The juice is extracted from canes by squeezing them between rollers.
Owing to this property, tubes or canes can be produced with a square, oblong, oval or triangular section.
The sugar cane, like tea, was first introduced in 1850, the first canes being brought from Mauritius.
The canes from which the patterns are formed are either simple or complex.
The process can be almost indefinitely repeated and canes formed of extreme complexity.
A vase decorated with these simple or complex canes is produced by embedding short lengths of the cane on the surface of a mass of molten glass and blowing and fashioning the mass into the required shape.
The glasses to which the Venetians gave the name " mille fiori " were formed by arranging side by side sections of glass cane, the canes themselves being built up of differently coloured rods of glass, and binding them together by heat.
The shoots are trained up near the glass, and, with plenty of heat (top and bottom) and of water, with air and light, and manure water occasionally, will form firm, strong, well-ripened canes in the course of the season.
and if canes with juice indicating 9° Beaume be made a basis of value or worth, say at ios.
per ton, then canes with juice indicating in degrees Beaume to° 9° 8° 7° 6° and containing in sugar..
the annual cost of running the factory) of £3 per ton, or f30,000 per annum, will not be able to make as much sugar per day with canes giving juice of 8° B., and will make still less if they yield juice of only 6° B.
In practice, the expenses of upkeep for the year and of manufacturing the crop remain the same whether the canes are rich or poor and whether the crop is good or bad, the power of the factory being limited by its power of evaporation.
The canes in each case are assumed to contain 88% of juice and 12% of fibre, and the extraction by milling to be 75% of the weight of canes - the evaporative power of the factory being equal to 622 tons per 24 hours.
But it is obvious that it would not pay a planter to sell canes at 4s.
The details of manufacture of sugar from canes and of sugar from beetroots differ, but there are five operations in the production of the sugar of commerce from either material which are common to both processes.
In India at the present day there are thousands of small mills worked by hand, through which extraction the peasant cultivators pass their canes two or three at a time, squeezing them a little, and extracting per haps a fourth of their weight in juice, from which they make a substance resembling a dirty sweetmeat rather than sugar.
In Barbadoes there are still many estates making good Mascabado sugar; but as the juice is extracted from the canes by windmills, and then concentrated in open kettles heated by direct fire, the financial results are disastrous, since nearly half the yield obtainable from the canes is lost.
In the best organized modern cane sugar estates as much as 122% of the weight of the canes treated is obtained in crystal sugar of high polarizing power, although in Louisiana, where cultivation and manufacture are alike most carefully and admirably carried out, the yield in sugar is only about 7% of the weight of the canes, and sometimes, but seldom, as much as 9%.
This is due to conditions of climate, which are much less favourable for the formation of saccharine in the canes than in Cuba.
Here the tropical heat is tempered by constant trade winds, there is perfect immunity from hurricanes, the soil is peculiarly suited for cane-growing, and by the use of specially-prepared fertilizers and an ample supply of water at command for irrigation the land yields from 50 to 90 tons of canes per acre, from which from 12 to 14% of sugar is produced.
passing the canes through three consecutive sets of rollers, in order to extract everything possible of extraction by pressure) is employed.
It has been found in practice advantageous to prepare the canes for crushing in the mills, as above described, by passing them through a pair of preparing rolls which are grooved or indented in such manner as to draw in and flatten down the canes, no matter in which way they are thrown or heaped upon the canecarrier, and thus prepare them for feeding the first mill of the series; thus the work of crushing is carried on uninterruptedly and without constant stoppages from the mills choking, as is often the case when the feed is heavy and the canes are not prepared.
Canes vary very much in respect of the quality and also as to the quantity of the juice they contain.
It shows the greatest quantity of juice that may be expressed from canes, according to the different proportions of fibre they contain, but without employing maceration or imbibition, to which processes reference is made hereafter.
The percentages are percentages of the original weight of the uncrushed canes.
The British Guiana Planters' Association appointed a sub-committee to report to the West India Commission on the manufacture of sugar, who stated the following: With canes containing 12% fibre the following percentages of sugar are extracted from the canes in the form of juice: Single crushing 76% Double crushing 85% Double crushing with 12% dilution 88% Triple crushing with Io% dilution.
The megass coming from the first mill was saturated with steam and water, in weight equal to between 20% and 30% and up to 40% of the original weight of the uncrushed canes.
Great improvements have been made in the means of feeding the mills with canes by doing away with hand labour and substituting mechanical feeders or rakes, which by means of a simple steam-driven mechanism will rake the canes from the cane waggons on to the cane-carriers.
By the adoption of this system in one large plantation in the West Indies, crushing upwards of 1200 tons of canes per day, the labour of sixty-four hands was dispensed with, and was thus made available for employment in the fields.
These attachments, first invented by Jeremiah Howard, and described in the United States Patent Journal in 1858, are simply hydraulic rams fitted into the side or top caps of the mill, and pressing against the side or top brasses in such a manner as to allow the side or top roll to move away from the other rolls, while an accumulator, weighted to any desired extent, keeps a constant pressure on each of the rams. An objection to the top cap arrangement is, that if the volume or feed is large enough to lift the top roll from the cane roll, it will simultaneously lift it from the megass roll, so that the megass will not be as well pressed as it ought to be;' and an objection to the side cap arrangement on the megass roll as well as to the top cap arrangement is, that in case more canes are fed in at one end of the rolls than at the other, the roll will be pushed out farther at one end than at the other; and though it may thus avoid a breakdown of the rolls, it is apt, in so doing, to break the ends off the teeth of the crown wheels by putting them out of line with one another.
With the latter system practically as much sugar is obtained from the canes as by diffusion, and the resulting megass furnishes, in a well-appointed factory, sufficient fuel for the crop. With diffusion, however, in addition to the strict scientific control necessary to secure the benefits of the process, fuel - that is, coal or wood - has to be provided for the working off of the crop, since the spent chips or slices from the diffusers are useless for this purpose; although it is true that in some plantations the spent chips have to a certain extent been utilized as fuel by mixing them with a portion of the molasses, which otherwise would have been sold or converted into rum.
The moment the juice is expelled from the cells of the canes chemical inversion commences, and the sooner it is stopped the better.
In Java and Mauritius, where very clean canes are grown, double-bottomed defecators are generally used, and to them, perhaps as much as to the quality of the canes, may be attributed the very strong, fine sugars made in those islands.
With the juice of some canes considerable difficulty is encountered in keeping the heating surfaces of the evaporators clean and free from incrustations, and cleaning by the use of acid has to be resorted to.
Of the 178 factories at work in Java in 1908-1909, nearly all had most efficient plant for treating the excellent canes grown in that favoured island.
canes ground, without the aid of other fuel.
The value of fresh bagasse, or as it is often called " green " bagasse, as fuel varies with the kind of canes from which it comes, with their treatment in the mill, and with the skill used in firing; but it may be stated broadly that I lb of fresh bagasse will produce from I a lb to 24 lb of steam, according to the conditions.
The use of preparing rolls with corrugations, to crush and equalize the feed of canes to the mill, or to the first of a series of mills, has become general.
These rolls run at a speed about 30% greater than the speed of the first mill, to which they deliver the canes well crushed and flattened, forming a close mat of pieces of cane 5 to 6 in.
The increase in the output for a given time obtained by the use of the Krajewski crusher has been estimated at 20 to 25% and varies with the quality of the canes; while the yield of juice or extraction is increased by I or 2%.
Therefore, roughly speaking, one ton of beetroot may be considered 'to-day as of the same value as one ton of canes; the value of the refuse chips in one case, as food for cattle, being put against the value of the refuse bagasse, as fuel, in the other.
In some factories for refining sugar made from beet or canes this system of carbonatation is used, and enables the refiner to work with syrups distinctly alkaline and to economize a notable amount of animal charcoal.
Canes Venatici ("The Hounds," or "the greyhounds"), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere named by Hevelius in 1690, who compiled it from the stars between the older asterisms Ursa Major, Bodtes and Coma Berenices.
Ogley Hay, the parish of which partly covers Brownhills, is a large adjoining village; there are also Great Wyrley and Norton-under-Cannock or Norton Canes to the N.W.
The old stems of raspberries and blackberries that have borne fruit should be cut away, and the young shoots thinned to three or four canes to each hill or plant.
This process with a moderate degree of heat thoroughly cleans it of external greasy matter, and all that is necessary before manufacturing is to gently tap the fur upon a leather cushion stuffed with horsehair with smooth canes of a flexibility suited to the strength of the fur.
The canes are planted in March and are cut in the following January or February.
The value of the crop was likewise seriously affected by the causes mentioned, and by various diseases which attacked the canes.
In 1905 the principal products were umbrellas and canes (valued at $2,782,879), cigars and cigarettes ($1,951,971), and foundry and machine-shop products ($1,036,526).
high, and the floor is strewn with rocky fragments, among which are found numerous half-burnt torches made of canes, and other signs of prehistoric occupancy.
Owing to increased competition, and in some degree to careless harvesting, there was a great fall in prices after 1900, and the Seychellois, though still producing vanilla in large quantities, paid greater attention to the products of the coconut palm - copra, soap, coco-nut oil and coco-nuts - to the development of the mangrove bark industry, the collection of guano, the cultivation of rubber trees, the preparation of banana flour, the growing of sugar canes, and the distillation of rum and essential oils.
It is in a letter from Gibraltar to the same hand that we read of his two canes - "a morning and an evening cane" - changed as the gun fires.
Palms, referred to i i species, are found, though they seem to have decreased in abundance; of them 7 are fan-palms, the others including Phoenicites - a form allied to the date - and a trailing palm, Calamopsis, allied to the canes and rattans.
I grow them on home grown bamboo canes made into wigwams, which look arty!
When annealed and cooled, the canes are cut into thin cross-sections and arranged on a ceramic kiln batt - see objects on table.
tie new canes onto wire in a fan shape.
There was no mobility training we were issued with a strong walking stick; white canes did not exist then.
Train tomato plants up tall canes or up strings.
A stout relative of R. excelsa with a rather stronger look, thicker canes and broader leaflets.
The fungus infects young canes through wounds which are initially caused by raspberry cane midge attack, late spring frosts or pruning.
He had no opinion about elves or candy canes.
A current project in South Kalimantan is helping villagers grow rattan canes in previously harvested production forests.
Here we see the rice locust and red dragonfly on bamboo canes with pinks and hibiscus flowers.
Still, the excess of candy canes and sugar plums is having an effect, even up here.
Tie new summer raspberry canes to the wires, spacing them about 10 cm (4 in) apart.
The raspberry canes in the garden produce the juiciest raspberries you have ever seen from June to September.
rattan canes in previously harvested production forests.
The cryo storage kit range includes dry shippers, intermediate Dewars, canes, sleeves and vials among others.
The canes were tied together to form the dragon shape across the hut with old baler twine.
volleyball tournament You don't necessarily need a proper net - some string between two canes will more than suffice.
Exceedingly fine canes of milk-white glass play an important part in the masterpieces produced by the Venetian glass-makers of the 16th century.
The canes adhere to the molten glass, and the mass is first twisted and then drawn out into fine cane, which contains white threads arranged in endless spirals.
and if canes with juice indicating 9Ã‚° Beaume be made a basis of value or worth, say at ios.
per ton, then canes with juice indicating in degrees Beaume toÃ‚° 9Ã‚° 8Ã‚° 7Ã‚° 6Ã‚° and containing in sugar..
ii/14 to/- 8/102 7/94 6/8 But this is not an accurate statement of the commercial value of sugar-canes - that is, of their value for the production of sugar to the planter or manufacturer - because a properly equipped and balanced factory, capable of making ioo tons of sugar per day, for ioo days' crop, from canes giving juice of 9Ã‚° B., or say Io,000 tons of sugar, at an aggregate expenditure for manufacture (i.e.
the annual cost of running the factory) of £3 per ton, or f30,000 per annum, will not be able to make as much sugar per day with canes giving juice of 8Ã‚° B., and will make still less if they yield juice of only 6Ã‚° B.
For example, a factory able to evaporate 622 tons of water in 24 hours could treat I 000 tons of canes yielding juice of 9Ã‚° B., and make therefrom too tons of sugar in that time; but this same factory, if supplied with canes giving juice of 6Ã‚° B., could not treat more than 935 tons of canes in 24 hours, and would only make therefrom 62.2 tons of sugar.
Hence arises the imperative necessity of good cultivation by the planter, and of circumspection in the purchase and acceptance of canes on the part of the manufacturer.
This mill is guaranteed to crush thoroughly and efficiently from 250 to 300 tons of canes in 24 hours.
per minute (or 60% more than that of the French mill described above), and they are efficiently crushing 900 to 1200 tons of canes in 24 hours.
With a view of safeguarding themselves from breakdowns caused by the inequality of feeding, or by the action of malicious persons introducing foreign substances, such as crowbars, bolts, &c., among the canes, and so into the mills, many planters have adopted socalled hydraulic attachments, applied either to the megass roll or the top roll bearings.
In Mexico filters filled with dry powdered megass have been found very efficient for removing the large quantity of impurities contained in the juice expressed from the very vigorous but rank canes grown in that wonderfully fertile country, but unless constant care is taken in managing them, and in changing them at the proper time, there is great risk of inversion taking place, with consequent loss of sugar.
As the bishops were not zealous enough in enforcing penal laws against heretics, the Tribunal of the Inquisition was founded in 1232 by Gregory IX., and was entrusted to the Dominicans who "as Domini canes subjected to the most cruel tortures all on whom the suspicion of heresy fell, and all the resolute were handed over to the civil authorities, who readily undertook their execution" (Kurtz, Church History, ii.
CANES VENATICI (" The Hounds," or "the GREYHounds"), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere named by Hevelius in 1690, who compiled it from the stars between the older asterisms Ursa Major, Bodtes and Coma Berenices.
Volleyball tournament You do n't necessarily need a proper net - some string between two canes will more than suffice.
A perennial favorite among berry foragers, blackberries appear in early summer as red berries on shrubs with thick canes and thorns.
Garland made of popcorn, cranberries, or candy canes would all work well here.
Handmade ornaments that bring back happy family memories look great on Country design inspired Christmas trees, as does garland made of popcorn, candy canes, or cranberries.
Gingerbread is as traditional for Christmas as an evergreen dripping with tinsel or candy canes.
The viewer will understand the meaning behind your Christmas photos and journaling without a background made of candy canes, presents, stockings, gingerbread men, and Christmas tree stickers.
Decorate the wedding cake with small ornaments, ribbons or candy canes.
A more informal Christmas wedding may include some merrier elements, like round ball ornaments or candy canes, in the bouquet.
For example, a simple Christmas wedding centerpiece can be an arrangement of oversized candy canes tied with a large red velvet bow.
Place them on a red or white silk napkin with wrapped red candies scattered around the tied canes.
Personalized ornaments, decorated cookies, mints, candy canes, and cocoas are popular winter wedding favors.
Christmas sweaters may feature prints like reindeer, snowflakes, candy canes and Christmas trees.
Expect a lot of snowflakes, reindeer, elves, Santas, candy canes, ornaments, bells and trees to adorn these holiday pieces.
Kids' holiday pajamas embrace any concept, be it reindeer or candy canes, which is regularly featured during the Christmas season.
The Healthy Hound Bakery offers delicious healthy treats including peanut butter and carob candy canes, gift baskets and assorted Christmas cookies.
Individual canes grow vegetatively for one year, initiate flower buds in late summer, fruit the following summer, then die.
The first year canes are called "primocanes", and in the second year when they flower, these are called "floricanes".
These require summer tipping,because individual canes will grow to unmanageable lengths.
They grow from woody stems and produce flowers on the stems or canes.
Fashionable men carried canes, or walking sticks, not because they needed them but because it was the fashion to do so.
You may see skis, snowy mountaintops, boughs of holly, candy canes, candles, penguins, wreaths and other images that relate to the season, but don't necessarily have anything to do with Christmas itself.
Holiday Sleepshirt: This long-sleeved sleepshirt comes in sizes up to a 8X and in a variety of patterns including Red Stocking, White Candy Canes and Aqua Mittens.
During the holiday season, consider adding a funky pair of readers in a festive pattern such as candy canes or snowflakes to your collection.
It can be hard to explain to a child that chocolate and candy canes are off limits, but like food allergies, children will learn to modify their food choices because of their special sensitivities.
Candy canes, peppermints and nonpareils are nice additions.
Glue candy canes around clean tin cans to use as candle holders for your Christmas centerpiece.
During the holiday season, purchase bulk candy canes and attach a ribbon or note to each one.
Candy canes are a popular Christmas decoration and treat.
An abundance of myths surround the meaning and making of the candy canes.
The white in candy canes is said to represent Jesus's purity.
Finally, some say that candy canes came to represent a "secret symbol" of Christianity during a time when Christians were persecuted for their beliefs.
This is especially unlikely due to the fact that by the time candy canes made their appearance, around the 17th century, Christianity was the prevailing religion.
Despite the many myths surrounding candy canes, the most likely origin of the candy cane was in Germany.
In the 1950's, Gregory Keller automated the process of candy-making, and so candy canes were widely available for consumption ever since.
Candy canes are frequently used as a decorating tool.
Using candy canes as a stocking stuffer is another popular use for the item.
Teachers, parents, and friends often hand out candy canes to young children during the holidays.
Today, candy canes come in a variety of flavors.
You can use candy canes in your everyday baking.
Try adding crushed canes to brownies, or to chocolate sandwich cookies coated in almond bark.
For fans of Santa, candy canes, and Christmas trees, celebrating "Christmas in July" provides an opportunity to enjoy the holiday festivities one more time.
If you don't enjoy baking, hang candy canes from the tree for instant edible décor.
Turn a box of candy canes into festive tree decorations.
Christmas sales have become as much a part of of the season as candy canes and stockings hung over the fireplace.
Candy canes, "penny" candy, and even candy bars can make colorful edible Christmas tree decorations.
Of course, candy canes, ribbon candy, and hard candies are traditional for Christmas.
Peanuts slipper socks, including a pair with Snoopy framed by festive candy canes.
Mosaic: Another bead involving fused glass, this time from glass canes, which are long rods of colored glass.
There's a huge array of Christmas stickers ranging from one-word sentiments like "Joy" and "Celebrate" to rhinestone-crusted candy canes and simple stickers with gifts, Christmas trees and other cute themes.
You'll need a picture frame, some little holiday baubles like little red ribbons, candy canes, stockings or whatever you like (miniature ornaments are great for this), and some Christmas cards (if you want to do this as a gift).
While traditional Christian Advent calendars often feature images of Jesus and the Nativity, calendars with Christmas trees, Santa Claus, snowmen, and candy canes are also quite common today.
Polymer clay tutorials range from instructions for novices to advanced tutorials for making complex canes and Skinner Blends.
Also avoid candy canes, Christmas trees…you know the drill.
Boater straw hats, candyman suits, walking canes, gazebos in the square and oom-pah brass bands - that is the 'look' of the Village.The action, the dialog, the underpinnings, however - that's another story.
At Christmas time, for example, a small boot with candy canes in it might cost as much as two tables.
Seasonal favorites such as snowflakes, candy canes, ghosts and polar bears can be found in their stock.
Artificial props of several kindswires, cane work, trellis work, &c.are also in use in many districts (in the neighborhood of Rome canes are almost exclusively employed), and in some the plant is permitted to trail along the ground.
Bark provides material for string, while baskets and mats are neatly and stoutly made from canes and buckets out of bamboo and wood.
For example, a factory able to evaporate 622 tons of water in 24 hours could treat I 000 tons of canes yielding juice of 9° B., and make therefrom too tons of sugar in that time; but this same factory, if supplied with canes giving juice of 6° B., could not treat more than 935 tons of canes in 24 hours, and would only make therefrom 62.2 tons of sugar.
To make this apparatus more perfectly automatic, an arrangement for continually adding to and mixing with the juice the proper proportion of milk of lime has been adapted to it; and although it may be objected that once the proportion has been determined no allowance is made for the variation in the quality of the juice coming from the mill owing to the variations that may occur in the canes fed into the mills, it is obviously as easy to vary the proportion with the automatic arrangement from time to time as it is to vary in each separate direction, if the man in charge will take the trouble to do so, which he very seldom does with the ordinary defecators, satisfying himself with testing the juice once or twice in a watch.
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