mineral waters are strongly impregnated with carbonic acid gas and have a temperature of 51° F.
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  • One of the springs gives off carbonic acid gas and another contains a considerable proportion of lithia salts.
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  • The first problem of the spectrum is to identify the effects of atmospheric absorption, especially oxygen, carbonic acid and water vapour; this is done generally by comparing the spectra of the sun at great and small zenith-distances, or by reducing the atmospheric effect by observing from a great elevation, as did P. J.
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  • This is explained by the fact that the Chalk fissures are almost invariably rounded and enlarged by the erosion of carbonic acid carried from the surface by the water passing through them.
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  • It contains, as its principal constituents, ammonia, partly combined with carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen to form compounds which are decomposed on boiling, with evolution of ammonia gas, and partly combined with stronger acids to form compounds which require to be acted upon by a strong alkali before the ammonia contained in them can be liberated.
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  • These strata are practically stagnant, deficient in oxygen and surcharged with carbonic acid.
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  • The accumulation of carbonic acid in the breathed air would also have a similar arrestive power over destructive assimilation.
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  • Among other interesting developments is the manufacture of liquid carbonic acid gas procured from natural gas springs beside the Eyach, a tributary of the Neckar.
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  • Sulphur springs and boiling mud lakes are also general in the volcanic districts; and in places there are carbonic acid springs, these more especially on the peninsula of Snaefellsnes, north of Faxafloi.
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  • Its waters, which are ferruginous and largely charged with carbonic acid gas, are of use in nervous and rheumatic disorders.
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  • Since then the ammonia compression machine has been most widely adopted, though the carbonic acid machine, also compression, which was first made in 1880 from Linde's designs, is now used to a considerable extent, especially on board ship.
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  • The results show that the loss is least in the case of anhydrous ammonia and greatest in the case of carbonic acid.
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  • As the critical temperature (88.4° F.) of carbonic acid is approached, the value of r becomes less and less and the refrigerating effect is much reduced.
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  • When the critical point is reached the value of r disappears altogether, and a carbonic-acid machine is then dependent for its refrigerating effect on the reduction in temperature produced by the internal work performed in expanding the gaseous carbonic acid from the condenser pressure to that in the refrigerator.
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  • The expanded vapour enters the refrigerator at a temperature below that of the substance to be cooled, and whatever cooling effect is produced is brought about by the superheating of the vapour, the result being that above the critical point of carbonic acid the difference T2-T2 is increased and the efficiency of the machine is reduced.
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  • In an ammonia machine copper and copper alloys must be avoided, but for carbonic acid they are not objectionable.
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  • On battleships and cruisers the British Admiralty use small compressedair machines for ice-making, and larger machines, generally on the carbonic-acid system, for cooling the magazines.
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  • In the meat trade between the River Plate, the United States, Canada and Great Britain, ammonia or carbonic acid machines are now exclusively used, but for the Australian and New Zealand frozenmeat trade compressed-air machines are still employed to a small extent.
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  • Carbonic Acid.
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  • - Carbonic acid gas, carbonic oxide (CO) and some other irrespirable gases produce their effects practically by asphyxiation.
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  • When dissolved in water, however, carbonic acid gas is a gentle stimulant to the mouth, stomach and bowel, the mixture being absorbed more rapidly than plain water; hence its greater value in assuaging thirst.
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  • Fluorine and its compounds are often supposed to have been among the agencies which produce this change, but more probably carbonic acid played the principal role.
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  • Gummic acid reddens litmus, its reaction being about equal to carbonic acid.
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  • carbonic acid!
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  • When two elements form more than one compound, as is the case with oxygen and carbon, he assigned to the compound which he thought the more complex an atom made up of two atoms of the one element and one atom of the other; the diagram for carbonic acid illustrates this, and an extension of the same plan enabled him to represent any compound, however complex its structure.
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  • The temperature of the water varies from 98° to 130° Fahr.; in all cases it gives off carbonic acid gas and contains lime, magnesium and sodium products.
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  • Only the " free " carbonic acid and that of the bicarbonate can be utilized in the process of photosynthesis by the diatoms and alga.
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  • The carbonic acid is taken from solution and then bicarbonate (usually that of magnesium) dissociates into carbonic acid and normal carbonate, and the process of photosynthesis ceases when there is no more bicarbonate in solution.
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  • This corresponds to an increased alkalinity represented by about 2 c.c. of N/ 100 standard alkali, and that difference means that the carbon of about 8.8 milligrammes of carbonic acid has been built up (by photosynthesis) into carbohydrate during the period during which the change in alkalin ity proceeded.
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  • The former gas is continually being evolved by the plants and absorbed by the animals, and precisely the reverse actions occur in the case of carbonic acid.
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  • Therefore an increase in photosynthesis caused by the multiplication of plant microorganisms will lead to the precipitation of calcium carbonate, for carbonic acid will be withdrawn from solution to take part in carbohydrate synthesis by the plants.
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  • Denitrifying bacteria will raise the alkalinity (or reduce the H-ion concentration) by forming ammonia, which will combine with the carbonic acid in solution and so throw down normal carbonate of lime.
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  • Iron, when exposed to moisture and air, "rusts"; but this process never takes place in the absence of air, and it is questionable whether it ever sets in in the absence of carbonic acid (see Rust).
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  • a temperature of 40.1 ° F., the carbonic acid amounts to 51 J5 cc. per litre, and the oxygen only to 2.19 cc. Vegetable plankton in sunlight can reverse this process, assimilating the carbon of the carbonic acid and restoring the oxygen to solution, as was proved by Martin Knudsen and Ostenfeld in the case of diatoms. Little is known as yet of the distribution of carbonic acid in the oceans, but the amount present seems to increase with the salinity as shown by the four observations quoted: Water from Gulf of Finland of 3.2 per mille salinity =17.2 cc. C02 Western Baltic of 14.2 North Atlantic of .0, , 49'0 Eastern Mediter ranean of 39.o, , =53'0, , Unfortunately the very numerous determinations of carbonic acid made by J.
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  • Priestley and Lavoisier, at the close of the 18th century, made possible the scientific study of plant-nutrition, though Jan Ingenhousz in 1779 discovered that plants incessantly give out carbonic acid gas, but that the green leaves and shoots only exhale oxygen in sunlight or clear daylight, thereby indicating the distinction between assimilation of carbonic acid gas (photosynthesis) and respiration.
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  • of carbonic acid in 10,000 vols.; t=16.667°C.; B=760.137 mm.
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  • above freezing, the severity of frosts in winter is thus obviated, and the growth, especially of the roots of grasses, is encouraged; (2) nourishment or plant food is actually brought on to the soil, by which it is absorbed and retained, both for the immediate and for the future use of the vegetation, which also itself obtains some nutrient material directly; (3) solution and redistribution of the plant food already present in the soil occur mainly through the solvent action of the carbonic acid gas present in a dissolved state in the irrigation-water; (4) oxidation of any excess of organic matter in the soil, with consequent production of useful carbonic acid and nitrogen compounds, takes place through the dissolved oxygen in the water sent on and through the soil where the drainage is good; and (5) improvement of the grasses, and especially of the miscellaneous herbage, of the meadow is promoted through the encouragement of some at least of the better species and the extinction or reduction of mosses and of the innutritious weeds.
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  • The enormous extension of surface also facilitates the absorption of energy from the environment, and, to take one case only, it is impossible to doubt that some source of radiant energy must be at the disposal of those prototrophic forms which decompose carbonates and assimilate carbonic acid in the dark and oxidize nitrogen in dry rocky regions where no organic materials are at their disposal, even could they utilize them.
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  • The mineral waters are strongly impregnated with carbonic acid gas and have a temperature of 51° F.
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  • As the critical temperature (88.4° F.) of carbonic acid is approached, the value of r becomes less and less and the refrigerating effect is much reduced.
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  • Pasteur found that, when cane sugar was fermented by yeast, 49.4% of carbonic acid and 51.1% of alcohol were produced; with expressed yeast juice cane sugar yields 47% of carbonic acid and 47.7% of alcohol.
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  • The temperature of the water varies from 98° to 130° Fahr.; in all cases it gives off carbonic acid gas and contains lime, magnesium and sodium products.
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