His canons are, however, not without exceptions.
Finally the canons of the cathedral, together with the professors, buried the body in the church of the Gerolimini.
Of the old castle, called Nenagh Round, dating from the time of King John, there still exists the circular donjon or keep. There are no remains of the hospital founded in 1200 for Austin canons, nor of the Franciscan friary, founded in the reign of Henry III.
And so great was the influence of the Jesuits, that the congregation of St Maur, the canons of Ste Genevieve, and the Oratory laid their official ban on the obnoxious doctrines.
The twenty-two canons deal chiefly with the discipline of clergy and people.
The state of morals is mirrored in the canons denouncing prevalent vices.
They are not expressed in terms which satisfy our canons of scientific accuracy.
It was again put down in 1559, and was finally forbidden to the clergy of the English Church by the unratified canons of 1571 (Report of the sub-committee of Convocation, 1908).
At the age of ten he was put to school with the canons of Merton priory in Surrey.
In 1865 the synod of that province, in an urgent letter to the archbishop of Canterbury (Dr Longley), represented the unsettlement of members of the Canadian Church caused by recent legal decisions of the Privy Council, and their alarm lest the revived action of Convocation "should leave us governed by canons different from those in force in England and Ireland, and thus cause us to drift into the status of an independent branch of the Catholic Church."
The solution of the question hinges upon the interpretation of the canons, that is, upon whether they are to be taken as reflecting a recent, or as pointing to an imminent, persecution.
The eighty-one canons which were adopted reflect with considerable fulness the internal life and external relations of the Spanish Church of the 4th century.
The canons respecting the clergy exhibit the clergy as already a special class with peculiar privileges, a more exacting moral standard, heavier penalties for delinquency.
These canons were always repudiated in the East, and when, sixty years afterwards, they were, for the first time, heard of in Africa, they were repudiated there also.
The third and fourth oecumenical synods (Ephesus, 43 1; Chalcedon, 451) were primarily tribunals for the trials of Nestorius and Dioscorus; it was secondarily that they became organs of the universal episcopate for the definition of the faith, or legislative assemblies for the enactment of canons.
c. 9, and Canon 94 of the Canons of 1603.
Canons were adopted, thirty according to the generally received tradition, although the most ancient texts contain but twentyeight, and, as Hefele points out, the so-called twenty-ninth and thirtieth are properly not canons, but repetitions of proposals made in a previous session.
In what proportion zeal for the ancient canons and the rights of others, and jealous fear of encroachment upon his own jurisdiction, were mixed in the motives of Leo, it would be interesting to know.
By the ancient canons all monasteries were to spend at least a tenth part of their income in alms to the poor, and all bishops were required to keep almoners.
Russia witness the formation of numerous miniature canons, or ovraghi (deep ravines), the summits of which rapidly advance and ramify in the loose surface deposits.
In the old Egyptian church order, known as the Canons of Hippolytus, there are numerous directions for the service of the agape, held on Sundays, saints' days or at commemorations of the dead.
Authorities.-"The Canons of Hippolytus," in Duchesne's Origines du culte chretien (Paris, 1898),; A.
In September 1533 the birth of a daughter, afterwards Queen Elizabeth, instead of the long-hoped-for son, was a heavy disappointment; next year Of this there is no direct proof, but the statement rests upon contemporary belief and chiefly upon the extraordinary terms of the dispensation granted to Henry to marry Anne Boleyn, which included the suspension of all canons relating to impediments created by "affinity rising ex illicito coitu in any degree even in the first."
The bishop induced his canons to follow the Rule of St Augustine and thus make themselves Augustinian Canons; and so Dominic became a canon regular and soon the prior or provost of the cathedral community.
He early made his mark as a church leader, and took an active part in petitioning against the " five acts " and later against the introduction of a service-book and canons drawn up on the model of the English prayer-book.
SYNOD OF LAODICEA, held at Laodicea ad Lycum in Phrygia, some time between 343 and 381 (so Hefele; but Baronius argues for 314, and others for a date as late as 399), adopted sixty canons, chiefly disciplinary, which were declared ecumenical by the council of Chalcedon, 451.
The most significant canons are those directly affecting the clergy, wherein the clergy appear as a privileged class, far above the laity, but with sharply differentiated and carefully graded orders within itself.
Other canons treat of intercourse with heretics, admission of penitent heretics, baptism, fasts, Lent, angel-worship (forbidden as idolatrous) and the canonical books, from which the Apocrypha and Revelation are wanting.
For the canons see Mansi ii.
There were no struggles of Church and State in its dominions: the state was also the church: the bishops and the canons of the four bishoprics (with the exception of Ermeland) were priests of the Order.
But rehabilitation in accordance with the canons of historical justice will not restore the lost influence of the Ricardian school.
Through her he was appointed dean of the college of secular canons at Stoke-by-Clare in 1535.
The Feast of Holy Innocents became a regular festival of children, in which a boy, elected by his fellows of the choir school, functioned solemnly as bishop or archbishop, surrounded by the elder choir-boys as his clergy, while the canons and other clergy took the humbler seats.
The clergy went in procession to the west door of the church, where two canons received the ass, amid joyous chants, and led it to the precentor's table.
This latter was reserved for the more important canons, and was worn over surplice or rochet in choir.
By the 16th century the almuce had become definitely established as the distinctive choir vestment of canons; but it had ceased to have any practical use, and was often only carried over the left arm as a symbol of office.
The "grey amice" of the canons of St Paul's at London was put down in 1549, the academic hood being substituted.
Slight remains are to be seen of an abbey of Canons Regular, founded in the middle of the 6th century by St Comgall, and rebuilt, on a scale of magnificence which astonished the Irish, by St Malachy O'Morgair in the first half of the 12th century.
In 1102 a national synod at Westminster under Anselm adopted canons against simony, clerical marriages and slavery.
The councils of 1126, 1127 and 1138 were legatine, that of 1175 provincial; their canons, chiefly re-enactments, throw light on the condition of the clergy at that time.
The canons of 1200 are based in large measure on recommendations of the Lateran Council of 1179.
A synod at Lambeth in 1281 put forth canons none too welcome to Edward I.; they included a detailed scheme for the religious instruction of the faithful.
Lynwood, Provinciale (Oxford, 1679), and best of all Wilkins; for the canons and proceedings of convocations from 1547 to 1717 consult E.
(586-601) to orthodoxy effaced the religious differences among his subjects, and all subjects, qua Christians, had to submit to the canons of the councils, which were made obligatory by the kings.
The original convent was destroyed by the Northmen, but was re-established by Duke William Longsword as a house of canons regular, which shortly afterwards was converted into a Benedictine monastery.
But with Der Ring des Nibelungen Wagner devoted himself to a story which any ordinary dramatist would find as unwieldy as, for instance, most of Shakespeare's subjects; a story in which ordinary canons of taste and probability were violated as they are in real life and in great art.
Besides the four great orders of friars, the Trinitarians, though really canons, were in England called Trinity Friars or Red Friars; the Crutched or Crossed Friars were often identified with them, but were really a distinct order; there were also a number of lesser orders of friars, many of which were suppressed by the second council of Lyons in 1274.
Though the usage is not accurate, friars, and also canons regular, are often spoken of as monks and included among the monastic orders.
These hermeneutical canons are much older than the Kabbalah.
Jerome and Photius call the work Ecclesiastical Canons, but this seems to be a mistake.
Archbishop Unwan of Hamburg-Bremen (1013-1029) substituted a chapter of canons for the monastery, and in 1037 Archbishop Bezelin (or Alebrand) built a stone cathedral and a palace on the Elbe.
The season was soon after Easter; the year may be safely deduced from the fact that the first nine canons are intended to repair havoc wrought in the church by persecution, which ceased after the overthrow of Maximinus in 313.
Thus in the 37th of the so-called "Canons of Hippolytus" we read: "As often as the bishops would partake of the Mysteries, the presbyters and deacons shall gather round him clad in white, quite particularly clean clothes, more beautiful than those of the rest of the people."
the cappa of the Lateran basilica worn by the canons of Westminster cathedral, or the almuce worn, by concession of Pope Pius IX., by the members of the Sistine choir.
The authority of the Advertisements, indeed, was and is disputed; but their lordships in their judgment pointed out that they were accepted as authoritative by the canons of 1603 (Can.
the right to present to a benefice in a newly appointed bishop's patronage at the option of the archbishop. By canon 40 of the canons of 1603 an oath against simony was to be administered to every person admitted to any spiritual or ecclesiastical function, dignity or benefice.
Since this surplusage is in turn derived from the Septuagint, from which the old Latin version was translated, it thus follows that the difference between the Protestant and the Roman Catholic Old Testament is, roughly speaking, traceable to the difference between the Palestinian and the Alexandrian canons of the Old Testament.
- For the various collections of these ecclesiastical regulations - the Syriac Didascalia, Ecclesiastical Canons of the Holy Apostles, &c. - see separate article.
Especial importance attaches to this council through the fact that Canons 3-5 invest the Roman bishop with a prerogative which became of great historical importance, as the first legal recognition of his jurisdiction over other sees and the basis for the further development of his primacy.
In the latter case, the tribunal was to consist of bishops from the neighbouring provinces, assisted - if he so chose - by legates of the Roman bishop. The clauses thus made the bishop of Rome president of a revisionary court; and afterwards Zosimus unsuccessfully attempted to employ these canons of Sardica, as decisions of the council of Nice, against the Africans.
The canons are printed in C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums (Tubingen, 1901), p. 46 f.; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, ed.
Turner, "The Genuineness of the Sardican Canons," The Journal of Theological Studies, iii.
Holyrood Palace was originally an abbey of canons regular of the rule of St Augustine, founded by David I.
So the canons of Hippolytus (about A.D.
An ancient church order which belongs to the latter part of the 2nd century (see Harnack's Sources of Apostolic Canons, Engl.
The canons of Hippolytus, which are about 150 years older, and indeed all the oldest forms for celebration, absolutely ignore any such power of sacrifice.
Harnack's edition of the Didache (1884), his Sources of the Apostolic Canons (Eng.
trans., 1895), the edition of the Canons of Hippolytus by H.
The one is John of Tellä, author of 538 canons,' answers to questions by the priest Sergius, a creed and an exposition of the Trisagion.
He was the author of many commentaries, homilies, epistles, canons and hymns.
466), and his teaching on the Eucharist in the Canons and in the Sermo de sacrificio in die pascae (ibid.
chiefly spent at Winchester; but his writings for the patrons of Come!, and the fact that he wrote in 998 his Canons' as a pastoral letter for Wulfsige, the bishop of Sherborne, the diocese in which the abbey was situated, afford presumption of continued residence there.
The modern town, close to the ancient, is unimportant, though the canons of the cathedral have the privilege of wearing the mitre and cap pa magna at great festivals.
In addition to this, canons were enacted against simony and the marriage of priests; while resolutions were passed in favour of the crusaders, of pilgrims to Rome and in the interests of the truce of God.
The earliest mention, it would seem, occurs in the Apostolic Canons (can.
Later he erected the priory, for canons of his order, of which the nave and transepts of the church remain.
In Amen Court, where the residences of canons of St Paul's and the later houses of the minor canons are situated, there stretches such a piece of wall, dividing the gardens of the Court from the Old Bailey.
It is practically synonymous with the word council (q.v.); concilium is used in the same technical sense by Tertullian c. 200, and auvoSos a century or so later in the Apostolic canons.
He spoke against the illegal canons on the 14th of December 1640, and again on the 9th of February 1641 on the occasion of the reception of the London petition, when he argued against episcopacy as constituting a political as well as a religious danger and made a great impression on the House, his name being added immediately to the committee appointed to deal with church affairs.
The rochet is proper to, and distinctive of, prelates and bishops: but the right to wear it is sometimes granted by the pope to others, especially the canons of cathedral churches.
up to the pass (6592 ft.), close to which is the hospice (first mentioned in 1235) in the charge of Austin Canons from the Great St Bernard.
The penitentials (q.v.), or early collections of disciplinary canons, gave much attention to sacrilege.
Among his first acts were the deposition of Cyrus, the orthodox patriarch of Constantinople, in favour of John, a member of his own sect, and the summoning of a conciliabulum of Eastern bishops, which abolished the canons of the sixth general council.
Against this blemishwhich is in process of gradual correction the fact has to be set that the better class of merchants, the whole of the artisans and the laboring classes in general, obey canons of probity fully on a level with the best to be found elsewhere.
Each ge~eration has added something to the canons of its predecessor, and for every ten points preserved not more than one has been discarded.
The situation was saved by a newspaper whicl from the outset of its career obeyed the best canons of journalism - Born in 1882, the fiji Shimpo (Times) enjoyed the immense advan tage of having its policy controlled by one of the greatest thinker of modern Japan, Fukuzawa Yukichi.
The native style, Yamato or Wa-gwa-ryi, was an adaptation of Chinese art canons to motives drawn from the court life, poetry Native and stories of old Japan.
ShObun was an artist of little less power, but he followed more closely his exemplars, the Chinese masters of the 12th and 13th centuries; while Kano Masanob (1424-1520), trained in the love of Chinese art, departed little from the canons he had learned from Josetsu or Oguri SOtan.
Thus far the great obstacle has been that pictures painted in accordance with Western canons are not suited to Japanese interiors and do not appeal to the taste of the most renowned Japanese connoisseurs.
This departure from established canons must be traced to the influence of the short-lived academy of Italian art established by the Japanese government early in the Meiji era.
~The nature of its paste and glaze adapted it for the infusion of powdered tea, and its homely character suited the austere canons of the tea ceremonies.
During the 18th century, a departure was made from these strict canons.
He was rewarded with a prebend in the collegiate church of secular canons at Southwell, half of which he was allowed in 1191 to cede to his "nephew" Reginald.
In 1436 we find him one of the canons of Cracow and the administrator of Olesnicki's vast estates.
His theological writings roughly fall into four groups: (1) books of spiritual philosophy, including The Divine Love and Wisdom, The Divine Providence, The Intercourse between the Soul and the Body, Conjugial Love; (2) Expository, including Arcana Celestia (giving the spiritual sense of Genesis and Exodus), The Apocalypse Revealed, The Apocalypse Explained; (3) Doctrinal, including The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrines, The Four Chief Doctrines, The Doctrine of Charity, The True Christian Religion, Canons of the New Church; (4) Eschatological, including Heaven and Hell, and The Last Judgment.
With all the Puritan eagerness to push a clear, uncompromising, Scripture-based distinction of right and wrong into the affairs of every-day life, he has a thoroughly English horror of casuistry, and his clumsy canons consequently make wild work with the infinite intricacies of human nature.
c. i, and, without admitting that the canons of the church, which are not binding on the laity, could specify a lawful cause for rejection, held that no lawful cause within the meaning of either the canons or the rubric had been shown.
At Rome were published the Gospels (with a dedication to Pope Damasus, an explanatory introduction, and the canons of Eusebius), the rest of the New Testament and the version of the Psalms from the Septuagint known as the Psalterium romanum, which was followed (c. 388) by the Psalterium gallicanum, based on the Hexaplar Greek text.
The history of the reception of the epistle into church canons is similar to that of James, beginning with a quotation of it as the work of Jude by Clement of Alexandria (Paed.
It has been defined to be the right which a clerk has to enjoy certain ecclesiastical revenues on condition of discharging certain services prescribed by the canons, or by usage, or by the conditions under which his office has been founded.
By the early constitutions of the Church of England a bishop was allowed a space of two months to inquire and inform himself of the sufficiency of every presentee, but by the ninety-fifth of the canons of 1604 that interval has been abridged to twenty-eight days, within which the bishop must admit or reject the clerk.
This monastery was restored in the reign of Robert Bruce, and became a cell of the abbey of canons regular at Inchaffray.
Among other places he went to Heidelberg and Halle, and had his attention directed at Heidelberg to the canons of scripture criticism published by Gerhard von Ma.stricht, and at Halle to C. Vitringa's Anacrisis ad Apocalypsin.
For twenty-eight years - from 1713 to 1741 - he was master (Klosterprdceptor) of the Klosterschule at Denkendorf, a seminary for candidates for the ministry established in a former monastery of the canons of the Holy Sepulchre.
The village and valley belonged of old to the emperor, who in 1234 gave the advowson to the Knights of St Lazarus, by whom it was sold in 1272 to the Austin Canons of Interlaken, on the suppression of whom in 1528 it passed to the state.
How can they have been the " awful mysteries," the " dread and terrible canons," the " mystic teachings," the " ineffable sentences," the " oracles too sacred to be committed to writing " which the homilists of that age pretend them to have been?
He could make rules for the selection of the clergy, disregarding the ancient canons of the Church and the claims of the pope to the right of ratification.
Moreover, the existing canons are to be subjected to the examination of a commission appointed by the king, half its members from parliament, half from the clergy, to abrogate with the king's assent such provisions as the majority find do not stand with God's laws and the laws of the realm.
On the other hand, the impartial historical student cannot compare the Thirty-nine Articles with the contemporaneous canons and decrees of the council of Trent without being impressed by striking contrasts between the two sets of dogmas.
(in which the order of the book has been much broken up, and a good deal has been omitted); (ii.) the Ecclesiastical Canons of the Holy Apostles, usually called the Apostolic Church Order, a book which presents a parallel to the Teaching, in so far as it consists first of a form of The Two Ways, and secondly of a number of church ordinances (here, however, as in the Syriac Didascalia, which gives about the same amount of The Two Ways, various sections are ascribed to individual apostles, e.g.
When the treuga Dei reached its most extended form, scarcely one-fourth of the year remained for fighting, and even then the older canons relating to the pax ecclesiae remained in force.
Part of the walls and crypt remain of an abbey which dates from the foundation of a college of canons in 670.
The earliest record of their presence there is the condemnation of ten canons of Orleans as Manichees in 102 2, and soon after this we find complaints of the prevalence of heresy in northern Italy and in Germany.
This is implied in the oldest ordination rules and forms of prayer, such as those underlying the " Canons of Hippolytus " and related collections.
This comes out in the writings both of Robinson and of Henry Jacob, both of whom passed gradually from Puritanism to Separatism at a time when the silencing of some 300 Puritan clergy by the Canons of 1604, and the exercise of the royal supremacy under Archbishop Bancroft, brought these " brethren of the Second Separation " into closer relations with the earlier Separatists.
AUGUSTINIAN CANONS, a religious order in the Roman Catholic Church, called also Austin Canons, Canons Regular, and in England Black Canons, because their cassock and mantle were black, though they wore a white surplice: elsewhere the colour of the habit varied considerably.
This Rule was widely adopted by the canons regular, who also began to bind themselves by the vows of poverty, obedience and chastity.
In the 12th century this discipline became universal among them; and sa arose the order of Augustinian canons as a religious order in the strict sense of the word.
organized the Augustinian canons on the same general lines as those laid down for the Benedictines, by a system of provincial chapters and visitations.
Some thirty congregations of canons regular of St Augustine are numbered.
During the later middle ages the houses of these various congregations of canons regular spread all over Europe and became extraordinarily numerous.
The book of Johann Busch, himself a canon of Windesheim, De Reformatione monasteriorum, shows that in the 15th century grave relaxation had crept into many monasteries of Augustinian canons in north Germany, and the efforts at reform were only partially successful.
The Reformation, the religious wars and the Revolution have swept away nearly all the canons regular, but some of their houses in Austria still exist in their medieval splendour.
In England there were as many as 200 houses of Augustinian canons, and 60 of them were among the "greater monasteries" suppressed in 1538-1540 (for list see Tables in F.
The first foundation was Holy Trinity, Aldgate, by Queen Maud, in 1108; Carlisle was an English cathedral of Augustinian canons.
Three houses of the Lateran canons were established in England towards the close of the 19th century.
Most of the congregations of Augustinian canons had convents of nuns, called canonesses; many such exist to this day.
des ordres religieux (1792) is devoted to canons regular of all kinds.
Though the canons of Dort were adopted by but two churches outside of Holland, the synod ranks as the most impressive assemblage of the Reformed Church.
1620, official edition); Ada der Nationale Synode to Dordrecht 1618 (Leiden, 1887), French translation (Leiden, 1622 and 1624, 2 vols.), for the Canons, and the Sententia Remonstrantium, E.
ff., 843 ff.; for canons and abridged translation used by the Reformed Church in America, P. Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom (3rd ed., New York, 1877), 55 o ff.
The compositions of Haydn include 104 symphonies, 16 overtures, 76 quartets, 68 trios, 54 sonatas, 31 concertos and a large number of divertimentos, cassations and other instrumental pieces; 24 operas and dramatic pieces, 16 Masses, a Stabat Mater, interludes for the " Seven Words," 3 oratorios, 2 Te Deums and many smaller pieces for the church, over 40 songs, over 50 canons and arrangements of Scottish and Welsh national melodies.
Deep and narrow canons are common, and, at higher levels, glaciers, carved out amphitheatres, or " cirques " and " U "-shaped troughs.
The east slope of the Lewis and Clark range is marked by long high spurs, and the valleys between them end in radiating canons that are crowned with bold cliffs.
Some of the deeper canons show rocks of nearly all ages.
Doni's Works; he also published a treatise on The Theory of Numbers as applied to Music. His celebrated canons, published in London, about 1800, edited by Pio Cianchettini, show him to have had a strong sense of musical humour.
The Canons Of Hippolytus >>
The surface of this plain, however, ranges from level river valleys in the east to irregular plateaus broken by buttes and scored by canons in the west.
The streams flowing from the central area have cut deep gorges and canons, and among the ridges the granitic rocks have assumed many strange forms. Though rising from a semi-arid plateau, these mountains have sufficient rainfall to support an abundant plant growth, and have derived their name from the fact that their slopes are dark with heavy forests.
Other houses of which there are slight remains are Lesnes abbey, near Erith, and Bilsington priory near Ashford, established in 1178 and 1253 respectively, and both belonging to the Augustinian canons; and the house of Franciscans at Canterbury (1225).
But no remains exist of the priories of Augustinian canons at Canterbury (St Gregory's; 1084), Leeds, near Maidstone (1119), Tunbridge (middle of 12th century), Combwell, near Cranbrook (time of Henry II.); the nunnery of St Sepulchre at Canterbury (about 110o) and Langdon abbey, near Walmer (1192), both belonging to the Benedictines; the Trinitarian priory of Mottenden near Headcorn, the first house of Crutched Friars in England (1224), where miracle plays were presented in the church by the friars on Trinity Sunday; the Carmelite priories at Sandwich (1272) and Losenham near Tenterden (1241); and the preceptory of Knights of St John of Jerusalem at West Peckham, near Tunbridge (1408).
The foundation provided for seven to thirteen canons, with a number of lay brothers and a community of nuns.
The order is recognized in the canons of the councils of Nicaea (325) and Chalcedon (451), and is frequently mentioned in the writings of Chrysostom (some of whose letters are addressed to deaconesses at Constantinople), Epiphanius, Basil, and indeed most of the more important Fathers of the 4th and 5th centuries.
This view is confirmed by the evidence of the Synodicon Orientate (the collection of the canons of Nestorian Councils and Synods), which shows that the Great Syriac Church built up by the adherents of Nestorius and ever memorable for its zeal in carrying the Gospel into Central Asia, China and India cannot, from its inception, be rightly described as other than orthodox.
5; English translation under the title of Sources of the Apostolic Canons, 1895.) Meanwhile the rise and rapid spread of Gnosticism produced a great crisis in the Church of the 2nd century, and profoundly affected the ecclesiastical organization.
H.*) C. THE Modern Church The issue in 1564 of the canons of the council of Trent marks a very definite epoch in the history of the Christian Church.
With the issue of the Tridentine canons, all hope even of compromise between the " new " and the " old " religions was definitely closed.
In March 1604 Bancroft, on Whitgift's death, was appointed by royal writ president of convocation then assembled; and he there presented a book of canons collected by himself.
The new prayer-book and canons were drawn up by the Scottish bishops with his assistance and enforced in the country, and, though not officially connected with the work, he was rightly regarded as its real author.
But in our days a great part of the people would rather cast off Christianity than submit to the rigour of the [ancient] canons: wherefore it is a most wholesome dispensation of the Holy Ghost that, after so great a lapse of time, the belief in purgatory and the practice of Indulgences have become generally received among the orthodox " (Confutatio, cap. xviii.; cf.
The Regular Canons later gave this title of prior to the heads of their houses, as did also the Carthusians and the Dominicans.
It is a mountainous country intersected with rocky canons and fertile valleys, which occasionally broaden out into alluvial plains like that of the Shelif, or the Metija near Algiers, or those in the neighbourhood of Oran and Bona.
Every year a special officer was appointed, who held office for that year, and gave his name to the year; and " canons," or lists, of these officers have been discovered, extending from 893 to 666 B.e.
1 The accuracy of these canons can in many cases be checked by the full annals which we now possess of the reigns of many of the kings-as of Asshur-nazir-abal or Assur-nasir-pal (885-860 B.C.), Shalmaneser II.
Great fluency and ease of diction, considerable warmth of imagination and moral sentiment, and a sharp eye to discover any oddity of style or violation of the accepted canons of good taste, made his criticisms pungent and effective.
Both canons were innovations, designed to strike a fatal blow at prophecy and the church organization re-established by the prophets in Asia - the bishops not being quite prepared to declare boldly that the Church had no further need of prophets.
He studied at Munich, and at an early age joined the Canons Regular at Polling, where, shortly after his ordination in 1717, he taught theology and philosophy.
Of these Canons Cook and Pusey declined to serve, and ten members died during the progress of the work.
The Rime of di Costanzo are remarkable for finical taste, for polish and frequent beauty of expression, and for strict obedience to the poetical canons of his time.
Many early canons forbid the one and the other.
(9) On the other hand, the words of the oath taken by the clergy under the 36th of the Canons of 1604 are to the effect that they will use the form prescribed in the Prayer-Book and none other, except so far as shall be otherwise ordered by lawful authority; and the Prayer-Book does not even mention the reservation of the Eucharist, whilst the Articles mention it only in the way of depreciation.
p. 330.) The buildings of the Austin canons or Black canons (so called from the colour of their habit) present few distinctive peculiarities.
This order had its first seat in England at Colchester, where a house for Austin canons was founded about A.D.
As an order of regular clergy, holding a middle position between monks and secular canons, almost resembling a community of parish priests living under rule, they adopted naves of great length to accommodate large congregations.
The Austin canons' house at Thornton, in Lincolnshire, is remarkable for the size and magnificence of its gate-house, the upper floors of which formed the guest-house of the establishment, and for possessing an octagonal chapter-house of Decorated date.
The Premonstratensian regular canons, or White canons, had as many as 35 houses in England, of which the most perfect remaining are those of Easby, Yorkshire, and Bayham, Kent.
This order was a reformed branch of the Austin canons, founded, A.D.
The child was baptized at once, that it might be admitted to the Church, while the completion of its baptism was put off till it could be brought to a bishop. Western canons insist on both points at once; baptism is not to be deferred beyond a week, VI.
The Statuta Ecclesiae Antigua (falsely called the Canons of the Fourth Council of Carthage in 397), a Gallican collection, originating in the province of Arles at the beginning of the 6th century, mentions the acolyte, but does not give, as in the case of the other orders, any form for the ordination.
In the episcopal church of the United States churchwardens discharge much the same duties as those performed by the English officials; their duties, however, are regulated by canons of the diocese, not by canons general.
Within the precincts of the cathedral grounds stood the bishop's palace (now in ruins), the houses of the dean and archdeacon (now North and South Colleges), and the manses of the canons.
At some period (perhaps 1381, perhaps earlier) he paid a visit of some days' duration to the famous mystic Johann Ruysbroeck, prior of the Augustinian canons at Groenendael near Brussels; at this visit was formed Groot's attraction for the rule and life of the Augustinian canons which was destined to bear such notable fruit.
At the close of his life he was asked by some of the clerics who attached themselves to him to form them into a religious order, and Groot resolved that they should be canons regular of St Augustine.
north of Deventer, and here was established the monastery that became the cradle of the Windesheim congregation of canons regular, embracing in course of time nearly one hundred houses, and leading the way in the series of reforms undertaken during the 15th century by all the religious orders in Germany.
Some time before 961 it was made over to the bishop of St Andrews, and shortly after 1144 a body of canons regular was established on it in connexion with the priory of canons regular founded in that year at St Andrews.
In cathedrals of the "New Foundation" the "precentor" is not a member of the chapter, but is one of the minor canons.
It was also recognized in the canons of 1640, but with the reservation that "it was an altar in the sense in which the primitive church called it an altar and in no other."
In the same canons the rule for the position of the communion tables, which has been since regularly followed throughout the Church of England, was formulated.
Among ecclesiastical buildings are remains of two monastic foundations - the priory of St Botolph, founded early in the 12th century for Augustinian canons, of which part of the fine Norman west front (in which Roman bricks occur), and of the nave arcades remain; and the restored gateway of the Benedictine monastery of St John, founded by Eudo, steward to William II.
1106), as legate; like Urban and Gregory, he gave or confirmed monastic privileges without the protection he granted to the monks assuming a character of hostility towards the episcopate; and, finally, he gave an impulse to the reformation of the chapters, and, unlike Urban II., maintained the rights of the canons against the claims of the abbots.
When war was declared on the schismatic prelates, the reforming popes supported the canons, and, unconsciously or not, helped them to form themselves into privileged bodies living their own lives and affecting to recognize the court of Rome as their only superior authority.
The principle of election by canons was repeatedly violated, and threatened to disappear; and at the end of the 13th century the spectacle was common of prelates, whether nominated or confirmed by the pope, entitling themselves " bishops by the grace of the Holy See."
Stern Premonstratensian canons wanted no congregations, and cared for no possessions; therefore they built their church like a long room.
How far the older sacrificial rules resembled the levitical law we do not know, but in the canons of Sahak, C. 43 0, the priests already receive the levitical portions of the victims; and we find that animals are being sacrificed every Sunday, on the feast days which at first were few, in fulfilment of private vows, in expiation of the sins of the living, and still more of those of the dead.
In the canons of Sahak the priest is represented as eating the sins of the people in these repasts.
We do not know precisely how the eucharistic rite was adjusted to these sacrificial meals; but, in the canons of Sahak, r Cor.
None but a scion of a priestly family could become a deacon, elder or bishop. Accordingly the primacy remained in the family of Gregory until about 374, when the king Pap or Bab murdered Nerses, who had been ordained by Eusebius of Caesarea (362-370) and was over-zealous in implanting in Armenia the canons about celibacy, marriage, fasting, hospices and monastic life which Basil had established in Cappadocia.
In twentieth year of catholicate of Gregory and thirtyseventh of Trdat, the king, on return of Aristaces from council of Nice, bringing the Nicene creed and canons.
A monastery of Augustinian canons was founded here towards the close of the 12th century, but there are no remains.
Thus to this day the Rules of Basil and the Constitutions of Theodore the Studite, along with the canons of the Councils, constitute the chief part of Greek and Russian monastic law.
His Preussische Geschichte (4 vols., Stuttgart, 1899-1902), which is perhaps his most notable work, is an attempt to apply scientific rather than patriotic canons to a subject which has been mainly in the hands of historians with a patriotic bias.
in the canons of the council of Trent and those of the Vatican council of 1870.
When the Committee of Public Safety made an appeal to the savants to assist in producing the materiel required for the defence of the republic, he applied himself wholly to these operations, and, distinguished himself by his indefatigable activity therein; he wrote at this time his Description de fart de fabriquer les canons, and his Avis aux ouvriers fer sur la fabrication de l'acier.
The more important, with dates of acquisition, are the following:-Laupen (1324), Hasli and Meiringen (1334), Thun and Burgdorf (1384), Unterseen and the Upper Simme valley (1386), Frutigen, &c. (1400), Lower Simme valley (1439-1449), Interlaken, with Grindelwald, Lauterbrunnen and Brienz (1528, on the suppression of the Austin Canons of Interlaken), Saanen or Gessenay (1555), Kdniz (1729), and the Bernese Jura with Bienne (1815, from the bishopric of Basel).
The following rules he took pains to enforce: that clerics in holy orders should not cohabit with their wives or permit any women, except those allowed by the canons, to live in their houses; that clerics accused on ecclesiastical or lesser criminal charges should be tried only in the ecclesiastical courts; that clerics in holy orders who had lapsed should "utterly forfeit their orders and never again approach the ministry of the altar"; that the revenues of each church should be divided by its bishop into four equal parts, to be assigned to the bishop, the clergy, the poor and the repair of the fabric of the church.
Bishop William of St Carileph in that year changed the church to a collegiate church, and placed there certain canons whom he removed from Durham.
The early abbey was probably destroyed by the Danes in the reign of i z Ethelred the Unready (978-1015), for in 1043 Edward the Confessor founded here a college of secular canons.
The church of All Hallows, Tottenham, was given by David, king of Scotland (c.1126), to the canons of the church of Holy Trinity, London.
For rejecting certain canons of the Trullan (Quinisext) council of 692, Justinian II.
The sources of the Apostolic Canons (which date between 140-180) lay down the rule that even the smallest community of Christians, though it contain only twelve members, must have its bishop and its presbyters.
The Canons of Hippolytus which belong to the end of the 2nd century distinctly lay it down that "at the ordination of a presbyter everything is to be done as in the case of a bishop, save that he does not seat himself upon the throne.
- Up to this point we have met only with monasticism proper; and if the term were taken strictly, the remainder of this article would be concerned only with the later history of the institutes already spoken of; for neither canons regular, friars, nor regular clerks, are in the strict sense monks.
The first of these new forms was that of the canons regular or Augustinian canons who about the year r060 arose out of the older semi-monastic canonical institute, and lived according to the so-called " Rule of St Augustine."
The essential difference between monks and regular canons may be explained as follows: monks, whether hermits or cenobites, are men who live a certain kind of life for its own sake, for the purpose of leading a Christian life according to the Gospel's counsel and thus serving God and saving their own souls; external works, either temporal or spiritual, are accidental; clericature or ordination is an addition, an accession, and no part of their object, and, as a matter of fact, till well on in the middle ages it was not usual for monks to be priests; in a word, the life they lead is their object, and they do not adopt it in order the better to compass some other end.
But canons regular were in virtue of their origin essentially clerics, and their common life, monastery, rule, and the rest, were something additional grafted on to their proper clerical state.
The difference manifested itself in one external point: Augustinian canons frequently and freely themselves served the parish churches in the patronage of their houses; Benedictine monks did so, speaking broadly, hardly at all, and their doing so was forbidden by law, both ecclesiastical and civil.
In other respects the life of canons regular in their monasteries, and the external policy and organization among their houses, differed little from what prevailed among the Black Benedictines; their superiors were usually provosts or priors, but sometimes abbots.
Alongside of the local federations or congregations of houses of Augustinian canons were formed the Premonstratensian order (I r 20) (q.v.), and the English " double order " of St Gilbert of Sempringham (1148) (q.v.), both orders, in the full sense of the word, composed of Augustinian canons.
It will be in place here to explain the difference between friars, monks, and canons regular.
Thus among monks and canons regular each monastery has its own fixed community, which is in a real sense a family; and the monk or canon, no matter where he may be, looks on his monastery as his " home," like the ancestral home of a great family.
- The 13th century was the heyday of monasticism in the West; the Mendicant orders were in their first fervour and enthusiasm; the great abbeys of Benedictines, Cistercians and Augustinian canons reflected the results of the religious reform and revival associated with Hildebrand's name, and maintained themselves at a high .and dignified level in things religious and secular; and under the Benedictine rule were formed the new congregations or orders of Silvestrines (1231), Celestines (c. 1260) and Olivetans (1319), which are described under their several headings.
The first move in this direction was made in the Netherlands and north Germany under the influence of Gerhard Groot, and issued in the formation of the Windesheim congregation of Augustinian canons and the secular congregation of Brothers of Common Life (q.v.) founded c. 1384, both of which became centres of religious revival.
Two interesting examples of such sayings may be quoted: (I) "That which is weak shall be saved by that which is strong"; (2) "Jesus, on whom be peace, has said: `The world is merely a bridge; ye are to pass over it, and not to build your dwellings upon it.'" The first of these is from the Apostolic Canons (c. A.D.
It met in the Lateran church, was attended by one hundred and five bishops (chiefly from Italy, Sicily and Sardinia, a few being from Africa and other quarters), held five sessions or "secretarii" from the 5th to the 31st of October 649, and in twenty canons condemned the Monothelite heresy, its authors, and the writings by which it had been promulgated.
It was a "double order," each convent having attached to it a small community of canons to act as chaplains, but under the government of the abbess.
Even in the spheres of art and literature, the Italians, while so largely guided by Greek canons, had something of their own to contribute.
In the following year a Church ordinance, based upon the canons of Luther, 1Vlelanchthon and B ugenhagen, was drawn up, submitted to Luther for his approval, and promulgated on the 2nd of September 1537.
Thus the constituent parts of the Anglican communion gradually acquire autonomy: missionary jurisdictions develop into organized dioceses, and dioceses are grouped into provinces with canons of their own.
There are numerous valleys, ravines and canons in the network of mountains covering the interior of the country.
But there are canons for the punishment of such as might induce the sovereign so to erect any town into a city, solely with the view of becoming bishop thereof.
The twenty-five canons adopted regulate the so-called metropolitan constitution of the church.
The numerous objections made by eminent scholars in past centuries to the ascription of these twenty-five canons to the synod in encaeniis have been elaborately stated and probably refuted by Hefele.
The canons formed part of the Codex canonum used at Chalcedon in 451 and passed over into the later collections of East and West.
The canons are printed in Greek by Mansi ii.
By the constitution of the 18th of October 614 he gave legal force to canons which had been voted some days previously by a council convened at Paris, but not without attempting to modify them by numerous restrictions.
is marked by war with the northern Celts, and by the introduction of English bishops of St Andrews, while the claims of the see of York to superiority over the Scottish church were cleverly evaded at Glasgow (David's bishopric), as well as at St Andrews, where English Augustinian canons were now established, to the prejudice of the Celtic Culdees.
He drew up the bill for making parliaments indissoluble except by their own consent, and supported the Grand Remonstrance and the action taken in the Commons against the illegal canons; on the militia question, however, he advocated a joint control by king and parliament.
The term "monk" should not be used either of "friars" or of "canons regular."
It became early a custom for the prebendaries and canons of a cathedral to employ " priest-vicars " or " vicars-choral " as their substitutes when it was their turn as hebdomedary to sing High Mass and conduct divine office.
Formerly, and especially in England, many churches were appropriated to monasteries or colleges of canons, whose custom it was to appoint one of their own body to perform divine service in such churches, but in the 13th century such corporations were obliged to appoint permanent paid vicars who were called perpetual vicars.
Lorenzo (1380-1465), the Laurentius Justinianus of the Roman calendar, at an early age entered the congregation of the canons of St George in Alga, and in 1433 became general of that order.
There is much merit in his hymns and "canons" one of the latter is very familiar as the hymn "The Day of Resurrection, Earth tell it out abroad."
In a cathedral the canons and prebendaries have each a stall assigned to them.
There may further be mentioned the remnant of the Saxon collegiate church of the canons of St Martin, and the parish church of St Mary the Virgin.
The college of St Martin for twenty-two secular canons, which had been established in the castle in 696, was removed into the town in the beginning of the 8th century, and in 1139 became a Benedictine priory under the jurisdiction of that at Canterbury, to which see the lands are still attached.
At the time of the Domesday survey the canons of St Stephen held Launceston, and the count of Mortain held Dunheved.
It is not known when the canons settled here nor whether the count's castle, then newly erected, replaced some earlier fortification.
Reginald, earl of Cornwall (1140-1175), granted to the canons rights of jurisdiction in all their lands and exemption from suit of court in the shire and hundred courts.
For it is easy to understand by the canons above mentioned that the greatest objects may appear exceedingly small, and the contrary, also that the most remote objects may appear just at hand, and the converse; for we can give such figures to transparent bodies, and dispose them in such order with respect to the eye and the objects, that the rays shall be refracted and bent towards any place we please, so that we shall see the object near at hand or at any distance under any angle we please.
During the anxious months that followed the Austrian coup, the efforts of diplomacy were directed to calming the excitement of Servians, Montenegrins and the Young Turks, and to considering a European conference in which the fait accompli should be regularized in accordance with the accepted canons of international law.
At Domesday the manor of Willesden and Harlesden was held by the canons of St Paul's.
They had devised canons for the investigation of the concrete problems of this, but had either ignored altogether the need to give an account of the mirroring mind, or, in the alternative had been, with some naïveté, content to assume that their nominalist friends, consistently their allies in the long struggle with traditionalism, had adequately supplied or could adequately supply the need.
The nerve of proof in the processes by which he establishes causal conjunctions of unlimited application is naturally thought to lie in the special canons of the several processes and the axioms of universal and uniform causation which form their background.
It is of course possible to criticise even the experimental canons with some severity.
He was in Aberdeen about 150o when lectures began in the new buildings, and he appears to have been well received by the canons of the cathedral, several of whom he has commemorated as men of learning.
The Old Testament, allegorically explained, became the substitute for the outgrown mythology; intellectual activity revived; the new facts gained predominant influence in philosophy, and in turn were shaped according to its canons.
Thus, according to the canons of the ancient philosophy, justice is done to all the factors of our problem - God remains as Father, the infinitely remote and absolute source of all; as Son, the Word who is.
Yet this appeal to the intelligence is not rationalism: the latter makes reason the supreme authority, rejecting all which does not conform to it; the Bible is treated like any other book, to be accepted or rejected in part or in whole as it agrees with our canons of logic and our general science, while religion submits to the same process as do other departments of knowledge.
In science the process has been reversed; nature ascends, so to speak, into the region of the supernatural and subdues it to itself; the marvellous or miraculous is brought under the domain of natural law, the canons of physics extend over metaphysics, and religion takes its place as one element in the natural relationship of man to his environment.
The abbey was founded in 1145, under charter from King Stephen, by Richard de Baumes or Belmeis, dean of St Alkmund, Shrewsbury, for Augustinian canons, who were brought from Dorchester Abbey, Oxfordshire.
The features of their life in Scotland, which is the most important epoch in the history of the order, seem to resemble closely those of the secular canons of England and the continent.
and David I.; gradually the whole position passed into the hands of Turgot and his successors in the bishopric. Canons Regular were instituted and some of the Culdees joined the new order.
In 1093 they surrendered their island to the bishop of St Andrews in return for perpetual food and clothing, but Robert, who was bishop in 1144, handed over all their vestments, books, 2 and other property, with the island, to the newly founded Canons Regular, in which probably the Culdees were incorporated.
In the same fashion the Culdees of Monymusk, originally perhaps a colony from St Andrews, became Canons Regular of the Augustinian order early in the 13th century, and those of Abernethy in 1273.
Similar absorptions no doubt account for the disappearance of the Culdees of York, a name borne by the canons of St Peter's about 925, and of Snowdon and Bardsey Island in north Wales mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis (c. 1190) in his Speculum Ecclesiae and Itinerarium respectively.
PREMONSTRATENSIANS, also called Norbertines, and in England White Canons, from the colour of the habit: an order of Augustinian Canons founded in 1120 by St Norbert, afterwards archbishop of Magdeburg.
He had made various efforts to introduce a strict form of canonical life in various communities of canons in Germany; in 1120 he was working in the diocese of Laon, and there in a desert place, called Premontre, in Aisne, he and thirteen companions established a monastery to be the cradle of a new order.
They were canons regular and followed the so-called Rule of St Augustine (see Aigustinians), but with supplementary statutes that made the life one of great austerity.
But as the Premonstratensians were not monks but canons regular, their work was preaching and the exercise of the pastoral office, and they served a large number of parishes incorporated in their monasteries.
There are now some 20 monasteries and 'coo canons, who serve numerous parishes; and there are two or three small houses in England.
They include those of patriarchs, archbishops, metropolitans and bishops in the first rank of the hierarchy, with their subordinate officials, such as archdeacons, archpriests, deans and canons, &c., in the lower ranks.
It was defined in the canons of the council of Trent, as promulgated by Pope Pius IV.
When old-fashioned theologians talked about the canons and councils of antiquity, Laynez answered that the Church was not more infallible at one time than another; the Holy Ghost spoke through the decrees of Trent quite as plainly and directly as through the primitive Fathers.
The Spanish drama, meanwhile, untrammelled by those false canons of pseudo-classic taste which fettered the theatre in Italy and afterwards in France, rose to an eminence in the hands of Lope de Vega and Calderon which only the English, and the English only in the masterpieces of three or four playwrights, can rival.
Meanwhile the drama was emerging from the medieval mysteries; and the classical type, made popular by Garnier's genius, was elaborated, as in Italy, upon the model of Seneca and the canons of the three unities.
It is built on the left bank of the Aar, and grew up around the religious house of Austin Canons, founded about 1130 and suppressed in 1528.
The Trinitarians are canons regular, but in England they were often spoken of as friars.
Among Greeks and Arabs, mourners also cut themselves with knives and scratched their faces; the Hebrew law forbade such mourning, and we find the prohibition repeated in many canons of the Eastern churches.
In 441 a synod of sixteen bishops was held at Orange under the presidency of St Hilary of Arles, which adopted thirty canons touching the reconciliation of penitents and heretics; the ecclesiastical right of asylum, diocesan prerogatives of bishops, spiritual privileges of the defective or demoniac, the deportment of catechumens at worship, and clerical celibacy (forbidding married men to be ordained as deacons, and digamists to be advanced beyond the sub-diaconate).
Woods, Canons of the Second Council of Orange (Oxford, 1882).
Far greater progress has been made in the formulation of general canons as to the nature, growth and treatment of the public revenues.
Mechanical uniformity and minute regulation are inadequate substitutes for observance of the canons of equality, certainty and economy in the operation of the tax system.
A book of canons and constitutions of the church which appeared in 1636, instead of being a digest of acts of assembly, was English in its ideas, dealt with matters of church furniture, exalted the bishops and ignored the kirk-session and elders.
Petitions against the service book and the book of canons poured in from every quarter; the tables or committee formed to forward the petition rapidly became a powerful government at the head of a national movement, the action of the crown was temporizing, and on the 28th of February the National Covenant was signed in the famous scene in Greyfriars church and churchyard.
A clean sweep was made of the legislation of the preceding period; the five articles of Perth, the service book and book of canons and the court of high commission were all condemned.
For the true natural history is to take nothing except instances, connections, observations and canons."
There is required in the process not merely a preliminary critical induction, but a subsequent experimental comparison, verification or proof, the canons of which can be laid down with precision.
The socalled Apostolical Constitutions and Canons, the latter of which were compiled in the 4th century, give us the first clear and fairly general rules on the subject.
1 The Eastern Church, therefore, still adheres fairly closely to the rules laid down by the Apostolical Canons in the 4th century.
in 1300 definitely permitted such marriages under the alreadyquoted conditions of the Apostolic Canons; in these cases, however, a bishop's licence was required to enable the cleric to officiate in church, and the episcopal registers show that the diocesans frequently insisted on the celibacy of parish-clerks.
Latin, at all events, Spinoza learned to use with correctness, freedom and force, though his language does not, of course, conform to classical canons.
The greater part of the treatise is devoted to working out this line of thought; and in so doing Spinoza consistently applies to the interpretation of the Old Testament those canons of historical exegesis which are often regarded as of comparatively recent growth.
It had as one of its special objects the housing and entertainment of the bishop and canons of St Mary of Bethlehem, the mother-church, on their visits to England.
Cox's Life of Bishop Colenso (1888); Church of the Province of South Africa; Constitution and Canons (Cape Town, 1899 ed.); J.
To Butler the Christian religion, and by that he meant the orthodox Church of England system, was a moral scheme revealed by a special act of the divine providence, the truth of which was to be judged by the ordinary canons of evidence.
Under stress of these preoccupations, however, organic unity of structure went very much to the wall, and Telemaque is a grievous offender against its author's own canons of literary taste.
The Canons of Hippolytus, or Egyptian church order, of about A.D.
The chief items were a new Great Gate with two flanking towers, a belfry for St George's Chapel and houses in the Lower Bailey, probably for the canons, and in the Upper Bailey, probably for the royal household.
The bishops also exercise a certain jurisdiction over marriages, inasmuch as they have by the canons of the Church of England a power of dispensing with the proclamation of banns before marriage.
There are a fine park of 2840 acres, the property of the city, and three beautiful canons near Boulder.
The Orthodox Greek Church adopts the doctrinal decisions of the seven oecumenical councils, together with the canons of the Concilium Quinisextum or second Trullan council (692); and they further hold that all these definitions and canons are simply explanations and enforcements of the Nicaeo-Constantinopolitan creed and the decrees of the first council of Nicaea.
The sixth declared against Monothelitism; the seventh sanctioned the worship (30vXda, not etXnOt y) Aarpdia) of images; the council held in the Trullus (a saloon in the palace at Constantinople) supplemented by canons of discipline the doctrinal decrees of the fifth and sixth councils.
Its canons are the basis, indeed, almost the whole, of the science of diplomatic (q.v.), the touchstone of truth for medieval research.
Gradually the Austin canons of Interlaken bought out all the other owners in the valley, but when that house was suppressed in 1528 by the town of Bern the inhabitants gained their freedom.
In an uncritical age it was attributed to St Augustine himself, and Augustinians, especially the canons, put forward fantastic claims to antiquity, asserting unbroken continuity, not merely from St Augustine, but from Christ and the Apostles.
The cathedral has a chapter of thirty canons, and of the numerous religious houses formerly existing very few have in whole or in part survived the suppression in 1868.
APOSTOLIC CANONS, a collection of eighty-five rules for the regulation of clerical life, appended to the eighth book of the Apostolical Constitutions.
At least half of the canons are derived from earlier constitutions, and probably not many of them are the actual productions of the compiler, whose aim was to gloss over the real nature of the Constitutions, and secure their incorporation with the Epistles of Clement in the New Testament of his day.
The Canons may be a little later in date than the preceding Constitutions, but they are evidently from the same Syrian theological circle.
To the south-east lies the picturesque Little Cloister, with its court and fountain, surrounded by residences of canons and officials.
The school buildings lie east of the conventual buildings, surrounding Little Dean's Yard, which, like the cloisters, communicates with Dean's Yard, in which are the picturesque houses of the headmaster, canons of the Abbey, and others.
This was until Charles II.'s time a regular rogation, the choristers in surplices, the gentlemen of the royal chapel in copes, and the canons and other clergy in copes preceding the knights and singing the litany.
(b) The Church Order follows the general lines of the Canons of Hippolytus and similar documents.
The bishop appears to rank far above the presbyters (more conspicuously so, for example, than in the Canons of Hippolytus), and the presbyters are still divided into two classes, those who are more learned and those who are of mature age.
Mgr Rahmani's view, that it is a work of the 2nd century, is universally discredited; nor has Funk's contention found acceptance, that it and the Canons of Hippolytus are alike derived ultimately from the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions.
24) it is a Church Order of the same kind as the Canons of Hippolytus (c. 220) and the Egyptian (c. 310) and Ethiopic (c. 335) Church Orders, standing nearer to the two latter than to the former, and especially to the Verona Latin Fragments, part iii.
The precise relation in which these documents stand to one another still remains in a measure doubtful, but it seems probable that they are based upon a lost Church Order, to which the Canons of Hippolytus stands nearest.
KaOoXtK r l &lao-KaXLa), a collection of ecclesiastical regulations in eight books, the last of which concludes with the eighty-five Canons of the Holy Apostles.
From the first they have been very variously estimated; the Canons, as a rule, more highly than the rest of the work.
692, accepts the Canons as genuine by its second canon, but rejects the Constitutions on the ground that spurious matter had been introduced into them by heretics; and whilst the former were henceforward used freely in the East, only a few portions of the latter found their way into the Greek and oriental law-books.
500) translated fifty of the Canons into Latin,' although under the title Canones qui dicuntur Apostolorum, and thus they passed into other Western collections; whilst the Constitutions as a whole remained unknown in the West until they were published in 1563 by the Jesuit Turrianus.
(b) The Apostolic Church Order (apostolische Kirchenordnung of German writers); Ecclesiastical Canons of the Holy Apostles of one MS.; Sententiae Apostolorum of Pitra: of about 300, and emanating probably from Asia Minor.
(h) The so-called Canons of Basil.
This is an Arabic work perhaps based on a Coptic and ultimately on a Greek original, embodying with modifications large portions of the Canons of Hippolytus.
(On the relations between the six last named, see Hippolytus, Canons Of.) Here also may be noticed the Didascalia Apostolorum, originally written in Greek, but known through a Syriac version and a fragmentary Latin one published by Hauler.
They speak of the ordination of bishops (the so-called Clementine Liturgy is that which is directed to be used at the consecration of a bishop, cc. 5-15), of presbyters, deacons, deaconesses, subdeacons and lectors, and then pass on to confessors, virgins, widows and exorcists; after which follows a series of canons on various subjects, and liturgical formulae.
The third section consists of the Apostolic Canons already referred to, the last and most significant of which places the Constitutions and the two epistles of Clement in the canon of Scripture, and omits the Apocalypse.
They are derived in part from the preceding Constitutions, in part from the canons of the councils of Antioch, 34 1, Nicaea, 325, and possibly Laodicaea, 363.
This provision passes on into the Egyptian Ecclesiastical Canons and other kindred documents, and even into the Testamentum Domini.
Apostolic Canons >>
A house of Augustinian canons established here in 1119 by Erkenbert, chamberlain of Worms, was suppressed in 1562 by the elector palatine Frederick III., who gave its possessions to Protestant refugees from the Netherlands.
But the expression is most frequently used to designate disciplinary laws, in which case canons are distinguished from dogmatic definitions.
With regard to form, the decisions of councils, even when dogmatic, are called canons; thus the definitions of the council of Trent or of the Vatican, which generally begin with the words " Si quis dixerit," and end with the anathema, are canons; while the long chapters, even when dealing with matters of discipline, retain the name of chapters or decrees.
Similarly, it has become customary to give the name of canons to the texts inserted in certain canonical complications such as the Decretum of Gratian, while the name of chapters is given to the analogous quotations from the Books of the Decretals.
Having made these general observations, we must now consider the history of those texts and collections of canons which to-day form the ecclesiastical law of the Western Church: (1) up to the Decretum of Gratian, (2) up to the council of Trent, (3 and 4) up to the present day, including the codification ordered by Pius X.
Strangely enough, those documents which bear the greatest resemblance to a small collection of canonical regulations, such as the Didache, the Didascalia and the Canons of Hippolytus, have not been retained, and find no place in the collections of canons, doubtless for the reason that they were not official documents.
Thus the only pseudo-epigraphic document preserved in the law of the Greek Church is the small collection of the eighty-five so-called " Apostolic Canons " (q.v.).
It appears that in several different districts canons made by the local assemblies' were added to those of the council of Nicaea which were everywhere accepted and observed.
The first example seems to be that of the province of Pontus, where after the twenty canons of Nicaea were placed the twentyfive canons of the council of Ancyra (314), and the fifteen of that of Neocaesarea (315-3 20).
These texts were adopted at Antioch, where there were further added the twenty-five canons of the so-called council in encaeniis of that city (341).
The collection was so well and so widely known that all these canons were numbered in sequence, and thus at the council of Chalcedon (451) several of the canons of Antioch were read out under the number assigned to them in the collection of the whole.
twenty-eight (thirty) canons of Chalcedon; about the same time were added the four canons of the council of Constantinople of 381, under the name of which also appeared three (or seven) other canons of a later date.
Towards the same date, also, the so-called " Apostolic Canons " were placed at the head of the group. Such was the condition of the Greek collection when it was translated and introduced into the West.
It was at this time that the Latin collection of Dionysius Exiguus became known; and just as he had given the Greek councils a place in his collection, so from him were borrowed the canons of councils which did not appear in the Greek collection - the twenty canons of Sardica (343), in the Greek text, which differs considerably from the Latin; and the council of Carthage of 419, which itself included, more or less completely, in 105 canons, the decisions of the African councils.
This assembly elaborated 102 canons, which did not become part of the Western law till much later, on the initiative of Pope John VIII.
Now, in the second of its canons, the council in Trullo recognized and sanctioned the Greek collection above men recognition of these canons, and at the same time prohibits the addition of others.
As thus defined, the collection contains the following documents: firstly, the eighty-five Apostolic Canons, the Constitutions having been put aside as having suffered heretical alterations; secondly, the canons of the councils of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neocaesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Laodicea, Constantinople (381), Ephesus (the disciplinary canons of this council deal with the reception of the Nestorians, and were not communicated to the West), Chalcedon, Sardica, Carthage (that of 4 19, according to Dionysius), Constantinople (394); thirdly, the series of canonical letters of the following great bishops - Dionysius of Alexandria, Peter of Alexandria (the Martyr), Gregory Thaumaturgus, Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, Amphilochus of Iconium, Timotheus of Alexandria, Theophilus of Alexandria, Cyril of Alexandria, Gennadius of Constantinople; the canon of Cyprian of Carthage (the Martyr) is also mentioned, but with the note that it is only valid for Africa.
With the addition of the twenty-two canons of the ecumenical council of Nicaea (787), this will give us the whole contents of the official collection of the Greek Church; since then it has remained unchanged.
For several centuries there is no mention of any but local collections of canons, and even these are not found till the 5th century; we have to come down to the 8th or even the 9th century before we find any trace of unification.
automatically, owing to the plenary assemblies of the African episcopate held practically every year, at which it was customary first of all to read out the canons of the previous councils.
At the time of the Vandal invasion this collection comprised the canons of the council of Carthage under Gratus (about 348) and under Genethlius (390), the whole series of the twenty or twenty-two plenary councils held during the episcopate of Aurelius, and finally, those of the councils held at Byzacene.
From it we learn that the canons of Nicaea and the other Greek councils, up to that of Chalcedon, were also known in Africa.
Up to the end of the 5th century the only canonical document of non-Roman origin which it officially recognized was the group of canons of Nicaea, under which name were also included those of Sardica.
At the desire of Stephen, bishop of Salona, he undertook the task of making a new translation, from the original Greek text, of the canons of the Greek collection.
The manuscript which he used contained only the first fifty of the Apostolic Canons; these he translated, and they thus became part of the law of the West.
> side by side with the ecclesiastical canons, the imperial laws on each subject: the chief of them are the one bearing the name of Johannes Scholasticus, which belongs, however, to a later date, and that of Photius (883).
The other collections of canons, of Italian origin, compiled before the 10th century, are of importance on account of the documents which they have preserved for us, but as they have not exercised any great influence on the development of canon law, we may pass them over.
The Dionysio-Hadriana did not, when introduced into Gaul, take the place of any other generally received collection of canons.
g Y g, and contains 98 documents - Eastern and African canons and papal letters, but no Gallic councils; so that it is not a collection of local law.
The latter, which form the local section, are further divided into several classes: firstly, the synods held under the Roman empire, the chief being that of Elvira 4 (c. 300); next the texts belonging to the kingdom of the Suevi, after the conversion of these barbarians by St Martin of Braga: these are, the two councils of Braga (563 and 572), and a sort of free translation or adaptation of the canons of the Greek councils, made by Martin of Braga; this is the document frequently quoted in later days under the name of Capitula Martini papae; thirdly, the decisions of the councils of the Visigothic Church, after its conversion to Catholicism.
As penances had for a long time been lightened, and the books used by confessors began to consist more and more of instructions in the style of the later moral theology (and this is already the case of the books of Halitgar and Rhabanus Maurus), the canonical collections began to include a greater or smaller number of the penitential canons.
influence of Hildebrand, the reforming movement makes itself felt in several collections of canons, intended to support the rights of the Holy See and the Church against the pretensions of the emperor.
richer of them; when necessary, he has recourse to the Roman laws, and he made an extensive use of the works of the Fathers and the ecclesiastical writers; he further made use of the canons of the recent councils, and the recently published decretals, up to and including the Lateran council of 1139.
With regard to a great number of canons, it is a matter of dispute whether they are still in force or are abrogated.
The sources of English ecclesiastical law (purely ecclesiastical) were therefore (1) the principles of the jus commune ecclesiasticum; (2) foreign particular constitutions received here, as just explained; (3) the constitutions and canons of English synods (cf.
Canons passed since 2s Hen.
c. 19 have not the parliamentary confirmation which that act has been held to give to previous canons, and do not necessarily bind the laity, although made under the king's licence and ratified by him.
Nevertheless, there are many provisions in these postReformation canons which are declaratory of the ancient usage and law of the Church, and the law which they thusrecord is binding on the laity.
The chief body of English post-Reformation canon law is to be found in the canons of 160 3, amended in 1865 and 1888.
The canons of 1640 are apparently upon the same footing as those of 1603; notwithstanding objections made at the time that they were void because convocation continued to sit after the dissolution of parliament.
c. 12 simply provided that these canons should not be given statutory force by the operation of that.
In addition to the enactment of canons (strictly so-called) the English provincial synods since the Henrician changes have legislated - in 1570 by the enactment of the Thirty-Nine Articles, in 1661 by approving the present Book of Common Prayer, and in 1873 by approving shorter forms of matins and evensong.
Apparently diocesan synods may still enact valid canons without the king's authority; but these bodies are not now called.
As to Ireland, in a national synod of the four Irish provinces held at Dublin before the four archbishops, in 1634, a hundred canons were promulgated with the royal licence, containing much matter not dealt with by similar constitutions in England.
In 1711, some further canons were promulgated (with royal licence) by another national synod.
Some forms of special prayer were appended to these canons.
This General Synod was given full power to alter or amend canons, or to repeal them, or to enact new ones.
The Convention also enacted some canons and a statute in regard to ecclesiastical tribunals (see Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction).
In 1871 the General Synod attempted to codify its canon law in forty-eight canons which, " and none other," were to have force and effect as the canons of the Church of Ireland.
Since 1871 the General Synod has, from time to time, put forth other canons.
In 1743 an assembly of five bishops enacted sixteen canons.
In 1811, a " Code of Canons " was enacted by a " General Ecclesiastical Synod," consisting of the bishops, the deans (viz.
These canons were revised in 1828, 1829 and 1838.
In 1862-1863, another General Synod further revised and amended the Code of Canons.
Canon 46 provides that " if any question shall arise as to the interpretation of this Code of Canons or of any part thereof, the general principles of canon law shall be alone deemed applicable thereto."
It enacts that: " The preceding canons shall in all cases be construed in accordance with the principles of the civil law of Scotland.
Nevertheless, it shall be lawful, in cases of dispute or difficulty concerning the interpretation of these canons, to appeal to an y generally recognized principles of canon law."
The canons of 1862-1863 also provided for a lay share in the election of bishops.
In the canons of her national provincial councils (at whose yearly meetings representatives attended on behalf of the king) that country possessed a canon law of her own, which was recognized by the parliament and the popes, and enforced in the courts of law.
Much of it, no doubt, was borrowed from the Corpus juris canonici and the English provincial canons.
The general canon law, unless where it has been acknowledged by act of parliament, or a decision of the courts, or sanctioned by the canons of a provincial council, is only received in Scotland according to equity and expediency.
a very large portion of the canons of 1603 (Vinton, p. 32).
He now bears the title of archbishop. All bishops are to enter into a contract to obey and maintain the constitution and canons of the province.
In the West Indies, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, provincial and diocesan synods or conventions have been formed on one or other of the types above mentioned and have enacted canons.
The power of the abbot was paternal but absolute, limited, however, by the canons of the church, and, until the general establishment of exemptions, by episcopal control.
The governing body of the abbey consists of abbot, prior and the "convent" of canons (Stiftsherren).
Later canons continued this restriction; and although in outlying parts of Christendom deacons claimed the right, the official churches accorded it to presbyters alone and none but bishops could perform the confirmation or seal.
In 1279 he compelled Archbishop Peckham to withdraw some legislation made in a synod called without the royal permissiona breach of one of the three great canons of William the Conqueror.
About this time Robert, who had founded St Augustine's Priory in Bristol, gave to the Black Canons there the five churches in Berkeley and Berkeley Herness.
' Compare the 52nd [51st] of the Apostolical canons.
About 348 a synod of Catholic bishops, who had met to record their gratitude for the effective official repression of the "Circumcelliones" (Donatist terrorists), declared against the rebaptism of any one who had been baptized in the name of the Trinity, and adopted twelve canons of clerical discipline.
the canons of the council of Trent and the Vatican decrees.
It is alluded to in various statutes of the reign of Henry VIII., who obtained power to appoint a commission to examine the old ecclesiastical laws, with a view of deciding which ought to be kept and which ought to be abolished; and in the meantime it was enacted that "such canons, institutions, ordinances, synodal or provincial or other ecclesiastical laws or jurisdictions spiritual as be yet accustomed and used here in the Church of England, which necessarily and conveniently are requisite to be put in ure and execution for the time, not being repugnant, contrarient, or derogatory to the laws or statutes of the realm, nor to the prerogatives of the royal crown of the same, or any of them, shall be occupied, exercised, and put in ure for the time with this realm" (35 Henry Viii.
This is not fully formulated even in the Lutheran Formula of Concord, nor yet in the Calvinistic canons of Dort and Confession of Westminster, though these and other Protestant creeds have various instalments of the finished doctrine.
The forty-seven genuine canons of the synod deal with discipline, church life, the alienation of ecclesiastical property and the treatment of Jews.
The canons of Agde are based in part on earlier Gallic, African and Spanish legislation; and some of them were re-enacted by later councils, and found their way into collections such as the Hispana, Pseudo-Isidore and Gratian.
A similar effect has been produced by the philosophical reaction against [[Herbert (Family)|Herbert ]], and by the perception that the canons of evidence required in physical science must not be exalted into universal rules of thought.
The canons have the authority of this synod.
After spending some time in a house of canons regular at Hamersleben, in Saxony, where he completed his studies, he removed to the abbey of St Victor at Marseilles, and thence to the abbey of St Victor in Paris.
Pleased with his success, the canons at Noyon gave him the curacy of St Martin de Marteville in September 1527.
The chief work of Choeroboscus, which we have in its complete form, is the commentary on the canons of Theodosius on Declension and Conjugation.
In 1634 he took part in the convocation which drafted the code of canons that formed the basis of Irish ecclesiastical law till the disestablishment of the Irish Church in 1869, and defeated the attempt of John Bramhall, then bishop of Derry and later his own successor in Armagh, to conform the Irish Church exactly to the doctrinal standards of the English.
of making men bishops who had not previously received the orders of priests, and of permitting bishops to be consecrated by a single bishop. This custom can hardly, however, be a reproach to the Irish church, as the practice was never held to be invalid; and besides, the Nicene canons of discipline were perhaps not known in Ireland until comparatively late times.
Many Irish parishes grew out of primitive monasteries, but other early settlements remained monastic, and were compelled by the popes to adopt the rule of authorized orders, generally that of the Augustinian canons.
A college of secular canons followed in the 10th century, the provostship of which subsequently became an office of high dignity, and was held by Thomas Becket, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury.
At length in 1122 the struggle was brought to an end by the concordat of Worms, the provisions of which were incorporated in the eighth and ninth canons of the general Lateran council of 1123.
The Gilbertines were a purely English order which took its rise in Lincolnshire, the canons following the Austin rule, the nuns and lay brothers that of the Cistercians.
of Lincoln, was founded 1154, for fourteen canons.
Thornton Abbey (Black Canons) in the north near the Humber was founded in 1139.
Before his arrival some trouble had arisen in the chapter owing to the fact that three excommunicated canons persisted in retaining their offices.
These furnish, with the canons of the councils, the chief source of the legislation of the church, and form the greater part of the Corpus Juris.
This collection, indeed, comprises at least as many canons of councils as decretals, and the decretals contained in it are not all forgeries.
The collection of canons known as the Isidoriana or Hispalensis is not by him, and the following, attributed to him, are of doubtful authenticity: De ortu ac obitu patrum qui in Scriptura laudibus efferuntur; Allegorise scripturae sacrae et liber numerorum; De ordine creaturarum.
In the 8th century Puoche was mentioned as the place of his tomb, and on the site was built the celebrated monastery of canons regular, St Florian, which still exists.
A ridge of low hills and bluffs, often precipitous, marked by buttes and deeply cut in places by Canons, it is the most striking surface feature of the state.
Its immediate bluffs and the shores of some of its tributaries, notably the Snake, are modified by canons.
On 1842 appeared Synodalia, a Collection of Articles of Religion, Canons, and Proceedings of Convocation from 1547 to 1717, completing the series for that period.
Its principal work was the adoption of fifteen disciplinary canons, which were subsequently accepted as ecumenical by the Council of Chalcedon, 451, and of which the most important are the following: i.
The rivers of the narrow mountainous peninsulas form many rapids and cataracts; as the Tondano, draining the lake of the same name to the north-west coast of Minahassa at Menado; the Rano-i-Apo, flowing over the plateau of Mongondo to the Gulf of Amurang; the Poigar, issuing from a little-known lake of that plateau; the Lombagin, traversing narrow canons; and the river of Boni, which has its outfall in the plain of Gorontalo, near the mouth of the Bolango or Tapa, the latter connected by a canal with the Lake of Limbotto.
The word praebenda originally signified the daily rations given to soldiers, whence it passed to indicate daily distributions of food and drink to monks, canons, &c. It became a frequent custom to grant such a prebend from the resources of a monastery to certain poor people or to the founder.
The clergy of such churches were generally canons, and the titles canon and prebendary were, and are, sometimes used as synonymous.
Bright, Notes on the Canons, on Ephesus 8).
In many respects, the established canons of visual communication theory have been challenged.
By the fifteenth century it had become a house of Augustinian canons feeding only 27 of Bristol's poor.
The plays were written by secular canons at Glasney College in Penryn with the intention of teaching ordinary people tales from the Bible.
A special area has been created for snowboarders and the snow canons will make sure there is snow during the whole season!