Canals sentence example

canals
  • Rain is very scarce, but the canals supply ample water for cultivation and all other purposes.
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  • Canals lead from Milan to the Ticino, Adda and P0.
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  • Numerous canals intersect the district, affording ample means of irrigation.
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  • The male gonads are carried on the radial canals.
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  • The Ulla is connected by the Berezina canals.
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  • A river and lake route with connecting canals, in all about 440 m.
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  • The gonosome consists of free medusae in Milleporidae, which are budded from the apex of a dactylozoid in Millepora murrayi, but in other species from the coenosarcal canals.
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  • Hungary is poorly supplied with canals.
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  • Amphogona, hermaphrodite, with male and female gonads on alternating radial canals.
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  • The radial canals are represented by wide gastric pouches, and may be absent, so that the tentacles arise directly from the stomach (Solmaridae).
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  • No gastric pouches; the numerous tentacles arise direct from the stomach, into which also the peronial canals open, so that the ring-canal is cut up into separate festoons.
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  • The difficulty is solved by the provision of a complete system of minute intercellular spaces which form a continuous series of delicate canals between the cells, extending throughout the whole substance of the plant.
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  • Similarly the obstructions offered to water communication by interruption through land or shallows are overcome by cutting canals or dredging out channels.
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  • Through this part of its course the current of the river, except where restricted by floating bridges - at Feluja, Mussaib, Hillah, Diwanieh and Samawa - does not normally exceed a mile an hour, and both on the main stream and on its canals the jerd or oxbucket takes the place of the naoura or water-wheel for purposes of irrigation.
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  • In early times irrigating canals distributed the waters over the plain, and made it one of the richest countries of the East, so that historians report three crops of wheat to have been raised in Babylonia annually.
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  • As main arteries for this circulation of water through its system great canals, constituting in reality so many branches of the river, connected all parts of Babylonia, and formed a natural means both of defence and also of transportation from one part of the country to another.
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  • The first of these canals, taken off on the right bank of the river a little below Hit, followed the extreme skirt of the alluvium the whole way to the Persian Gulf near Basra, and thus formed an outer barrier, strengthened at intervals with watch-towers and fortified posts, to protect the cultivated land of the Sawad against the incursions of the desert Arabs.
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  • In the time of the Arabs these were the chief canals, and the cuts from the main channels of the Nahr `Isa, Nahr Sarsar, Nahr Malk (or Nahr Malcha), and Nahr Kutha, reticulating the entire country between the rivers, converted it into a continuous and luxuriant garden.
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  • Below the bifurcation the river of Babylon was again divided into several streams, and indeed the most famous of all the ancient canals was the Arakhat (Archous of the Greeks and Serrat and Nil of the Arabs), which left that river just above Babylon and ran due east to the Tigris, irrigating all the central part of the Jezireh, and sending down a branch through Nippur and Erech to rejoin the Euphrates a little above the modern Nasrieh.
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  • Down to this point, the bed of the Euphrates being higher than that of the Tigris, the canals run from the former to the latter, but below this the situation is reversed.
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  • The fact also that many of the most ancient of these ruins, like Ur, Lagash (Sirpurla), Larsa, Erech, Nippur, Sippara and Babylon, were situated on the banks of the great canals would indicate that the control of the waters of the rivers by a system of canalization and irrigation was one of the first achievements of civilization.
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  • This ancient system of canalization was inherited from the Persians (who, in turn, inherited it from their predecessors), by the Arabs, who long maintained it in working order, and the astonishing fertility and consequent prosperity of the country watered by the Euphrates, its tributaries and its canals, is noticed by all ancient writers.
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  • Boats could be conveyed over flat and easy portages from one river-basin to another, and these portages were subsequently transformed with a relatively small amount of labour into navigable canals, and even at the present day the canals have more importance for the traffic of the country than have most of the railways.
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  • The Volkhov, discharging into Lake Ladoga, and forming part of the Vyshniy-Volochok system of canals, is an important channel for navigation; it flows from Lake Ilmen, which receives the Msta, connected with the Volga, and the Lovat.
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  • In South Wales again, where in 1811 the railways in connexion with canals, collieries and iron and copper works had a total length of nearly 150 miles, the plate-way was almost universal.
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  • Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.
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  • Under the Lombards the town was the seat of dukes and counts; in the 12th and 13th centuries it formed a flourishing republic, busied in surrounding itself with walls (1229), controlling the Crostolo and constructing navigable canals to the Po, coining money of its own, and establishing prosperous schools.
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  • Flies and frogs were also complained of, and Sidonius, writing in the 5th century, complains bitterly of the "feculent gruel" (cloacalis puts) which filled the canals of the city, and gave forth fetid odours when stirred by the poles of the bargemen.
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  • It is connected by the Zederik and Merwede canals with Amsterdam, and steamers ply hence in every direction.
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  • The mining of corundum was begun at Corundum Hill in Macon county in 1871, and from 1880 to 1902 the output was considerable, but with the discovery of the Canadian corundum Scale, 1:2,500,000 English Miles 20 30 4 0 So County Seats e County Boundaries Railitlays Canals Swamps deposits the importance of those of North Carolina greatly declined.
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  • It may be divided into three parts: that contracted between 1848 and 1861 for the construction of roads, railways and canals; that contracted during the Civil War for other than war purposes; and that contracted during the Reconstruction era, nominally in the form of loans to railway companies.
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  • It is irrigated by an elaborate system of dams, cuts and canals in connexion with the rivers Cauvery and Coleroon, and the soil is exceedingly productive.
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  • It was at a later period of his life that he propounded schemes for cutting canals through the isthmus of Suez and the isthmus of Panama.
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  • It owed its fertility to the Nile, which, inundating the land near its banks, was distributed by means of canals over more distant portions of its valley.
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  • The agriculture of the region bordering the Tigris and Euphrates, like that of Egypt, depended largely on irrigation, and traces of ancient canals are still to be seen in Babylonia.
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  • The stones were carefully cleared from the fields, which were also watered from canals and conduits, communicating with the brooks and streams with which the country " was well watered everywhere," and enriched by the application of manures.
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  • In reference to their first observer they were formerly called " Stiebel's canals."
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  • In the marine Streptoneura they are ectodermic projections which ultimately fall off; in the Opisthobranchs they are closed pouches; in Paludina and Bithynia they are canals as in Pulmonata.
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  • The ground about the hut was made solid and protected from corrosion by a palisade of wattled osiers, thus creating the earliest form of the fondamenta, or quay, which runs along the side of so many Venetian canals and is so prominent a feature in the construction of the city.
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  • Groups of dwellings, such as are still to be seen on some of the small canals at Burano, clustered together along the banks of the deeper channels which traverse the lagoon islands and give access to the tide.
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  • It is these channels which determined the lines of construction; the dwellings followed their windings, and that accounts for the extraordinarily complex network of calles and canals which characterizes modern Venice.
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  • The smaller canals all serve as arteries to the Grand Canal.
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  • The canals too were guarded by chains stretched across their mouths and by towers in some cases, as, for example, in the case of the Torresella Canal, which takes its name from these defence works.
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  • The canals were crossed by wooden bridges without steps, and in the case of the wide Grand Canal the bridge at Rialto was carried on boats.
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  • Ferries or traghetti for crossing the canals were also established as early as the 13th century; we find record of ferries at San Gregorio, San Felice, San Toma, San Samuele, and so on, and also of longer ferries to the outlying islands like Murano and Chioggia, or to the mainland at Mestre and Fusina.
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  • The characteristic conveyances on the canals of Venice - which take the place of cabs in other cities - are the gondolas, flat-bottomed boats, some 3 o ft.
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  • Fine examples of Venetian Byzantine palaces - at least of the façades - are still to be seen on the Grand Canal and in some of the small canals.
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  • The wealth which thus accrued found architectural expression in those noble palaces, so characteristic of Venice, which line the Grand and smaller canals.
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  • Of the 19,000 houses in Venice only 6000 have drains and sinks, all the others discharge sewage through pipes directly or indirectly into the canals.
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  • One of the first great public improvements made within the state was the connexion of these waterways by two canals - the Ohio & Erie Canal from Cleveland to Portsmouth, and the Miami & Erie Canal from Toledo to Cincinnati.
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  • The earliest system adopted for the collection of petroleum appears to have consisted in Early skimming the oil from the surface of the water upon Methods which it had accumulated, and Professor Lesley states, that at Paint Creek, in Johnson county, Kentucky, a Mr George and others were in the habit of collecting oil from the sands, " by making shallow canals loo or 200 ft.
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  • Each consists of a more or less coiled, ciliated, longitudinal canal, which on its external surface gives origin to one or more transverse canals, which pass to the exterior and open a little way behind the mouth on the sides of the body.
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  • The canals of the proboscis open ultimately into a circular vessel which runs round its base.
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  • Each consists of a prolongation of the syncytial material of the proboscis skin, penetrated by canals and sheathed with a scanty muscular coat.
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  • The problem of inland waterways has always been a most important one in northern, eastern and southern Louisiana, where there are systems of improved bayous, lakes and canals which, with the levees, make this region something like Holland, on a greater scale.
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  • Many bayous are convertible by improvement into excellent drainage and irrigation canals.
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  • The subjects of legislative power are very similar to those of the United States congress; but control of railroads, canals and public roads is explicitly given to the federal government.
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  • A considerable hindrance to the development of the empire's resources has been the lack of an adequate system of communications; but although it is still deficient in good roads, much has been done of late years to develop railways, extend canals and improve river communications.
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  • At this point also the two rivers are connected by a canal, the northernmost of a series of canals which formerly united the two great waterways, and at the same time irrigated the intervening plain.
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  • Formerly Bagdad was intersected by innumerable canals and aqueducts which carried the water of both the Euphrates and the Tigris through the streets and into the houses.
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  • To add to the uncertainties of navigation, the inhabitants along the eastern bank of the stream frequently dig new canals for irrigation purposes, which both reduces the water of the river and tends to make it shift its channel.
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  • Under substantially its present name, Akukafa, it is mentioned as a place of importance in connexion with the canals as late as the Abbasid caliphate.
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  • It seems likely that the coelomic pore-canals were originally excretory organs, but in the existing Enteropneusta the pore-canals (especially the collar canals) have, as we have seen, acquired new functions or become vestigial, and the function of excretion is now mainly accomplished by a structure peculiar to the Enteropneusta called the glomerulus, a vascular complex placed on either side of the anterior portion of the stomochord, projecting into the proboscis-coelom.
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  • The old town lies low, and it is traversed by a great number of narrow canals or " fleets " (Fleeten) - for the same word which has left its trace in London nomenclature is used in the Low German city - which add considerably to the picturesqueness of the meaner quarters, and serve as convenient channels for the transport of goods.
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  • His knowledge of hydraulics caused him to be frequently consulted with respect to the management of canals and other watercourses in various parts of Europe.
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  • These canals are closed externally and are absent in Rhynchonella, where the amount of calcareous deposit is small.
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  • The canals in use communicating with the Thames, in addition to the Thames and Severn canal, are the Oxford canal, giving communication from that city with the north, the Kennet and Avon canal from Reading to the Bristol Avon, the Grand Junction at Brentford, the Regent's canal at Limehouse, and the Grand Surrey canal at Rotherhithe.
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  • By means of the Grand Junction and Oxford canals especially, constant communication is maintained between the Thames and the great industrial centres of England.
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  • The oasis is irrigated by an elaborate system of canals cut from the Murghab.
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  • Charles sought to improve the condition of Navarre by making canals and rendering the rivers navigable, and in other ways.
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  • It lies, amidst a network of canals, immediately to the west and south of its port, which disputes with Bordeaux the rank of third in importance in France.
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  • Dunkirk forms with Bergues, Bourbourg and Gravelines a group of fortresses enclosed by inundations and canals.
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  • Its commerce is much facilitated by the system of canals which bring it into communication with Belgium, the coal-basins of Nord and Pasde-Calais, the rich agricultural regions of Flanders and Artois, and the industrial towns of Lille, Armentieres, Roubaix, Tourcoing, Valenciennes, &c. The roadstead is indicated by lightships and the entrance channel to the port by a lighthouse which, at an altitude of 193 ft., is visible at a distance of 19 m.
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  • Among the most remarkable are the ruins of a bridge and a citadel, or palace, besides vestiges of canals and watermills, which tell of former commercial activity.
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  • There are also numerous canals, and what look like artificial harbours constructed amid the shallow lagoons.
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  • There are also numerous canals from 30 to 100 ft.
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  • Mangrove swamps, lagoons and marshes, with inland canals following the coast line for long distances, are characteristic features of a large extent of the Brazilian coast.
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  • (2) A river of the Shahabad district of Bengal, which forms the drainage channel between the Arrah canal and the Sone canals system, and finally falls into the Gangi nadi.
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  • The canal communicates northward with the Grand Junction and Warwick canals, and there are branch lines of the Great Central railway to the main line at Woodford, and of the London & North-Western railway to Bletchley.
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  • A vast amount of traffic is directed to Berlin, by means of the Havel-Spree system of canals, to the Thuringian states and the Prussian province of Saxony, to the kingdom of Saxony and Bohemia, and to the various riverine states and provinces of the lower and middle Elbe.
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  • Magdeburg is one of the most important railway centres in northern Germany; and the Elbe, besides being bridged - it divides there into three arms - several times for vehicular traffic, ' See Der Bau des Elbe-Trave Canals and seine Vorgeschichte (Lubeck, 1900).
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  • The marshes near the Danube and Theiss were cleared, roads and canals were built at great expense of labour, German artisans and other settlers were attracted to colonize the district, and agriculture and trade encouraged.
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  • In his speech at the Albert Hall on the 21st of December 1905 it was noticeable that, before the elections, the prime minister laid stress on only one subject which could be regarded as part of a constructive programme - the necessity of doing something for canals, which was soon shelved to a royal commission.
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  • Albany is a terminus of the New York Central & Hudson River, the Delaware & Hudson and the West Shore railways, and is also served by the Boston & Maine railway, by the Erie and Champlain canals (being a terminus of each), by steamboat lines on the Hudson river and by several inter-urban electric railways connecting with neighbouring cities.
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  • In 1754 Prome was besieged by the king of Pegu, who was again defeated by Alompra, and the war was transferred from the upper provinces to the mouths of the navigable rivers, and the numerous creeks and canals which intersect the lower country.
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  • It falls into three distinct parts: (1) the largest portion, with the city of Bremen, lying on both banks, but chiefly on the right, of the lower course of the Weser, surrounded by the Prussian province of Hanover and the grandduchy of Oldenburg, and consisting in the main of lowland country intersected by canals and dykes; (2) the town and district of Vegesack, lying separate from, but immediately north of the main portion, on the right bank of the river; (3) the port of Bremerhaven, 46 m.
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  • In 1628 Castelli published a small work, Della misura dell' acque correnti, in which he satisfactorily explained several phenomena in the motion of fluids in rivers and canals; but he committed a great paralogism in supposing the velocity of the water proportional to the depth of the orifice below the surface of the vessel.
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  • His contemporary Domenico Guglielmini (1655-1710), who was inspector of the rivers and canals at Bologna, had ascribed this diminution of velocity in rivers to transverse motions arising from inequalities in their bottom.
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  • From a collection of the best experiments by previous workers he selected eighty-two (fifty-one on the velocity of water in conduit pipes, and thirty-one on its velocity in open canals); and, discussing these on physical and mechanical principles, he succeeded in drawing up general formulae, which afforded a simple expression for the velocity of running water.
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  • The science of irrigation and engineering seems to have been first created in Babylonia, which was covered by a network of canals, all skilfully planned and regulated.
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  • The great engineering works by means of which the marshes were drained and the overflow of the rivers regulated by canals went back to Sumerian times, like a considerable part of later Babylonian religion and the beginnings of Babylonian law.
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  • The roots are brought from the fields by carts, canals and railways.
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  • By carefully watching the flow from the discharge cock of the cistern the change from the first liquor to the next is easily detected, and the discharge is diverted from the canal for the first liquor to the canal for the second liquor, and, when required, to the canals for the third and fourth liquors.
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  • In former days, when refining sugar or " sugar baking " was supposed to be a mystery only understood by a few of the initiated, there was a place in the refinery called the " secret room," and this name is still used in some refineries, where, however, it applies not to any room, but to a small copper cistern, constructed with five or six or more divisions or small canals, into which all the charcoal cisterns discharge their liquors by pipes led up from them to the top of the cistern.
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  • Each cansists of an eversible hollow tentacle provided with hooklets and capable of introversion within a mem The excretory organs consist of flame-cells, richly convoluted canaliculi, and a pair of longitudinal canals leading to the exterior by one or more pores.
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  • These canals pass through the richest and most populous districts of China, and in particular lead into the great silk-producing districts.
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  • In Babylonia he built or restored the canals.
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  • The eastern half consists for the most part of a rich upland plain, abundantly irrigated by wells, rivers and canals, while the western portion, though rich in mythological association and antiquarian remains, is comparatively unfavoured by nature.
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  • The great bend of the river affords easy irrigation, and the surrounding country is covered by a network of irrigating canals, even the paved streets of the town having streams of cool water running through them.
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  • Numerous canals are cut from the rivers for the purpose of affording artificial irrigation, which has proved of immense benefit to the country.
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  • It was accessible by canals from the sea, a distance of about 30 m.
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  • Of the bridges which cross the canals by which Padua is now intersected, four go back to Roman times.
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  • Probably no country in the world possesses a closer network of streams, supplemented by canals and lakes.
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  • The town of Gouda is laid out in a fine open manner and, like other Dutch towns, is intersected by numerous canals.
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  • The harbour is connected by canals with the river Aa and the navigable waterways of the department.
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  • The two canals, together with the eastern Jumna, command the greater portion of the Doab lying between the Ganges and the Jumna, above Allahabad.
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  • Lowland Tokyo, that part of the city covering the flats on both sides of the river Sumida, is intersected by a system of canals.
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  • The bridges over the Sumida, and those which span the canals, have always been distinctive features of Tokyo.
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  • The town is intersected by canals (crossed by numerous bridges), which bring it into communication with most of the towns in East Friesland, of which it is the commercial capital.
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  • Frederick William's accession to the throne (August 17, 1786) was, indeed, followed by a series of measures for lightening the burdens of the people, reforming the oppressive French system of tax-collecting introduced by Frederick, and encouraging trade by the diminution of customs dues and the making of roads and canals.
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  • The place is surrounded by extensive vineyards and orchards, all well watered by canals led from the river, and producing great quantities of fruit for exportation to Russia.
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  • The valley about Herat includes a flat alluvial plain which might, for some miles on any side except the north, be speedily reduced to an impassable swamp by means of flood-water from the surrounding canals.
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  • The marshes at the mouths of the Seybuse and Bujema rivers, which enter the sea to the south of Bona, have been drained by a system of canals, to the improvement of the sanitary condition of the town, which has the further advantage of an abundant water supply obtained from the Edugh hills.
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  • Until modern times the city was built largely on floating pontoons or on piles at the edges of the innumerable canals and water-courses which formed the thoroughfares, but to meet the requirements of modern life, well-planned roads and streets have been constructed in all directions, crossing the old canals at many points and lined with well-built houses, for the most part of brick, in which the greater part of the erstwhile riparian population now resides.
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  • " Porprojects for canals connecting those waters, have been proved cupine," and to the Mediterranean in H.M.S.
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  • Other important waterways which have been authorized by the United States government and on which work was proceeding in 1910 are canals from the Rio Grande river to the Mississippi river at Donaldsonville, Louisiana; and "a navigable channel depth of 5 ft.
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  • The town lies in a low and marshy situation at the junction of three canals.
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  • The district is served by the Dun canals.
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  • It is a picturesque and interesting old town with more regular streets and shady squares and fewer canals than most Dutch towns.
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  • Two canals, the Oude and the Nieuwe Gracht, intersect the town from end to end.
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  • The Oder is also connected by canals with the Havel and the Spree.
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  • The archaeologist recovers his specimens from waste places, cave deposits, abandoned villages, caches, shell-heaps, refuse-heaps, enclosures, mounds, hut rings, earthworks, garden beds, quarries� and workshops, petroglyphs, trails, graves and cemeteries, cliff and cavate dwellings, ancient pueblos, ruined stone dwellings, forts and temples, canals or reservoirs.
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  • Situated on the high road from Berlin to Silesia, and having an extensive system of water communication by means of the Oder and its canals to the Vistula and the Elbe, and being an important railway centre, it has a lively export trade, which is further fostered by its three annual fairs, held respectively at Reminiscere (the second Sunday in Lent), St Margaret's day and at Martinmas.
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  • Haarlem is the seat of the governor of the province of North Holland, and of a Roman Catholic and a Jansenist bishopric. In appearance it is a typical Dutch town, with numerous narrow canals and quaintly gabled houses.
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  • The Western Inland Lock Navigation Company, chartered by the state in 1792, completed three canals within about four years and thereby permitted the continuous passage from Schenectady to Lake Ontario of boats of about 17 tons.
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  • In competition with the railways, traffic on the existing canals suffered a marked decline.
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  • As, however, this decline was accompanied with a considerable decrease in the proportion of the country's exports which passed through the port of New York, interest in the canals revived, and in 1903 the electorate of the state authorized the issue of bonds to the amount of $101,000,000 for the purpose of increasing the capacity of the Erie, the Champlain and the Oswego canals, to make each navigable by barges of 1000 tons burden.
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  • Each of the three canals is to have a minimum depth of 12 ft., a minimum bottom width in rivers and lakes of 200 ft., and in other sections a bottom width generally of 75 ft.
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  • The factions had their origin in canal politics, the conservatives advocating the use of canal revenues to complete the canals, the radicals insisting that they should be used to pay the state debt.
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  • The cutting of two canals, whereby communication is effected by lagoon between Assini and Grand Lahou via Bassam, followed the construction of the railway.
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  • A system of waterways (the Geeste and Hadelner canals, meeting one another at Bederkesa) connects the estuary of the Weser with that of the Elbe; a canal between the Hunte and the Leda gives connexion with the Ems. On the upper Weser (above Bremen) the navigation, which is interrupted by occasional rapids, is assisted by locks and weirs.
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  • The former (authorized in 1905) provided for the irrigation of about 10,000 acres in Okanogan county by means of two reservoirs of an aggregate area of 650 acres, main canals and main laterals 20 m.
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  • Among the larger privately irrigated tracts are: 16,000 to 18,000 acres in Yellowstone county, fed by a canal built by the Billings Land & Irrigation Company; about 35,000 acres of orchard land in the Bitterroot Valley, in Ravalli county, irrigated by canals from Lake Como, a natural reservoir; and 100,000 acres in Missoula county, to be watered from a 28 ft.
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  • He reformed the administration of the state canals, making the Canal Commission non-partisan; he introduced the merit system into many of the subordinate offices of the state; and he vigorously urged the passage of and signed the Ford Franchise Act (1899), taxing corporation franchises.
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  • There are no canals in the kingdom, and the only navigable river is the Elbe.
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  • Long bridges of several spans are often termed " viaducts," and bridges carrying canals are termed " aqueducts," though this term is sometimes used for waterways which have no bridge structure.
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  • Lateral canals are provided from the main canals to each farm.
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  • Canals connect with the great manufacturing district of South Yorkshire, and the Trent opens up wide communications with the Midlands.
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  • The abundant lignite coal in the region was to operate pumps for raising water from the river into canals crossing the valley.
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  • Some of the canals are very old, others are of comparativel y recent construction.
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  • Irrigation is rudimentary, for no system exists for raising the water of the innumerable canals on to the fields.
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  • The district is served by numerous branches of the Great Western, London & North Western, and Midland railways, and is intersected by canals, which carry a heavy traffic, and in some places are made to surmount physical obstacles with remarkable engineering skill, as in the case of the Castle Hill tunnels at Dudley.
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  • Some of its main streets (as their names indicate) follow the lines of canals, which still (though now covered) traverse the city in various directions.
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  • The rivers Brosna, Barrow and Boyne take their rise in these morasses, and the Grand and Royal canals cross them.
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  • Another important point, in which the moas agree with the other Ratitae and differ from the kiwis, are the branched, instead of simple, porous canals in the eggshell.
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  • The town is traversed by canals, and the harbour, which has from 4 to 8 fathoms water, is landlocked by several islands.
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  • Agriculture was formerly developed on the Tekez, as is testified by old irrigation canals.
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  • This valley i$ famed for its fertility, and is admirably irrigated by canals, part of which, however, fell into decay after 55,000 of the inhabitants migrated to Russian territory in 1881.
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  • The western portion of the state is a plain watered by the Zarafshan and by countless irrigation canals drawn from it.
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  • Land suitable for cultivation is found only in oases, where it is watered by irrigation canals, but these oases are very fertile.
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  • The two branches of the Rhine which enter Leiden on the east unite in the centre of the town, which is further intersected by numerous small and sombre canals, with tree-bordered quays and old houses.
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  • From the stomach, canals arise termed the radial canals (r.c.); typically four in number, they run in a radial direction to the edge 2 For other variations of the medusa, often of importance for systematic classification, see Hydromedusae and Scyphomedusae.
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  • There the radial canals are joined by a ringcanal (c.c.) which runs round the margin of the umbrella.
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  • The stomach may be situated in the disk, or may be drawn out into the base of the manubrium, so that the disk is occupied only by the radial canals.
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  • On the other hand the stomach may have lobes extending to the ring-canal, so that radial canals may be very short or absent.
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  • The radial canals may be four, rarely six, or a multiple of these numbers, and may be very numerous.
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  • More usually each cathamma is a wide triangular area, reducing the peripheral portion of the coelenteron to the four narrow radial canals and the ring-canal above described.
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  • Bodywall usually traversed by a network of canals serving by their contraction to expand the disk.
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  • The coastal plain varies in width and character: in some places low and sandy, or swampy, filled with lagoons and intersecting canals; in others more elevated, rolling and very fertile.
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  • With docks named after them are connected the Royal and Grand Canals, passing respectively to north and south of the city, the one penetrating the great central plain of Ireland on the north, the other following the course of the Liffey, doing the same on the south, and both joining the river Shannon.
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  • The docks attached to the canals, and certain other smaller docks, are owned by companies, and tolls are levied on vessels entering these, but not those entering the docks under the Board.
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  • Nineveh was badly supplied with water for drinking; the inhabitants had to " turn their eyes to heaven for the rain," but Sennacherib conducted water by eighteen canals from the hills into the Husur and distributed its waters round the moats and into store tanks, or ponds, within the city.
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  • The Peter and Catherine canals, communicating with the merchant and middle harbours, traverse the town.
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  • The transoceanic invasion progressed slowly through the 17th and ~8th centuries, delayed by the head winds of a rough ocean which was crossed only in slow sailing vessels, and by the rough backwoods of the Appalachians, which retarded the penetration of wagon roads and canals into the interior.
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  • Large canals and locks on both sides of the Sault (pronounced Soo) Ste Marie in the outlet of Lake Superior are actively used except during three or four winter months.
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  • Canals on the Canadian side of these unnavigable stretches admit vessels of a considerable size to lakes Ontario and Erie.
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  • The Great Lakes are connected by canals with the Atlantic, the St Lawrence river and the Mississippi; the connection with the first being through the Erie Canal, a 7-ft.
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  • During1812-1834a royalty of 121 cents was charged to raise funds for building canals (a rebate being granted in the last three years covering the entire amount of the royalty for these years).
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  • Weirs are essential for raising the head of water for water-wheels at mills, and for diverting some of the flow of a river into irrigation canals; but they have received their greatest and most varied extension in the canalization of rivers for navigation.
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  • The St Lawrence is far the most important Canadian river from the historic and economic points of view, since it provided the main artery of exploration in early days, and with its canals past rapids and between lakes still serves as a great highway of trade between the interior of the continent and the seaports of Montreal and Quebec. It is probable that politically Canada would have followed the course of the States to the south but for the planting of a French colony with widely extended trading posts along the easily ascended channel of the St Lawrence and the Great Lakes, so that this river was the ultimate bond of union between Canada and the empire.
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  • The greater part of the debt arises from the assumption of the debts of the provinces as they entered federation, expenditure on canals and assistance given to railways.
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  • Her splendid lakes and rivers, the development of her canal system, and the growth of railways have made the interprovincial traffic of Canada far greater than her foreign, and the portfolio of railways and canals is one of the most important in the cabinet.
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  • Where necessary obstacles are surmounted by canals, on which over £ 22,000,000 have been spent, chiefly since federation.
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  • Numerous smaller canals bring Ottawa into connexion with Lake Champlain and the Hudson river via Montreal; by this route the logs and sawn lumber of Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick find their destination.
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  • With this object in view, the Trent Valley system of canals has been built, connecting Lake Ontario with the Georgian Bay (an arm of Lake Huron) via Lake Simcoe.
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  • In 1903 all tolls were taken off the Canadian canals, greatly to the benefit of trade.
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  • Water-power for factories is secured by a system of "water-power canals" from a large dam across the Savannah, built in 1847 and enlarged in 1871; the principal canal, owned by the city, is so valuable as nearly to pay the interest on the municipal debt.
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  • The inner city, including the business quarter, is contained almost entirely between the river and the Rosenlunds canal, continued in the Vallgraf, the moat of the old fortifications; and is crossed by the Storahamn, Ostrahamn and Vestrahamn canals.
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  • Some of the navigable canals which connected the harbour with the interior of the city have been either modified or filled up. Several streets have been widened, and a road along the shore has been transformed into a fine and shady promenade.
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  • Canals are numerous and connect the various river systems.
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  • The neutralization of territory belonging to states which are not otherwise neutralized includes the neutralization of waterways such as the Suez and Panama canals.
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  • The Suez and the Panama canals have been permanently neutralized, the former by a convention among the great powers, and the latter by a treaty between Great Britain and the United States.
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  • But Sir John Strachey, the author of the scheme, explains in his book on India that the original intention was nothing more than the annual application of surplus revenue, of the indicated amount, to purposes of famine relief; and that when the country was free from famine, this sum should be regularly devoted to the discharge of debt, or to the prevention of debt which would otherwise have been incurred for the construction of railways and canals.
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  • Canals are the main source of irrigation in the province, and fall under three heads: (I) Private canals in the various districts, the property of the people and managed on their behalf; (2) the Michni Dilazak and Shabkadar branch in Peshawar, constructed by the district board, which receives water rates; and (3) the Swat and Kabul river canals, which were constructed by and are the property of government, and are managed by the irrigation department.
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  • About 20% of the cultivated area is irrigated by canals, 2% by wells and 3% by perennial streams. Throughout the province the area in which well-cultivation is possible is extremely limited, and the field has already been covered.
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  • The peripheral paren chyma gives rise to protonephridia, that is to coiled tubes commencing in pyriform cells containing a flame-like bundle of cilia and provided with branched outgrowths, and communicating with the exterior by long convoluted canals which open at the surface of the body.
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  • The male organs consist of paired testes communicating by delicate canals with a protrusible penis.
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  • The cultivation of the cane was greatly encouraged by the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875, which established practically free trade between the islands and the United States, and since 1879 it has been widely extended by means of irrigation, the water being obtained both by pumping from numerous artesian wells and by conducting surface water through canals and ditches.
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  • Even at the time when they were first known to Europeans, they had stone and lava hatchets, shark's-tooth knives, hardwood spades, kapa cloth or paper, mats, fans, fish-hooks and nets, woven baskets, &c., and they had introduced a rough sort of irrigation of the inland country with long canals from highlands to plains.
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  • A few large streams enter the lower Apure from the south, but they are frequently entangled in lateral canals, due to the slight elevation of the plains above sea-level, the waters of the Apure, especially during flood time, having opened a great number of canos before reaching the Orinoco.
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  • En route to the gulf the Vagre sends across the delta, east and north, two canos or canals of considerable volume, called the Macareo and Cuscuino.
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  • The delta is also cut into many irregular divisions by other canals which derive their flow from its great boundary rivers, the Corosimi and Vagre, and its numerous islands and vast swamps are covered with a dense vegetation.
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  • As early as 1762 David Rittenhouse and others made a survey for a canal to connect the Schuylkill and the Susquehanna rivers, and in 1791 a committee of the state legislature reported in favour of a project for establishing communication by canals and river improvement from Philadelphia to Lake Erie by way of the Susquehanna river.
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  • In 1845 the state began to sell its canals and railways to private corporations and the sale was completed in 1859.
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  • The carp itself, Cyprinus carpio, has a very wide distribution, having spread, through the agency of man, over nearly the whole of Europe and a part of North America, where it lives in lakes, ponds, canals, and slow-running rivers with plenty of The Common Carp.
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  • The country is watered in most parts by streams from the hills, but a series of small canals has been constructed.
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  • Several canals connect it with these lakes, as well as with other rivers - e.g.
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  • On the south side of the river are numerous large docks and wharves, while the city proper on the north side consists of a labyrinth of basins and canals with tree-bordered quays.
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  • Between 1850 and 1902 the area of canals and docks in use on both sides of the river increased from 96 to over 300 acres, about £2,000,000 having been spent on the building of docks in the last quarter of the 17th century.
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  • Besides the communications afforded by railway, Barnsley has the advantage of connexion with the Aire and Calder Navigation system of canals.
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  • The tegmentum is pierced by numerous vertical ramified canals which contain epithelial papillae of the epidermis.
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  • Groningen is the centre from which several important canals radiate.
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  • The western division consists of low fen or clay soil and presents a monotonous expanse of rich meadow-land, carefully drained in regular lines of canals bordered by stunted willows, and dotted over with windmills, the sails of canal craft and the clumps of elm and poplar which surround each isolated farm-house.
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  • Following the example of the great Kampen irrigation canal in Belgium, artificial irrigation is also practised by means of some of the smaller streams, especially in North Brabant, Drente and Overysel, and in the absence of streams, canals and sluices are sometimes specially constructed to perform the same service.
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  • The main ditches, or canals, afterwards also serve as a means of navigation.
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  • In addition, various kinds of canals and endiked or embanked lakes had come into existence, forming altogether a vast network of more or less stagnant waters.
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  • In time of drought the water in the canals and boezems is allowed to run back into the polders, and so serve a double purpose as water-reservoirs.
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  • The united length of the canals exceeds 1500 m.
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  • After 1849 the canal programme was again taken up by the state, which alone or in conjunction with the provincial authorities constructed the Apeldoorn-Dieren canal (1859-1869), the drainage canals of the " Peel " marsh in North Brabant, and of the eastern provinces, namely, the Deurne canal (1876-1892) from the Maas to Helenaveen, the Almelo (1851-1858) and Overysel (1884-1888) canals from Zwolle, Deventer and Almelo to Koevorden, and the Stieltjes (1880-1884), and Orange (1853-1858 and 1881-1889) canals in Drente, the North Williams canal (1856-1862) between Assen and Groningen, the Ems (1866-1876) ship canal from Groningen to Delfzyl, and the New Merwede, and enlarged the canal from Harlingen by way of Leeuwarden to the Lauwars Zee.
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  • The large ship canals to Rotterdam and Amsterdam, called the New Waterway and the North Sea canal respectively, were constructed in 1866-1872 and 1865-1876 at a cost of 21 and 3 million pounds sterling, the former by widening the channel of the Scheur north of Rozenburg, and cutting across the Hook of Holland, the latter by utilizing the bed of the Y and cutting through the dunes at Ymuiden.
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  • In 1876 an agreement was arrived at with Germany for connecting the important drainage canals in Overysel, Drente and Groningen with the Ems canal system, as a result of which the Almelo-Noordhorn (1884-1888) and other canals came into existence.
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  • The canals differ in character in the different provinces.
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  • Again, a totally different character belongs to the canals in North Brabant, and the east and north-east of Holland where, in the absence of great rivers, they form the only waterways which render possible the drainage of the fens and the export of peat; and unite the lesser streams with each other.
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  • Thus in Overysel, in addition to the canals already mentioned, the Dedemsvaart connects the Vecht with the Zwarte Water near Hasselt; in Drente the Smildervaart and Drentsche Hoofdvaart unites Assen with Meppel, and receives on the eastern side the drainage canals of the Drente fens, namely, the Orange canal and the Hoogeveen Vaart (1850-1860; 1880-1893).
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  • In Friesland, finally, besides the ship canal from Harlingen to the Lauwers Zee there are canals from Leeuwarden to the Lemmer, whence there is a busy traffic with Amsterdam; and the Caspar Robles or Kolonels Diep, and the Hoendiep connect it with Groningen.
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  • Other branches of industry include carpet-weaving at Deventer, the distillation of brandy, gin and liqueurs at Schiedam, Rotterdam and Amsterdam, and beer-brewing in most of the principal towns; shoe-making and leather-tanning in the Langstraat district of North Brabant; paper-making at Apeldoorn, on the Zaan, and in Limburg; the manufacture of earthenware and faience at Maastricht, the Hague and Delft, as well as at Utrecht, Purmerend and Makkum; clay pipes and stearine candles at Gouda; margarine at Osch; chocolate at Weesp and on the Zaan; mat-plaiting and broom-making at Genemuiden and Blokzyl; diamondcutting and the manufacture of quinine at Amsterdam; and the making of cigars and snuff at Eindhoven, Amsterdam, Utrecht, Kampen, &c. Shipbuilding is of no small importance in Holland, not only in the greater, but also in the smaller towns along the rivers and canals.
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  • To obtain a correct idea of the trade of Holland, greater attention than would be requisite in the case of other countries must be paid to the inland traffic. It is impossible to state the value of this in definite figures, but an estimate may be formed of its extent from the number of ships which it employs in the rivers and canals, and from the quantity of produce brought to the public market.
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  • The Gedenboek uitgeven ter gelegenheid van het fijftig-jarig bestaan van het Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs, 1847-1897 ('s Gravenhage, 1898), is an excellent aid in studying technically the remarkable works on Dutch rivers, canals, sluices, railways and harbours, and drainage and irrigation works.
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  • Great Britain has many valuable ore beds, some rich in iron, many of them near to beds of coal and to the sea-coast, to canals or to navigable rivers.
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  • The canals of Belgium are scarcely less numerous or important than those of Holland, especially in Flanders, where they give a distinctive character to the country.
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  • The government also did much in the way of improving the internal communications of the country, in repairing the roads and canals, in forming new ones, in deepening and widening rivers, and the like.
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  • Though navigable for a few months only, the rivers of Poland have always been of considerable importance for the traffic of the country, and their importance is further increased by several canals connecting them with the Russian and German rivers.
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  • All these canals are, however, beyond Russian Poland.
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  • Several are navigable, and the facilities for inland water traffic are increased by canals.
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  • The Saone (q.v.), which has received (left) the Doubs, is the real continuation of the Rhone, both from a geographical and a commercial point of view, and it is by means of canals branching off from the course of the Saone that the Rhone communicates with the basins of the Loire, the Seine, the Rhine and the Moselle.
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  • The flank defences of the main wall are insufficient; indeed there is no pretence at scientific structure about any part of the defences; but the site of the city is well chosen for defence, and the water supply (drawn by canals from the Arghandab or derived from wells) is good.
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  • The plains about Kandahar are chiefly watered by canals drawn from the Arghandab near Baba-wali, and conducted through the same gap in the hills which admits the Herat road.
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  • It bears a strong resemblance to a Dutch town, for the houses are built in the style of those of Amsterdam, and the narrow channel separating it from its western suburb of Overzijde and the waters of the Waigat, which intersect it, recall the canals.
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  • It is still, territorially, the largest province of the empire, and includes some of the most fertile lands in the Euphrates-Tigris valleys; but while possessing great possibilities for fertility, by far the larger portion of the vilayet is to-day a desert, owing to the neglect of the irrigation canals on which the fertility of the valley depends.
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  • Wherever there is any pretence at irrigation, along the banks of the two great rivers and by the few canals which are still in existence, the yield is enormous, and the shores of the Tigris and Euphrates in the neighbourhood of Bagdad and Hilla seem to be one great palm garden.
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  • Canals and dikes have been constructed to control and distribute the much-needed water, and the officials are housed in new buildings of substantial appearance.
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  • The settled population lies entirely along the banks of these streams and the canals and lagoons westward of the Euphrates, between Kerbela and Nejef.
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  • Irrigation effected by river-fed canals naturally depends on the regimen of the rivers.
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  • Elsewhere in India the rainfall is usually sufficient for all the cultivation of the district, but about every eleven years comes a season of drought, during which canal water is so precious as to make it worth while to construct costly canals merely to serve as a protection against famine.
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  • When a river partakes of the nature of a torrent, dwindling to a paltry stream at one season and swelling into an enormous flood at another, it is impossible to construct a system of irrigation canals without very costly engineering works, sluices, dams, waste-weirs, &c., so as to give the engineer entire control of the water.
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  • Such may be seen on the canals of Cuttack, derived from the Mahanadi, a river of which the discharge does not exceed 400 cub.
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  • Very differently situated are the great canals of Lombardy, drawn from the Ticino and Adda rivers, flowing from the Maggiore and Como lakes.
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  • India possesses no great lakes from which to draw rivers and canals, but through the plains of northern India flow rivers which are fed from the glaciers of the Himalaya; and the Ganges, the Indus, and their tributaries are thus prevented from diminishing very much in volume.
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  • For this monsoon irrigation there is always abundance of water, and so long as the canals and sluices are kept in repair, there is little trouble in distributing it over the fields.
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  • Closer examination, however, shows that if the prevailing slopes are not more than a few inches in the mile, yet they do exist, and scientific irrigation requires that the canals should be taken along the crests and drains along the hollows.
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  • To the left of the diagram is shown (by firm lines) a system of canals laid out scientifically, and of drains (by dotted lines) flowing between them.
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  • The expense of forming canals, embankments and sluices for warping land is from Do to £20 an acre.
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  • Lombardy is quite as well off as Piedmont for the means of irrigation and, as already said, its canals have the advantage that being drawn from the lakes Maggiore and Como they exercise a moderating influence on the Ticino and Adda rivers, which is much wanted in the Dora Baltea.
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  • Such a feeble Nile flood has occurred only four times in modern history: in 1877, when it caused widespread famine and death throughout Upper Egypt, 947,000 acres remained barren, and the land revenue lost £1,112,000; in 1899 and again in 1902 and 1907, when by the thorough remodelling of the whole system of canals since 1883 all famine and disaster were avoided and the loss of revenue was comparatively slight.
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  • It is easy, then, when the Nile is low, to cut short, deep canals in the river banks, which fill as the flood rises, and carry the precious mud-charged water into these great flats.
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  • Mehemet Ali began by deepening the canals of Lower Egypt by this amount, a gigantic and futile task; for as they had been laid out on no scientific principles, the deep channels became filled with mud during the first flood, and all the excavation had to be done over again, year after year.
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  • With a serf population even this was not impossible; but as the beds of the canals were graded to no even slope, it did not follow that if water entered the head it would flow evenly on.
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  • As the river daily fell, of course the water in the canals fell too, and since they were never dug deep enough to draw water from the very bottom of the river, they occasionally ran dry altogether in the month of June, when the river was at its lowest, and when, being the month of greatest heat, water was more than ever necessary for the cotton crop. Thus large tracts which had been sown, irrigated, weeded and nurtured for perhaps three months perished in the fourth, while all the time the precious Nile water was flowing useless to the sea.
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  • The obvious remedy was to throw a weir across each branch of the river to control the water and force it into canals taken from above it.
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  • The river was thus to be emptied, and to flow through a whole network of canals, watering all Lower Egypt.
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  • An essential part of the barrage project was the three canals, taking their water from just above it, as shown in fig.
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  • The heads of the existing old canals, taken out of the river at intervals throughout the delta, were to be closed, and the canals themselves all put into connexion with the three high-level trunk lines taken from above the barrage.
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  • Moreover, in the meantime the eastern, or Tewfikia, canal was dug and supplied with the necessary masonry works for a distance of 23 m., to where it fed the network of old canals.
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  • This had been totally neglected in Egypt; but very large sums have been spent on it, and the country is now covered with a network of drains nearly as complete as that of the canals.
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  • To water the valley, therefore, it is necessary to construct canals having bed-slopes less than that of the river, along which the water flows until its surface is higher than that of the fields.
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  • Occasionally the desert cliffs and slopes come right down to the river, and it is difficult, if not impossible, to carry the higher-level canals past these obstructions.
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  • 3 will serve to explain this system of irrigation, the firm lines representing canals, the dotted lines embankments.
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  • There being at its head no weir across the Nile, the water in the Ibrahimia canal used to rise and fall with that of the river, and so the supply was apt to run short during the hottest months, as was the case with the canals of Lower Egypt before the barrage was built.
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  • In the famine year1877-1878the area irrigated by productive canals was 5, 1 7 1, 497 acres.
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  • In addition to these great perennial canals, much has been done since 1878 in enlarging and extending what are known as the " inundation canals " of the Punjab, which utilize the flood waters in the rivers during the monsoon season and are dry at other times.
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  • By these canals large portions of country throughout most of the Punjab are brought under cultivation, and the area thus watered has increased from about 180,000 to 50o,000 acres since 1878.
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  • It is on inundation canals such as these that the whole cultivation of Sind depends.
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  • It has been proposed to construct two new canals, the Jamrao and the Shikarpur, and to improve and extend three existing canals-Nasrat, Naulakhi and Dad.
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  • Proceeding farther east, we find very satisfactory progress in the irrigation of southern Behar, effected by the costly system of canals drawn from the river Sone.
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  • In1877-1878these canals irrigated 241,790 acres.
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  • It should be mentioned in favour of these canals that although the irrigation is not of yearly value, they supply very important water communication through a province which, from its natural configuration, is not likely to be soon intersected by railways.
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  • If, moreover, such a famine were again to occur in Orissa as that of 1866--1867, there would be no doubt of the value of these fine canals.
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  • From these weirs flow canals altogether about 127 m.
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  • Allusion has been already made to the canals of Sind.
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  • The most important works are the Mutha and Nira canals in the Poona district.
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  • In Upper Burma three productive irrigation works were planned at the opening of the century - the Mandalay, the Shwebo, and the Mon canals, of which the first was estimated to cost -Rx.323,280, and to irrigate 72,000 acres.
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  • The greater part of these lands was irrigated by canals or ditches built by individuals acting singly or in co-operation with their neighbours, or by corporations.
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  • A few of the state governments, such, for example, as Colorado, had built small reservoirs or portions of canals from internal improvement funds.
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  • The construction of irrigation canals and ditches was for the most part brought about by farmers joining to plough out or dig ditches from the rivers, descending on a gentle grade.
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  • The large canals and reservoirs built by corporations had rarely been successful from a financial standpoint, and irrigation construction during the latter part of the decade1890-1899was relatively small.
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  • Sea-going vessels sail up the Ems as far as Halte, and river craft as far as Greven, and the river is connected with a widely branching system of canals,, as the Ems-Jade and Dortmund-Ems canals.
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  • Of ship canals the chief is the Kaiser Wilhelm canal (1887-1895), 61 m.
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  • In respect of interna~ navigation, the principal of the greater undertakings are thi Dortmund-Ems and the Elbe-Trave canals.
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  • On the whole, Germany cannot be said to be rich in canals.
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  • Alsace-Lorraine had canals for connecting the Rhine with the Rhone and the Marne, a branch serving the collieries of the Saar valley.
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  • The greatest number of canals is found around Berlin; they serve to join the Spree to the Oder and Elbe, and include the Teltow canal opened in 1906.
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  • The canals in Germany (including ship canals through lakes) have a total length of about 2600 m.
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  • The legislative power of the empire also takes precedence of that of the separate states in the regulation of matters affecting freedom of migration (Freizugigkeit), domicile, settlement and the rights of German subjects generally, as well as in all that relates to banking, patents, protection of intellectual property, navigation of rivers and canals, civil and criminal legislation, judicial procedure, sanitary police, and control of the press and of associations.
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  • This office is divided into four departments, dealing with (i.) the business of the Bundesrat, the Rcichstag, the elections, citizenship, passports, the press, and military and naval matters, so far as the last concern the civil authorities; (ii.) purely social matters, such as old age pensions, accident insurance, migration, settlement, poor law administration, &c.; (iii.) sanitary matters, patents, canals, steamship lines, weights and measures; and (iv.) commercial and economic relationssuch as agriculture, industry, commercial treaties and statistics.
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  • This would give uninterrupted water communication from one end of the country to the other, for the Elbe, Oder and Vistula are all navigable rivers connected by canals.
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  • All parts of Ontario are well provided with lakes and rivers, the most important chain being that of the St Lawrence and the Great Lakes with their tributaries, which drain the more populous southern districts, and, with the aid of canals, furnish communication by fairly large vessels between the lower St Lawrence and the Lake Superior.
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  • French river, the outlet of Lake Nipissing, and Severn river, draining Lake Simcoe, come into Georgian Bay from the east, and canals have been projected to connect Lake Huron with the St Lawrence by each of these routes, the northern one to make use of the Ottawa and the southern one of Trent river.
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  • Steamers not of too great draught can run the rapids going down, but vessels must come up through the canals.
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  • Canals of Greenwich 88 Longitude West important cities are Ottawa (the capital of the Dominion) (59,9 28 in 1 9 01), Hamilton (52,634), London (37,981), Kingston (17,961).
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  • The Czechs refrained from obstruction, for they did not wish to forfeit the alliance with the Poles and Conservatives, on which their parliamentary strength depended, and the Germans used the opportunity to pass measures for promoting the material prosperity of the country, especially for an important system of canals which would bring additional prosperity to the coal-fields and manufactures of Bohemia.
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  • In addition to the canals, the cabinet proposed and the Chamber sanctioned the construction of a " second railway route to Trieste " designed to shorten the distance between South Germany, Salzburg and the Adriatic, by means of a line passing under the Alpine ranges of central and southern Austria.
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  • The city, formerly enclosed by walls (now ruinous), is surrounded by luxuriant gardens, and its houses are buried among the fruit and other trees which grow alongside of the irrigation canals.
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  • The Russian city, to the south-east, dating from 1865, has clean, broad streets lined with poplars, and canals, the low, pleasant-looking houses being surrounded by gardens.
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  • This area is watered by the Damietta and the Rosetta branches of the Nile, and by a network of canals.
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  • Several canals or canalized channels enter the lake.
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  • Perennial irrigation is possible where there are canals which can be supplied with water all the year round from the Nile.
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  • Into these basinswhich vary in area from 600 to 5o,ooo acreswater is led by shallow canals when the Nile is in flood.
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  • High land near the banks of the Nile which cannot be reached by canals is irrigated by raising water from the Nile by steam-pumps, water-wheels (sakias) worked by buffalo s, or water-lifts (skadufs) worked by hand.
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  • Canals.The irrigation canals, which are also navigab1~ by small craft, are of especial importance in a country where the rainfall is ver>~ slight.
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  • The Delta is intersected by numerous canals which derive their supply from four main channels.
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  • The Rayya Menufia, or Menuf canal, connects the two branches of the Nile and supplies water to the large number of canals in the central part of the Delta.
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  • Farther east are other canals, of which the most remarkable occupy in part the beds of the Tanitic and Pelusiac branches.
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  • The superfluous water from all the Delta canals is drained off, by bahrs (rivers) into the coast lakes.
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  • Although designed for irrigation purposes, the Delta canals are also used for the transport of passengers and goods.
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  • In Upper Egypt the most important canals are the Ibrahimia and the Bahr Yusuf (the River of Joseph).
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  • Besides supplying the canals of the Fayum with summer water, it fills many of the basins of~ Upper Egypt with water in flood time.
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  • Antiquities, Sites, &c.The remains for archaeological investigation in Egypt may be roughly classified as material and literary: to the latter belong the texts on papyri and the inscriptions, to the former the sites of ancient towns with the temples, fortifications and houses; remains of roads, canals, quarries and other matters falling within the domain of ancient topography; the larger monuments, as obelisks, statues, stelae, &c.; and finally the small antiquitiesutensils, clothes, weapons, amulets, &c. Where moisture can reach the antiquities their preservation is no better in Egypt than it would have been in other countries; for this reason all the papyri in the Delta have perished unless they happen to have been charred by fire.
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  • The abandonment of papyrus culture in the 8th century A.D, the neglect of the canals, and the inroads of the sea, have converted much of that country into barren salt marsh, which only years of draining and washing can restore to fertility.
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  • The third prefect, Gaius Petronius, cleared the neglected canals for irrigation; he also repelled an invasion of the Ethiopians and pursued them far up the Nile, finally storming the capital of Napata.
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  • The receptive organs of the muscular sense and of the semicircular canals are to be regarded as the sites of origin of this reflex tonus of the skeletal muscles.
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  • This is effected by means of drainage canals cut at regular intervals and connected by means of cross ditches.
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  • The English Miles ro ao 30 Albae -tbae Capitals of Counties County Boundaries Railways --i--- Canals Marshes  ?_ - ' 1s3nge ?
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  • In the canals of the Low Countries he had caught a fever, of which he never shook off the effects.
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  • Dordrecht presents a picturesque appearance with its busy quays and numerous canals and windmills, its quaint streets and curiously gabled houses.
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  • The crowning point of his railway policy was the regulation of the Danube at the hitherto impassable Iron-Gates Rapids by the construction of canals, which opened up the eastern trade to Hungary and was an event of international importance.
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  • The cultivation, supported by canals drawn from the Oxus, the heads of which are constantly being destroyed by flood and again renewed, is of a very high order.
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  • The whole surface is undulating, and presents a series of hills and valleys traversed from east to west by many rivers, the floods of which, arrested by the peculiar action of the Arabian Sea, spread themselves out into lagoons or backwaters, connected here and there by artificial canals, and forming an inland line of smooth-water communication for nearly the whole length of the coast.
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  • Market gardens, known as hortillonnages, intersected by small canals derived from the Somme and Avre, cover a considerable area to the north-east of Amiens; and the city has trade in vegetables, as well as in grain, sugar, wool, oil-seeds and the duck-pasties and macaroons for which it is renowned.
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  • Seven years before he had started a model farm at Frechine, where he demonstrated the advantages of scientific methods of cultivation and of the introduction of good breeds of cattle and sheep. Chosen a member of the provincial assembly of Orleans in 1787, he busied himself with plans for the improvement of the social and economic conditions of the community by means of savings banks, insurance societies, canals, workhouses, &c.; and he showed the sincerity of his philanthropical work by advancing money out of his own pocket, without interest, to the towns of Blois and Romorantin, for the purchase of barley during the famine of 1788.
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  • As a follower of the ideas of Friedrich List, he furthered the foundation of the Zollverein in the year 1833 and the making of canals.
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  • The means adopted are: (i.) the plantation of trees; (ii.) the making of irrigation canals and irrigating meadows; (iii.) exploring for, extracting and transporting loam, a process aided by the construction of short light railways; and (iv.), since 1889, the experimental cultivation of fenny districts.
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  • Nitre abounds in the soil over all the south-west of Afghanistan, and often affects the water of the karez or subterranean canals.
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  • Open canals are usual in the Kabul valley, and in eastern Afghanistan generally; but over all the western parts of the country much use is made of the karez, which is a subterranean aqueduct uniting the waters of several springs, and conducting their combined volume to the surface at a lower level.
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  • In Sind and the Punjab there are many canals which act merely as distributaries of the overflow of the great rivers at the time of inundation; but where the utility of the canals has been increased by permanent headworks the supply of water is perennial and practically inexhaustible, thus contrasting favourably with the less certain protection given by tanks.
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  • At the present time the Dutch flag flies nowhere on the mainland of India, though the quaint houses and regular canals at Chinsura, Negapatam, Jaffna, and many petty ports on the Coromandel and Malabar coasts remind the traveller of familiar scenes in the Netherlands.
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  • He founded the public works department, to pay special attention to roads and canals.
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  • Among the wildest of them head-hunting is still a common practice; but the majority are industrious farmers laying out their fields on artificial terraces and constructing irrigation canals with remarkable skill.
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  • At the outset, steamers and barges were used to convey the war material across, until the French ports became congested; then special barges were introduced to take goods direct into the French canals and thence as close to the firing line as possible.
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  • Then came innumerable varieties of manual work for the erection and keeping up of hedges, the preservation of dykes, canals and ditches, the threshing and garnering of corn, the tending and shearing of sheep and so forth.
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  • Taken as a whole, the lieutenantgovernorship consists of the richest wheat-bearing country in India, irrigated both naturally by the rivers which take their rise in the northern mountains, and artificially by the magnificent system of canals which owe their origin to British enterprise.
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  • The Doab is intersected by canals drawn from the great rivers.
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  • The major productive works are the upper and lower Ganges, the eastern Jumna, and the Agra canals.
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  • The transoceanic invasion progressed slowly through the 17th and 18th centuries, delayed by the head winds of a rough ocean which was crossed only in slow sailing vessels, and by the rough " backwoods " of the Appalachians, which retarded the penetration of wagon roads and canals into the interior.
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  • The Llanos de Urgel, which comprise the greater part of southern Lerida, are extensive plains forming part of the Ebro valley, but redeemed by an elaborate system of canals from the sterility which characterizes so much of that region in Aragon.
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  • The steamers of the Shannon Development Company ply on the river, and some trade by water is carried on with Limerick, and with Dublin by the river and the Grand and Royal canals.
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  • A network of canals supplies from 14,000 to 24,000 h.p.; and a small amount is also furnished by the Concord river, but about 26,000 h.p. is supplied by steam.
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  • Traffic through these canals consists chiefly of forest products, logs, lumber and shingles.
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  • (3) Portion of (2) enlarged to show atrio-coelomic canals ("brown funnels" of Lankester).
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  • AiguesMortes is the meeting-place of several canals connecting it with Beaucaire, with Cette, with the Lesser Rhone and with the Mediterranean, on which it has a small port.
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  • In 1903 there were, according to the governor, io canals more than 50 m.
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  • The district is irrigated from the Rohilkhand system of government canals.
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  • Finland has an extensive and well-kept system of canals, of which the sluiced canal connecting Lake Saima with the Gulf of Finland is the chief one.
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  • The Carlsbad reservoir and diverting dam in Eddy county and the Rio Hondo canals and reservoir in Chaves county were completed in 1907 and are capable of supplying water to tracts of 20,000 and 10,000 acres respectively.
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  • By a system of canals which connect the upper Volga with the Neva, the commercial mouth of the Volga has been transferred, so to speak, from the Caspian to the Baltic, thus making St Petersburg, the capital and chief seaport of Russia, the chief port of the Volga basin as well.
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  • Other less important canals connect it with the Western Dvina (Riga) and the White Sea (Archangel); while a railway only 45 m.
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  • The greater part of the traffic is up river, the amount of merchandise which reaches Astrakhan being nearly fifteen times less than that reaching St Petersburg by the Volga canals.
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  • The principal canals are the Swansea, the Neath, the Aberdare & Glamorgan, and the Brecon & Abergavenny, all worked in connexion with the industrial districts of north Glamorganshire.
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  • The roads and canals were improved.
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  • Both occur in slow-running rivers, canals, ponds and reservoirs.
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