Cape colony sentence example
He became Astronomer Royal in Cape Colony in 1879 and retained that post till 1902.
In 1892 he was elected to the Dominion Parliament, but in 1899 he interrupted his political career to serve in the South African War, where he commanded a mixed force of English and colonial scouts in western Cape Colony.
In Africa Egypt opened her first line (between Alexandria and Cairo) in 1856, and Cape Colony followed in 1860.
Algoa Bay was the first landing-place of the British emigrants to the eastern province of Cape Colony in 1820.
One of Philip's ideals was the curbing of colonial "aggression" by the creation of a belt of native states around Cape Colony.Advertisement
This deviation is the adoption of an aquatic mode of life by the European fresh-water spider (Argyroneta) and by the marine spider Desis, which is found on the shores of the Indian and Pacific Oceans from Cape Colony to eastern Australia.
Trade is almost entirely with Orange River Colony and Cape Colony.
Boundary disputes at once arose but were settled (1858) by the mediation of Sir George Grey, governor of Cape Colony.
An expedition was despatched from Cape Colony and severe fighting followed.
The subjection of Basutoland to the control of the Cape government had by this time proved unsatisfactory, both to the Basuto and to Cape Colony.Advertisement
The Cape government therefore offered no opposition to the appeal made by the Basuto themselves to the imperial government to take them over, and, moreover, Cape Colony undertook to pay towards the cost of administration an annual contribution of £18,000.
Consequently, in 1884, Basutoland ceased to be a portion of the Cape Colony and became a British crown colony.
Trade increased, and in 1891 Basutoland was admitted to the customs union, which already existed between Orange Free State, Cape Colony and British Bechuanaland.
In 1879 it came into the possession of Cape Colony and was granted municipal government in 1893.
In April Lord Rosmead resigned his posts of high commissioner for South Africa and governor of Cape Colony.Advertisement
His difficulties were increased when at the general election in Cape Colony the Bond obtained a majority.
It was proclaimed British territory on the 12th of March 1878, and was annexed to Cape Colony on the 7th of August 1884 (see Africa, § 5).
The Roman-Dutch law, as accepted and administered by the courts of Cape Colony up to 1845 (the date of the separation of Natal from the Cape), is the law of the land, save as modified by ordinances and laws enacted by the local legislature, mostly founded upon imperial statute law.
When in 1824 the next attempt was made by Europeans to form a settlement at the bay, Cape Colony had passed from the Dutch into the ' possession of Great Britain, while in Natal great changes had come over the land as a result of wars between the natives.
These Kaffirs appear to have been more given to agriculture and more peaceful than their neighbours in Kaffraria and Cape Colony.Advertisement
The next step was taken by the settlers at the port, who in 1835 resolved to lay out a town, which they named Durban, after Sir Benjamin d'Urban, then governor of Cape Colony.
The first emigrant Boers to enter the country were led by Pieter Retief (c. 1780-1838), a man of Huguenot descent and of marked ability, who had formerly lived on the eastern frontier of Cape Colony and had suffered severely in the Kaffir wars.
In this minute the farmers ascribed all their troubles to one cause, namely, the absence of a representative government, which had been repeatedly asked for by them while still living in Cape Colony and as often denied or delayed, and concluded by a protest against the occupation of any part of their territory by British troops.
In 1856 the dependence of the country on Cape Colony was put to an end and Natal constituted a distinct colony with a legislative council of sixteen members, twelve elected by the inhabitants and four nominated by the crown.
The chief was captured, and exiled to Cape Colony (August 1874).Advertisement
Railways were still far from the Transvaal border, and Natal not only sent her own colonists to the new fields, but also offered the nearest route for prospectors from Cape Colony or from Europe.
In the following year Natal entered the Customs Union already existing between Cape Colony and the Orange Free State.
They left Cape Colony in 1835 and trekked to the Zoutpansberg.
It was used as a base by hunters and traders with the interior, and in its vicinity there gathered a number of settlers of European origin, many of them outcasts from Europe or Cape Colony.
Having failed with Brand, the Boers invited the Rev. Thomas Francois Burgers, a member of a well-known Cape Colony family and a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, to allow himself to be nominated.
About this time gold reefs were discovered in the Zoutpansberg district near Marabastad, and a few gold seekers from Europe and Cape Colony began to prospect the northern portions of the Transvaal.
His hostility towards Great Britain and even Cape Colony led him to adopt a commercial policy both narrow and prejudicial to the interests of the gold industry.
In the furthering of this policy Tudhope was supported by Charles Leonard and his brother James Leonard, at one time attorney-general of Cape Colony.
On the following day the Boer attack on an armoured train at Kraaipan, a railway station in Cape Colony south of Mafeking and close to the western frontier of the Transvaal, witnessed the first hostile shot of a bloody war, destined to plunge South Africa into strife for two years and a half.
The army corps was about to arrive, practically as a whole unit, in South Africa; but it was evident that the exigencies of the situation, and the widely divided areas of invasion, would at least defer the execution of the plan which had been formed for an invasion of the Orange Free State from Cape Colony.
When Lord Roberts arrived in Cape Town on the 10th of January 1900 the three garrisons were still invested, and the relieving forces were still maintaining their role of passive resistance, while at the same time restraining the Dutch in Cape Colony.
The commander-in-chief's first duty was to create a field army out of the tangle of units in Cape Colony.
The Natal invaders fell back to the mountains which enclose the north of the colony; Oliver and Schoeman retired from Cape Colony before the small forces of Gatacre and Clements; and the presidents of the republics, realizing that the British Empire was capable of more resistance than they had calculated upon, put forward feelers aiming at the restoration of the status quo before the war.
Kritzinger, Hertzog and bodies of Cape rebels raided Cape Colony as soon as they were able to cross the Orange, and Hertzog penetrated so far that he exchanged shots on the Atlantic coast with a British warship. All that the British forces under Sir Charles Knox and others could do was to localize the raids and to prevent Botha's .
On the 10th of February De Wet, with five guns and 3000 men, carried out his promised invasion of Cape Colony.
More injurious than plots of this nature was the political agitation carried on in Cape Colony and in Great Britain.
Natal and Cape Colony have also industries of considerable local importance.
In Cape Colony they are known as "eyervreter," i.e.
Its political history is indistinguishable from that of Cape Colony.
In 1824 Dutch farmers from Cape Colony seeking pasture for their flocks settled in the country.
These emigrants left Cape Colony from various motives, but all were animated by the desire to escape from British sovereignty.
Many of the white farmers in this district, unlike their fellows dwelling farther north, were willing to accept British rule, and this fact induced Mr Justice Menzies, one of the judges of Cape Colony then on circuit at Colesberg, to cross the Orange and proclaim (October 1842) the country British territory, a proclamation disallowed by the governor, Sir George Napier, who, nevertheless, maintained that the emigrant farmers were still British subjects.
At that time there were some 15,000 whites in the country, many of them recent emigrants from Cape Colony.
The difficulties of the state were at that time (1858) so great that the volksraad in December of that year passed a resolution in favour of confederation with the Cape Colony.
Attempts at accommodation made by the governor of Cape Colony (Sir Philip Wodehouse) failed, and war between the Free State and Moshesh was renewed in 1865.
The intervention of the governor of Cape Colony led to the of the conclusion of the treaty of Aliwal North (Feb.12,1869), which defined the borders between the Orange Free State and Basutoland.
In 1889 an agreement was come to between the Free State and the Cape Colony government, whereby the latter were empowered to extend, at their own cost, their railway system to Bloemfontein.
Previously to his becoming president of the Free State he had acted as its Chief Justice and still earlier in life had practised as an advocate in Cape Colony.
The Transvaal was to pay £ 20,000 annually to the Free State for loss incurred for not having the railway to Cape Colony.
He was originally an attorney in Cape Colony and had joined the Free State bar in 1875.
The Griqualand West province of Cape Colony belongs also geographically to Bechuanaland, and except in the Kimberley diamond mines region is still largely inhabited by Bechuana.
As the great highway from Cape Colony to the north, Bechuanaland has been described as the " Suez canal of South Africa."
In 1891 the South African Customs Union was extended to British Bechuanaland, and in 1895 the country was annexed to Cape Colony.
The appointment, first made in 1897, of the chief justice of Canada, along with the chief justices of Cape Colony and.
In 1896 there was a great trek, and about then in the north of Cape Colony a herd was seen which was estimated at 50o,000 head.
It is only in the more northerly part of the country that the pipes are filled with blue ground (or " kimberlite "), and that they are diamantiferous; but over a great part of Cape Colony have been discovered what are probably similar pipes filled with agglomerates, breccias and tuffs, and some with basic lavas; one, in particular, in the Riversdale Division near the southern coast, being occupied by a melilite-basalt.
In 1865 it adjudged Bishop Gray's letters patent, as metropolitan of Cape Town, to be powerless to enable him "to exercise any coercive jurisdiction, or hold any court or tribunal for that purpose," since the Cape colony already possessed legislative institutions when they were issued; and his deposition of Bishop Colenso was declared to be "null and void in law" (re The Bishop of Natal).
At the age of ten Paul Kruger - as he afterwards came to be known - accompanied his parents in the migration, known as the Great Trek, from the Cape Colony to the territories north of the Orange in the years 1835-1840.
Immediately after the ultimatum Natal and the Cape Colony were invaded by the Boers both of the Transvaal and the Free State.
The case in question was a claim of title against the crown, represented by the government of Cape Colony.
Before the grantees had taken up their grant by acts of possession, Pondoland was annexed to Cape Colony.
Sir Bartle Frere, who became high commissioner of South Africa in March 1877, found evidence which convinced him that the Kaffir revolt of that year on the eastern border of Cape Colony was part of a design or desire "for a general and simultaneous rising of Kaffirdom against white civilization"; and the Kaffirs undoubtedly looked to Cetywayo and the Zulus as the most redoubtable of their champions.
The islands off the coast of Angra Pequena, together with others north and south, were annexed to Great Britain in 1867 and added to Cape Colony in 1874.
Except in southern and western Cape Colony and along the Atlantic coast, summer is the rainy season.
Flowering plants include numerous species of terrestrial orchids, the socalled arum lily (Richardia Africana), common in low-lying moist land, and the white everlasting flower, found abundantly in some regions of Cape Colony.
The British p title to Cape Colony is thus based upon conquest, treaty and purchase.
During that period no fewer than 7000 Boers (including women and children), impatient of British rule, emigrated from Cape Colony into the great plains beyond the Orange river, and across them again into Natal and into the fastnesses of the Zoutspanberg, in the northern part of the Transvaal.
At first Natal was dependent on Cape Colony.
Sir Harry had, in the previous December, extended the northern frontier of Cape Colony to the Orange, and had reoccupied the territory on the Kaffir border which D'Urban had been forced to abandon.'
They might at the outset either have let the trek Boers go, and given them their blessing and liberty, or they might have controlled the trek and ' Part of the territory thus reannexed was added to Cape Colony while the region between the Keiskamma and Kei was created a separate territory under the name of British Kaffraria.
His first care was to ameliorate the condition of Cape Colony.
He held that the federation of that state with Cape Colony was preferable to its union or federation with the Transvaal, and it was with considerable satisfaction that he learned that on the 7th of December of the same year (1858) the Volksraad of the Free State had passed a resolution in favour of " a union or alliance with the Cape Colony " and sought to ascertain the views of the Cape legislature on the subject.
Among the purely pastoral population ostrichfarming became a new industry and added a considerable asset to the wealth of Cape Colony.
It was at this stage of affairs that responsible government was granted to Cape Colony (1872).
The intimation of the impending grant of self-government to Cape Colony was regarded by both Boer republics as bringing nearer the prospect of their union with the British colonies.
Another member of the conference was Sir Theophilus Shepstone, (q.v.) Neither Cape Colony nor the Transvaal was represented, 1 At Sir Henry Barkly's request Lord Carnarvon's predecessor, Lord Kimberley, had in November 1871 given him (Sir Henry) authority to summon a meeting of representatives of the states and colonies to consider the " conditions of union," but the annexation of the diamond fields had occurred meantime and Sir Henry thought the occasion inopportune for such a conference.
The secretary of state sought the aid of Sir Bartle Frere as his chief agent in carrying through confederation, the then governor of Cape Colony and high commissioner for South Africa, Sir Henry Barkly, sharing the views of the Cape ministry that the time was inopportune to force such a step upon South Africa.
The support given by the Cape Colony Dutch to the malcontent Transvaal Boers has already been mentioned.
The Bond was formed, its work being almost confined to Cape Colony.
A customs union between Cape Colony and the Free State was concluded in 1889, to which later on all the other South African states, save the Transvaal, became parties.
In 1884, having the power in his hands when the Scanlen ministry fell, Hofmeyr had put into office a ministry dependent upon the Bond, and had talked of a possible Dutch rebellion in Cape Colony if the Boer freebooters in Bechuanaland were ejected; in 1890 Rhodes became premier with Hofmeyr's approval and support.
His handling of the native question in Cape Colony gave general satisfaction.
It greatly embittered racial feeling throughout the country; it threw the Free State Boers completely on to the side of the Transvaal; it destroyed the alliance between the Dutch in Cape Colony and the Imperialists led by Rhodes.
This scheme found many supporters in Cape Colony.
These triumphs of the Dutch section of South Africans were followed in the general electioai in Cape Colony early in 1908 by a sweeping victory of the Bond, helped by the suffrages of re-enfranchised rebels.
In 1799, during the first occupation of Cape Colony by the British, Colonel (afterwards General Sir John) Vandeleur, to guard the roadstead, built a small fort on the hill west of the Baaken's River.
In 1835 a township was laid out and the colonists gave it the name of D'Urban, in honour of Sir Benjamin D'Urban, then governor of Cape Colony.
Stone implements, more or less approaching the European Palaeolithic type, were found in Africa from Egypt southwards, wherein such parts as Somaliland and Cape Colony they lie about.
Podocarpus elongata and P. Thunbergii (yellow wood) form the principal timber trees in the belt of forest which stretches from the coast mountains of Cape Colony to the north-east of the Transvaal.
Walfish Bay on the west coast north of the Orange river is a detached part of Cape Colony.
Northwards the Karroo (q.v.) is bounded by the ramparts of the great inner tableland, of which only a comparatively small portion is in Cape Colony.
For a considerable distance, both in its upper and lower courses, the river forms the northern frontier of Cape Colony.
They all occur more than once in Cape Colony.
At the mouth of the river, where the scenery is very fine, is East London, third in importance of the ports of Cape Colony.
The climate of Cape Colony is noted for its healthiness.
Whilst the general characteristics of the climate are as here outlined, in a country of so large an area as Cape Colony there are many variations in different districts.
That white men can thrive and work in Cape Colony the history of South Africa amply demonstrates.
The first inhabitants of Cape Colony of whom there is any record were Bushmen and Hottentots (q.v.).
The Amaxosa are the principal Kaffir tribe in Cape Colony proper.
The term " Africander " is sometimes applied to all white residents in Cape Colony and throughout British South Africa, but is often restricted to the Dutch-speaking colonists.
Several lines of steamers ply between Cape Town and Australian ports, and others between Cape Colony and India.
Under the constitution established in 1872 Cape Colony enjoyed self-government.
Next in number of adherents among the white community come the Anglicans - Cape Colony forming part of the Province of South Africa.
In 1847 a bishop of Cape Town was appointed to preside over this church, whose diocese extended not only over Cape Colony and Natal, but also over the island of St Helena.
The action of Sir Benjamin D'Urban was not approved by the home government, and on the instruction of Lord Glenelg, secretary for the colonies, who declared that " the great evil of the Cape Colony consists in its magnitude," the colonial boundary was moved back to the Great Fish river, and eventually (in 1837) Sir Benjamin was dismissed from office.
This attitude towards the Kaffirs was one of the many reasons given by the Trek Boers for leaving Cape Colony.
From this time Cape Colony ceased to be the only civilized community in South Africa, though for long it maintained its predominance.
The change from slave to free labour proved to be advantageous to the farmers in the western provinces; an efficient educational system, which owed its initiation to Sir John Herschel, the astronomer (who lived in Cape Colony from 1834 to 1838), was adopted; Road Boards were established and did much good work; to the staple industries - the growing of wheat, the rearing of cattle and the making of wine - was added sheepraising; and by 1846 wool became the most valuable export from the country.
From that date the development of modern South Africa may be said to have fairly started, and in spite of political complications, arising from time to time, the progress of Cape Colony down to the outbreak of the Transvaal War of 1899 was steadily forward.
At the time of the beginning of the diamond industry, not only the territory of Cape Colony and the Boer Republics, but all South Africa, was in a very depressed condition.
The representative government in Cape Colony had been replaced in 1872 by responsible, i.e.
Lord Carnarvon, still bent on confederation, now appointed Sir Bartle Frere governor of Cape Colony and high commissioner of South Africa.
Frere had no sooner taken office as high commissioner than he found himself confronted with serious native troubles in Zululand and on the Kaffir frontier of Cape Colony.
As a matter of fact, at that time Cape Colony was too fully occupied with native troubles to take into consideration very seriously so great a question as confederation.
The imperial government then took over Basutoland as a crown colony, on the understanding that Cape Colony should contribute for administrative purposes £18,000 annually.
Griqualand West, which included the diamond fields, was now incorporated as a portion of Cape Colony.
The organization of the Bond developed into one embracing the Transvaal, the Orange Free State and Cape Colony.
At a later date the Bond in the Cape Colony dissociated itself from its Republican branches.
Schreiner, whose brother became, at a later date, prime minister of Cape Colony.
In 1884 Mr Hofmeyr led the Bond in strongly supporting the Transvaal Boers who had invaded Bechuanaland (q.v.), proclaiming that if the Bechuanaland freebooters were not permitted to retain the territories they had seized, in total disregard of the terms of the conventions of 1881 and 1884, there would be rebellion among the Dutch of Cape Colony.
Fortunately, however, for the peace of Cape Colony at that time, Sir Charles Warren, sent by the imperial government to maintain British rights, removed the invading Boers from Stellaland and Goshen - two so-called republics set up by the Boer freebooters - in March 1885 and no rebellion occurred.
In 1885 the territories of Cape Colony were farther extended, and Tembuland, Bomvanaland and Galekaland were formally added to the colony.
The period from 1878 to 1885 in Cape Colony had been one of considerable unrest.
But President Kruger, consistently pursuing his own policy, hoped through the Delagoa Bay railway to make the South African Republic entirely independent of Cape Colony.
In 1889 the Free State entered into an arrangement with the Cape Colony whereby the main trunk railway was extended to Bloemfontein, the Free State receiving half the profits.
In 1889 Sir Henry Loch was appointed high commissioner and governor of Cape Colony in succession to Sir Hercules Robinson.
The colonies of British Bechuanaland and Basutoland were now taken into the customs union existing between the Orange Free State and Cape Colony.
Nevertheless the continuance of this traffic on colonial farms, as well as to some extent in the native territories and reserves, is a black spot in the annals of the Cape Colony.
With the development of railways, and the extension of trade between Cape Colony and the Transvaal, there had grown up a closer relationship on political questions.
On the 29th of December 1895 Dr Jameson made his famous raid into the Transvaal, and Rhodes's complicity in this movement compelled him to resign the premiership of Cape Colony in January 1896, the vacant post being taken by Sir Gordon Sprigg.
On cross-examination Galeshwe stated that Bosman, a magistrate of the Transvaal, had supplied ammunition to him, and urged him to rebel against the government of Cape Colony.
Mr Schreiner's attention was called to this consignment at the time, but he refused to stop it, alleging as his reason that, inasmuch as Great Britain was at peace with the Free State, he had no right to interdict the passage of arms through the Cape Colony.
Proclamations by the Transvaal and Free State annexing portions of Cape Colony were actually issued on the 18th of October, and included British Bechuanaland and Griqualand West, with the diamond fields.
On the 28th of October Mr Schreiner signed a proclamation issued by Sir Alfred Milner as high commissioner, declaring the Boer annexations of territory within Cape Colony to be null and void.
In December some of these bands entered the Cape Colony and endeavoured to induce colonial Boers to join them.
On the 4th of January 1901 Sir Alfred Milner was gazetted governor of the Transvaal and Orange River Colony, being shortly afterwards created a peer as Lord Milner, and Sir Walter Hely-Hutchinson, governor of Natal, was appointed his successor as governor of the Cape Colony.
The slow recovery of the gold-mining and other industries in the Transvaal after the war was reflected in a great decline in trade in Cape Colony during the last half of 1903, the distress being aggravated by severe drought.
In January 1905 an inter-colonial native affairs commission reported on the native question as it affected South Africa as a whole, proposals being made for an alteration of the laws in Cape Colony respecting the franchise exercised by natives.
The revolt in the German protectorate had been, nearly a year before the death of Morenga, the indirect occasion of a " Boer raid " into Cape Colony.
At the time at which Lord Beaconsfields administration began, British territory in South Africa was practically confined to Cape Colony and Natal.
The knowledge that a large portion of the population of Cape Colony was of Dutch extraction, and that public men at the Cape sympathized with them in their aspirations, increased their confidence.
They interrupted the communications of the British armies; they won isolated victories over British detachments; they even invaded Cape Colony.
In the town is the original Grey College, founded in 1856 by Sir George Grey, when governor of Cape Colony.
Later coloured women from Cape Colony married residents in the island.
In 1g06 the islanders passed through a period of distress owing to great mortality among the cattle and the almost total failure of the potato crop. The majority again refused, however, to desert the island, though offered allotments of land in Cape Colony.
In Cape Colony the Silurian age of the Table Mountain Sandstone is based on such evidence.
In the south all that can be said is that it extended to the south of Worcester in Cape Colony.
Towards the close of the Karroo period, possibly about the middle, the southern rim of the great central depression became ridged up to form the folded regions of the Zwaarteberg, Cedarberg and Langeberg mountains in Cape Colony.
With them may be classed provisionally the Hottentots, a pastoral people of medium stature and yellowish-brown complexion, who in early times shared with the Bushmen the whole of what is now Cape Colony.
It is true that stone implements of palaeolithic and neolithic types are found sporadically in the Nile valley, Somaliland, on the Zambezi, in Cape Colony and the northern portions of the Congo Free State, as well as in Algeria and Tunisia; but the localities are far too few and too widely separated to warrant the inference that they are to be in any way connected.
I n April the government of the Cape Colony telegraphed 1884.
That Gordon's views were correct is proved by the fact that a few years later Basutoland was separated from Cape Colony and placed directly under the imperial government.
Both places were named in honour of Sir Harry Smith, governor of Cape Colony 1847-1852, Aliwal (see above) being the village in the Punjab where in 1846 he gained a great victory over the Sikhs.
The causes which led to the exodus of large numbers of Dutch farmers from Cape Colony are discussed elsewhere (see South Africa and Cape Colony).
In the latter part of 1881 a Dutch pastor at the Paarl, a town in western Cape Colony named Du Toit, in a paper called De Patriot, suggested the organization of an Afrikander Bond; in the same year Carl Borckenhagen, a German resident in the Free State, advocated such a bond in his paper, the Bloemfontein Express.
Meanwhile, and partly through distrust of the Kruger policy, there was growing up in Cape Colony a party of South African Imperialists, or, as they have been called, Afrikander Imperialists, who came to a large extent under the influence of Cecil Rhodes.
He realized that one of the most potent factors in the Milner situation was the attitude of the Cape Dutch, and in March 1898 at Graaff Reinet Milner called upon the Dutch citizens of the Cape, " especially those who had gone so far in the expression of their sympathy for the Transvaal as to expose themselves to charges of disloyalty to their own flag " to use all their influence, not in confirming the Transvaal in unjustified suspicions, not in encouraging its government in obstinate resistance to all reform, but in inducing it gradually to assimilate its institutions, and the temper and spirit of its administration, to those of the free communities of South Africa, such as Cape Colony or the Orange Free State.
A number of small islands off the coast of German South-West Africa, chiefly valuable for their guano deposits, also belong to Cape Colony (see Angra Pequena).