The capital was the center of the commercial activities.
We've left the capital city for the other side of the planet.
Boring, with a capital B.
Instead, you have to find small things over which to argue, like whether the capital gains tax should be raised.
I see how human ingenuity and new technologies have eliminated previously insoluble problems once we stand back and let free markets do what they do best: direct the allocation of capital to find a solution.
"But do you know, my dear, that was a capital joke," said the count; and seeing that the elder visitor was not listening, he turned to the young ladies.
"Paris--the capital of the world," Pierre finished his remark for him.
He tried to say, "That's capital; of course she'll forget her childish promises and accept the offer," but before he had time to say it Natasha began again.
The Venetian ambassador Gradenigo estimated the paying number of offices on Leo's death at 2150, with a capital value of nearly 3,000,000 ducats and a yearly income of 328,000 ducats.
On his return to the capital Peter, in order to see what progress his son had made in mechanics and mathematics, asked him to draw something of a technical nature for his inspection.
The principal cities of the state are Wheeling, Huntington, Parkersburg, Charleston (the capital), Martinsburg, Fairmont and Grafton.
I bought a capital one from our sutler!
I determined to go into business at once, and not wait to acquire the usual capital, using such slender means as I had already got.
VALLETTA, or Valetta, the capital of Malta (since 1570).
We ourselves will not delay to appear among our people in that Capital and in other parts of our realm for consultation, and for the direction of all our levies, both those now barring the enemy's path and those freshly formed to defeat him wherever he may appear.
NISH (also written Nisch and NIS), the capital of the Nish department of Servia, lying in a plain among the southern mountains, on the left shore of the Nishava, a tributary of the Morava.
The Courrier de Lyon contained articles the success of which reached even to the capital and attracted the attention of the Parisian press.
CLERMONT-FERRAND, a city of central France, capital of the department of Puy-de-Dome, 113 m.
Skipton was the capital of the ancient district of Craven.
He made the capital of Christendom the centre of culture.
Influence in society, however, is a capital which has to be economized if it is to last.
It remained the capital of the Palatinate for nearly sixty years, being especially flourishing under the elector Charles Theodore.
We heard of the cruel, unnecessary fighting in the far-away Pacific, and learned of the struggles going on between capital and labour.
"I thought you didn't believe in capital punishment," he said, trying to lighten the situation.
Michaux, more than thirty years ago, says that the price of wood for fuel in New York and Philadelphia "nearly equals, and sometimes exceeds, that of the best wood in Paris, though this immense capital annually requires more than three hundred thousand cords, and is surrounded to the distance of three hundred miles by cultivated plains."
PELLA, the capital of ancient Macedonia under Philip II.
Everywhere capital and enterprise are lacking.
It's capital for us here, but what of him?
Punishment may take forms varying from capital punishment, flogging and mutilation of the body to imprisonment, fines, and even deferred sentences which come into operation only if an offence is repeated within a specified time.
As this business was to be entered into without the usual capital, it may not be easy to conjecture where those means, that will still be indispensable to every such undertaking, were to be obtained.
STAVANGER, a seaport of Norway, capital of Stavanger amt (county), on the west coast in 59° N.
He told Kutuzov that he had come because Moscow, the capital, was no more and only the army remained.
DUNEDIN, a city of New Zealand, capital of the provincial district of Otago, and the seat of a bishop, in Taieri county.
In 1753 he was transferred to Cossimbazar, the river-port of the native capital of Murshidabad.
Kutuzov's action decides the fate of the capital and of your empire!
When their amirs crossed the Straits it was to lead a jehad against the Christians and to return to their capital, Marrakesh.
But even as capital its growth was slow.
Astorga was the Roman Asturica Augusta, a provincial capital, and the meeting-place of four military roads.
CUMANA, a city and port of Venezuela, capital of the state of Bermudez, situated on the Manzanares river about i m.
LEON, the capital of the department of Leon, Nicaragua, an episcopal see, and the largest city in the republic, situated midway between Lake Managua and the Pacific Ocean, 50 m.
Ts'ingtao is connected by railway with Chinan Fu, the capital of the province; a continuation of the same line provides for a junction with the main Lu-Han (Peking-Hankow) railway.
"Capital!" said Prince Hippolyte in English, and began slapping his knee with the palm of his hand.
In the course of conversation he mentioned Moscow and questioned Balashev about the Russian capital, not merely as an interested traveler asks about a new city he intends to visit, but as if convinced that Balashev, as a Russian, must be flattered by his curiosity.
For, as the medieval Portuguese stated, it is merely a generic term for the capital of any considerable chief, and it has been applied even by them to several distinct places.
Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
Here is this capital at my feet.
There is some reason, however, to suppose that before this the capital of the Monomotapa was situated much farther south, and it may plausibly be identified with the most extensive ruins as yet known, viz.
Angouleme, a city of south-western France, capital of the department of Charente, 83 m.
Cleve or Kleve), a town of Germany in the kingdom of Prussia, formerly the capital of the duchy of its own name, 46 m.
of Bacolod, the capital of the province.
You abandon Vienna, give up its defense--as much as to say: 'Heaven is with us, but heaven help you and your capital!'
In Petersburg and in the provinces at a distance from Moscow, ladies, and gentlemen in militia uniforms, wept for Russia and its ancient capital and talked of self-sacrifice and so on; but in the army which retired beyond Moscow there was little talk or thought of Moscow, and when they caught sight of its burned ruins no one swore to be avenged on the French, but they thought about their next pay, their next quarters, of Matreshka the vivandiere, and like matters.
One word from me, one movement of my hand, and that ancient capital of the Tsars would perish.
"Have they surrendered my ancient capital without a battle?" asked the Emperor quickly, his face suddenly flushing.
The same day King Michael died and Sobieski, determined to secure the throne for himself, hastened to the capital, though Tatar bands were swarming over the frontier and the whole situation was acutely perilous.
In 1752 its capital was situated on the right bank of the Guapore river and was named Villa Bella da Santissima Trindade de Matto Grosso, but in 1820 the seat of government was removed to Cuyaba and Villa Bella has fallen into decay.
Consequently corporal and even capital punishment occupy a far less prominent position, and tend everywhere to disappear.
Tranquillity is returning to this capital and order is being restored in it.
STUTTGART, a city of Germany, capital of the kingdom of Wurttemberg.
King Matthias conquered a large part of Moravia, and was crowned in the capital of that country, Brno(Briinn), as king of Bohemia on the 3rd of May 1469.
When the king of Persia, Shapur, captured Mazaca-Caesarea, the Cappadocian capital, Samuel refused to mourn for the 12,000 Jews who lost their livesin its defence.
We have a new sutler and he has such capital things.
ANGRA, or Angra Do Heroismo ("Bay of Heroism," a name given it in 1829, to commemorate its successful defence against the Miguelist party), the former capital of the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores, and chief town of an administrative district, comprising the islands of Terceira, St George and Graciosa.
Naisabur), the capital of the province of Nishapur, Persia, situated at an elevation of 3920 ft., in 36° 12' N., and 58° 40' E., about 49 m.
Especially such a capital fellow as Bezukhov!
CUZCO, an inland city of southern Peru, capital of an Andean department of the same name, about 360 m.
The capital of the state is Cuyaba., and the chief commercial town is Corumbá at the head of navigation for the larger river boats, and 1986 m.
Native capital is lacking, and taxation on unremunerative lands is, as elsewhere in Italy, too heavy in proportion to what they may be expected to produce, and not sufficiently elastic in case of a bad harvest.
Accompanied by his wife, he appeared in the capital in February 17 9 1.
With this army, consisting of about 9000 men, he marched in 1448 from Kutna Hora to Prague, and obtained possession of the capital almost without resistance.
Its importance, however, is of comparatively modern growth and in the early history of Wurttemberg it was overshadowed by Cannstatt, the central situation of which on the Neckar seemed to mark it out as the natural capital of the country.
Weissenfels is a place of considerable antiquity, and from 1656 till 1746 it was the capital of the small duchy of Saxe-Weissenfels, a branch of the electoral house of Saxony, founded by Augustus, second son of the elector John George I.
Guarantees to railway companies, &c. (in capital) 89,724,080
Other debt in capital 46,800,840
On an island in its bed stood Artaxata, the capital of Armenia from 180 B.C. to A.D.
MORELIA (formerly Valladolid), a city of Mexico and capital of the state of Michoacan, 125 m.
SVENDBORG, a seaport of Denmark, capital of the amt (county) of its name, on the south shore of the island of Fiinen.
Armenia returned to allegiance, the capital of Media was recolonized as Epiphanea, and Antiochus was pursuing his plans in the east when he died at Tabae in Persis, after exhibiting some sort of mental derangement (winter 164/3).
The earlier writers generally assumed perfect mobility of labour and capital.
RIOBAMBA or Royabamba, a town of Ecuador, capital of the province of Chimborazo, on the railway between Guayaquil and Quito, about 85 m.
The state's capital city is a great location for a date night or a romantic evening in town on the way to a camping destination.
Lexington, the horse capital of the world, is a bustling city surrounded by acres of pasture land and forests.
This railway gives Cuzco an outlet to the coast, and also direct connexion with La Paz, the Bolivian capital.
Breda is the next town in importance to the capital.
Three weeks after the battle he, still provost of St Giles, was admitted a burgess of Edinburgh, his father, the "Great Earl," being then civil provost of the capital.
of Tacloban, the capital.
farther south, on the opposite bank, lies Kal'at-Shergat, the ancient Assur, the original name-place and capital of the Assyrian Empire.
HUMACAO, a small city and the capital of a municipal district and department of the same name, in Porto Rico, 46 m.
A city occupying approximately the same site had been the capital of one of the principalities into which China was divided some centuries before the Christian era; and during the reigns of the two Tatar dynasties that immediately preceded the Mongols in northern China, viz.
The latter selected a position a few hundred yards to the north-east of the old city of Chung-tu or Yenking, where he founded the new city of Ta-tu ("great capital"), called by the Mongols Taidu or Daitu, but also KhanBalik; and from this time dates the use of the latter name as applied to this site.
But it is not so now; the names in ordinary use being King-cheng or King-tu, both signifying "capital."
Russe), the capital of the department of Rustchuk, Bulgaria, on the right bank of the Danube, where it receives the E.
Laon is the capital, and Soissons the seat of a bishopric of the province of Reims. Other important places are Chateau-Thierry, St Quentin and Coucy-le-Chï¿½au.
He first went to take possession of the old Lydian capital Sardis, the headquarters of the Persian government on this side of the Taurus, and the strong city surrendered without a blow.
At Ecbatana new masses of treasure were seized, but when once the necessary measures which its disposal and the occupation of the Median capital entailed were taken, Alexander continued the pursuit.
Later charters were granted by various sovereigns, and it was incorporated by Elizabeth in 1598 under the style of a mayor, 6 brethren and 12 capital burgesses.
Till 1881 it was the seat of a pasha in the vilayet of Jannina; it is now the capital of the Greek province and the seat of a nomarch.
The province is subdivided into eight districts: (1) Lar, the capital and environs, with 34 villages; (2) Bikhah Ihsham with 11; (3) Bikhah Fal with ro; (4) Jehangiriyeh with 30; (5) Shibkuh with 36; (6) Fumistan with 13; (7) Kauristan with 4; (8) Mazayijan with 6 villages.
The present population of the island is about 4000, of which the capital has about 2000.
Landsberg was the capital of a small margraviate of this name, ruled in the 12th century by a certain Dietrich, who built the town.
The principal towns are Scutari (Albanian Shkoder, with the definite article Shkodr-a), the capital of the vilayet of that name, pop. 32,000; Prizren, 30,000; Iannina (often incorrectly written Ioannina), capital of the southern vilayet, 22,000; Jakova, 12,000; Dibra, 15,000; Prishtina, 11,000; Ipek (Sla y.
The jobars superintend the execution of the laws, collect fines and administer capital punishment; they are in contact with the buluk-bashi, or resident representative of the tribe at Scutari, who forms the only link between the mountaineers and the Turkish government.
In 1582 Valladolid replaced Patzcuara as the capital of Michoacan.
In Europe the average route-mile capital is £27,036, and Table IX.
A smaller place in the centre of the island named Betancuria (586) is the administrative capital.
Shaftesbury, with fifteen other peers, petitioned the king that it might as usual be held in the capital.
In 1905 the capital invested in manufacturing was $7,625,864, and the value of the products was $19,132,455.
On land their general Myronides beat off two Corinthian attacks on Megara, which had been further secured by long walls drawn between the capital and its port Nisaea, nearly a mile distant.
A special feature of his rule was the sending out of numerous cleruchies (q.v.), which served the double purpose of securing strategic points to Athens and converting the needy proletariate of the capital into owners of real property.
From the time of its foundation as a Greek colony to the present day it has always been a considerable emporium of commerce, and it was for two centuries and a half the capital of an empire.
son of Ardashir I., formerly important, but now relatively insignificant; Samarra, also called Samira, the capital of the caliphate from A.D.
Opposite Mosul are the ruins of ancient Nineveh, the last capital of Assyria, and 20 m.
below that the ruins of Calah, the second capital; while 35 m.
Owing to the proximity of the capital this group is comparatively subject to the Turkish power, and pays a small annual tribute; the chiefs, who assess and collect the tribute, form a kind of administrative council; the confederation has also an official representative council at Scutari, called the Jibal, under the presidency of a Serkarde or Moslem official.
The capital is Ciudad Bolivar, formerly called Angostura, which is situated on the right bank of the Orinoco about 240 m.
In 1873 he attacked Khiva, took the capital, and forced the khan to become a vassal of Russia.
TECUCI (Tecuciu), the capital of the Tecuci department of Rumania, picturesquely situated among wooded hills, on the right bank of the river Berlad, and at the junction of railways from Bacau, Bcrlad and Galatz.
DENVER, the capital of Colorado, U.S.A., the county-seat of Denver county, and the largest city between Kansas City, Missouri, and the Pacific coast, sometimes called the " Queen City of the Plains."
This body adjourned from Colorado City, nominally the capital, to Denver, and in 1862 Golden was made the seat of government.
In 1868 Denver became the capital, but feeling in the southern counties was then so strong against Denver that provision was made for a popular vote on the situation of the capital five years after Colorado should become a state.
PARMA, a town and episcopal see of Emilia, Italy, capital of the province of Parma, situated on the Parma, a tributary of the Po, 55 m.
AVRANCHES, a town of north-western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Manche, 87 m.
North of Buenos Aires, on the Parana river, is the port of Rosario, the outlet for a rich agricultural district, ranking next to the federal capital in importance.
According to the census returns of 1895, the total mileage was 496 m., representing a capital expenditure of $84,044,581 paper.
Manufacturing enterprise in Argentina, favoured by the protection of a high tariff, made noticeable progress in the national capital during the closing years of the last century, especially in those small industries which commanded a secure market.
The legislative power is vested in a congress of two chambers - the senate, composed of 30 members (two from each province and two from the capital), elected by the provincial legislatures and by a special body of electors in the capital for a term of nine years; and the chamber of deputies, of 120 members (1906), elected for four years by direct vote of the people, one deputy for every 33,000 inhabitants.
A military school, with 125 cadets, is maintained at San Martin, near the national capital, and a training school for non-commissioned officers in the capital itself.
In the national capital and territories it is supervised by a national council of education with the assistance of local school boards; in the 14 provinces it is under provincial control.
For the instruction of teachers the republic has 28 normal schools, as follows: three in the national capital; one in Parana, three (regional) in Corrientes, San Luis and Catamarca; 14 for female teachers in the provincial capitals; and seven for either sex in the larger towns of the provinces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Cordoba and San Luis.
In 1620 Buenos Aires was separated from the authority of the government established at Asuncion, and was made the seat of a government extending over Mendoza, Santa Fe, Entre Rios and Corrientes, but at the same time remained like the government of Paraguay at Asuncion, and that of the province of Tucuman, which had Cordoba as its capital, subject to the authority of the viceroyalty of Peru.
Causes of friction still remained, but they did not develop into open quarrels, for Mitre was content to leave Urquiza in his province of Entre Rios, and the other administrators (caudillos) in their several governments, a large measure of autonomy, trusting that the position and growing commercial importance of Buenos Aires would inevitably tend to make the federal capital the real centre of power of the republic. In 1865 the Argentines were forced into war with Paraguay through the overbearing attitude of the president Francisco Solano Lopez.
As a sequel to this step, in 1884 the town of La Plata was declared to be the capital of the province of Buenos Aires, and the provincial administration was moved to that place.
The capital value of land, which greatly decreased during the last twenty years of the i9th century, is estimated at 3,120,000,000, and that of stock, buildings, implements, &c., at 340,000,000.
After the rejection in 1838 of the governments proposals for the construction of seven trunk lines to be worked by the state, he obtained a concession for that piece of line on the terms that the French treasury would advance one-third of the capital at 3% if he would raise the remaining two-thirds, half in France and half in England.
of subsidiary lines, but the railway expenditure of the country at this period was so large that in a few yearsthey found it impossible to raise the capital they required.
In these circumstances the state agreed to guarantee the interest on the capital, the sums it paid in this way being regarded as advances to be reimbursed in the future with interest at 4%.
D Nominal Capital lnterest ate.
FALUN, a town of Sweden, capital of the district (lain) of Kopparberg, 153 m.
In 1826-1828 the town became for a time the capital of Greece and the centre of a large commercial population (about Io,000), which has dwindled to about 4300.
CARACAS, the principal city and the capital of the United States of Venezuela, situated at the western extremity of an elevated valley of the Venezuelan Coast Range known as the plain of Chacao, 62 m.
The kingdom reached its highest point of importance during the reign of Solomon, but, shortly after his death, it was broken up by the rebellion of Jeroboam, who founded the separate kingdom of Israel with its capital at Shechem.
Herod again raised the city to the position of an important capital, restoring the fortifications, and rebuilding the Temple from its foundations.
The capital is Ratzeburg, and there are two other towns, Malin and Lauenburg.
The only town of any importance in the island is the capital, Rhodes, which stands at the north-east extremity.
During the later Roman empire Rhodes was the capital of the province of the islands.
The southwest coast is watered by a few streams, but none of any size; amongst these is the Swan, upon which Perth, the capital of Western Australia, is built.
Iron is distributed throughout Australia, but for want of capital for developing the fields this industry has not progressed.
In normal years (that is to say, when there is no large movement of capital) the exports of Australia exceed the imports by some £15,300,000.
This sum represents the interest payable on government loans placed outside Australia, mainly in England, and the income from British and other capital invested in the country; the former may be estimated at £7,300,000 and the latter £8,000,000 per annum.
Almost the whole of the railway lines in Australia are the property of the state governments, and have been constructed and equipped wholly by borrowed capital.
New South Wales became prosperous and attractive to emigrants with capital.
Much capital was locked up in the failed banks, and was therefore not available for distribution amongst wageearners.
During the crisis banks having a paid-up capital and reserves of 5,000,000 and deposits of 53,000,000 closed their doors.
The crisis was felt in the large cities more keenly than in the country districts, and in Melbourne more severely than in any other capital.
It was at such an inopportune time that the most extensive combination of Labour yet brought into action against capital formulated its demands.
The capital of the duchy is Meiningen; the other principal towns are Salzungen, Hildburghausen, Eisfeld, Sonneberg, Saalfeld, Pdssneck and Kamburg.
of Catbalogan, the capital, in lat.
Ujjain, known as Avanti in the Buddhist period and as Ozene to the Greeks, is one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus and the traditional capital of King Vikramaditya, at whose court the "nine gems" of Sanskirt literature are said to have flourished.
AUGUSTA, the capital of Maine, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Kennebec county, on the Kennebec river 1 (at the head of navigation), 44 m.
It became the county-seat in 1799; was chosen by the Maine legislature as the capital of the state in 1827, but was not occupied as such until the completion of the state house in 1831; and was chartered as a city in 1849.
and the empress Eugenie, he succeeded in rousing the patriotism of the French and obtaining by their subscriptions more than half of the capital of two hundred millions of francs which he needed in order to form a company.
coast, the capital and the seat of a bishop (pop. in 1901, town, 2756; commune, 7012), with a 15th-century castle, to which Vittoria Colonna retired after the death of her husband in 1525; Casamicciola (pop. in 1901, town, 1085; commune, 3731) on the north, and Forio on the west coast (pop. in 1901, town, 3640; commune, 7197).
In June 1576 the long siege of Zierikzee, the capital of Schou.wen, ended in its surrender to the Spanish general Mondragon, after the failure of a gallant attempt by Admiral Boisot to break the leaguer, in which he lost The great his life.
William made his triumphal entry into the capital (September 23), which he had quitted as an outlawed fugitive ten years before.
The knights, who as farmers of the taxes had suffered heavy losses during the disturbances in Syria, were greatly embittered against Gabinius, and, when he appeared in the senate to give an account of his governorship, he was brought to trial on three counts, all involving a capital offence.
In the 5th century the Franks seized Tournai, and Merovaeus made it the capital of his dynasty.
In 1894 a more serious rebellion in the mountainous region of Sassun was ruthlessly stamped out; the Powers insistently demanded reforms, the eventual grant of which in the autumn of 1895 was the signal for a series of massacres, brought on in part by the injudicious and threatening acts of the victims, and extending over many months and throughout Asia Minor, as well as in the capital itself.
Siamese Malay States ...........i;: State Capitals Capitals of Provinces in Siam e Capital ring [?
The capital invested in fisheries in 1902 was $9417, and the number of men employed, 145.
The principal cities are Burlington, Rutland, Barre, Montpelier (the capital) and St Albans.
The first private state bank was opened in 1817; an act of 1831 provided for a safety fund guaranteeing bank circulations and derived from a 41% tax on capital stock and a 1 o% tax on profits; but this law was modified in 1842, the tax being removed from banks giving specie guarantees; and a free banking act was passed in 1851.
The legislature wandered about from town to town until 1808, when the capital was permanently located at Montpelier.
The principal towns are Bandung, the capital of the residency, Sukabumi, Chianjar, Sumedang, Chichalengka, Garut, Tasik Malaya and Manon Jaya, all with the exception of Sumedang connected by railway.
The Islands), capital and largest city of Algeria, North Africa, seat of the governorgeneral, of a court of appeal, and of an archbishop, and station of the French XIX.
BENEVENTO, a town and archiepiscopal see of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 60 m.
The Long Parliament had ordered a strict observance of Sunday, punished swearing severely, and made adultery a capital crime; Cromwell issued further ordinances against duelling, swearing, racemeetings and cock-fights - the last as tending to the disturbance of the public peace and the encouragement of "dissolute practices to the dishonour of God."
The attack on Hispaniola, however, was a disastrous failure, and though a landing at Jamaica and the capture of the capital, Santiago de la Vega, was effected, the expedition was almost annihilated by disease; and Penn and Venables returned to England, when Cromwell threw them into the Tower.
MACEIO or Macayo, a city and port of Brazil and capital of the state of Alagoas, about 125 m.
In 1839 it became the provincial capital and was made a city by the provincial assembly.
Their descendants are known as the senior and junior branches of the family, and since 1841 each has ruled his 'own portion as a separate state, though the lands belonging to each are so intimately entangled, that even in Dewas, the capital town, the two sides of the main street are under different administrations and have different arrangements for water supply and lighting.
A railing ran round the capital of the pillar, and a ladder enabled his disciples to take him the necessaries of life.
GONDAR, properly Guendar, a town of Abyssinia, formerly the capital of the Amharic kingdom, situated on a basaltic ridge some 7500 ft.
Gondar was a small village when at the beginning of the 16th century it was chosen by the Negus Sysenius (Seged I.) as the capital of his kingdom.
The last years of Bela's life were embittered by the ingratitude of his son Stephen, who rebelled continuously against his father and ultimately compelled him to divide the kingdom with him, the younger prince setting up a capital of his own at Sarospatak, and following a foreign policy directly contrary to that of his father.
In 1602 he made his second visit to the French capital, when his transcendent qualities brought him into the closest relations with the court of Henry IV., and made him the spiritual father of that circle of select souls who centred round Madame Acarie.
24, Omri, king of Israel, bought Samaria from a certain Shemer (whose name is said to be the origin of that of the city), and transferred thither his capital from Tirzah.
The county of Lingen, of which this town was the capital, was united in the middle ages with the county of Tecklenburg.
GRANTOWN, the capital of Speyside, Elginshire, Scotland.
PERUGIA (anc. Perusia), a city and archiepiscopal see of Italy, the capital of the province of Perugia (which forms the entire compartimento of Umbria) situated 1444 ft.
The capital of the island is Portoferraiopop. (1901) 5987 - in the centre of the N.
Very little new capital was invested by the telegraph companies about 1865 because of the natural reluctance of the companies to extend the systems under their control so long as a proposal for their acquisition by the state was under consideration.
With regard to the statement that the companies had installed competitive systems and had expended capital needlessly, it was found by the Post Office authorities that in 1865 less than 2000 m.
The telegraph companies proposed to effect an amalgamation so as to enable the services to be consolidated and extended, and they proposed to submit to various conditions for the protection of the public, such as maximum rates and limitation of dividends, with the provision that new issues of capital should be offered by auction, but public opinion was averse to the proposal.
The Atlantic Telegraph Company was duly registered in 1856, with a capital of £350,000, the great bulk of which was subscribed in England.
The next attempt at laying an Atlantic cable was made in 1865, the necessary capital being again raised in England.
The Atlantic Telegraph Company was reconstituted as the AngloAmerican Telegraph Company with a capital of f600,000 and sufficient cable was ordered not only to lay a line across the ocean but also to complete the 1865 cable.
of submarine cable had been laid, while ten years later it was computed that 162,000 nautical miles of cable were in existence, representing a capital of £40,000,000, 75 per cent.
The submarine telegraphs are mainly controlled by companies, the amount of issued capital of the existing British telegraph companies (twenty-four in number) being £3 0, 447, 1 9 1, but a certain number of lines are in government hands.
Under the Pacific Cable Act 1901 the capital sum of £2,000,000 was provided in the following proportions: United Kingdom, 5/18ths with 3 representatives including the chairman.
The annual expenses of the board include £35,000 for cable repairs and reserve and a fixed payment to the National Debt Commissioners of £77,544 as sinking fund to amortise capital expenditure in fifty years.
NEW IBERIA, a city of Louisiana, U.S.A., capital of Iberia parish, on the Bayou Teche, in the southern part of the state, about 125 m.
CUYABA, or Cutaba, capital of the inland state of Matto Grosso, Brazil, about 972 m.
distant, but has no land communication with the national capital, except by telegraph.
BADAJOZ, the capital of the Spanish province described above; situated close to the Portugue.se frontier, on the left bank of the river Guadiana, and the Madrid-Lisbon railway.
In 1031 it became the capital of a small Moorish kingdom, and, though temporarily held by the Portuguese in 1168, it retained its independence until 1229, when it was captured by Alphonso IX.
Telephone business is characterized by two features: (I) that the capital account is never closed, and (2) that the costli - ness of the service increases with the size of the undertaking.
- The issued share and debenture capital of the company on the 31st of December 1907 was: - The company has a reserve fund of £2,467,707, the major part of which is invested in the business.
At the time of the formation of the various telephone companies the enterprises were regarded as speculative, and much of the capital was raised at a discount.
The capital expenditure on the purchase and development of the trunk wire system amounted to £3,376,252.
The capital is Therezina, on the right bank of the Parnahyba, 250 m.
Finally, on the 1st of June 1485, at the head of 8000 veterans, he made his triumphal entry into Vienna, which he henceforth made his capital.
The lessee, or farmer, tills the soil at his own risk; usually he provides live stock, implements and capital, and has no right to compensation for ordinary improvements, nor for extraordinary improvements effected without the landlords consent.
A capital expenditure of 1/24,000,000 annually was decided on to bring the lines up to the necessary state of efficiency to be able to cope with the rapidly increasing traffic. It was estimated in 1906 that this would have to be maintained for a period of ten years, with a further total expenditure of 1/21 4,000,000 on new lines.
Comparing the state of things in 1901 with that of 1881, for the whole country, we find the passenger and goods traffic almost doubled (except the cattle traffic), the capital expenditure almost doubled, the working expenses per mile almost imperceptibly increased, and tI~ gross receipts per mile slightly lower.
The capital value of the whole of the lines, rolling stock, &c., for 1 9081909 was calculated approximately at 1/2244,f 61,400, and the profits at 1/25,295,019, or 22%.
In that year their income, including revenue from capital, was 416,385, and their expenditure 300,232.
The value of the capital thus potentially freed was estimated at 12,000,000; though hitherto the ecclesiastical possessions in Lombardy, Emilia.
The rest was made up of capital and interest.
Capital punishment was abolished in 1877, penal servitude for life being substituted.
These figures include not only the categories of income and expenditure proper, but also those known as movement of capital, railway constructions and part ite di giro, which do not constitute real income and expenditure.i Considering only income and expenditure proper, the approximate totals are:
Capital value of annual payment to South Austrian Company 37,102,908
At the same time the capital employed in banking decreased by nearly one-half, namely, from about 12,360,000 in 1880 to about 6,520,000 in 1898.
The value of their land certificates or cartetle fondiarie (representing capital in circulation) rose from 10,420,000 in 1881 to 15,560,000 in 1886, and to 30,720,000 in 1891, but fell to 29,320,000 in 1896, to 27,360,000 in 1898, and to 24,360,000 in 1907; the amount of money lent increased from 1/2Io,44o,000 in 1881 to 15,600,000 in 1886, and 30,800,000 in 1891, but fell to 29,320,000 in 1896, to 27,360,000 in 1899, and to f2I,72o,000 in 1907.
Communal revenues are drawn from the proceeds of communal property, interest upon capital, taxes and local dues.
He settled at Ravenna, which had been the capital of Italy since the days of Honorius, and which still testifies by its monuments to the Gothic chieftains Romanizing policy.
Pavia offered stubborn resistance; but after a three year siege it was taken, and Alboin made it the capital of his new kingdom.
The strength of Alboins kingdom was in the north; his capital, Pavia.
in the Ghibelline capital of Tuscany.
By removing the capital from Chambry to Turin, he completed the transformation of the dukes of Savoy from Burgundian into Italian sovereigns.
Milan was the terminus of the road, and the construction of the Foro Buonaparte and the completion of the cathedral added dignity to the Lombard capital.
But after the occupation of Vienna the conqueror dated from that capital on the 17th of May 1809 a decree virtually annexing Rome and the Painmonium Petri to the French empire.
All Venetiaexcept the capital was thus once more occupied by the Austrians.
Cavour had often declared tin the end the capital of Italy must be Rome, for it alone of abLcnLLp~, ass L~AS O~V.~La.5 ~jassL,asssassD U~ .JaLAISLAJ ~isLas blU
The convention was kept secret, pital but the last clause leaked out and caused the bitterest arr as- feeling among the people of Turin, who would have asf red to been resigned to losing the capital provided it were La ~rence, transferred to Rome, but resented the fact that it was un to be established in any other city, and that the conntion was made without consulting parliament.
and the capital was transferred to Florence the follow-, thi ing year.
The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.
For a few months after the occupation of Rome pressing questions incidental to a new change of capital and to the administration of a new domain distracted public attention from the real condition of Italian affairs.
It had completed national unity, transferred the capital to Rome, overcome the chief obstacles to financial equilibrium, initiated military reform and laid the foundation of the relations between state and church.
At the same time the duke of Aosta, commander of the Rome army corps, ordered the troops to render royal honors to the pontiff should he officially appear in the capital.
Count Hatzfeldt, on behalf of the German Foreign Office, informed the Italian ambassador in Berlin that whatever was done at Vienna would be regarded as having been done in the German capital.
Extravagant expenditure on railways and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the overspeculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment.
The deputies of the Extreme Left, instead of using their influence in favor of pacification, could think of nothing better than to demand an immediate convocation of parliament in order that they might present a bill forbidding the troops and police to use their arms in all conflicts between capital and labor, whatever the provocation might be.
UZHITSE (also written Uzice and Ushitsa), the capital of the Uzhitse department of Servia.
CARSON CITY, the capital of Nevada, U.S.A., and the county seat of Ormsby county, about 120 m.
Carson City (named in honour of Christopher Carson) was settled in 1851 as a trading post, was laid out as a town in 1858, was made the capital of the state and the county seat of the newly erected county in 1861, and was chartered as a city in 1875.
TRIER (French treves), an ancient city of Germany, formerly the capital of an archbishopric and electorate of the empire, and now the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and the chief town of a governrnental department in the Prussian province of the Rhine.
Trier had had two periods of greatness, firstly as the favourite residence of Constantine the Great and his successors in the west, and secondly as the capital of a powerful spiritual electorate.
Mainly on account of its strategic position, Diocletian on his reorganization of the empire made Trier the capital not only of Belgica Prima, but of the whole "diocese" of Gaul.
Although some Frankish kings resided here, it gradually yielded place to Metz as a Frankish capital.
A new bishopric was created for the French department of the Sarre, of which Trier was the capital.
His ritual and mysteries (Sacra Savadia) gained a firm footing in Rome during the 2nd century A.D., although as early as 139 B.C. the first Jews who settled in the capital were expelled by virtue of a law which proscribed the propagation of the cult of Jupiter Sabazius.
The " capital " punishment was generally (always in England) by burning.
It deals with-the secular crimes of spiritual persons, if of importance and if not capital (these last being reserved for the secular forum), and with heresy and schism.
Gand), the capital of East Flanders, Belgium, at the junction of the Scheldt and the Lys (Ley).
those living on capital), the weavers and the members of the 52 other gilds.
After 1714 it formed part of the Austrian Netherlands, and in 1794 became the capital of the French department of the Scheldt.
While preserving most of the ancient features of its High Street, the town has tended to become a suburb of the capital, its fine beach and golf course hastening this development.
About 760 it became the capital of Northumbria; later it was a borough and was long represented in parliament.
Groningen is connected with the Drente plateau by the sandy tongue of the Hondsrug which extends almost up to the capital.
Low fen predominates to the east of the capital, between the Zuidlardermeer and the Schildmeer or lakes.
The rivers of Groningen descending from the Drente plateau meet at the capital, whence they are continued by the Reitdiep to the Lauwers Zee (being discharged through a lock), and by the Ems canal (1876) to Delfzyl.
Groningen, Holland (Capital) >>
The welding together of the great Kosala kingdom, more than twice the size of England, in the very centre of the settled country, led insensibly but irresistibly to the establishment of a standard of speech, and the standard followed was the language used at the court at Savatthi in the Nepalese hills, the capital of Kosala.
Franke also shows that there were local peculiarities in small matters of spelling and inflexion, and that the particular form of the language used in and about the Avanti district, of which the capital was Ujjeni (a celebrated pre-Buddhistic city), was the basis of the language used in the sacred texts as we now have them.
AUCKLAND, a city and seaport on the east coast of North Island, New Zealand, in Eden county; capital of the province of its name, and the seat of a bishop. Pop. (1906) 37,736; including suburbs, 82,101.
The town was founded as capital of the colony in 1840 by Governor Hobson.
Taken by storm on New Year's day 1813 by the Russians, Lenkoran was in the same year formally surrendered by Persia to Russia by the treaty of Gulistan, along with the khanate of Talysh, of which it was the capital.
The capital of the department is Troyes; of the arrondissements the capitals are Troyes, Bar-sur-Aube, Arcis-sur-Aube, Bar-surSeine and Nogent-sur-Seine.
Cyrus had built his capital with his palace and tomb, in Pasargadae (q.v.).
As Pasargadae was named after the tribe in whose district it lay, so the new capital is by the Persians and Greeks simply called "the Persians"; later authors call it Persepolis (q.v.), "the Persian city."
So the Persian kings fixed their residence at Susa, which is always considered as the capital of the empire (therefore Aeschylus wrongly considers it as a Persian town and places the tomb of Darius here).
The new capital of Persis was Istakhr on the Pulwar, about q m.
Ibn Batuta made the voyage through the Malay Archipelago to China, and on his return he proceeded from Malabar to Bagdad and Damascus, ultimately reaching Fez, the capital of his native country, in November 1349.
He started in July, crossed the Muchenja Mountains, and reached the capital of the Cazembe, where he died of fever.
He now caused them to build a great capital, Ecbatana, with a royal palace, and introduced the ceremonial of oriental courts; he surrounded himself with a guard and no longer showed' himself to the people, but gave his judgments in writing and controlled the people by officials and spies.
Valladolid was then the capital, and in due course eminent dignities were offered to him, but he gave signs of a determination to lead the sinple life of a Friar Preacher.
Troops were summoned to Seville and the war began by the siege of Alhama, a town eight leagues from Granada, the Moorish capital.
Other institutions of learning are the Capital University and Evangelical Lutheran Theological Seminary (Theological Seminary opened in 1830; college opened as an academy in 1850), with buildings just east of the city limits; Starling Ohio Medical College, a law school, a dental school and an art institute.
In 1810 four citizens of Franklinton formed an association to secure the location of the capital on the higher ground of the east bank; in 1812 they were successful and the place was laid out while still a forest.
Portland was the capital of the state from 1820 to 1832 and in the latter year was chartered as a city.
Bubastis, capital of the 19th nome of Lower Egypt, is now represented by a great mound of ruins called Tell Basta, near Zagazig, including the site of a large temple (described by Herodotus) strewn with blocks of granite.
Bourg is the capital and Belley is the seat of a bishop. Jujurieux, in the arrondissement of Nantua, has the most important silk factory in the department, occupying over 1000 workpeople.
The town was the capital of the former duchy of Zweibrucken, and the Alexander-Kirche contains the tombs of the dukes.
ELAM, the name given in the Bible to the province of Persia called Susiana by the classical geographers, from Susa or Shushan its capital.
Susa once more became a capital, and on the establishment of the Persian empire remained one of the three seats of government, its language, the Neo-Susian, ranking with the Persian of Persepolis and the Semitic of Babylon as an official tongue.
In the course of the summer he took the fortresses of Arad, Lippa and Vilagos; provided himself with guns and trained gunners; and one of his bands advanced to within five leagues of the capital.
MESHED (properly Mash-had, " the place of martyrdom"), capital of the province of Khorasan in Persia, situated in a plain watered by the Kashaf-rud (Tortoise river), a tributary of the Hari-rud (river from Herat, which after its junction with the Kashaf is called Tejen), 460 m.
It had an exquisitely carved capital, and above that a light pillar, seemingly 10 ft.
high; and this and the shaft below the capital, or about 20 ft., were covered with gold.
The death of Hussain put a stop to this expedition, but Baber spent a year at Herat, enjoying the pleasures of that capital.
The remaining years of his life he spent in arranging the affairs and revenues of his new empire and in improving his capital, Agra.
The capital of the state is Recife, commonly known among foreigners as Pernambuco.
The most important are: Bezerros (17,484), Bom Jardim (40,160), Brejo da Madre de Deus (13,655), a town of the higher agreste region, Cabo (13,337), Caruaru (17,844), Escada (9331), Garanhuns (32,788, covering six towns and villages), Gloria de Goyta (24,554), Goyanna, Limoeiro (21,576), Olinda (8080), the old colonial capital and episcopal see, Rio Formosa (6080), Timbauba (9514) and Victoria (32,422).
After him was named the first capital of the dynasty, the once important city of Mandia (q.v.).
BARCELONA, a town and port of Venezuela, capital of the state of Bermudez, on the Neveri river, 3 m.
The province is divided into six districts, the chief towns of which are Vyernyi (the capital), Jarkent, Kopal, Pishpek, Przhevalsk and Sergiopol.
LAOAG, a town, port for coasting vessels, and capital of the province of Ilocos Norte, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on the Laoag river, about 5 m.
Samsat itself represents the ancient Samosata, the capital of the Seleucid kings of Commagene (Kuinukh of the Assyrian inscriptions), and here the Persian Royal Road from Sardis to Susa is supposed to have crossed the river.
Europus, Carchemish, the ancient Hittite capital), near which the Sajur (Sagura; Sangar of the Assyrian inscriptions) enters from the west, to Meskene, 2 m.
Half a day's journey beyond Sura, on the Mesopotamian side of the river, are the extensive ruins of Haragla (Heraclea) and Rakka, once the capital of Harun al-Rashid (Nicephorium of Alexander; Callinicus of the Seleucids and Romans).
It was the capital of the kingdom until 1443, and the residence of the bishops of Zealand until the Reformation.
The whole area, often collectively styled "Gallia Comata," often "Tres Provinciae," was divided into three provinces, each under a legatus pro praetore appointed by the emperor, with a common capital at Lugudunum (Lyons).
CALARASHI (Caldrasi), the capital of the Jalomitza department, Rumania, situated on the left bank of the Borcea branch of the Danube, amid wide fens, north of which extends the desolate Baragan Steppe.
HANOI, capital of Tongking and of French Indo-China, on the right bank of the Song-koi or Red river, about 80 m.
Seraglio), the capital of Bosnia, situated on the Miljacka, a small right-hand tributary of the Bosna and on the railway from Bosna-Brod, 167 m.
BETHUNE, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Pas-de-Calais, 24 m.
There are civil, commercial and criminal courts in Montevideo, a departmental court in each departmental capital, and a justice of the peace in each of 205 judicial districts into which the republic is divided, with sub-district courts under deputy judges in addition.
The Bank of the Republic was established in 1896 with a nominal capital of $12,000,000, and in 1899 it received the right to issue further shares amounting to $5,000,000.
Its note issue (for which it has an exclusive right) may not exceed the value of half the subscribed capital.
FRANKFORT, the capital city of Kentucky, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Franklin county, on the Kentucky river, about 55 m.
In 1792 the city was made the capital of the state.
It is divided into three districtsNovorossiysk, with the town (pop. in 1897, 16,208) of the same name, which acts as the capital of the Black Sea district; Velyaminovsk; and Sochi.
AMBERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, formerly the capital of the Upper Palatinate, situated on both sides of the Vils, 42 m.
INDIANAPOLIS, the capital and largest city of Indiana, U.S.A., situated on the W.
On the admission of Indiana as a state, Congress gave to it four sections of public land as a site on which to establish a state capital.
Upon its final acceptance as the capital, there was some activity in land speculation, but Indianapolis had only 600 inhabitants and a single street when the seat of government was removed thither in 1824.
The capital of the state is GoYAz, or Villa-Boa de Goyaz, a mining town on the Rio Vermelho, a tributary of the Araguaya rising on the northern slopes of the Serra de Santa Rita.
A wealthy publisher of European reputation attended the court of his native town, the capital of a small grand-duchy, in virtue of the honorary title Hofrat; his wife, not being noble, did not accompany him.
The provincial capital is Chang-sha Fu, in addition to which it has eight prefectural cities.
deep; (2) Chang-sha Fu, the provincial capital which stands on the same river 60 m.
On his refusal the offer was repeated with the additional inducement of accommodation for as many of his friends as he chose to bring with him to the Russian capital.
above Khartum, one of the most thriving towns in the eastern Sudan; Sennar, 241 m above Khartum, the capital of the Funj empire and chief town of the mudiria of Sennarof the ancient city little remains except a mosque with a high minaret; and Roseires, 426 m.
The capital of Aloa, which appears to have been at one time a powerful Christian state, was at Soba on .the Blue Nile.
PANAMA, the capital and the chief Pacific port of the republic of Panama, and the capital of the province of the same name, in the south-central part of the country, at the head of the Gulf of Panama, and at the south terminus of the Panama railway, 471 m.
CRIEFF, a police burgh of Perthshire, Scotland, capital of Strathearn, 171 m.
of Cebu, the capital.
SOFIA (Bulgarian Sredetz, the middle town, a name now little used), the capital of Bulgaria, situated almost in the centre of an upland plain, about 1700 ft.
The use of the name in its most comprehensive sense dates only from the expansion of the empire in the 19th century; to the historian who writes of the earlier growth of the empire, Russia means, at most, Russia in Europe, or Muscovy, as it was usually called until the 18th century, from Moscow, its ancient capital.
The deep indentations of the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland are surrounded by what is ethnologically Finnish territory, and it is only at the very head of the latter gulf that the Russians have taken firm foothold by erecting their capital at the mouth of the Neva.
The governments of St Petersburg (apart from the capital), Olonets and Archangel contain an admixture of Karelians, Samoyedes and Syryenians, the remainder being Great Russians.
The crown paid the landlord in obligations representing the capitalized rent, and the peasants had to pay the crown, for forty-nine years, 6% interest on this capital.
V., Agric. Sketches of Russia; Golovachov, Capital and Peasant Farming; Engelhardt's Letters from the Country.
The three-field system of cropping a patch of land until its fertility is exhausted, and then allowing it to revert to the primeval condition, is still pursued, and both landowners and peasantry suffer from want of capital and lack of agricultural training.
Here again both capital and labour are short, and the cultivation of the soil suffers from the fact that, owing to the absence of timber, dry dung is used for fuel instead of being employed as manure.
The landowners are often poor, and suffer from want of capital and lack of enterprise.
It is of comparatively recent foundation (1860), and is carried on largely with French and Belgian capital, with modern appliances and with modern scientific knowledge.
before the 19th century, that is to say, industries carried on with capital and machinery in large factories.
Hence, although wages are painfully low, the cost of production to the manufacturer is relatively high; and it is still further increased by the cost of the raw materials, by the heavy rates of transport owing to the distance from the sea, by the dearness of capital and by the scarcity of fuel.
Lake Ilmen and the river Volkhov, on which stands Novgorod, Rurik's capital, formed part of the great waterway from the Baltic to the Black Sea, and we know that by this route travelled from Scandinavia to Constantinople the tall fair-haired Northmen who composed the famous Varangian bodyguard of the Byzantine emperors.
This time the invaders came to stay, and they built for themselves a capital, called Sarai, on the lower Volga.
The khanate closely connected with the history of Russia was that of Kipchak or the Golden Horde, the khans of which settled, as we have seen, on the lower Volga and built for themselves a capital called Sarai.
When they first appeared in Europe they were idolaters or Shamanists, and as such they had naturally no religious fanaticism; but even when they adopted Islam they remained as tolerant as before, and the khan of the Golden Horde (Berkai) who first became a Mussulman allowed the Russians to found a Christian bishopric in his capital.
married a niece of the emperor Constantine Palaeologus, who had fallen fighting when his capital was taken by the Turks (1453).
The address in reply to the speech from the throne, voted after a debate in which abstract theories had triumphed over common sense, demanded universal suffrage, the establishment of pure parliamentary government, the abolition of capital punishment, the expropriation of the landlords, a political amnesty, and the suppression of the Imperial Council.
The columns vary somewhat in diameter (more than even the difference caused by fluting would warrant) and three different types of capital are noticeable.
The capital of the province is Shiraz, and the subdivision in districts, the chief places of the districts and their estimated population, and the number of inhabited villages in each as they appear in lists dated 1884 and 1905 are shown on the following page.
The amount of capital which parliament authorized railway companies to raise was about 42 millions on the average of the two years 1842-1843, 174 millions in 1844, 60 millions in 1845, and 132 millions in 1846, though this last sum was less than a quarter of the capital proposed in the schemes submitted to the Board of Trade; and the wild speculation which occurred in railway shares in 1845 contributed largely to the financial crisis of 1847.
- The total construction capital invested in the railways of the world in 1907 was estimated by the Archiv fur Eisenbahnwesen at £8,986,150,000; the figure is necessarily incomplete, though it serves as a rough approximation.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.
The total paid-up railway capital of the United Kingdom amounted, in 1908, to £1,310,533,212, or an average capitalization of £56,476 per route mile, though it should be noted that this total included £196,364,618 of nominal additions through " stock-splitting," &c. Per mile of single track, the capitalization in England and Wales, Scotland, Ireland and the United Kingdom, is shown in Table VIII.
Table Viii.-Paid-Up Capital, 1908 The table excludes sidings, because they cannot fairly be compared with running tracks, mile for mile.
On a single-track-mile basis, the following comparison may be made between apparent capital costs in Great Britain and the United States: - Single-Track Paid-up Capital Mileage.
United Kingdom, 1908.39,316 £ 33,333 United States, 1908.254,192 10,372 2 1 he figures for the United States are from the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the year ended 30th of June 1908, and comprise mileage of first, second, third and fourth tracks, and paid-up capital in the hands of the public only.
Table Ix.-Route-Mile Capital In Europe Statistical Study of Railway Operation.
This difficulty is not peculiar to railways; but it was in the history of railway economy and railway control that certain characteristics which are now manifesting themselves in all directions where large investments of fixed capital are involved were first brought prominently to public notice.
Such duplication of railways involves a waste of capital.
Of this character are the expenditures necessary for maintenance of way, for general administration and for interest on capital borrowed, which are almost independent of the total amount of business done, and quite independent of any individual piece of business.
Until 1870 railway companies were almost free from special acts of control; and, in general, any company that could raise or borrow the capital was allowed to build a railway wherever it saw fit.
It was believed by its advocates that this system of prescribing the conditions of construction and operation of lines could promote public safety, prevent waste of capital and secure passengers and shippers against extortionate rates.
Each of these changes has tended to improve the existing status, to legitimize railway enterprise, and to safeguard capital or investment.
The laws regulating original outputs for capital were strictly drawn in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe; in America they were drawn very loosely.
Instead of the borrowing power being restricted to a small percentage of the total capital, as in European countries, most of the railway mileage of America has been built with borrowed money, represented by bonds, while stock has been given freely as an inducement to subscribe to the bonds on the XXII.
But British share capital has been issued so freely for extension and is ?- provement work of all sorts, including the costly requirements of the Board of Trade, that a situation has been reached where the return on the outstanding securities tends to diminish year by year.
Thus the characteristic defect in the British railway organization has been the tendency to put out new capital at a rate faster than has been warranted by the annual increases in earnings.
shows the paid-up capital, gross receipts, net receipts and proportion of net receipts to total paid-up capital on tile railways of the United Kingdom for a series of years.
Other things being equal, that route is best which will serve the district most conveniently and secure the highest revenue; and the most favourable combination of curves and gradients is that by which the annual cost of conveying the traffic which the line will be called on to carry, added to the annual interest on the capital expended in construction, will be made a minimum.
Economy in capital outlay and cheapness in construction is indeed the characteristic generally associated with light railways by the public, and implicitly attached to them by parliament in the act of 1896, and any simplifications of the engineering or mechanical features they may exhibit compared with the standard railways of the country are mainly, if not entirely, due to the desire to keep down their expenses.
The orders confirmed were for 1731 m., involving an estimated capital expenditure of (12,770,384.
They pointed out that while during the first five years the act was in force there were 315 applications for orders, during the second five years there were only 142 applications, and that proposals for new lines had become less numerous owing to the various difficulties in carrying them to a successful completion and to the difficulty of raising the necessary capital even when part of it was provided with the aid of the state and of the local authorities.
Over an average of years it appears that 27% of the capital cost was found by the state, 28% by the province, 40.9% by the communes and 4 .
UDINE, a town and archiepiscopal see of Venetia, Italy, capital of the province of Udine, situated between the Gulf of Venice and the Alps, 84 m.
LIESTAL, the capital (since 1833) of the half canton of BaselStadt in Switzerland.
PEKING, or Pekin, the capital of the Chinese Empire, situated in 39° 57' N.
In 986 it was taken by an invading force of Khitan Tatars, who adopted it as their headquarters and named it Nanking, or the "southern capital."
In 1151 it fell into the hands of the Kin Tatars, who made it a royal residence under the name of Chung-tu, or "central capital."
The provincial capital is Nan-ch'ang Fu, on the Kan Kiang, about 35 m.
But apart from the inevitable advances made in the course of a century during which historical research entered upon a new phase, the reader of Gibbon must be warned against one capital defect.
Their capital in 1900 was $1,251,208 and in 1905 $2,891,997, an increase of 131.1%.
There were then only three towns of importance: Reno, Virginia City and Carson City, the capital.
REGGIO NELL' EMILIA, a city and episcopal see of Emilia, Italy, the capital of the province of Reggio nell' Emilia (till 1859 part of the duchy of Modena), 38 m.
The modern town is a busy and flourishing port with a good harbour protected by Cranae, now connected by a mole with the mainland: it is the capital of the prefecture (voµos) of Aaru,vudi with a population in 1907 of 61,522.
But his capital, Halicarnassus, was taken after a siege, and the principality of Caria conferred by Alexander on Ada, a princess of the native dynasty.
RAVENNA, a city and archiepiscopal see of Emilia, Italy, capital of the province of Ravenna, standing in a marshy plain 13 ft.
Belisarius dallied with the proposal until he had obtained an entrance within the walls of the capital, and proclaimed his inviolable fidelity to Justinian.
ASTARABAD, the capital of the province, is situated on the Astar, a small tributary of the Kara Su (Black river), which flows into the Caspian Sea 20 m.
From 1900 to 1905 the capital invested in manufactures increased 83% and the value of the product Sor %.
of the capital; Capella (11,034); Simao Dias (10, 9 84); Lagarto (10,473); Sao Christovao, formerly Sergipe d'el-Rey (8793), the old capital, near the mouth of the Irapiranga, and Maroim (7851).
AARAU, the capital of the Swiss canton of Aargau.
Aarau, an ancient fortress, was taken by the Bernese in 1415, and in 1798 became for a time the capital of the Helvetic republic. Eight miles by rail N.E.
He enlarged and consolidated the kingdom, founded the great city of Nicomedia as the capital, and fought successfully for some time with Antiochus of Syria.
CURTEA DE ARGESH (Rumanian, Curtea de Arges; also written Curtea d'Argesh, Curtea d'Ardges, Argish and Ardjish), the capital of the department of Argesh, Rumania; situated on the right bank of the river Argesh, where it flows through a valley of the lower Carpathians; and on the railway from Pitesci to the Rothenthurm Pass.
According to tradition it was founded early in the 14th century by Prince Radu Negru, succeeding Campulung as capital of Walachia.
Camden describes the wonder with which O'Neill's wild gallowglasses were seen in the English capital, with their heads bare, their long hair falling over their shoulders and clipped short in front above the eyes, and clothed in rough yellow shirts.
By nature a sybarite, he took care to have the best cook in the capital, and women had for him an irresistible attraction, though he was never married.
For administrative purposes the province is divided into eleven districts and one autonomous municipality, Laibach (pop. 36,547), the capital.
For the next eighteen years its freedom from Danish attack made Sherborne the capital of Wessex.
of that small district which, with Jerusalem as its capital, became the centre of Judaism.
After strenuous fighting the district was cleared, and Jerusalem, taken by the sword, became the capital.
The actual capture of the Israelite capital is claimed by Sargon (722), who removed 27,290 of its inhabitants and fifty chariots.
The fall of Samaria, Sennacherib's devastation of Judah, and the growth of Jerusalem as the capital, had tended to raise the position of the Temple, although Israel itself, as also Judah, had famous sanctuaries of its own.
He had already made Jerusalem his capital and fortified the Temple mount: the Syrian garrisons had already been withdrawn with the exception of those of the Akra and Bethzur.
His capital was Caesarea Philippi, where Pan had been worshipped from ancient times, and.
The Sanhedrin had its police and powers to safeguard the Jewish religion; but the procurator had the appointment of the high priests, and no capital sentence could be executed without his sanction.
Hadrian's policy in this respect was matched later on by the edict of the caliph Omar (c. 638), who, like his Roman prototype, prevented the Jews from settling in the capital of their ancient country.
Napoleon, after the report of the assembly, established the consistorial system which remained in force, with its central consistory in the capital, until the recent separation of church and state.
But economic laws are often too strong for civil vagaries or sectarian fanaticism, and as the commerce of Austria suffered by the absence of the Jews, it was impossible to exclude the latter from the fairs in the provinces of from the markets of the capital.
in area, which contains the capital, Nukualofa.
Candia, the former capital and the see of the archbishop of Crete (pop. in 1900, 22,501), is officially styled Herakleion; it is surrounded by remarkable Venetian fortifications and possesses a museum with a valuable collection of objects found at Cnossus, Phaestus, the Idaean cave and elsewhere.
Under the Venetian government Candia, a fortress originally built by the Saracens, and called by them " Khandax," became the seat of government, and not only rose to be the capital and chief city of the island, but actually gave name to it, so that it was called in the official language of Venice " the island of Candia," a designation which from thence passed into modern maps.
Retimo fell the following year, and in 1648 they laid siege to the capital city of Candia.