Cape Sentence Examples
That would be a hoot, pushing my cart in a black cape!
Between the Swan and North-West Cape the principal rivers are the Greenough, Murchison and Gascoyne; on the north-west coast, the Ashburton, Fortescue and De Grey; and in the Kimberley district, the Fitzroy, Panton, Prince Regent and the Ord.
From Cape San Lucas Cavendish steered across the Pacific, seeing no land until he reached the Ladrone Islands.
They passed the cape on the 31st of January, encountering the usual westerly winds.
The town lies on the west side of the bay, Cape St Blaize stretching beyond to the S.E.Advertisement
The first of the Dutch Indian voyages was performed by ships which sailed in April 1595, and rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
Passing through the strait of Lemaire they came to the southern extremity of Tierra del Fuego, which was named Cape Horn, in honour of the town of Hoorn in West Friesland, of which Schouten was a native.
The " Resolution " and " Discovery " sailed in 1776, and Cook again took the route by the Cape of Good Hope.
Captain Vancouver was sent out to receive the cession, and to survey the coast from Cape Mendocino northwards.
To the east of Cape Chelyuskin the Russians encountered greater difficulties.Advertisement
Small peninsulas are known as promontories or headlands, and the extremity as a cape.
Swellendam is one of the older Dutch settlements in the Cape, dating from 1745, and was named after Hendrik Swellengrebel (then governor of the Cape) and his wife, whose maiden name was Damme.
At the same time the burghers of Graaff Reinet also rebelled against the Cape authorities, who were powerless to suppress the insurrectionary movement.
In September of that year Cape Town surrendered to the British and the "National" party at Swellendam quietly accepted British rule.
There are many pleasant drives along the shore of the bay or the banks of rivers, and some of these lead to popular resorts, such as Riverton Park, on the Presumpscot; Cape Cottage Park, at the mouth of the harbour; and Falmouth Foreside, bordering the inner bay.Advertisement
The harbour has an artificial breakwater and extensive modern fortifications (Fort Preble, on the Cape Shore; Fort Levett, on Cushing's Island; Fort Williams, at Portland Head; and Fort McKinley, on Great Diamond Island) among the best equipped in the United States.
The peninsula, with considerable neighbouring territory and Cape Elizabeth, was organized as a town in 1718 and was named Falmouth.
The Cape York peninsula practically belongs to Papuasia.
Others thrive in a greenhouse; such are C. asiaticum, a widely distributed plant on the sea-coast of tropical Asia, C. capense and C. longiflorum, from the Cape, and C. Macowani and C. Moorei from Natal.
Specifically Table Mountain is the mountain which arises behind Table Bay, in the Cape Peninsula, Cape Town lying at its seaward base and on its adjacent lower slopes.Advertisement
The mountain forms the northern end of a range of hills which terminates southward in the Cape of Good Hope.
The western side of Table Mountain faces the Atlantic, and is flanked by the hills known as The Twelve Apostles; to the south Hout's Bay Nek connects it with the remainder of the range; on the east the mountain overlooks the Cape Flats.
On this side its slopes are less steep, and at its foot are Rondebosch, Newlands, Wynberg, and other residential suburbs of Cape Town.
The summit of the mountain is then covered by a whitish-grey cloud, which is being constantly forced down the northern face towards Cape Town, but never reaches the lower slopes.
This compares with an average of 54.63 inches at Bishop's Court, Newlands, at the foot of the mountain on the east and with 2 5.43 inches at Cape Town at the northern foot of the mountain.Advertisement
In 1892 he was elected to the Dominion Parliament, but in 1899 he interrupted his political career to serve in the South African War, where he commanded a mixed force of English and colonial scouts in western Cape Colony.
As most of the rivers have rapids or falls actually at the sea coast or close to it, they are, with the exception of the Cavalla, useless for penetrating far inland, and the whole of this part of Africa from Cape Palmas north-west to the Senegal suggests a sunken land.
Cape Mount (on the northern side of which is a large lagoon - Fisherman Lake) at its highest point is 1050 ft.
Cape Mesurado is about 350 ft., Cape Palmas about 200 ft.
There is a salt lake or lagoon between the Cape Palmas river and the vicinity of the Cavalla.
The French in the 17th century claimed that but for the loss of the archives of Dieppe they would be able to prove that vessels from this Norman port had established settlements at Grand Basa, Cape Mount, and other points on the coast of Liberia.
In 1462 de Sintra returned with another Portuguese captain, Sueiro da Costa, and penetrated as far as Cape Palmas and the Cavalla river.
During 1910 the natives in the Cape Palmas district were at open warfare with the Liberian authorities.
For administrative purposes the country is divided into four counties, Montserrado, Basa, Sino and Maryland, but Cape Mount in the far west and the district round it has almost the status of a fifth county.
In Africa Egypt opened her first line (between Alexandria and Cairo) in 1856, and Cape Colony followed in 1860.
Stray specimens of the great king penguin have been observed, and there are also mollymauks (a kind of albatross), Cape pigeons and many carrion birds.
The development of this undertaking necessitated the establishment of stores and workshops at Stanley, and ships can be repaired and provided in every way; a matter of importance since not a few vessels, after suffering injury during heavy weather off Cape Horn, call on the Falklands in distress.
The most important inlet, the Ceramic Gulf, or Gulf of Cos, extends inland for 70 m., between the great mountain promontory terminating at Myndus on the north, and that which extends to Cnidus and the remarkable headland of Cape Krio on the south.
The town, which is strongly fortified, holds a commanding strategic position on the route between western Europe and Brazil and South Africa, being situated in the Gulf of Goree on the eastern side of the peninsula of Cape Verde, the most westerly point of Africa.
The "Virginius" foundered off Cape Hatteras as she was being brought to the United States.
The Marine Society was organized in 1799, its membership being limited to "persons who have actually navigated the seas beyond the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn, as masters or supercargoes of vessels belonging to Salem"; it assists the widows and children of members.
Salem was settled in 1626 by Roger Conant (1593-1679) and a company of "planters," who in 1624 (under the Sheffield patent of 1623 for a settlement on the north shore of Massachusetts Bay) had attempted a plantation at Cape Ann, whither John Lyford and others had previously come from Plymouth through "dissatisfaction with the extreme separation from the English church."
Cape Ann was too bleak, but Naumkeag was a "pleasant and fruitful neck of land," which they named Salem in June 1629, probably in allusion to Psalm lxxvi.
An idea of the disturbing influence of cloud may be derived from some interesting results from the Cape Thorsden (7) observations.
The influence of daylight is presumably the principal cause of the difference between the phenomena during November, December and January at Cape Thorsden and Jan Mayen, for in the equinoctial months the results from these two stations are closely similar.
At Cape Thorsden from November to January there seems a distinct double period, with minima near noon and midnight.
The other months at Cape Thorsden show a single maximum and minimum, the former before midnight.
At Cape Thorsden diffused auroral light had percentages e.
At Cape Thorsden (7) in 1882-1883 auroras as a whole were divided into those seen in the north and those seen in the south.
The following data for the apparent angular width of arcs were obtained at Cape Thorsden, the arcs being grouped according to the height of the lower edge above the horizon.
According to numerous observations made at Cape Thorsden, the apparent angular velocity of arcs increases on the average with their altitude.
In 1882-1883 the direction of motion of arcs was from north to south in 62% of the cases at Jan Mayen, and in 58% of the cases at Cape Thorsden.
Amongst the best-known theodolite determinations of height are those made at Bossekop in Norway by the French Expedition of 1838-1839 (16) and the Norwegian Expedition of 1882-1883, and those made in the latter year by the Swedes at Cape Thorsden and the Danes at Godthaab.
At Bossekop and Cape Thorsden there were a considerable proportion of negative or impossible parallaxes.
In 1885 Messrs Garde and Eherlin made similar observations at Nanortalik near Cape Farewell in Greenland, but using a base of only 1250 metres (about 4 m.).
The channel between Cape Bon in Tunis and the south-west of Sicily (a distance of 80 m.) is, on the whole, shallower than the Straits of Messina, being for the most part under 100 fathoms in depth, and exceeding 200 fathoms only for a very short interval, while the Straits of Messina, have almost everywhere a depth exceeding 150 fathoms. The geological structure in the neighbourhood of this strait shows that the island must originally have been formed by a rupture between it and the mainland, but that this rupture must have taken place at a period long antecedent to the advent of man, so that the name Rhegium cannot be based even on the tradition of any such catastrophe.
Electric power is conveyed to the city from Buckhorn Falls, on the Cape Fear river, about 26 m.
This has been the case from time immemorial, and the provision, in 1869, of direct maritime communication between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, by the completion of the Suez Canal, ensured for the Egyptian route the supremacy in sea-borne traffic to Asia, which the discovery of the passage to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope had menaced for three and a half centuries.
Cape Fligely was the highest latitude attained by Payer, and remained the highest attained in the Old World till 1895.
Payer reported that from Cape Fligely land (Rudolf Land) stretched north-east to a cape (Cape Sherard Osborn), and mountain ranges were visible to the north, indicating lands beyond the 83rd parallel, to which the names King Oscar Land and Petermann Land were given.
Mr Jackson and his party landed at "Elmwood" (which was named from Lord Northcliffe's seat in the Isle of Thanet), near Cape Flora, at the western extremity of Northbrook Island, on the 7th of September.
Nansen wintered near Cape Norway, only a few miles from the spot reached by Jackson in 1895.
In August 1898 an expedition under Mr Walter Wellman, an American, landed at Cape Tegetthof.
In colour the Cape aard-vark is pale sandy or yellow, the hair being scanty and allowing the skin to show; the northern aard-vark has a still thinner coat, and is further distinguished by the shorter tail and longer head and ears.
The station, formerly called Elandsfontein Junction,, is the meeting-point of lines from the ports of the Cape and Natal, and from Johannesburg, Pretoria and Delagoa Bay.
It was first assumed by the metropolitans of Canada and Rupert's Land, at the desire of the Canadian general synod in 1893; and subsequently, in accordance with a resolution of the Lambeth conference of 1897, it was given by their synods to the bishop of Sydney as metropolitan of New South Wales and to the bishop of Cape Town as metropolitan of South Africa.
The Bishop of Cape Town, that "the Church of England, in places where there is no church established by law, is in the same situation with any other religious body."
In 1865 it adjudged Bishop Gray's letters patent, as metropolitan of Cape Town, to be powerless to enable him "to exercise any coercive jurisdiction, or hold any court or tribunal for that purpose," since the Cape colony already possessed legislative institutions when they were issued; and his deposition of Bishop Colenso was declared to be "null and void in law" (re The Bishop of Natal).
This antelope is the Cape Hartebeest (Bubalis canna).
Mainly by him a series of conquests were made on the African coast (1135-53) which reached from Tripoli to Cape Bona.
These services were recognized by the award of the Royal Astronomical Society's gold medal in 1869, and on the resignation of Sir Thomas Maclear in 1870 he was appointed Her Majesty's astronomer at the Cape.
Shortly after the death of Main on the 9th of May 1878, Stone was appointed to succeed him as Radcliffe Observer at Oxford, and he left the Cape on the 27th of May 1879.
The number of his astronomical publications exceeds 150, but his reputation depends mainly on¢ his earlier work at Greenwich and his two great star catalogues - the Cape Catalogue for 1880 and the Radclife r 'Catalogue for 1890.
A search by rival theorists for evidence which will prove that Cephallenia is Ithaca, has produced nothing more convincing, and efforts to find the city of the Phaeacians at Cape Kephali in Corfu were also unsuccessful.
The greatest length from Cape Wrath in Sutherland to the Mull of Galloway is 274 m., and the greatest breadth from Buchan Ness to Applecross in the shire of Ross and Cromarty 154 m., but from Bonar Bridge at the head of Dornoch Firth to the head of Loch Broom it is only 26 m.
At Cape Wrath, precipices 300 ft.
On the west the most notable cliffs south of those of Cape Wrath and the Cambrian sandstones of Sutherland are to be found among the basaltic islands, particularly in Skye, where a magnificent range of precipices rising to moo ft.
Above the Archean gneiss lies a series of red and chocolate-coloured sandstone (Torridon sandstone), which form a number of detached areas from Cape Wrath down the seaboard of the shires of Sutherland and Ross and Cromarty, across Skye, and as far as the island of Rum.
This last category included a few thousand Hottentots and Bushmen, but the majority were the mixed white and black " Cape Boy " class commonly called " coloured " in distinction from " natives."
There were in 1911 only five towns with over 12,000 inhabitants, namely Cape Town (161,759), Kimberley (44,433), Port Elizabeth (37,063), East London (24,606) and Grahamstown (13,830).
The subsidies paid to the Cape provincial council varied from £862,000 in 1913-4 to £999,000 in 1917-8; the revenue raised by the province was £405,000 and £426,000 respectively in the years named, but had been as low as £316,000 in 1914-5.
Politically the Cape province has had no separate history since the establishment of the Union in 1910.
Parties in South Africa are not divided on provincial lines; it may, however, be recorded that the majority of the Cape members of Parliament have favoured the maintenance of the British connexion and the fusion of Dutch and British interests.
Provincial spirit remained keen, but the white inhabitants of the eastern district, who are largely (if not mainly) of British descent, look to the Transvaal and Free State for trade, while with the people of the western part of the province (who, Cape Town apart, are predominantly of Dutch origin) they have practically no commercial intercourse.
These were not features peculiar to the Cape province, though, as the Cape contained a larger proportion of educated natives and there was no colour bar to the exercise of the franchise, the province was the chief centre of native agitation for social and industrial rights.
The founder of the Kruger family appears to have been a German named Jacob Kruger, who in 1713 was sent with others by the Dutch East India Company to the Cape.
At the age of ten Paul Kruger - as he afterwards came to be known - accompanied his parents in the migration, known as the Great Trek, from the Cape Colony to the territories north of the Orange in the years 1835-1840.
The decision caused so much discontent in the Transvaal that it brought about the downfall of President Pretorius and his party; and Thomas Francois Burgers, an educated Dutch minister, resident in Cape Colony, was elected to succeed him.
Immediately after the ultimatum Natal and the Cape Colony were invaded by the Boers both of the Transvaal and the Free State.
The coral banks which surround Sokotra and The Brothers are united and are not more than 30 fathoms below sea-level; a valley some loo fathoms deep divides them from the bank around Abd-el-Kuri, while between Abd-el-Kuri and Cape Guardafui are depths of over 500 fathoms.
When the ring of St Zanobius and the blood of Cape Verde turtles gave him no relief from his last illness, he showered gifts upon his patron saints, secured for his own benefit the masses of his clergy, and the most potent prayers in Christendom, those of the two most effective saints of his day, Bernardin of Doulins and Francis of Paolo.
The length of India from north to south, and its greatest breadth from east to west, are both about 1900 m.; but the triangle tapers with a pear-shaped curve to a point at Cape Comorin, its southern extremity.
The expedition under Vasco da Gama started from Lisbon five years later, and, doubling the Cape of Good Hope, cast anchor off the city of Calicut on the 10th of May 1498, after a prolonged voyage of nearly eleven months.
The first Dutchman to double the Cape of Good Hope was Cornelius Houtman, who reached Sumatra and Bantam in 1596.
In 1635 they occupied Formosa; in 1641 they took Malacca, a blow from which the Portuguese never recovered; in 1652 they founded a colony at the Cape of Good Hope, as a half-way station to the East; in 1658 they captured Jaffna, the last stronghold of the Portuguese in Ceylon; by 1664 they had wrested from the Portuguese all their earlier settlements on the pepper-bearing coast of Malabar.
The defeat of the " Invincible Armada " in 1588, at which time the crowns of Spain and Portugal were united, gave a fresh stimulus to maritime enterprise in England; and the successful voyage of Cornelius Houtman in East 1596 showed the way round the Cape of Good Hoe lnd,a 59 Y P P Company.
An account of it will be found in the History and Description of the Cape Observatory.
There is also a regular service between Cape Town, Lobito and Lisbon and Southampton.
After landing the stores for the main base at Cape Evans the " Terra Nova," under Comm.
This winter, spent almost without stores, was a triumph of adaptability to the hardest possible conditions, and although there was much illness the whole party was able to march when a start for Cape Evans was possible on Sept.
There were landed at Cape Evans 17 Siberian ponies, .33 Siberian sledge dogs and three motor sledges on the design of which Scott had taken immense pains.
The two motor sledges left Cape Evans on Oct.
There were 13 souls in the Cape Evans hut that winter, with Dr. Atkinson in charge, Lt.
The " Aurora " reached Cape Evans on Jan.
This was a better record than in Scott's autumn journey of 1911; but it was midwinter before Mackintosh found the ice strong enough to permit of his return to Cape Evans.
In their anxiety to get back to the Cape Evans party, Mackintosh and Hayward attempted the journey on the sea-ice on May 8, but the ice was not strong enough and they were lost.
It was July before the rest of the southern party reached Cape Evans.
On May 6 1915 the " Aurora," which had been frozen in and made fast by many cables to the shore at Cape Evans, was blown out to sea with all the ice and was held fast for 315 days, during which time she drifted northward through Ross Sea nearly in the same direction and at nearly the same rate as the " Endurance " was drifting at the same time in the Weddell Sea.
There is a regular fortnightly steamship service between Marseilles and Port Louis by the Messageries Maritimes, a four-weekly service with Southampton via Cape Town by the Union Castle, and a four-weekly service with Colombo direct by the British India Co.'s boats.
It lies at the entrance of the large natural harbour formed by the peninsula of Cape Verde.
The proclamation was succeeded, on the 9th of March 1900, by another of the high commissioner at Cape Town, reiterating the notice, but confining it to "lands, railways, mines or mining rights."
The case in question was a claim of title against the crown, represented by the government of Cape Colony.
Before the grantees had taken up their grant by acts of possession, Pondoland was annexed to Cape Colony.
It extends from Ras Kasar, a cape I IO m.
The crown of Portugal based its case against England on the cession of territory contained in a well-known treaty with the monomotapa (1629), and stated that this monarch's dominions then extended nearly to the Cape of Good Hope.
Henderson at the Cape of Good Hope measured the parallax of a Centauri, but his resulting value 1" was considerably too high.
The appearance of a convict ship at the Cape of Good Hope nearly produced a revolt.
The cellular system has been adopted in all British colonies with various modifications, and prisons built on modern principles are to be found in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Cape of Good Hope.
Sir Bartle Frere, who became high commissioner of South Africa in March 1877, found evidence which convinced him that the Kaffir revolt of that year on the eastern border of Cape Colony was part of a design or desire "for a general and simultaneous rising of Kaffirdom against white civilization"; and the Kaffirs undoubtedly looked to Cetywayo and the Zulus as the most redoubtable of their champions.
His kingdom was divided among thirteen chiefs and he himself taken to Cape Town, whence he was brought to London in August 1882.
The site of Cape Colonna is extolled by Byron, and is the scene of Falconer's "Shipwreck."
It consists of a strip of country running along the eastern seaboard of the Bay of Bengal, from the Naaf estuary, on the borders of Chittagong, to Cape Negrais.
Length from northern extremity to Cape Negrais, about 400 m.; greatest breadth in the northern part, 90 m., gradually diminishing towards the south, as it is hemmed in by the Arakan Yoma mountains, until, in the extreme south, it tapers away to a narrow strip not more than 15 m.
It appears to have been imported early into the Cape Verd Islands, where, as also in some of the Greater Antilles and in Ascension, it has run wild.
Its length, from Cape Gracias a Dios to the San Juan delta, is nearly 300 m.
In addition to the three names of Segovia, Coco or Cocos, and Wanks, which are applicable to the whole river, different parts have from time to time received the names of Cabullal, Cabrugal, Cape River, Encuentro, Gracias, Herbias, Oro, Pantasma, Portillo Liso, Tapacac, Telpaneca, Somoro, Yankes, Yare and Yoro.
In March 1914 MacMillan and Green crossed Smith Sound on the ice, traversed Ellesmere Land, and, passing by Bay Fjord and Nansen Sound, reached Cape Thomas Hubbard.
In 1916 Ekblaw crossed Ellesmere Land from Cape Sabine to Bay Fjord and, passing by Nansen Sound, Greely Fjord and Lake Hazen, reached Fort Conger, Greely's former station on Robeson Channel.
In 1917 a detailed survey was made of the coast of Ellesmere Land from Cape Sabine to Clarence Head, which considerably altered the charts based on the rough surveys of Inglefield, Kane and Hayes.
Sergiev had taken from Petropavlovsk to near Cape Chelyuskin the previous Sept., left Anadir in July 1913 under Comm.
The first winter was passed near Cape Chelyuskin.
In 1901 plague invaded South Africa, and obtained a distinct footing both at Cape Town and Port Elizabeth.
In the Bombay hospitals it was about 70% among the former, and between 30 and 40% among the latter, which was much the same as in Oporto, Sydney and Cape Town.
Three other smaller species of the genus are known, and each is more widely distributed than those just mentioned, but the home of all is in the more northern parts of the earth, though in winter two of them go very far south, and, crossing the equator, show themselves on the seas that wash the Cape of Good Hope, Australia, New Zealand and Peru.
The voyages of Columbus and Vespucci of to America, the rounding of the Cape by Diaz and the discovery of the sea road to India by Vasco da Gama, Cortes's conquest of Mexico and Pizarro's conquest of Peru, marked a new era for the human race and inaugurated the modern age more decisively than any other series of events has done.
The United Kingdom produces no wine, but the Cape and the Australian Commonwealth each produce some 5 million gallons.
Viticulture And Wine-Making General Considerations.-Although the wine is cultivated in practically every part of the world possessing an appropriate climate and soil, from California in the West to Persia in the East, and from Germany in the North to the Cape of Good Hope and some of the South American republics in the South, yet, as is the case also with the cereal crops and many fruits and vegetables, the wines produced in countries possessing temperate climates are-when the vintage is successful-finer than those made in hot or semi-tropical regions.
Although, for instance, the wines of Italy, Greece, the Cape, &c., possess great body and strength, they cannot compare as regards elegance of flavour and bouquet with the wines of France and Germany.
It has been said that chemistry is of little avail in determining the value of a wine, and this is undoubtedly true as regards the bouquet and flavour, but there is no gainsaying the fact that many hundreds of analyses of the wines of the Gironde have shown that they are, as a class, distinctly different in the particulars referred to from wines of the claret type produced, for instance, in Spain, Australia or the Cape.
In the hope of reproducing the characteristic of the Rhine wines, the Riessling has been planted in many young wine-producing countries, such as Australia, California and the Cape, and not entirely without success.
Wines Of The British Empire The production of the British empire is very small, amounting to roughly to million gallons, and this is produced almost entirely in the Cape of Good Hope and in the Australian Commonwealth.
At present the average vintage of the Cape and of Australia is in each case roughly 5 to 6 million gallons.
The quality of the wine produced in the Cape and in Australia has improved very much of recent years, chiefly owing to the introduction of scientific methods of wine cultivation and of wine-making in much the same manner as has been the case in California.
It has been recognized, however, that it is impossible to actually reproduce the character of the European wines, and it is now generally held to be desirable to recognize the fact that Australian and Cape wines represent distinct types, and to sell them as such without any reference to the European parent types from which they have been derived.
In1614-1616Captain John Smith traversed the coast as far east as the mouth of the Penobscot river and as far south as Cape Cod, gathered much information from the Indians, wrote an attractive descrip tion of the country, prepared a map of it, suggested its present name, New England, and made another unsuccessful attempt to found a settlement.
The headland of Cape Kormakiti in Cyprus is distant 44 m.
Its greatest length is about 141 m., from Cape Drepano in the west to Cape St Andrea in the north-east, and its greatest breadth, from Cape Gata in the south to Cape Kormakiti in the north, reaches 60 m.; while it retains an average width of from 35 to 50 m.
It sends down subordinate ranges or spurs, of considerable altitude, on all sides, one of which extends to Cape Arnauti (the ancient Acamas), which forms the north-west extremity of the island, while others descend on both sides quite to the northern and southern coasts.
The northern range of mountains begins at Cape Kormakiti (the ancient Crommyon) and is continued from thence in an unbroken ridge to the eastern extremity of the island, Cape St Andrea, a distance of more than 00 m.
At Tilt Cove, Newfoundland, the Cape Copper Company smelted copper ore, with just the proper proportion of sulphur, iron and silica, successfully without any fuel, when once the initial charge had been fused with coke.
This process is practised by the Cape Copper and Elliot Metal Company.
Merino sheep bred at the Cape of Good Hope have been found far better adapted for India than those imported from England; and while the Chinese variety of the Ailanthus silk-moth is quite hardy, the variety found in Bengal will only flourish in warm latitudes.
There are, however, certain cases in which the sources of error above mentioned are reduced to a minimum, and cannot seriously affect the results; such as those of the Jews, the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope and in the Moluccas, and the Spaniards in South America.
Greely, Schley was appointed to command the third Greely relief expedition; and near Cape Sabine on the 22nd of June rescued Greely and six (of his twenty-four) companions.
The latter species (Equus zebra) inhabits the mountainous regions of the Cape Colony, where, owing to the advances of civilized man into its restricted range it has become very scarce, and is even threatened with extermination, but it exists in the form of a local race in Angola.
Another railway, part of the Cape to Cairo connexion, runs north-west from Bulawayo, Grossing the Zambezi just below the Victoria Falls.
Four years later the railway connecting it with Cape Town was completed (see Rhodesia).
His differences with Sir Benjamin d'Urban, governor of Cape Colony, were serious; but more so were those with King William IV.
The islands off the coast of Angra Pequena, together with others north and south, were annexed to Great Britain in 1867 and added to Cape Colony in 1874.
A southern incurving projection of the outer shore-line of this peninsula is known as Tres Montes peninsula, the most southern point of which is a cape of the same name.
South of Antofagasta the old rocks form a nearly continuous band along the coast, extending as far as Cape Horn and Staten Island, and occupying the greater part of the islands of southern Chile.
Till the 18th century ships were not allowed to sail round Cape Horn, so that the Chileans had to trade indirectly through Peru and the Argentine.
The great mercantile value of ostrich-feathers, and the increasing difficulty, due to the causes already mentioned, of procuring them from wild birds, has led to the formation in Cape Colony, Egypt, the French Riviera and elsewhere of numerous "ostrichfarms," on which these birds are kept in confinement, and at regular intervals deprived of their plumes.
Every visitor to Paris is familiar with the rather theatrical-looking policeman, in his short frock-coat or cape, smart kepi cocked on one side of his head, and with a sword by his side.
In the 18th century the slate quarries of Robben Island were extensively worked by the Dutch of Cape Town.
As early as 1657 criminals were banished to the island by the Dutch authorities at Cape Town; it has also served as the place of detention of several noted Kaffir chiefs.
During the heat of summer voyages to the North Cape are suitable, and during the spring and autumn to the Mediterranean, but in the colder months of the year the West Indies, India, Cape Town, Australia or New Zealand forms the best objective.
At Port Natal, however, the removal of the sand bar at its entrance has made available a third magnificent harbour, while at Table Bay (Cape Town) and at other places ports have been constructed.
The western region, both plateau and coastlands, specially that part north of the Orange, is largely semi or wholly desert, while in the Cape province the terrace lands below the interior plateau are likewise arid, as is signified by their Hottentot name karusa (Karroo).
Coal beds are widely distributed in the eastern districts while there are large copper deposits in the west, both at the Cape and in German territory.
The Cape peninsula and the western coast receive the cold currents from the Antarctic regions.
Except in southern and western Cape Colony and along the Atlantic coast, summer is the rainy season.
Flowering plants include numerous species of terrestrial orchids, the socalled arum lily (Richardia Africana), common in low-lying moist land, and the white everlasting flower, found abundantly in some regions of Cape Colony.
In the western districts of the Cape viticulture is largely followed.
The great majority of the coloured inhabitants are Bantus of pure blood, but the total coloured population includes in the Cape province 298,334 persons of mixed blood (chiefly white and Hottentot) and in Natal 100,918 Asiatics.
The chief cities are Cape Town (pop. 1904, 77, 66 8), Port Elizabeth (32,959), East London (25,220) and Kimberley (34331) in the Cape province; Durban (67,847) in Natal; Johannesburg (155,642) and Pretoria (36,839) in the Transvaal; and Bloemfontein (33,883) in the Orange Free State.
From the seaports of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London, Durban, Lourenco Marques and Beira railway lines run to Kimberley, Bloemfontein, Johannesburg and Pretoria, while a trunk line extends north from Kimberley through Rhodesia (in which gold mining began on an extensive scale in 1898) and across the Zambezi below the Victoria Falls into the Congo basin, where it serves the Katanga mineral area.
The distance from Cape Town to Katanga is over 2100 miles.
In the Cape, Natal and the Transvaal coal mining is largely developed; in the Transvaal and the Cape tobacco is grown extensively; sugar, tea and other tropical and sub-tropical produce are largely cultivated in Natal and the Portuguese territory, and, since 1905, mealies have become an important article of export.
There are few manufactures; among the chief are the making of wine and brandy in the Cape province, and flour-milling.
In that year the Cape legislature provided for the constitution of irrigation boards.
Willcocks in 1.901 in which he estimated that there were in the Cape, Orange Free State and the Transvaal, 3,000,000 acres which could be brought under irrigation at a cost of about £30,000,000.
At the Cape the census of 1904 gave 415,688 acres as the area under irrigation, an increase of 105,827 acres since 1891.
In 1909 an irrigation congress representative of all the governments of British South Africa was held at Robertson, in the Cape province.
Most of those of Dutch descent are members of the Dutch Reformed Church (Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk), the state church of the early Cape colonists, or of churches formed by dissentient members of the original church such as the Gereformeerde Kerk (the " Dopper " Church), a branch (introduced in 1858) of the Separatist Reformed Church of Holland.
Until 1843 the Cape synod was controlled by government commissioners; it was then given power to regulate its own internal affairs.
There are separate synods with independent authority for the congregations of the Dutch Reformed Churches in the Cape, Orange Free State and Transvaal provinces.
It is divided into the dioceses of Cape Town, Graham's Town, Maritzburg (Natal), Kaffraria, Bloemfontein, Pretoria, Zululand, Mashonaland and Lebombo.
The metropolitan is the archbishop of Cape Town.
The Roman Catholics are a comparatively small body; the majority of their adherents are found in the Cape and Natal.
At the head of their organizations are vicars-apostolic for the Cape (eastern district), the Cape (western district), Natal, Orange River, Kimberley and the Transvaal, and prefects-apostolic for Basutoland and Zambezi (or Rhodesia).
There are some thousands of Mahommedans in the Cape (chiefly Malays) and larger numbers in Natal, where there is also a large Hindu population.
In the period which has elapsed since the establishment of British rule at the Cape the law has been considerably modified and altered, both by legislation and by judicial decisions, and it is not too much to say that at the present time there exists hardly any material difference in principle over the greater part of the field of jurisprudence between the law of England and the law of South Africa.
There is absolute freedom of testamentary disposition in the Cape province and in some other parts of South Africa.
The basis of the language as spoken to-day is that 17th-century Dutch of Holland which the first settlers brought to the country; and although the Dutch of Holland and the Dutch of South Africa differ very widely to-day, Cape Dutch differs less widely from the Dutch language of the 17th century than from the modern Dutch of Holland.
A Cape rood equals 12.396 English feet, and a Cape ton contains 2000 lb.
The control and administration of native affairs (which before the Union was, except at the Cape, largely in the hands of the colonial governors personally) is vested exclusively in the governor in council and to the same authority is entrusted all matters specially or differentially affecting Asiatics throughout the Union.
Of these members the Cape Province returns 51, the Transvaal 36, and Natal and Orange Free State 17 each.
Parliament may alter the qualifications for the vote, but no law which would deprive coloured persons in the Cape province of the franchise can be effective " unless the bill be passed by both houses of parliament sitting together and at the third reading be agreed to by not less than two-thirds of the total number of members of both houses."
The harbours of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban are state owned, as are also nearly all the railways in the Union.
As in the Cape province coloured persons are qualified to vote, they are thus also qualified to be members of the provincial council.
It was with this intention that Bartholomew Diaz, sailing southwards, discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1488.1 Nine years after the discovery of the Cape by Diaz another Portuguese expedition was fitted out under Vasco da Gama.
From that time forward Table Bay was used as an occasional port of call for British ships, and in 1620 two English captains formally took possession of the Cape in the name of James I.
They were so pleased with the resources of the country that on.their return to Holland they represented to the directors of the company the great advantages that would accrue to the Dutch Eastern trade from a properly provided and fortified station of call at the Cape.
Watermeyer, a Cape colonist of Dutch descent residing in Cape Town.
He points out that it was after failing to find a route by the north-east to China and Japan that the Dutch turned their eyes to the Cape route.
The Cape of Good Hope subsequently " became not a colony of the Republic of the United Provinces, but a dependency of the ` Netherlands Chartered General East India Company ' for mercantile purposes; and to this fact principally can be traced the slow progress, in all but extension of territory, of a country which was settled by Europeans within thirty years of the time when the Pilgrim Fathers, the founders of a mighty empire, landed at Plymouth to plant democratic institutions and European civilization in the West."
When it is borne in mind that the Dutch at the Cape were for one hundred and forty-three years under the rule of the Dutch East India Company, the importance of a correct appreciation of the nature of that rule to any student of South African history is obvious.
Of this nature was the foreign policy of the Dutch company at the Cape of Good Hope; modified, indeed, in some degree from time to time, but governed by principles of jealous, stringent monopoly until the surrender of the colony by Commissioner Sluysken in 1 795.
In 1789 so strong had feeling amongst the burghers become that delegates were sent from the Cape to interview the authorities at Amsterdam.
After one hundred and forty-three years the rule of the Dutch East India Company came to an end at the Cape.
Following the peace of Amiens the colony was handed over (February 1803) by Great Britain to a commissioner of the Batavian Republic. During the eight years the British held the Cape notable reforms in the government were effected, but the country remained essentially Dutch, and few British settlers were attracted to it.
In less than three years (January 1806) the Cape was reconquered by the British, who were at war both with France and Holland.
In consideration of retaining the Cape and the Dutch settlements now constituting British Guiana, Great Britain paid 6 000 000.
The British p title to Cape Colony is thus based upon conquest, treaty and purchase.
The Europeans at the Cape at that time numbered about 27,000.
The natives first encountered at the Cape were the Hottentots (q.v.).
They at that time occupied the Cape peninsula and sur- the Native rounding country, and in the early days of the settlement caused the colonists a considerable amount of trouble.
At first the Cape government endeavoured to come to an amicable arrangement with the new power threatening its eastern border, and in 1780 it was agreed that the Great Fish River should be the permanent boundary between the colonial and Bantu territories.
Their descendants, the Atherstones, Bowkers, Barbers, Woods, Whites, Turveys, and a number of other well-known frontier families, are to-day the backbone of the eastern district of the Cape, and furnish the largest portion of the progressive element in that province.
Various Protestant missions had sent agents among the natives during the closing years of the 18th century, and after the definite acquisition of the Cape by Great Britain the number of missionaries in the country greatly increased.
Others remained within Cape Colony, while several were stationed among the Kaffirs along the colonial border.
The British government adopted his negrophil attitude and made its agents at the Cape conform to it.
The Cape governments - both Dutch and British - had been consistently averse from the importation of slaves in large numbers, and the great majority of the slaves were therefore Hottentots.
The sum voted by the British government to slave-owners in Cape Colony, out of a total compensation paid of £20,oOo,000, was 1,250,000 (the official estimate of their value being £3,000,000).
Cassalis among the Basutos, Francois Coillard among the Barotse, James Stewart in Cape Colony, to name but a few of the great missionaries, have all had an excellent influence upon the natives.
The Kaffirs had suffered much injustice, especially from the commando-reprisal system, but they had also committed many injustices, and for the disturbed state of the border the vacillating policy of the Cape government was largely to blame.
During that period no fewer than 7000 Boers (including women and children), impatient of British rule, emigrated from Cape Colony into the great plains beyond the Orange river, and across them again into Natal and into the fastnesses of the Zoutspanberg, in the northern part of the Transvaal.
In view of the vast consequences ensuing from this exodus of Dutch families from the Cape a somewhat detailed consideration and in some cases lax sexual morality.
An act passed in 1836 (the Cape of Good Hope Punishment Act) empowered the colonial courts to deal with offences committed by British subjects in any part of South Africa up to the 25th degree of south latitude.
Intended by its authors to protect the native tribes from aggression on the part of white men and to check the exploration by Europeans of the lands of the Kaffirs, Bechuanas, &c., the act led in fact to the assertion of British authority in regions beyond the Cape frontier.
At first Natal was dependent on Cape Colony.
Sir Harry had, in the previous December, extended the northern frontier of Cape Colony to the Orange, and had reoccupied the territory on the Kaffir border which D'Urban had been forced to abandon.'
At the beginning of that time there was but one civilized government in South Africa - Cape Colony; at its close there were five separate states or provinces, three, the Cape, Natal and British Kaffraria, owning allegiance to Great Britain, and two forming Boer republics - the Transvaal and Orange Free State.
They might at the outset either have let the trek Boers go, and given them their blessing and liberty, or they might have controlled the trek and ' Part of the territory thus reannexed was added to Cape Colony while the region between the Keiskamma and Kei was created a separate territory under the name of British Kaffraria.
But in 1854 a definite standpoint appeared to have been reached - Great Britain would confine her energies to the Cape and Natal, leaving the republics to work out their own destinies undisturbed.
It was at this juncture that Sir George Grey was sent to the Cape as governor.
His first care was to ameliorate the condition of Cape Colony.
The party in the Free State which had objected to independence being forced upon it was still strong and made overtures for union with the Cape; attempts were also made to unite the Free State and the Transvaal.
It was further thought that the occupation by Great Britain of the country beyond the Orange River had been a bubble and a farce, in which the Cape colonists were all interested; for that it was to them a great gaming table and out of the reach of the police....
He held that the federation of that state with Cape Colony was preferable to its union or federation with the Transvaal, and it was with considerable satisfaction that he learned that on the 7th of December of the same year (1858) the Volksraad of the Free State had passed a resolution in favour of " a union or alliance with the Cape Colony " and sought to ascertain the views of the Cape legislature on the subject.
In bringing the matter before the Cape parliament in March 1859 Grey stated that in his opinion it would confer a lasting benefit upon Great Britain and upon the inhabitants of South Africa if it could succeed in devising a form of federal union.
He left Cape Town in August 1859, but on his arrival in England he found that there had been a change of ministry..
In 1871 the country was annexed to Cape Colony, but its pacification proved a task of great difficulty.
Up to the year 1870 the Dutch considerably outnumbered the British inhabitants; indeed, save in Natal, in the eastern province and in Cape Town, the British inhabitants were cornparatively few.
Among the purely pastoral population ostrichfarming became a new industry and added a considerable asset to the wealth of Cape Colony.
It was at this stage of affairs that responsible government was granted to Cape Colony (1872).
The intimation of the impending grant of self-government to Cape Colony was regarded by both Boer republics as bringing nearer the prospect of their union with the British colonies.
Froude landed at Cape Town on the 21st of September 1874, and having visited Natal, the Free State and Pretoria as well as Cape Colony, sailed for England on the 10th of January 1875.
In the three and a half months he had spent in the country he had reached the conclusion expressed by the duke of Newcastle nearly twenty years previously, namely, that all England needed there was Table Bay - or the Cape peninsula - as a naval and military station.
These views coincided with those of Lord Carnarvon, who looked to federation as a means of relieving the Imperial government of some of the heavy responsibilities pressing upon it in South Africa, and he asked Froude to return to the Cape to take part in a conference in South Africa on the federation scheme.
The offer was accepted, and Froude reached Cape Town again in June 1875.
A motion was carried in the Cape parliament affirming that any movement for federation should originate in South Africa and not in England.
Froude on his arrival was much chagrined at the attitude taken by the Cape parliament, and conducted an oratorical campaign throughout the country in favour of federation.
Another member of the conference was Sir Theophilus Shepstone, (q.v.) Neither Cape Colony nor the Transvaal was represented, 1 At Sir Henry Barkly's request Lord Carnarvon's predecessor, Lord Kimberley, had in November 1871 given him (Sir Henry) authority to summon a meeting of representatives of the states and colonies to consider the " conditions of union," but the annexation of the diamond fields had occurred meantime and Sir Henry thought the occasion inopportune for such a conference.
The secretary of state sought the aid of Sir Bartle Frere as his chief agent in carrying through confederation, the then governor of Cape Colony and high commissioner for South Africa, Sir Henry Barkly, sharing the views of the Cape ministry that the time was inopportune to force such a step upon South Africa.
The time required for the work of confederating and of consolidating the confederated states Lord Carnarvon estimated at not more than two years, and he was sanguine enough First to hope that Frere would stay on at the Cape for two or three years " as the first governor-general of the of the South African dominion.
Frere, who had reached Cape Town on the 31st of March, learnt on the 16th of April that the annexation had taken place.
In July of that year proposals for a confederation conference were submitted to the Cape parliament.
At that time Paul Kruger and Piet Joubert, delegates from the Transvaal Boers, were in Cape Town, and they used their influence to prevent the acceptance of the proposals, which were shelved by the ministry accepting " the 3 Serious troubles with the Basutos which began in 1879 reacted on the situation in the Transvaal and Natal.
These troubles were finally ended in 1884, when the country was given up by the Cape and became a crown colony (see Basutoland).
Confederation had, for the time being, ceased to be a living issue some time before its formal shelving by the Cape parliament.
They were largely influenced by an important section of the Dutch community in western Cape Colony, which carried on a campaign against annexation, seeing in it a blow to the ideal they had begun to entertain of a united South Africa of a Dutch republican type.
His successor, Sir Hercules Robinson, reached the Cape at the end of January 1881.
As a member of the Cape parliament he undertook a mission, before the arrival of Warren, to the Goshen and Stellaland Boers, endeavouring, unsuccessfully, to obtain from them a recognition of British sovereignty.
The support given by the Cape Colony Dutch to the malcontent Transvaal Boers has already been mentioned.
The Bond was formed, its work being almost confined to Cape Colony.
A customs union between Cape Colony and the Free State was concluded in 1889, to which later on all the other South African states, save the Transvaal, became parties.
In 1884, having the power in his hands when the Scanlen ministry fell, Hofmeyr had put into office a ministry dependent upon the Bond, and had talked of a possible Dutch rebellion in Cape Colony if the Boer freebooters in Bechuanaland were ejected; in 1890 Rhodes became premier with Hofmeyr's approval and support.
Living in Cape Town and at the head of the government, Rhodes used every effort to demonstrate to the Cape' Colonists that the work he was doing in the north must eventually be to the advantage of Cape Colonists and their descendants.
His handling of the native question in Cape Colony gave general satisfaction.
He was a member of various Cape ministries from 1875 onwards.
Rhodes, who had large interests in the Rand mines, had consistently endeavoured to conciliate the extreme Boer section in the Transvaal and win it over (as had happened in the case of the Cape Dutch) to a policy which should benefit the whole of South Africa.
The first proposals for an armed rising came from Rhodes in June, but it was not until November that the Uitlander leaders came to a definite understanding with the Cape premier as to the course to be pursued.
It greatly embittered racial feeling throughout the country; it threw the Free State Boers completely on to the side of the Transvaal; it destroyed the alliance between the Dutch in Cape Colony and the Imperialists led by Rhodes.
This scheme found many supporters in Cape Colony.
Rhodes had resigned the premiership of the Cape a few days after the Raid, and during the greater part of 1896 was in Rhodesia, where he was able to bring to an end, in September, a formidable rebellion of the Matabele which had broken out six months previously.
Nevertheless the cleavage at the Cape between the Dutch and British grew.
Rhodes had intended to withdraw from Cape politics and devote his energies for a time entirely to Rhodesia, but the pressure put upon him by a section of the British colonists was so strong that he determined to throw in his lot with them.
Sir Alfred Milner (see Milner, Viscount), the new high commissioner, took up his duties at the Cape in May 1897.
To some extent this was done - but in a manner which led the Transvaal Boers to count in any event on the support of the Cape Dutchmen.
Messrs Hofmeyr and Herholdt, the one the leader of the Bond and the other the Cape minister of agriculture, visited Pretoria to reason with Kruger.
Most of the men on their side who had come to the front in the war, such as General Louis Botha in the Transvaal, had been opponents of the Kruger regime; they now decided to continue the struggle, largely because they trusted that the Cape Dutch, and their sympathizers in Great Britain, would be able to obtain for them a re-grant of independence.
The Cape Dutch all through 1901 and the first part of 1902 conducted a strong agitation in favour of the former republics, the border line between constitutional action and treason being in many cases scarcely distinguishable.
The Cape Afrikanders also formed what was styled a " conciliation committee " to help the party in Great Britain which still supported the Boer side.
These triumphs of the Dutch section of South Africans were followed in the general electioai in Cape Colony early in 1908 by a sweeping victory of the Bond, helped by the suffrages of re-enfranchised rebels.
Hence there was jealousy and competition between the Cape and Natal and a tendency to use the railways (which were state owned), by means of rebates, to counteract the effects of common customs dues.
In these circumstances Dr Jameson, as premier of Cape Colony, took the first overt step to reopening the question of federation.
After sitting at Durban for a month, the convention adjourned to Cape Town and concluded its elaboration of a draft constitution by February 1909.
The Cape delegates found themselves in isolation in advocating the extension of the electoral system which prevailed in their colony, where there was no colour bar to the exercise of the franchise.
The merits of the Cape system - to minimize the differences between the white and native races.
Thus in the Cape the Kaffir would have a right to the franchise, but not in the other divisions of the country.
Apart from this doubtful attitude of Natal, the chief danger to the draft constitution came from the Cape Dutch.
The draft act, with its " one vote one value " principle, its three-membered constituencies and its scheme for proportional representation, threatened Dutch supremacy in the rural districts, and aroused the opposition of Hofmeyr, who secured the passage of amendments through the Cape parliament which destroyed the principle of equal rights.
Through the firmness of the Transvaal delegates, supported by the Progressives, the principle of equal rights was retained; the concession made to the Cape was the abandonment of proportional representation, while one-membered constituencies were substituted for three-membered constituencies.
The bill passed through parliament unaltered, the only jarring note in the debates in either house concerning the exclusion of natives from the franchise (save in the Cape province).
They had met with the determined opposition of Mr Merriman (the Cape premier), of the Orange Free State Boers, and of the Bond, which had lost the counsel of Hofmeyr.
That typical leader of the Cape Afrikanders had died in London, whither he had gone as one of the delegates to lay the draft constitution before the British parliament.
McCall Theal; the last named has also published records of the Cape from MSS.
OfficialPapers Relative to the Condition and Treatment of the Native Tribes of South Africa, parts I to 5 (1649-1809), edited by Donald Moodie, late Protector of Slaves (Cape Town, 1838), the same writer's The Evidence of the Motives and Objects of the Bushman Wars, 1769-77, &c. (Cape Town, 1841); also Treaties with Native Chiefs.
Watermeyer, Three Lectures on the Cape of Good Hope under the Government of the Dutch East India Co.
During and after the South African War of 1899-1902 many attempts were made by this procedure to challenge or review the sentences of courts martial; see re Fourie (1900), 18 Cape Rep. 8.
The Little (also called Southern) Karroo is the table-land nearest the southern coast-line of the Cape, and is bounded north by the Zwaarteberg, which separates it from the Great Karroo.
In a looser sense the term Karroo is also used of the vast northern plains of the Cape which are part of the inner table-land of the continent.
From the extreme north to Cape Mondego and thence onward to Cape Carvoeiro the outline of the coast is a long and gradual curve; farther south is the prominent mass of rock and mountain terminating westward in Capes Roca and Espichel; south of this, again, there is another wide curve, broken by the headland of Sines, and extending to Cape St Vincent, the southeastern extremity of the country.
The only other conspicuous promontory is Cape Santa Maria, on the south coast.
The only islands off the coast are the dangerous Farilhoes and Berlings (Portuguese Berlengas) off Cape Carvoeiro.
The Serra da Arrabida (1637 ft.) rises between Cape Espichel and Setubal.
Between the Tagus and Cape St Vincent the principal rivers are the Sado, which is formed by the junction of several lesser streams and flows north-west to the port of Setubal; and the Mira, which takes a similar direction from its headwaters south of Monte Vigia to the port of Villa Nova de Milfontes.
Its most interesting feature is the occurrence near its summit, north of Cape Mondego, of sands and gravels containing plant remains.
They comprised, in Africa, the Cape Verde Islands, St Thomas and Prince's Islands, Portuguese Guinea, Angola and Portuguese East Africa, or Mozambique; in India, Goa, Damaun and Diu; in China, Macao; and in the Malay Archipelago part of Timor.
By sea Prince Henry's captains continued their exploration of Africa and the Atlantic. In 1433 Cape Bojador was doubled; in 1 434 the first consignment of slaves was brought to Lisbon; and slave trading soon became one of the most profitable branches of Portuguese commerce.
The Senegal was reached in 1445, Cape Verde was passed in the same year, and in 1446 Alvaro Fernandes pushed on almost as far as Sierra Leone.
Under Alphonso V., surnamed the African (1443-1481), the Gulf of Guinea was explored as far as Cape St Catherine, and three expeditions (1458, 1461, 1471) were sent to Morocco; in 1471 Arzila (Asila) and Tangier were captured from the Moors.
The treaty gave to Portugal all lands which might be discovered east of a straight line drawn from the Arctic Pole to the Antarctic, at a distance of 370 leagues west of Cape Verde.
West of the Cape the settlements in Africa and the Atlantic were governed, as a rule, by officials directly nominated by the king.
East of the Cape the royal power was delegated to a viceroy or governor - the distinction was purely titular - whose legislative and executive authority was almost unlimited during his term of office.
In Malacca they possessed the connecting link between the traderoutes of the Far and Middle East, and thus they controlled the three sea-gates of the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea - the Straits of Hormuz, Bab el-Mandeb and Malacca - and diverted the maritime trade with Europe to the Cape route.
Next follows Moller Bay, between Goose Land and Cape Britvin, with several minor bays affording anchorages.
The extremity of the peninsula is called Ras Mandia or Cape Africa - Africa being the name by which Mandia was designated by Froissart and other European historians during the middle ages and the Renaissance.
There are numerous varieties of this plant in cultivation, one of the most remarkable of which is the variety pendula, with long, flexible, hanging, cord-like branches; it was discovered in Japan about 1776 by Carl Peter Thunberg, a pupil of Linnaeus, who made valuable collections at the Cape of Good Hope, in the Dutch East Indies and in Japan.
Among the celebrities of Hoorn are William Schouten, who discovered in 1616 the passage round Cape Horn, or Hoorn, as he named it in honour of his birthplace; Abel Janszoon Tasman, whose fame is associated with Tasmania; and Jan Pietersz Coen, governorgeneral of the Dutch East Indies.
The prosperity it retains is not a little due to Portuguese from the Cape Verde Islands and the Azores, and to British Americans.
In size and importance it is second only to Cape Town among the towns of the province.
The exports are mainly the products of the eastern part of the Cape province, the most important being ostrich feathers, wool and mohair.
In 1754 the Dutch settlements at the Cape were extended eastwards as far as Algoa Bay.
The convenience of reaching the eastern district by boat was then recognized and advantage taken of the roadstead sheltered by Cape Recife.
In 1799, during the first occupation of Cape Colony by the British, Colonel (afterwards General Sir John) Vandeleur, to guard the roadstead, built a small fort on the hill west of the Baaken's River.
Under the supervision of Sir Rufane Donkin, acting governor of the Cape, a town was laid out at the base of the hills.
Shortly afterwards several of the Huguenots who had sought refuge at the Cape after the revocation of the edict of Nantes were placed in the new settlement.
Near Cape May fruit trees bloom two or three weeks earlier than in the Highlands.
As the heat is thus made less oppressive along the coast, the beaches of New Jersey have rapidly built up with towns and cities that have become popular summer resorts - among the best known of these are Long Branch, Asbury Park, Ocean Grove, Atlantic City (also a winter resort) and Cape May.