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canada

canada

canada Sentence Examples

  • Galway, who settled in Canada in 1832.

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  • He was appointed in 1911 to succeed Earl Grey as governor-general of Canada, retiring from this office in 1916.

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  • Young crossed the frontier from Canada and raided the town of St Albans.

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  • There are video pictures of the motor home entry from Canada back into the United States.

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  • St Albans was also the headquarters of an attempted Fenian invasion of Canada in 1870.

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  • In 1837 the membership in Great Britain and Ireland was 318,716; in foreign mission stations, 66,007; in Upper Canada, 14,000; while the American Conferences had charge of 650,678 members.

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  • In the treaty, language describing the border between the United States and Canada, still part of Great Britain, included this:

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  • NEW GLASGOW, a manufacturing and mining town of Pictou county, Nova Scotia, Canada, on the East river, near its entrance into Pictou Harbour, and the Intercolonial railway, 104 m.

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  • But when I stood on the shore they at once rose up with a great flapping of wings at the signal of their commander, and when they had got into rank circled about over my head, twenty-nine of them, and then steered straight to Canada, with a regular honk from the leader at intervals, trusting to break their fast in muddier pools.

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  • This included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

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  • The state is divided into two distinct physiographic provinces; the Alleghany Plateau on the west, comprising perhaps two-thirds of the area of the state, and forming a part of the great Appalachian Plateau Province which extends from New York to Alabama; and the Newer Appalachians or Great Valley Region on the east, being a part of the large province of the same name which extends from Canada to Central Alabama.

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  • The wild goose is more of a cosmopolite than we; he breaks his fast in Canada, takes a luncheon in the Ohio, and plumes himself for the night in a southern bayou.

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  • Quinn quipped it would be worth the price of the car if she kept motoring north to Canada and out of our lives.

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  • In that year the newly formed Dominion of Canada bought from the company its territorial and.

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  • Canada, 5/18ths with 2 representatives.

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  • He returned, after passing two winters in Canada; and on another occasion he also failed to establish a colony.

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  • Enterprises: (1) Foreign missions in Labrador, Alaska, Canada, California, West Indies, Nicaragua, Demerara, Surinam, Cape Colony, Kaffraria, German East Africa, North Queensland, West Himalaya.

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  • Enterprises: (1) Foreign missions in Labrador, Alaska, Canada, California, West Indies, Nicaragua, Demerara, Surinam, Cape Colony, Kaffraria, German East Africa, North Queensland, West Himalaya.

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  • Sorry. When I read about the killing in Canada my mind went blank on everything else.

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  • Lake Erie sits north of Ohio for a long stretch so to get into Canada going east; he'd enter in New York State, around Niagara Falls.

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  • He went with the first rush to Klondike in 1897 and tramped across the States and Canada, being in gaol more than once as a vagabond.

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  • New York protested against the Bennington grant in 1749, but the question did not become serious until the chief obstacle to settlement was removed by the conquest of Canada in 1760-61.

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  • The native country of this form has been much disputed; but, though still known in many British nurseries as the "black Italian poplar," it is now well ascertained to be an indigenous tree in many parts of Canada and the States, and is a mere variety of P. canadensis; it seems to have been first brought to England from Canada in 1772.

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  • The true balsam poplar, or tacamahac, P. balsamifera, abundant in most parts of Canada and the northern States, is a tree of rather large growth, often of somewhat fastigiate habit, with round shoots and oblong-ovate sharp-pointed leaves, the base never cordate, the petioles round, and the disk deep glossy green above but somewhat downy below.

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  • Presbyterians of different churches in the United States in 1906 numbered 1,830,555; of this total 322,542 were in Pennsylvania, where there were 248,335 members of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (the Northern Church), being more than one-fifth of its total membership; 56,587 members of the United Presbyterian Church of North America, being more than two-fifths of its total membership; 2709 members of the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, three-tenths of its total membership; the entire membership of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada (440), 3150 members of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church, nearly one-fourth of its total membership; and 2065 members of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, general synod, about five-ninths of its total membership. The strength of the Church in Pennsylvania is largely due to the Scotch-Irish settlements in that state.

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  • U.S. and Canada - - 89,400 124,636 I96,723 200,

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  • West Indies from 1599 to 1602, established his historic connexion with Canada, to the geographical knowledge of which he made a very large addition.

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  • Excellent examples of the indecisive drainage of a new land surface, on which the river system has not had time to impress itself, are to be seen in northern Canada and in Finland, where rivers are separated by scarcely perceptible divides, and the numerous lakes frequently belong to more than one river system.

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  • UNGAVA, an unorganized territory of the Dominion of Canada, including the north-western side of the peninsula of Labrador, bounded by Hudson Bay on the W.

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  • CARLETON PLACE, a town and port of entry of Lanark county, Ontario, Canada, 28 m.

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  • In 1903 he became chairman of the commission on food supply in time of war, and in 1909 of that on trade relations with Canada and the West Indies, receiving in 1911 the G.C.M.G.

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  • Canada had no railway till 1853, and in South America construction did not begin till about the same time.

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  • In Canada the Canadian Pacific was the only transcontinental line, extending from St John, on the bay of Fundy, and from Quebec, on the river St Lawrence, to Vancouver, on the strait of Georgia, the distance from St John to Vancouver being approximately 3379 m.

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  • How far this movement will extend it is impossible to say; it is certain, however, that it will be enormously important in re-aligning trade conditions in the United States, Canada and Mexico.

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  • 309,974 Outside the United States and Canada, the most interesting American developments are in Mexico and Argentina, these countries Miles.

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  • Excellent examples of the indecisive drainage of a new land surface, on which the river system has not had time to impress itself, are to be seen in northern Canada and in Finland, where rivers are separated by scarcely perceptible divides, and the numerous lakes frequently belong to more than one river system.

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  • Anyway, first thing I did was attempt to check records in and out of Canada but getting that stuff is like pulling teeth.

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  • In 1916 they were barred from circulation in Canada " because of garbled despatches " concerning the World War.

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  • VANCOUVER, a city and port in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the southern side of Burrard Inlet.

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  • The visits to the United Kingdom of properly organized teams of bowlers from Australia and New Zealand in 1901 and from Canada in 1904 demonstrated that the game had gained enormously in popularity.

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  • An accredited team of bowlers from the mother country visited Canada in 1906, and was accorded a royal welcome.

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  • PODOPHYLLIN, a drug obtained from the rhizome of the American mandrake or may apple, Podophyllum peltatum, an herbaceous perennial belonging to the natural order Berberidaceae, indigenous in woods in Canada and the United States.

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  • MANITOBA, one of the western provinces of the Dominion of Canada, situated midway between the Atlantic and the Pacific coasts of the Dominion, about 1090 m.

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  • Manitoba formerly belonged to the Hudson's Bay Company, and after the transfer of its territory to Canada was admitted in 1870 as the fifth province of the Dominion.

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  • Classified according to place of birth, the principal nationalities were as follows in 1901: Canada, 180,853; England, 20,392; Scotland, 8099; Ireland, 4537; other British possessions, 490; Germany, 229,; Iceland, 54 0 3; Austria, 11,570; Russia and Poland, 8854; Scandinavia, 1772; United States, 6922; other countries, 4028.

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  • The broad expanse of prairie-land in the western provinces of Canada is well suited for the cheap and expeditious building of railways.

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  • The rebellion was quieted and Sir Garnet Wolseley (now Lord Wolseley) was sent from Canada by the lake route, with several regiments of troops - regulars and volunteers.

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  • Canada and Australasia led the way, for in these countries the Methodist Church was undivided, and the sentiment was greatly strengthened by the formation in the United Kingdom of the United Methodist Church in 1907.

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  • The Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada had a membership in the United States of 440.

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  • Common throughout the northern and middle states and Canada, the red oak attains a large size only on good soils; the wood is of little value, being coarse and porous, but it is largely used for cask-staves; the bark is a valuable tanning material.

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  • He was educated at Glasgow university, where he had a brilliant academic career; and having entered the ministry of the Presbyterian Church, he returned to Canada and obtained a pastoral charge in Halifax, Nova Scotia, which he held from 1863 to 1877.

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  • When Canada was confederated in 1867 Nova Scotia was the province most strongly opposed to federal union.

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  • 14) introduced by Morse is still employed in the United States and Canada, and the international code in vogue in Europe differs only slightly from it.

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  • In Lower Canada, by treaty, the Roman Catholic Church remained established.

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  • The position is the same now through all the British colonies (except, as already mentioned, Lower Canada or Quebec).

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  • Slaves were continually escaping from their masters, and were harboured, on their way to Canada, by the circle in which Mrs Stowe lived.

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  • long; it is found in New England and the milder parts of Canada, and is frequently planted in Britain; its growth is extremely rapid in moist land; the buds are covered with a balsamic secretion.

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  • When war with England broke out, in 1812, he was ordered to cruise in the lakes between Canada and the United States, with his headquarters on lake Champlain.

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  • GREAT BEAR LAKE, an extensive sheet of fresh water in the north-west of Canada, between 65° and 67° N., and 117° and 123° W.

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  • In 1916 they were barred from circulation in Canada " because of garbled despatches " concerning the World War.

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  • VANCOUVER, a city and port in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the southern side of Burrard Inlet.

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  • The visits to the United Kingdom of properly organized teams of bowlers from Australia and New Zealand in 1901 and from Canada in 1904 demonstrated that the game had gained enormously in popularity.

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  • He was about twenty-eight years old, and had left Canada and his father's house a dozen years before to work in the States, and earn money to buy a farm with at last, perhaps in his native country.

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  • Your boy Dan Brennan got me into the Federal exit and entrance records at the Canada border!

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  • The principal railways are: the lines operated by the Boston & Maine system, extending along the eastern border from Brattleboro through Bellows Falls, and St Johnsbury to the Canada boundary (Vermont Valley, Sullivan County, and Connecticut & Passumpsic Rivers railways), with a line, the St Johnsbury & Lake Champlain railway, extending across the northern part of the state from Lunenburg to Maguam Bay; the Central Vermont railway (Grand Trunk system) which crosses the state diagonally from S.E.

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  • He never lost an opportunity, whether in the pulpit or on the platform, of pressing on his hearers that the greatest future for Canada lay in unity with the rest of the British Empire; and his broad statesman-like judgment made him an authority which politicians of all parties were glad to consult.

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  • On his return to Canada he became Minister of Militia and Defence, and in that capacity was responsible for the creation of the Overseas force which in 1914 came over to take its share in the World War.

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  • He never lost an opportunity, whether in the pulpit or on the platform, of pressing on his hearers that the greatest future for Canada lay in unity with the rest of the British Empire; and his broad statesman-like judgment made him an authority which politicians of all parties were glad to consult.

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  • I slipped quietly in and out of Canada.

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  • There was a canoeing accident, up in Canada.

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  • They ran and were last tracked in Canada.

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  • Josh and his group lost those rogues in Canada.

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  • ludovicianus, which last extends its range into Canada.

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  • The idea of these meetings was first suggested in a letter to the archbishop of Canterbury by Bishop Hopkins of Vermont in 1851, but the immediate impulse came from the colonial Church in Canada.

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  • But the desire for Canadian unity led the Dominion to assist a transcontinental line connecting Manitoba with eastern Canada.

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  • Only less important and only less early to be established in Vermont was the quarrying of granite, which began in 1812, but which has been developed chiefly since 1880, largely by means of the building of "granite railroads" which connect each quarry with a main railway line - a means of transportation as important as the logging railways of the Western states and of Canada.

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  • In 1841-1843 he was in Europe on behalf of the Tyler administration, and he is said to have been instrumental in causing the appointment of Lord Ashburton to negotiate in Washington concerning the boundary dispute between Maine and Canada.

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  • Chemawinite or cedarite is an amber-like resin from the Saskatchewan river in Canada.

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  • The Hudson Bay Company had been in- Arctic corporated in 1670, and its servants soon extended their operations over a wide area to the north and west of Canada.

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  • Phosphatic beds, supposed to have had a coprolitic origin, are found in the Lower Silurian rocks of Canada.

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  • ABITIBBI, a lake and river of Ontario, Canada.

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  • Scarcely, however, was this great undertaking fairly commenced when he accepted the post of private secretary to Lord Durham on the latter's appointment as special commissioner to Canada.

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  • KENORA (formerly RAT Portage), a town and port of entry in Ontario, Canada, and the chief town of Rainy River district, situated at an altitude of 1087 ft.

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  • The industrial establishments comprise reduction works, saw-mills and flour-mills, one of the latter being the largest in Canada.

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  • At that time the so-called transcontinental railways, connecting the Pacific coast of the United States with the central portions of the country, and thus with the group of railways reaching the Atlantic seaboard, consisted of five railways within the borders of the United States, and one in Canada.

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  • It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.

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  • Jews were settled in Canada from the time of Wolfe, and a congregation was founded at Montreal in 1768, and since 1832 Jews have been entitled to sit in the Canadian parliament.

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  • Of this total there were in the British Empire about 380,000 Jews (British Isles 240,000, London accounts for 150,000 of these; Canada and British Columbia 60,000; India 18,000; South Africa 40,000).

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  • In 1673 a French expedition organized in Canada under Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet sailed down the Mississippi to the mouth of the Arkansas, and nine years later (1682) Rene Robert Cavelier, sieur de la Salle, reached the mouth of the river, took formal possession of the country which it drains, and named it Louisiana in honour of Louis XIV.

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  • PETROLEA, a town and port of entry in Lambton county, Ontario, Canada, situated 42 m.

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  • Pop. (1901), 4135 It is in the midst of the oil region of Canada, and numerous wells in the vicinity have an aggregate output of about 30,000,000 gallons of crude oil per annum, much of which is refined in the town.

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  • 1847), a prominent Liberal politician, who was lord-lieutenant of Ireland in 1886, governorgeneral of Canada 1893-1898, and again the lord-lieutenant of Ireland when Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman formed his ministry at the close of 1905.

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  • His father, Ebenezer Webster (1739-1806), was a sturdy frontiers - man; when, in 1763, he built his log cabin in the town of Salis - bury there was no habitation between him and Canada.

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  • Large ore-bodies of granular and compact magnetite occur as beds and lenticular masses in Archean gneiss and crystalline schists, in various parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Urals; as also in the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Michigan, as well as in Canada.

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  • ORILLIA, a town and port of entry of Simcoe county, Ontario, Canada, situated 84 m.

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  • In Canada and the United States this rational employment of a leguminous crop for ploughing in green is largely resorted to for the amelioration of worn-out wheat lands and other soils, the condition of which has been lowered to an unremunerative level by the repeated growth year after year of a cereal crop. The well-known paper of Lawes, Gilbert and Pugh (1861), " On the Sources of the Nitrogen of Vegetation,.

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  • [[Table Xiv]].-Numbers of Cattle, Sheep and Pigs imported into the United Kingdom, 1891-1905 The animals come mainly from the United States of America, Canada and Argentina, and the traffic in cattle is more uniform than that in sheep, whilst that in pigs seems practically to have reached extinction.

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  • At Deptford, for example, large numbers of cattle and sheep which thus arrive - mainly from Argentina, Canada and the United States - are at once slaughtered, and so furnish a steady supply of fresh-killed beef and mutton.

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  • is not large it is of considerable importance to stock-breeders, as it is a frequent occurrence for buyers for export-to Argentina, Australasia, Canada, the United States and elsewhere-to bid freely at the sale rings, and often to pay the highest prices, thus stimulating the sales and encouraging the breeding of the best types of native stock.

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  • The most important works dealing with fruit and other pests come from the pens of Saunders, Lintner, Riley, Slingerland and others in America and Canada, from Taschenberg, Lampa, Reuter and Kollar in Europe, and from French, Froggatt and Tryon in Australia.

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  • In the woods of Canada it occurs frequently mingled with the black spruce and other trees.

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  • The hemlock spruce (Tsuga canadensis) is a large tree, abounding in most of the north-eastern parts of America up to Labrador; in lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia it is often the prevailing tree.

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  • The bark, split off in May or June, forms one of the most valuable tanning substances in Canada.

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  • balsamea), a small tree resembling the last species in foliage, furnishes the "Canada balsam"; it abounds in Quebec and the adjacent provinces.

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  • The Devonian rocks of Canada (New Brunswick) have yielded several fossils which are undoubtedly wings of Hexapods.

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  • Still it seems advisable to furnish some connected account of the progress made in the ornithological knowledge of the British Islands and those parts of the European continent which lie nearest to them or are most commonly sought by travellers, the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America, South Africa, India, together with Australia and New Zealand.

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  • The works of Audubon, and the Fauna Boreali-Americana of Richardson and Swainson have already been noticed, but they need naming here, as also do Nuttall's Manual of the Ornithology of the United States and of Canada (2 vols., Boston, 1832-1834; 2nd ed., 1840); and the Birds of Long Island (8 vo, New York, 1844) by J.

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  • Of the same total 3,6 9 8,811 or 88.9% were native-born and 458,734 were foreign-born; 93.8% of the foreign-born consisted of the following: 204,160 natives of Germany, 65,553 of Great Britain, 55,018 of Ireland, 22,767 of Canada (19,864 English Canadian), 16,822 of Poland, 15,131 of Bohemia, 11,575 of Austria and 11,321 of Italy.

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  • Railway connexion with Worcester, Lowell and Providence was opened in 1835; with Albany, N.Y., and thereby with various lines of interior communication, in 1841 (double track, 1868); with Fitchburg, in 1845; and in 1851 connexion was completed with the Great Lakes and Canada.

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  • The Cunard arrangement was the first of various measures that worked for a commercial rapprochement between the New England states and Canada, culminating in the reciprocity treaty of 1854, and Boston's interests are foremost to-day in demanding a return to relations of reciprocity.

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  • Sackett's Harbor was the starting-point of a force of 700 men under a Pole named von Schultz, who in November 1838, during the uprising in Upper Canada (Ontario) attempted to invade Canada, was taken prisoner near Prescott, was tried at Kingston, being defended by Sir John Macdonald, and with nine of his followers was executed in Kingston in December.

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  • Mahan, Sea-Power in its Relation to the War of 1812 (2 vols., Boston, 1905); and William Kingsford, The History of Canada, vol.

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  • The earliest mention 'of American petroleum occurs in Sir Walter Raleigh's account of the Trinidad pitch-lake in 1595; whilst thirty-seven years later, the account of a visit of a Franciscan, Joseph de la Roche d'Allion, to the oil springs of New York was published in Sagard's Histoire du Canada.

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  • From Oil Creek, development spread first over the eastern United States and then became general, subsequently embracing Canada (1862), recently discovered fields being those of Illinois, Alberta and California (44,854,737 barrels in 1908).

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  • The petroleum industry in Canada is mainly concentrated in the district of Petrolea, Ontario.

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  • On account of the small Drilling in depth of the wells, and the tenacious nature of the Canada.

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  • In Canada, means of transport similar to those already described are employed, but the reservoirs for storage often consist of excavations in the soft Erie clay of the oil district, the sides of which are supported by planks.

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  • In 1913 he was appointed Solicitor-General in the Borden administration and in 1915 was sworn of the Privy Council for Canada.

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  • The cadastral surveys in Canada are carried on by a commission of Crown-lands in the old provinces and by a Dominion land office, which lays out townships as in the United States, but with greater accuracy.

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  • In 1908 the number of " orthodox " yearly meetings in America, including one in Canada, was fifteen, with a total membership of about 100,000.

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  • Canada joined at the first, and having withdrawn, again joined in 1907.

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  • ALBERTA, a province of western Canada, established in 1905.

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  • 2,722 The Mormons of Alberta are in the most southerly part of the province, and are a colony from the Mormon settlements in Utah, U.S. On coming to Canada they were given lands by the Dominion of Canada.

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  • Owing to their want of adhesiveness, they are, however, usually mounted on glass as microscopic slides, either in glycerin jelly, Canada balsam or some other suitable medium.

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  • The system reached from Kentucky and Virginia across Ohio, and from Maryland across Pennsylvania and New York, to New England and Canada, and as early as 1817 a group of anti-slavery men in southern Ohio had helped to Canada as many as moo slaves.

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  • Documentary materials on the greater " Louisiana " between the Gulf of Mexico and Canada will be found in the Jesuit Relations, edited by R.

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  • Nassau is a winter health-resort for many visitors from the United States and Canada.

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  • To Thoreau this Concord country contained all of beauty and even grandeur that was necessary to the worshipper of nature: he once journeyed to Canada; he went west on one occasion; he sailed and explored a few rivers; for the rest, he haunted Concord and its neighbourhood as faithfully as the stork does its ancestral nest.

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  • After Thoreau's death were also published: The Maine Woods (Boston, 1863); Cape Cod (Boston, 1865); A Yankee in Canada (Boston, 1866).

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  • It is possible that some of these rocks are also of Huronian age, but it is doubtful whether the rocks so designated by the geologists of the " Alert " and " Discovery " expedition are really the rocks so known in Canada, or are a continuous portion of the fundamental or oldest gneiss of the north-west of Scotland and the western isles.

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  • Amherst, Canada >>

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  • In 1904 he visited Canada and the United States, and was present at the triennial general convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States and Canada.

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  • It is the natural terminal of three great northern transcontinental railway lines - the Northern Pacific, the Great Northern, and the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound (the extension of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul system); and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the connecting lines of the Canadian Pacific form lines of communication with the middle Northwest and the Pacific provinces of Canada.

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  • If we take a thin layer of natural Canada balsam and heat it strongly for a little time most of the volatile oils are driven out of it.

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  • The commercially valuable micas of Canada and Ceylon are mainly phlogopite (q.v.), which has a rather different mode of occurrence.

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  • Most of the questions with which he had to deal related to the relations between the United States and Canada, and in this connexion he paid several visits to Canada to confer with the governor-general and his ministers.

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  • He was criticised, both in England and in Canada, for forwarding, in 1911, in the course of his duties as ambassador, an arrangement for reciprocity between the two North American states; but the general election, which substituted Sir R.

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  • Borden as Prime Minister of Canada for Sir W.

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  • At the close of his embassy he told the Canadians that probably three-fourths of the business of the British embassy at Washington was Canadian, and of the 11 or 12 treaties he had signed nine had been treaties relating to the affairs of Canada.

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  • " By those nine treaties," he said, " we have, I hope, dealt with all the questions that are likely to arise between the United States and Canada - questions relating to boundary; questions relating to the disposal and the use of boundary waters; questions relating to the fisheries in the international waters where the two countries adjoin one another; questions relating to the interests which we have in sealing in the Behring Sea, and many other matters."

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  • He could boast that he left the relations between the United States and Canada on an excellent footing.

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  • Besides visiting Switzerland and other parts of Europe, he availed himself of his experiences in the United States and in Canada, and journeyed to Spanish America, Australia and New Zealand.

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  • The best of his books after this date are those written expressly for boys, the favourites being Masterman Ready (1841), The Settlers in Canada (1844), and The Children of the New Forest (1847).

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  • He visited Canada during Papineau's revolt and the United States in 1837, and gave a disparaging account of American institutions in a Diary published on his return to England.

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  • Germany, Austria, Hungary, France, Russia and the United States began to rank as producers during the second and third decades; Belgium entered in about 1840; Italy in the 'sixties; Mexico, Canada, Japan and Greece in the 'eighties; while Australia assumed importance in 1888 with a production of about 18,000 tons, although it had contributed small and varying amounts for many preceding decades.

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  • Canada became important in 1895 with a production of io,000 tons; this increased to 28,654 tons in 190o; and in 1905 the yield was 25,391 tons.

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  • In March 1848 he unsuccessfully contested the borough of Lancaster, and then made a long tour in the West Indies, Canada and the United States.

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  • He was secretary of state for war and for the colonies and president of the board of trade; and was governor-general of Canada from 1888 to 1893.

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  • AMHERST, the county town of Cumberland county, and port of entry in Novia Scotia, Canada, at the head of Chignecto Bay and on the Intercolonial railway, 138 m.

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  • In his boyhood he was taken to Canada, but in 1843 he returned to Scotland; then studied at Calcutta in the military academy, entered the army, and after distinguishing himself in the Punjab campaign, returned to Canada, whence in 1857 he removed to Vinton, Iowa.

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  • Sydney, Canada >>

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  • He devoted about three months to this tour, passing rapidly through the seaboard states and the adjacent portion of Canada, and collecting as he went large stores of information respecting the condition, resources and prospects of the great western republic. Soon after his return to England he began to prepare another work for the press, which appeared towards the end of 1836, under the title of Russia.

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  • But in the month of March there were discussions in the House of Commons on the alleged necessity of constructing large defensive works in Canada.

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  • FREDERICTON, a city and port of entry of New Brunswick, Canada, capital of the province, situated on the St John river, 84 m.

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  • It is a port of call for ships trading with the north of Europe as well as for vessels outward bound to the Arctic regions, Hudson Bay and Canada.

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  • From 1861 until his death, at Montreal, on the 27th of May 1864, he was U.S. consul-general in Canada.

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  • 1909)1909) Among the modern Jacobite, or legitimist, societies perhaps the most important is the "Order of the White Rose," which has a branch in Canada and the United States.

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  • During the French and Indian wars Albany was a starting-point for expeditions against Canada and the Lake Champlain country.

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  • The puma has an exceedingly wide range of geographical distribution, extending over a hundred degrees of latitude, from Canada in the north to Patagonia in the south, and formerly was generally diffused in suitable localities from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, but the advances of civilization have curtailed the extent of the districts which it inhabits.

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  • He drafted the report of the committee on education to the general conference in 1828, at which time he declined the bishopric of the Canada conference.

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  • In 1759, to strengthen the British hold on Canada, a large tract of land at the S.

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  • In the War of 1812 Whitehall was fortified and was a base of supplies for American operations against Canada.

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  • This is derived from the sap of the rock or sugar maple (Ater saccharinum), a large tree growing in Canada and the United States.

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  • Woodstock, Canada >>

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  • Canada produces in Ontario and Quebec coarse Virginian type tobacco.

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  • The comparative consumption of tobacco in various countries is best appreciated by expressing it in pounds per head, and the following figures are taken from Bartholomew's Atlas of the World's Commerce: Belgium 6.21 lb, United States 5.4 0 lb, Germany 3.44 Ib, Austria 3.02 lb, Australasia 2.20 lb, Canada 2.54 lb, Hungary 2.42 lb, France 2.16 lb, United Kingdom 1.95 lb, Russia 1 10 lb.

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  • There is direct communication at frequent intervals with England, the United States, Canada and the other West Indian islands.

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  • LOUIS JOSEPH PAPINEAU (1786-1871), Canadian rebel and politician, son of Joseph Papineau, royal notary and member of the house of Assembly of Lower Canada, was born at Montreal on the 7th of October 1786.

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  • He was called to the bar of Lower Canada on the 19th of May 1810.

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  • On the 18th of June 1808 he was elected a member of the House of Assembly of the province of Lower Canada, for the county of Kent.

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  • In December 1820 Lord Dalhousie, governor of Lower Canada, appointed Papineau a member of the executive council; but Papineau, finding himself without real influence on the council, resigned in January 1823.

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  • In that year he went to England to protest on behalf of the French Canadians against the projected union of Upper and Lower Canada, a mission in which he was successful.

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  • The aim of the French Canadian opposition at this time was to obtain financial and also constitutional reforms. Matters came to a head when the legislative assembly of Lower Canada refused supplies and Papineau arranged for concerted action with William Lyon Mackenzie, the leader of the reform party in Upper Canada.

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  • In 1835 Lord Gosford, the new governor of Lower Canada, was instructed by the cabinet in London to inquire into the alleged grievances of the French Canadians.

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  • On the 23rd of October 1837 a meeting of delegates from the six counties of Lower Canada was held at St Charles, at which resistance to the government by force of arms was decided upon, and in which Papineau took part.

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  • After the rebellion relief was accorded because the obstacle was removed, and it is evident that a broad-minded statesman, or a skilful diplomat, would have accomplished more for French Canada than the fiery eloquence and dubious methods of a leader who plunged his followers into the throes of war, and deserted them at the supreme moment.

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  • In the latter year an amnesty was granted to those who had participated in the rebellion in Canada; and, although in June 1838 Lord Durham had issued a proclamation threatening Papineau with death if he returned to Canada, he was now admitted to the benefit of the amnesty.

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  • On his return to Canada, when the two provinces were now united, he became a member of the lower house and continued to take part in public life, demanding "the independence of Canada, for the Canadians need never expect justice from England, and to submit to her would be an eternal disgrace."

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  • He unsuccessfully agitated for the re-division of upper and lower Canada, and in 1854 retired into private life.

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  • President Lincoln commuted this sentence to banishment, and Vallandigham was sent into the Confederate lines, whence he made his way to Canada.

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  • They must not be confused with the Chipewyan tribe of Athabascan stock settled around Lake Athabasca, Canada.

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  • On West Canada creek, about 15 m.

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  • Placed in command of the northern department of New York, he established headquarters at Albany, and made preparations for an invasion of Canada.

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  • Schuyler returned to Ticonderoga and later to Albany, where he spent the winter of1775-1776in collecting and forwarding supplies to Canada and in suppressing the Loyalists and their Indian allies in the Mohawk Valley.

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  • Canada Canadian periodicals have reached a higher standard than in .any other British self-governing colony.

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  • The Literary Garland (Montreal, 1838-1850), edited by John Gibson, was for some time the only English magazine published in Canada.

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  • Contemporary magazines are the Canadian Magazine (1893), the Westminster, both produced at Toronto, La Nouvelle-France (Quebec), the Canada Monthly (London, Ontario), and the University Magazine, edited by Professor Macphail, of the McGill University.

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  • xvii.; " Periodical Literature in Canada," by J.

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  • Dawson, Prose Writers of Canada (1901).

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  • It should be noted that the scene with Burke took place in the course of the debate on the Quebec Bill, in which Fox displayed real statesmanship by criticizing the division of Upper from Lower Canada, and other provisions of the bill, which in the end proved so injurious as to be unworkable.

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  • He started the Journal de Levis, and his revolutionary doctrines compelled him to leave Canada for the United States.

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  • He was long a warm advocate of the political union of Canada and the United States, but in later life became less ardent, and in 1897 accepted the honour of C.M.G.

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  • He was president of the Royal Society of Canada, and of the Canadian Society of Arts, and received numerous honorary degrees.

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  • His works include: Mes Loisirs (1863); La Voix d'un exile (1867), a satire against the Canadian government; boreales, and Les Oiseaux de neige (1880), crowned by the French academy; La Legende d'un peuple (1887); two historical dramas, Papineau (1880) and Felix Poutre (1880); La Noel au Canada (1900), and several prose works and translations.

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  • Brothers' Club, a society of Tory politicians and men of letters, and the same year witnessed the failure of the two expeditions to the West Indies and to Canada promoted by him.

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  • Large quantities of timber are imported from Canada and Norway; coal, iron, manufactured goods and agricultural produce are the chief exports.

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  • The United States (California) after 1848, and Australia after 1851, were responsible for enormous increases in the total production, which has been subsequently enhanced by discoveries in Canada, South Africa, India, China and other countries.

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  • Since then the proportion furnished by these countries has been greatly lowered by the supplies from South Africa, Canada, India and China.

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  • Canada, too, assumed an important rank, having contributed in 1900 £5,583,300; but the output has since steadily declined to £1,973,000 in 1908.

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  • The immigration to Canada for the year 1905 was put down as 146,266, but a portion of this consisted of immigrants passing through to the United States.

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  • After the Pioneers the sequence is The Jesuits in North America, La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West, The Old Regime in Canada, Frontenac and New France and Louis XIV., Montcalm and Wolfe, A Half Century of Conflict.

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  • Vancouver, Canada >>

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  • Canon Caruana and other leaders of the Maltese aspired to obtain for Malta the freedom of the Roman Catholic religion guaranteed by England in Canada and other dependencies, and promoted a petition in order that Malta should come under the strong power of England rather than revert to the kingdom of the two Sicilies.

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  • Born in London on the 6th of September 1817, he emigrated to Canada in 1835, and settled in Sherbrooke, in the province of Quebec, where he entered the service of the British American Land Company, of which he rose to be chief commissioner.

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  • From 1858 to 1862 and 1864 to 1867 he was finance minister, and did much to reduce the somewhat chaotic finances of Canada into order.

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  • After his retirement he gave to the administration of Sir John Macdonald a support which grew more and more fitful, and advocated independence as the final destiny of Canada.

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  • In 1746 he was made commissary of the province for Indian affairs, and was influential in enlisting and equipping the Six Nations for participation in the warfare with French Canada, two years later (1748) being placed in command of a line of outposts on the New York frontier.

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  • had been confiscated, and after the war he lived in Canada, where he held from 1791 until his death the office of superintendentgeneral of Indian affairs for British North America.

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  • The lastnamed fields are continued northward in Canada (Crow's Nest Pass field, Vancouver Island, &c.).

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  • (25th of October 1760), he was for a vigorous prosecution of the war with France; he had written what purported to be a chapter from an old book written by a Spanish Jesuit, On the Meanes of Disposing the Enemie to Peace, which had a great effect; and in the spring of 1760 there had been published a more elaborate paper written by Franklin with the assistance of Richard Jackson, agent of Massachusetts and Connecticut in London, entitled The Interest of Great Britain Considered with Regard to Her Colonies, and the Acquisitions of Canada and Guadeloupe (1760).

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  • This pamphlet answered the argument that it would be unsafe to keep Canada because of the added strength that would thus be given to any possible movement for independence in the English colonies, by urging that so long as Canada remained French there could be no safety for the English colonies in North America, nor any permanent peace in Europe.

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  • Tradition reports that this pamphlet had considerable weight in determining the ministry to retain Canada.

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  • In April 1776 he went to Montreal with Charles Carroll, Samuel Chase and John Carroll, as a member of the commission which conferred with General Arnold, and attempted without success to gain the co-operation of Canada.

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  • In the spring of 1782 Franklin had been informally negotiating with Shelburne, secretary of state for the home department, through the medium of Richard Oswald, a Scotch merchant, and had suggested that England should cede Canada to the United States in return for the recognition of loyalist claims by the states.

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  • The chief supplies are from Cornwall and Devon, and Freiberg in Saxony, and from Canada and the United States.

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  • ASSINIBOIA, a name formerly applied to two districts of Canada, but not now held by any.

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  • It ceased to exist when Rupert's Land was transferred to Canada in 1870.

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  • A protective tariff was imposed in early colonial times and protection was generally approved in the state until toward the close of the 19th century, when a strong demand became apparent for reciprocity with Canada and for tariff reductions on the raw materials (notably hides) of Massachusetts manufactures.

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  • No sooner were the wars of religion over than the French again set about making good their claim to Canada, and to whatever they could represent as arising naturally out of Canada.

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  • During the reign of Louis XIV., after 1660, the French government paid great attention to Canada, but not in a way capable of leading to the formation of a colony.

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  • Therefore the French government strove to unite the beggarly settlements in Canada and Louisiana by setting up posts all along the Ohio and the Mississippi, in order to confine the English between the Alleghanies and the sea.

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  • The British navy cut off the French from all help from home, and after a gallant struggle, their dominion in Canada was conquered, and the French retired from the North American continent.

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  • From the freedom of the United States came the revolt of Spanish America, and the grant by Great Britain to Canada of the amplest rights of self-government.

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  • So long as Spain retained her colonies on the mainland, while England held Canada, and the English, Dutch and French had possessions in Guiana, the New World must have remained in political dependence on the Old.

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  • Europe is still possessed of some measure of sovereign power in the New World, in Canada, in Guiana and in the West Indian islands.

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  • But Canada is bound only by a voluntary allegiance, Guiana is unimportant, and in the West Indian islands, where the independence of Hayti and the loss of Cuba and Porto Rico by Spain have diminished the European sphere, European dominion is only a survival of the colonial epoch.

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  • On the one hand are the United States and Canada.

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  • P Y groups: - Eskimo, on Arctic shores; Dene (Tinneh), in north-western Canada; Algonquin-Iroquois, Canada and eastern United States; Sioux, plains of the west; Muskhogee, Gulf States; Tlinkit-Haida, North Pacific coast; Salish-Chinook, Fraser-Columbia coasts and basins; Shoshoni, interior basin; California-Oregon, mixed tribes; Pueblo province, southwestern United States and northern Mexico; Nahuatla-Maya, southern Mexico and Central America; Chibcha-Kechua, the Cordilleras of South America; Carib-Arawak, about Caribbean Sea; Tupi-Guarani, Amazon drainage; Araucanian, Pampas; Patagonian, peninsula; Fuegian, Magellan Strait.

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  • AlgonquinIroquois tribes made creditable ware in Canada and eastern United States.

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  • Their basketry, both in Canada and in Arizona, was coiled work.

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  • Commencing in the Arctic region, the Eskimo in his kayak, consisting of a framework of driftwood or bone covered with dressed sealskin, could paddle down east Greenland, up the west shore to Smith Sound, along Baffin Land and Labrador, and the shores of Hudson Bay throughout insular Canada and the Alaskan coast, around to Mount St Elias, and for many miles on the eastern shore of Asia.

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  • The Athapascan covered all north-western Canada with his open and portable birch-bark canoe, somewhat resembling the kayak in finish.

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  • The Algonquin-Iroquois took up the journey at Bear Lake and its tributaries, and by means of paddling and portages traversed the area of middle and eastern Canada, including the entire St Lawrence drainage.

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  • reporting during many years on the tribes of northwest Canada.

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  • The Dene (Tinneh) myths resembled those of the Eskimo, and all the hunting tribes of eastern Canada and United States and the Mississippi valley have a mythology based upon their zootechny and their totemism.

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  • The Dene (Tinneh) province in Alaska and north-western Canada yields nothing to the spade.

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  • Algonquin-Iroquois Canada, thanks to the Geological Survey and the Department of Education in Ontario, has revealed old Indian camps, mounds and earthworks along the northern drainage of Lakes Erie and Ontario, and pottery in a curved line from Montreal to Lake of the Woods.

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  • The Sioux and the Muskhogee province is the mound area, which extends also into Canada along the Red river.

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  • In the latter year he became .one of the judges of the supreme court of Canada.

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  • His only experience of warfare seems to have been at the siege of Fort Erie (Canada) in 1814.

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  • This course has been adopted in Germany, Belgium and France, and an approach to it is made in the decennial census of Canada and the United States.

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  • The first enumeration of what was afterwards called Lower Canada, took place, as above stated, in 1665, and dealt with the legal, or domiciled, population, not with that actually present at the time of the census, a practice still maintained, in contrast to that prevailing in the rest of the empire.

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  • The census of Canada is organized on the plan adopted in the United States rather than in accordance with British practice, and includes much which is the subject of annual returns in the latter country, or is not officially collected at all.

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  • As the sphere of the census operations in Canada has been gradually spreading from the small beginnings on the east coast to the immense territories of the north-west, so, in the island continent, colonization, first concentrated in the south-east, has extended along the coasts and thence into the interior, except in the northern region.

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  • Hull, Canada >>

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  • Another group of phosphatic deposits connected with igneous rocks comprises the apatite veins of south Norway, Ottawa and other districts in Canada.

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  • The total output of Canada in 1907 was only 680 tons.

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  • Its northern boundary is, for the most part, formed by Lake Ontario and the St Lawrence river, which separate it from the province of Ontario, Canada; but north of the Adirondacks the boundary line leaves the St Lawrence, extending in a due east direction to the lower end of Lake Champlain.

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  • Thus the boundary between New York and the province of Quebec, Canada, is wholly artificial.

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  • This is a very ancient mountain mass of crystalline rocks resembling more the Laurentian mountains of Canada than the Appalachians.

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  • Of these the most notable is the Niagara escarpment which extends eastward from Canada, past Lewiston and Lockport, - a downward step from the Erie to the Ontario plain, where the Niagara limestone outcrops, and its resistance to denudation accounts for the steeply rising face at the boundary between the two plains.

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  • With its source in Canada, it overrode even the highest mountains and spread beyond the boundary of New York into Pennsylvania and New Jersey; but farther E.

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  • This was of much importance in early wars; but it is of only minor importance as a commercial highway since it leads to Canada through a region of little economic importance.

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  • end in Canada.

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  • Buffalo lies at the lower end of natural lake navigation, though by the building of a ship canal in Canada, lake steamers can proceed into Lake Ontario and thence to the St Lawrence.

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  • Here the puma (" panther ") has become extinct and the Canada lynx is rare.

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  • The porcupine is common, but the Canada pine marten or American sable, fisher, and red fox are rare, and the black bear and grey wolf are found only in small numbers.

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  • The foreign-born population in 1900 was 1, 9 00, 4 25, including 480,026 natives of Germany, 425,553 of Ireland, 182,248 of Italy, 165,610 of Russia, 135,685 of England, 117,535 of Canada, 78,49 1 of Austria, 69,755 of Poland and 64,055 of Scandinavia.

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  • The failure of Montgomery's expedition against Canada at the close of 1775 left the colony exposed to British attacks from the north.

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  • The family emigrated to Canada in 1820, settling first at Kingston, Ontario.

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  • Macdonald entered upon his active career at a critical period in the history of Canada, and the circumstances of the time were calculated to stimulate political thought.

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  • A sentence in his first address to the electors strikes the dominant note of his public career: "I therefore need scarcely state my firm belief that the prosperity of Canada depends upon its permanent connexion with the mother country, and that I shall resist to the utmost any attempt (from whatever quarter it may come) which may tend to weaken that union."

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  • Out of this coalition was gradually developed the Liberalconservative party, of which until his death Macdonald continued to be the most considerable figure, and which for more than forty years largely moulded the history of Canada.

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  • From 1854 to 1857 he was attorney-general of Upper Canada, and then, on the retirement of Colonel Tache, he became prime minister.

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  • The immediate proposal is said to have come from George Brown; the large political idea had long been advocated by Macdonald and Alexander Galt in Upper Canada - by Joseph Howe and others in the maritime provinces.

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  • The North-West Territories were secured as a part of confederated Canada by the purchase of the rights of the Hudson's Bay Company, and the establishment of Manitoba as a province in 1870.

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  • Canada's interests were protected during the negotiations which ended in the treaty of Washington in 1871, and in which Sir John took a leading part as one of the British delegates.

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  • From 1878 until his death in 1891 Sir John retained his position as premier of Canada, and his history is practically that of Canada (q.v.).

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  • The career of Sir John Macdonald must be considered in connexion with the political history of Canada and the conditions of its government during the latter half of the 19th century.

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  • Yet Canada has seen statesmen of more contracted view insist on such small points, fall, and drag down their party with them.

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  • In the crypt of St Paul's Cathedral a memorial has rightly been placed to him as a statesman, not merely of Canada, but of the empire.

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  • In unveiling that memorial Lord Rosebery fitly epitomized the meaning of his life and work when he said: "We recognize only this, that Sir John Macdonald had grasped the central idea that the British Empire is the greatest secular agency for good now known to mankind; that that was the secret of his success; and that he determined to die under it, and strove that Canada should live under it."

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  • In 1864 he urged negotiations for peace with representatives of the Southern Confederacy in Canada, and was sent by President Lincoln to confer with them.

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  • The main range of the Rockies follows the boundary line between Montana and Idaho west and north-west from Yellowstone Park in Wyoming to Ravalli county, then turns eastnorth-east to Lewis and Clark county, and from there extends' north-north-west into Canada.

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  • in Idaho), Bitterroot (1,180,900 acres), Blackfeet (1,956,340 acres), 1 The St Mary and both forks of the Milk river flow northward into the Dominion of Canada, and as there has been much private irrigation both north and south of the international boundary, the present Federal project and other undertakings in the same region necessitate an international agreement as to the division of the waters, especially of the St Mary, and commissioners representing the Canadian government and the United States conferred in regard to it in May 1908.

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  • If Liberia is a state, the same may surely be said of Canada.

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  • Bourinot, Constitution of Canada, 1888, p. 75; A.

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  • Lefroy, Legislative Power in Canada, 244).

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  • 42; Lefroy, Legislative Power in Canada, 329).

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  • Milwaukee Bay is distinctly marked in the map attributed to Marquette, the original of which is now in the Jesuit College at Montreal, Canada; it was discovered in a convent in Montreal by Felix Martin (1804-1886), of the Society of Jesus, and was copied by Parkman.

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  • Here was a display, not only of Englishmen, Scotsmen, Irishmen, Welshmen, but of Mounted Rifles from Victoria and New South Wales, from the Cape and from Natal, and from the Dominion of Canada.

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  • In June 1776 he took command of the American army in Canada and after an unsuccessful skirmish with the British at Three Rivers (June 8) retreated to Crown Point.

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  • Six months afterwards he was appointed by the Peel ministry to the governor-generalship of Canada, and his success in carrying out the policy of the home government was rewarded with a XVIII.

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  • hake, ling, haddock, &c. The most important centres of the cod-liver oil industry are Lofoten and Romsdal in Norway; the oil is also prepared in the United States, Canada, Newfoundland, Iceland and Russia; and at one time a considerable quantity was prepared in the Shetland Islands and along the east coast of Scotland.

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  • In the more important British colonies - Australasia, Canada and South Africa - there are now a considerable number of hospital schools and other institutions formed and conducted on the English model.

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  • Salaries and fees are very much the same in Australia; in Canada and South Africa they are higher.

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  • APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS, the general name given to a vast system of elevations in North America, partly in Canada, but mostly in the United States, extending as a zone, from ioo to 300 m.

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  • The crystallines are confined to the portion of the belt east of the Great Valley where Paleozoic rocks are always highly metamorphosed and occur for the most part in limited patches, excepting in New England and Canada, where they assume greater areal importance, and are besides very generally intruded by granites.

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  • ==Flora and Fauna== Much of the region is covered with forest yielding quantities of valuable timber, especially in Canada and northern New England.

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  • Meanwhile his interests were not wholly confined to law: for some time (1840-1843) he wrote for The Times and the British Critic; he made a plunge into patristic learning, from which he soon recoiled; he was much interested in the controversies which distracted the Church on the subject of Tract 90; in the treatment of the Episcopal Church in Canada by the Canadian government and the Colonial Office; in the establishment by the crown, in conjunction with the king of Prussia, of the Jerusalem bishopric; and in the contest for the professorship of poetry at Oxford on Keble's retirement.

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  • The Red river flows in a winding channel along the eastern boundary and empties into Lake Winnipeg in Canada, thence reaching Hudson Bay through the Nelson river.

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  • The Sheyenne, the Goose, the Park and the Pembina rivers are the most important of these streams. The Mouse, or Souris, river rises in Canada, crosses the international boundary near the meridian of 102° W.

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  • The prickly ash, Virginian creeper and staff-tree find here their northern limit; and the mountain maple, Canada blueberry, dwarf birch and ground hemlock their southern limit.

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  • Lord Beaverbrook became one of the chief proprietors of the London Daily Express, and in 1916-7 published Canada in Flanders.

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  • He became well known at a comparatively early age as an active writer and speaker on the side of the Nationalist movement in Canada, and a leader of the younger school of French Canadians.

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  • A gradual severance took place between him and his old chief, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, until in later years he became obsessed with the idea that Laurier's policy was fatal to the best interests of Canada and especially to Quebec. A speaker of extraordinary power and fascination, both in Parliament and on the platform, even Laurier himself could not sway the French Canadians as Bourassa could; and in spite of his extreme views he was heard with respect even in the strongholds of his opponents in Toronto.

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  • SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN (1567-1635), French explorer, colonial pioneer and first governor of French Canada, was born at Brouage, a small French port on the Bay of Biscay, in 1567.

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  • In 1603 Champlain made his first voyage to Canada, being sent out by Aymar de Clermont, seigneur de Chastes, on whom the king had bestowed a patent.

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  • Champlain was taken to England a prisoner, but when Canada was restored to the French he returned (1633) to his post, where he died on the 25th of December 163 5.

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  • She did not leave France for Canada, however, until ten years later.

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  • There are many smaller collections in the United States and several in Canada, but none of these present features of special interest.

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  • Loisel, Rapport sur une mission scientifique dans les jardins et etablissements zoologiques publics et prives du RoyaumeUni, de la Belgique et des Pays-Bas, et des EtatsUnis et du Canada, et conclusions ge'nerales (Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1907, 1908; with many photographs and plans).

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  • It is a native of the greater part of Canada and the United States, wherever there is any remnant of the original forest left.

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  • He accompanied Arnold's expedition into Canada in 1775, and on arriving before Quebec he disguised himself as a Catholic priest and made a dangerous journey of 120 m.

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  • BROCKVILLE, a town and port of entry of Ontario, Canada, and capital of Leeds county, named after General Sir Isaac Brock, situtated 119 m.

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  • It is the centre of one of the chief dairy districts of Canada, and ships large quantities of cheese and butter.

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  • Such veins often attain a thickness of several feet, and sometimes possess a columnar structure perpendicular to the enclosing walls; they are met with in the crystalline limestones and other Laurentian rocks of New York and Canada, in the gneisses of the Austrian Alps and the granulites of Ceylon.

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  • After a brilliant university career at the university of Brunswick, at Edinburgh and Heidelberg, he returned to Canada and taught in various local schools, eventually becoming professor of classics and history in the local university.

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  • This standard is the basis of the bushel used in the United States and Canada; but other "bushels" for use in connexion with certain commodities have been legalized in different states.

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  • A count which was concluded at the end of February 1903, put the number of captive bisons at 1119, of which 969 were in parks and zoological gardens in the United States, 41 in Canada and 109 in Europe.

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  • At the same time it was estimated that there were 34 wild bison in the United States and 600 in Canada.

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  • Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Canada.

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  • Of the total in 1900, 88,107 were foreign-born; 58,967, or 66.9%, were natives of Canada (44,420 French and 14,547 English), 13,547 of Ireland, 5100 of England, 2019 of Scotland, 2006 of Germany, and 2032 of Sweden.

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  • Fort Ticonderoga, the key to the passage of Lakes George and Champlain to Canada, was surprised and, taken on the 10th of May by a small band under Colonel Ethan Allen, while Colonel Benedict Arnold headed an expedition through the Maine woods to effect the capture of Quebec, where Sir Guy Carleton commanded.

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  • Demonstrations against Canada were soon discontinued, Arnold drawing off the remnant of his army in May 1776.

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  • Largely upon the representations of Howe, Burgoyne and others, it was determined to shift the field from Boston to New York city, from there to hold the line of the Hudson river in co-operation with a force to move down from Canada under Carleton and Burgoyne, and thus effectually to isolate New England.

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  • Burgoyne marched from Canada in June 1 777, with a strong expeditionary force, to occupy Albany and put himself in touch with Howe at the other end of the Hudson.

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  • Tarleton's Southern Campaigns, 1780-1781 (London, 1787) � the pamphlet controversy between Sir Henry Clinton and Lord Cornwallis (1783), see Winsor, vi., p. 516, n.; Burgoyne's State of the Expedition from Canada in 1777 (London, 1780).

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  • The destruction of his squadron on Lake Champlain in October covered the frontier of Canada, and supplied a basis for the march of General Burgoyne in 1777 which ended in the surrender at Saratoga.

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  • But as contributions accumulated, it was found possible to send a number of Doukhobor emigrants to Canada, whither they arrived in two parties, numbering above 4000, in January 1899.

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  • In all about 7500 Doukhobor immigrants arrived in Canada.

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  • About eighteen months after they arrived in Canada the Doukhobors sent the Society of Friends a collective letter in which they sincerely thanked the English and American Friends for all the generous help of every kind they had received at their hands, but begged the Quakers to cease sending them any more pecuniary support, as they were now able to stand on their own feet, and therefore felt it right that any further help should be directed to others who were more in need of it.

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  • At Yorktown in the summer of 1907 the Doukhobors established one of the largest and best brick-making plants in Canada, a significant testimony to the way in which the leaders of the community were working in the interests of the whole.

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  • The three branches are: (1) The Brethren in Christ, who are the most elaborately organized and are numerous in Ohio, Pennsylvania and Kansas; they have also formed churches in New York and in Canada, and missions in South Africa, India and Texas.

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  • In 1799 he emigrated to Canada, having been recommended to the Hon.

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  • Richard Cartwright, of Kingston, Upper Canada, as suitable for tutorial work.

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  • Strachan went to Canada a Presbyterian.

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  • There many future leaders of public and professional life in Canada came under the influence of Strachan's vigorous personality.

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  • He was chiefly instrumental also in founding the Loyal and Patriotic Society of Upper Canada, which raised funds for the relief of the wounded and the assistance of the widows and orphans of the slain.

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  • On the urgent recommendation of Lieut.- Governor Gore he was appointed to the executive council of Upper Canada in 1815.

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  • Strachan had no difficulty in convincing Lord Bathurst of the justice of his claims on all essential matters, the most important of which was the exclusive right of the Church of England in Canada to the Clergy Reserves.

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  • Though in favour of selling a portion of these lands to provide a fund for the existing needs of the Church, he secured the defeat of the proposal then before the government to dispose of the Clergy Reserves to the Canada Company.

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  • Bishop Strachan devoted the latter years of his long life entirely to his episcopal duties, and by introducing the diocesan synod he furnished the Episcopal Church in Canada with a more democratic organ of government.

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  • He was military agent in New Orleans in 1809-1810, was deputy quartermaster-general in April - July 1812, and was in active service in the War of 1812 as adjutant and inspector-general in the campaign against York (now Toronto), Canada, and in the attack on York on the 27th of April 1813 was in immediate command of the troops in action and was killed by a piece of rock which fell on him when the British garrison in its retreat set fire to the magazine.

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  • Ranging from Canada in the north to Guatemala in the south, and chiefly frequenting the open plains on both sides of the chain of the Rocky Mountains, the coyote, under all its various local phases, is a smaller animal than the true wolf, and may apparently be regarded as the New World representative of the jackals, or perhaps, like the Indian wolf (C. pallipes), as a type intermediate between wolves and jackals.

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  • The result was that, despite the numbers who entered the army or emigrated to Canada, the standard of civilization sank lower, and the population multiplied in the islands.

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  • FRASERVILLE (formerly Riviere du Loup en Bas), a town and watering-place in Temiscouata county, Quebec, Canada, 107 m.

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  • In a north-eastern section, practically all of New England is occupied by the older crystalline belt; the corresponding northern part of the stratified belt in the St Lawrence and Champlain-Hudson valleys on the inland side of New England is comparatively free from the ridge-making rocks which abound farther south; and here the plateau member is wanting, being replaced, as it were, by the Adirondacks, an outlier of the Laurentian highlands of Canada which immediately succeeds the deformed stratified belt west of Lake Champlain.

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  • In consequence of the general south-eastward slope of the highlands and uplands of New England, the divide between the Atlantic rivers and those which flow northward an~j westward D ~t into the lowland of the stratified belt in Canada and r New York is generally close to the boundary of these two physiographic districts.

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  • The Superior Oldland.An outlying upland of the Laurentian highlands of Canada projects into the United States west and south of Lake Superior.

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  • The Adirondack Mountains .T his rugged district of northern New York may be treated as an outlier in the United States of the Laurentian highlands of Canada, from which it is separated by the St Lawrence Valley.

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  • Region of tile Great LakesThe Palaeozoic strata, already mentioned as lapping on the southern slope of the Superior Olclland and around the western side of the Adirondacks- are but parts of a great area of similar strata, hundreds of feet in thickness, which dec]ine gently southward from the great oldland of the Laurentian highlands of eastern Canada.

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  • No satisfactory solution of this problem has been reached; but the association of the Great Lakes and other large lakes farther north in Canada with the great North American area of strong and repeated glaciation is highly suggestive.

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  • The till is presumably made in part of preglacial soils, but it is more largely composed of rock waste mechanically comminuted by the crccpiiig ice sheets; although the crystalline rocks from Canada and some of the more resistant stratified rocks south of the Great Lakes occur as boulders and stones, a great part of the till has been crushed and ground to a clayey texture.

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  • The treelessness of the prairies cannot be due to insufficient time for tree invasion since glacial evacuation; for forests cover the rocky uplands of Canada, which were occupied by ice for ages after the prairies were laid bare.

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  • The Great Plains.A broad stretch of country underlaid by nearly horizontal strata extends westward from the 97th meridian to the base of the Rocky Mountains, a distance of from 300 to 500 in., and northward from the Mexican, boundary far into Canada.

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  • The Cascade Range enters from Canada, trending sotithward across the international boundary through ThePacifk Washington and Oregon to latitude 41; the Sierra Ranges.

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  • Iron ore occurs in the sedimentary part of the Huronian, especially in Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin and parts of Canada.

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  • During the later part of the period the sea found entrance at some point north of the United States to a great area in the western part of the continent, developing a bay which extended far down into the United States from Canada.

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  • The Canadian zone crosses from Canada into northern and northwestern Maine, northern and central New Hampshire, northern Michigan, and north-eastern Minnesota and North Dakota, covers the Green Mountains, most of the Adirondacks and Catskills, the higher slopes of the mountains in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee, the lower slopes of the northern Rocky and Cascade Mountains, the upper slopes of the southern Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains, and a strip along the Pacific coast as far south as Cape Mendocino, interrupted, however, by the Columbia Valley.

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  • warbler, olive-backed thrush, three-toed woodpecker, spruce grouse, and Canada jay; within this zone in the North-eastern states are a few moose and caribou, but farther north these animals are more characteristic of the Hudsonian zone.

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  • Canada, Newfoundland and Labrador 88,321,706 f9f,438,400

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  • The Constitution is a document of the first importance in the history of the world, because it has not only determined the course of events in the American Republic, but has also influenced, or become a model for, other constitutions, such as those of Switzerland (1848 and 1874), Canada (1867), Australia (1900), besides Mexico and the numerous republics of South and Central America.

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  • [This principle has been followed in the Constitution of Australia, but not in that of Canada.]

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  • BERLIN, a city and port of entry, Ontario, Canada, and capital of Waterloo county, 58 m.

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  • During the next twenty years Mme Blavatsky appears to have travelled widely in Canada, Texas, Mexico and India, with two attempts on Tibet.

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  • Sudbury, Canada >>

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  • In 1850 he went to Canada and soon became a prominent business man in Montreal.

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  • This led to his interest in the development of western Canada, and from 1881 onwards he was associated with his cousin in the construction of the Canadian Pacific railway, for his services in connexion with which he was in 1886 made a baronet, in 1891 raised to the peerage; and in 1905 made G.C.V.O.

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  • In 1888 he left Canada, and thereafter lived in England and Scotland.

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  • CANADA.

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  • The Dominion of Canada comprises the northern half of the continent of North America and its adjacent islands, excepting Alaska, which belongs to the United States, and Newfoundland, still a separate colony of the British empire.

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  • 45 0; then an irregular line partly determined by watersheds and rivers divides Canada from Maine, coming out on the Bay of Fundy.

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  • A somewhat similar relationship cuts off Canada from the Atlantic on the east, the north-eastern coast of Labrador belonging to Newfoundland.

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  • In spite of these restrictions of its natural coast line on both the Atlantic and the Pacific, Canada is admirably provided with harbours on both oceans.

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  • The greatly varied Arctic coast line of Canada with its large islands, inlets and channels is too much clogged with ice to be of much practical use, but Hudson Bay, a mediterranean sea 850 m.

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  • wide, with its outlet Hudson Strait, has long been navigated by trading ships and whalers, and may become a great outlet for the wheat of western Canada, though closed by ice except for four months in the summer.

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  • Of the nine provinces of Canada only two have no coast line on salt water, the western prairie provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan; but Manitoba and Ontario have a seaboard only on Hudson Bay and its southern extension James Bay respectively, and there is no probability that the shallow harbours of the latter bay will ever be of much importance for shipping, though Churchill Harbour on the west side of Hudson Bay may become an important grain port.

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  • The physical features of Canada are comparatively simple, and drawn on a large scale, more than half of its surface sloping gently inwards towards the shallow basin of Hudson Bay, with higher margins to the south-east and south-west.

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  • The physical geography of Canada is so closely bound up with its geology that at least an outline of the geological factors involved in its history is necessary to understand the present physiography.

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  • Later the sediments lying to the south-east of this " protaxis," or nucleus of the continent, were pushed against its edge and raised into the Appalachian chain of mountains, which, however, extends only a short distance into Canada.

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  • The great central area of Canada is drained towards Hudson Bay, but its two largest rivers have separate watersheds, the Mackenzie flowing north-west to the Arctic Ocean and the St Lawrence north-east towards the Atlantic, the one to the south-west and the other to the south-east of the Archean protaxis.

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  • The retreat of the ice left Canada much in its present condition except for certain post-glacial changes of level which seem to be still in progress.

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  • The uneven carving down of the older mountain systems, especially that of the Archean protaxis, and the disorderly scattering of glacial material provide most of the lake basins so characteristic of Canada.

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  • As a result of the geological causes just mentioned many parts of Canada are lavishly strewn with lakes of all sizes and shapes, from bodies of water hundreds of miles long and a thousand feet deep to ponds lost to sight in the forest.

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  • The most famous of the lakes are those of the St Lawrence system, which form part of the southern boundary of Canada and are shared with the United States; but many others have the right to be called " Great Lakes " from their magnitude.

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  • Most of Canada is so well watered that the lakes have outlets and are kept fresh, but there are a few small lakes in southern Saskatchewan, e.g.

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  • In many cases the lakes of Canada simply spill over at the lowest point from one basin into the next below, making chains of lakes with no long or well-defined channels between, since in so young a country there has not yet been time for the rivers to have carved wide valleys.

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  • The St Lawrence is far the most important Canadian river from the historic and economic points of view, since it provided the main artery of exploration in early days, and with its canals past rapids and between lakes still serves as a great highway of trade between the interior of the continent and the seaports of Montreal and Quebec. It is probable that politically Canada would have followed the course of the States to the south but for the planting of a French colony with widely extended trading posts along the easily ascended channel of the St Lawrence and the Great Lakes, so that this river was the ultimate bond of union between Canada and the empire.

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  • Similar flooding takes place in several other important northward-flowing rivers in Canada, the St Lawrence at Montreal affording the best-known instance.

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  • St Lawrence and Hudson Bay in eastern Canada also presents one or two lakes draining each way, but in a much less striking position, since the water-parting is flat and boggy instead of being a lofty range of mountains.

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  • The rivers of Canada, except the St Lawrence, are losing their importance as means of communication from year to year, as railways spread over the interior and cross the mountains to the Pacific; but from the point of view of the physical geographer there are few things more remarkable than the intricate and comprehensive way, in which they drain the country.

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  • All the larger cities of Canada make use of water power in this way, and many new enterprises of the kind are projected in eastern Canada; but the thousands of feet of fall of the rivers in the Rocky Mountain region are still almost untouched, though they will some day find use in manufactures like those of Switzerland.

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  • There are no permanent ice sheets known on the mainland of north-eastern Canada, but some of the larger islands to the north of Hudson Bay and Straits are partially covered with glaciers on their higher points.

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  • The " maritime provinces " of eastern Canada, including Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, may be considered together; and to these provinces as politically bounded may be added, from a physical point of view, the analogous south-eastern part of Quebec - the entire area being designated the Acadian region.

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  • Taken as a whole, this eastern part of Canada, with a very irregular and extended coast-line on the Gulf of St Lawrence and the Atlantic, may be regarded as a northern continuation of the Appalachian mountain system that runs parallel to the Atlantic coast of the United States.

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  • Prince Edward Island, the smallest province of Canada, is low and undulating, based on Permo-Carboniferous and Triassic rocks affording a red and very fertile soil, much of which is under cultivation.

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  • As the St Lawrence invited the earliest settlers to Canada and gave the easiest communication with the Old World, it is not surprising to find the wealthiest and most populous part of the country on its shores and near the Great Lakes which it leads up to; and this early development was greatly helped by the flat and fertile plain which follows it inland for over 600 m.

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  • The highest mountains of the Cordillera in Canada are near the southern end of the boundary separating Alaska from the Yukon Territory, the meridian of 141°, and they include Mount Logan (1 9,54 o ft.) and Mount St Elias (18,000 ft.), while the highest peak in North America, Mount McKinley (20,000 ft.), is not far to the north-west in Alaska.

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  • In a country like Canada ranging from lat.

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  • The proximity of the sea or of great lakes, the elevation and the direction of mountain chains, the usual path of storms and of prevalent winds, and the relative length of day and amount of sunshine in summer and winter all have their effect on different parts of Canada.

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  • In eastern Canada Ungava and Labrador are very chill and inhospitable, owing largely to the iceberg-laden current sweeping down the coast from Davis Strait, bringing fogs and long snowy winters and a temperature for the year much below the freezing-point.

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  • Leaving out the maritime provinces, southern Ontario, southern Alberta and the Pacific coast region on the one hand, and the Arctic north, particularly near Hudson Bay, on the other, Canada has snowy and severe winters, a very short spring with a sudden rise of temperature, short warm summers, and a delightful autumn with its " Indian summer."

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  • have been gathered, and on the Shickshock Mountains of Eastern Canada Silene acaulis, L., Lychnis alpina, L., Cassiope hypnoides, Don., Rhododendron laponicum, Wahl, and many others.

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  • The larger animals of Canada are the musk ox and the caribou of the barren lands, both having their habitat in the far north; the caribou of the woods, found in all the provinces except in Price Edward Island; the moose, with an equally wide range in the wooded country; the Virginia deer, in one or other of its varietal forms, common to all the southern parts; the black-tailed deer or mule deer and allied forms, on the western edge of the plains and in British Columbia; the pronghorn antelope on the plains, and a small remnant of the once plentiful bison found in northern Alberta and Mackenzie, now called " wood buffalo."

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  • The black bear is also common to most other parts of Canada; the polar bear everywhere along the Arctic littoral.

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  • The birds of Canada are mostly migratory, and are those common to the northern and central states of the United States.

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  • While the pennated grouse (called the prairie chicken in Canada) has always been plentiful, the prairie hen (or chicken) proper is a more recent arrival from Minnesota and Dakota, to which states it had come from Illinois and the south as settlement and accompanying wheatfields extended north.

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  • The golden eagle, bald-headed eagle, osprey and a large variety of hawks are common in Canada, as are the snowy owl, the horned owl and others inhabiting northern climates.

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  • The raven frequently remains even in the colder parts throughout the winter; these, with the Canada jay, waxwing, grosbeak and snow bunting, being the principal birds seen in Manitoba and northern districts in that season.

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  • In 1867 the Dominion was formed by the union of the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec (Lower Canada) and Ontario (Upper Canada).

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  • The islands and other districts within the Arctic circle became a portion of the Dominion only in 1880, when all British possessions in North America, excepting Newfoundland, with its dependency, the Labrador coast, and the Bermuda islands, were annexed to Canada.

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  • Since 1901 the increase has been more rapid, and in 1 9 05 alone 1 4 4,621 emigrants entered Canada, of whom about two-fifths were from Great Britain and one-third from the United States.

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  • There is no established church in Canada, but in the province of Quebec certain rights have been allowed to the Roman Catholic church ever since the British conquest.

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  • Since 1885 a tax has been imposed on all Chinese entering Canada, and in 1903 this was raised to £100 ($500).

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  • There are four kinds of savings banks in Canada: - (1) the post-office savings banks; (2) the government savings banks of the Maritime provinces taken over at federation and being gradually merged with the former; (3) two special savings banks in the cities of Montreal and Quebec; (4) the savings bank departments of the chartered banks.

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  • Whereas in 1867 the rate of interest was over 4%, and interest was being paid on former provincial loans of over 6%, Canada could in 1906 borrow at 3%.

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  • The great extension during the same period of the use of water-power has been of immense importance to Canada, most of the provinces possessing numerous swift-flowing streams or waterfalls, capable of generating a practically unlimited supply of power.

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  • Protection still remains the trade policy of Canada, though modified by a preference accorded to imports from Great Britain and from most of the British colonies.

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  • The power to make commercial treaties relating to Canada rests with the government of Great Britain, but in most cases the official consent of Canada is required, and for many years no treaty repugnant to her interests has been signed.

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  • The denunciation by the British government in 1897 of commercial treaties with Belgium and Germany, at the request of Canada, was a striking proof of her increasing importance, and attempts have at various times been made to obtain the full treaty-making power for the federal government.

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  • Numerous steamship lines ply between Canada and Great Britain; direct communication exists with France, and the steamers of the Canadian Pacific railway run regularly to Japan and to Australia.

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  • Her splendid lakes and rivers, the development of her canal system, and the growth of railways have made the interprovincial traffic of Canada far greater than her foreign, and the portfolio of railways and canals is one of the most important in the cabinet.

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  • The St Lawrence 1 In Canada a city must have over 10,000 inhabitants, a town over 2000.

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  • Of the less important minerals, Canada is the world's chief producer of asbestos and corundum.

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  • In spite of great improvidence, and of loss by fire, the forest wealth of Canada is still the greatest in the world.

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  • Of the numerous learned and scientific societies, the chief is the Royal Society of Canada, founded in 1881.

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  • From the decisions of the supreme court of Canada appeal may be made to the judicial committee of the imperial privy council.

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  • Most of this is summed up in the annual Statistical Year Book of Canada and in the Official Handbook of the Dominion of Canada, issued at frequent intervals by the Department of the Interior.

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  • White (the Dominion geographer), Atlas of Canada (1906); J.

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  • Castell Hopkins, Canada: an Encyclopaedia (6 vols., 1898-1900); The Canadian Annual Review (yearly since 1902), replacing H.

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  • Dawson, Handbook of Canadian Geology (1889); George Johnson, Alphabet of First Things in Canada (3rd ed., 1898); A.

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  • Bradley, Canada in the Twentieth Century (1903); Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada (yearly since 1883); R.

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  • Fleming, The Intercolonial (1876); John Davidson, " Financial Relations of Canada and the Provinces " (Economic Journal, June 1905); Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, passim, for valuable papers by H.

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  • Harrington and others; also articles in Canadian Economics and in the Handbook of Canada, published on the occasion of visits of the British Association.

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  • G.) Agriculture Canada is pre-eminently an agricultural country.

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  • Horse and cattle ranching is practised in Alberta, where the milder winters allow of the outdoor wintering of live stock to a greater degree than is possible in the colder parts of Canada.

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  • The geographical position of Canada, its railway systems and steamship service for freight across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, are favourable to the extension of the export trade in farm products to European and oriental countries.

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  • Great progress has been made in the development of the railway systems of Canada, and the new transcontinental line from the Atlantic to the Pacific, passing through Saskatchewan via Saskatoon, and Alberta via Edmonton, renders possible of settlement large areas of fertile wheat-growing soil.

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  • The canal system of Canada, linking together the great natural waterways, is also of much present and prospective importance in cheapening the transportation of agricultural produce.

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  • whole of Canada is nearly 20 bushels per acre.

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  • In 1901 the total production of wheat in Canada was 552 million bushels.

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  • Up to the close of the 19th century, Ontario was the largest wheat-growing province in Canada.

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  • Canada is clearly destined to rank as one of the most important grain-producing countries of the world.

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  • The loss from this cause is also less than formerly, because any grain unfit for export is now readily purchased for the feeding of animals in Ontario and other parts of eastern Canada.

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  • In the twelve months of 1907 Canada exported 37,503,057 bushels of wheat of the value of $34,132,759 and 1,858,485 barrels of flour of the value of $7,626,408.

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  • In all the provinces of eastern Canada the acreage under oats greatly exceeds that under wheat.

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  • The annual average oat crop in all Canada is estimated at about 248 million bushels.

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  • Buckwheat flour is used in considerable quantities in some districts for the making of buckwheat cakes, eaten with maple syrup. These two make an excellent breakfast dish, characteristic of Canada and some of the New England states.

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  • There are also numerous forms of preparations from cereals, sold as breakfast foods, which, owing to the high quality of the grains grown in Canada and the care exercised in their manufacture, compare favourably with similar products in other countries.

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  • Percherons are also bred in different parts of Canada, and a few Belgian draught horses have been introduced.

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  • In 1907 the number of pigs in Canada was estimated at 3,530,060, an increase of 1,237,385 over the census record of 1901.

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  • There are cold storage warehouses at various points in Canada, at which the eggs are collected, sorted and packed before shipment.

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  • Canada has been called the land of milk and honey.

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  • The French-Canadian cattle are highly esteemed in eastern Canada, especially by the farmers of the French provinces.

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  • The estimated number of cattle in Canada in 1907 was 7,439,051, an increase of 2,066,547 over the figures of the census of 1901.

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  • The number of sheep and lambs in Canada was estimated for the year 1907 at 2,830,785, as compared with 2,465,565 in 1901.

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  • Bacon with an excess of fat is not wanted, except in the lumber camps; consequently the farmers of Canada have cultivated a class of swine for bacon having plenty of lean and firm flesh.

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  • Slaughtering notably free from epizootic diseases, with a fertile D soil or the growth of fodder crops and pasture, with abundance of pure air and water, and with a plentiful supply of ice, the conditions in Canada are ideal for the dairying industry.

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  • The dairy factory system was introduced into Canada in 1864, and from that time the production and exportation of cheese grew rapidly.

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  • In 1908 there were 4355 of these factories, of which 1284 were in Ontario, 2806 in Quebec, and 265 in the remaining seven provinces of Canada.

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  • In 1906 the total exports of cheese to all countries from Canada reached 215,834,543 lb of the value of $24,433,169.

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  • The total export of butter from Canada in 1906 was 3 4, 031,525 lb, of the value of $7,075,539.

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  • According to a census of manufactures taken it 1906, the total value of factory cheese and butter made in Canada during that year was $32,402,265.

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  • Establishments for evaporating fruit are now found in most of the larger apple-growing districts, and canning factories and jam factories have been established in many parts of Canada, and are conducted with advantage and profit.

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  • Honey is one of the minor food-products of Canada, and in many localities bees have abundance of pasturage.

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  • Tobacco is a new crop which has been grown in Canada since 1904.

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  • Canada is entirely free from rinderpest, pleuropneumonia and foot-and-mouth disease.

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  • Pedigree certificates are certified as correct by an officer of the department of agriculture, so that in Canada there exist national registration and government authority for the accuracy of pedigree livestock certificates.

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  • Through this branch of the public service a complete chain of cold-storage accommodation between various points in Canada and markets in Europe, particularly in Great Britain, has been arranged.

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  • The policy of encouraging the provision of ample cold-storage accommodation has been developed still further by the Cold Storage Act of the Dominion parliament passed in 1907, under which subsidies are granted in part payment of the cost of erecting and equipping cold-storage warehouses in Canada for the preservation of perishable foodproducts.

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  • The seed branch of the department of agriculture was established in 1900 for the purpose of encouraging the production and use of seeds of superior quality, thereby improving all kinds of field and garden crops grown in Canada.

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  • Experimental farms were established in 1887 in different parts of the Dominion, and were so located as to render efficient help to the farmers in the more thickly settled districts, and at the same time to cover the varied climatic and other conditions which influence agriculture in Canada.

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  • In connexion with the public elementary schools throughout Canada, where the principles of agriculture are taught to some extent, manual training centres, provided out of funds supplied by the same public-spirited donor, are now maintained by local and provincial public school authorities.

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  • In 1608 he began the settlement which was named Quebec. From 1608 to his death in 1635 Champlain worked unceasingly to develop Canada as a colony, to promote the fur trade and to explore the interior.

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  • But in 1632 Canada was restored to France by the treaty of St Germain-enLaye.

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  • 1000 Leif Ericson, a Norseman, led an expedition from Greenland to the shores probably of what is now Canada, but the first effective contact of Europeans with Canada Discovery.

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  • John Cabot, sailing from Bristol, reached the shores of Canada in 1497.

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  • Since the beginning of the 10th century agricultural education and rural training in Canada have been greatly stimulated by the munificence of Sir William C. Macdonald of Montreal.

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  • It was an era of missionary zeal in the Roman Catholic church, and Canada became the favourite mission.

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  • The Jesuits have attracted chief attention, not merely on account of their superior zeal and numbers, but also because of the tragic fate of some of their missionaries in Canada.

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  • In 1664 a new " Company of the West Indies " (Compagnie des Indes Occidentales) was organized to control French trade and colonization not only in Canada but also in West Africa, South America and the West Indies.

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  • In 1665 some 2000 emigrants were sent to Canada; the European population was soon doubled, and Louis XIV.

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  • Henceforth in name, if not in fact, monopoly is ended in Canada.

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  • By 1666 a French mission was established :on the shores of Lake Superior, and in 1673 Joliet and Marquette, explorers from Canada, reached and for some distance descended the Mississippi.

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  • Thus from Canada as her basis was France reaching out to grasp a continent.

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  • In 1659 arrived at Quebec a young prelate of noble birth, Francois Xavier de LavalMontmorency, who had come to rule the church in Canada.

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  • An ascetic, who practised the whole cycle of medieval austerities, he was determined that Canada should be ruled by the church, and he desired for New France a Puritanism as strict as that of New England.

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  • But Canada needed him.

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  • On the 13th of September 1 759 Wolfe won his great victory before Quebec, which involved the fall of that place, and a year later at Montreal the French army in Canada surrendered.

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  • With only about 60,000 French in Canada at the time of the conquest it might have seemed as if this population would soon be absorbed by the incoming British.

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  • But the French type proved stubbornly persistent and to this day dominates the older Canada.

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  • After peace was concluded in 1763, Canada was governed under the authority of a royal proclamation, but sooner or later a constitution specially adapted to the needs of the country was inevitable.

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  • Under this act the western territory which France had claimed, extending as far as the Mississippi and south to the Ohio, was included with Canada in what was called the Province of Quebec. This vast territory was to be governed despotically from Quebec; the Roman Catholic church was given its old privileges in Canada; and the French civil law was established permanently side by side with the English criminal law.

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  • The act linked the land-owning class in Canada and the church by ties of self-interest to the British cause.

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  • Its leaders tried to make the revolt continental, and invaded Canada, hoping that the French would join them.

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  • They took Montreal and besieged Quebec during the winter of 1775-1776; but the prudent leadership of Sir Guy Carleton, afterwards Lord Dorchester, saved Quebec and in 1776 the revolutionary army withdrew unsuccessful from Canada.

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  • Since that time any prospect of Canada's union to the United States has been very remote.

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  • But the American Revolution profoundly influenced the life of Canada.

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  • This meant that the American type of colonial life would be reproduced in Canada; but it meant also bitter hostility on the part of these colonists to the United States, which refused in any way to compensate the loyalists for their confiscated property.

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  • A prevailingly French type of government was now no longer adequate in Canada, and in 1791 was passed by the British parliament the Constitutional Act, separating Canada at the Ottawa river into two parts, each with its own government; Lower Canada, chiefly French, retaining the old system of laws, with representative institutions now added, and Upper Canada, on the purely British model.

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  • (For the history of Lower and Upper Canada, now Quebec and Ontario, the separate articles must be consulted.) Each province had special problems; the French in Lower Canada aimed at securing political power for their own race, while in Upper Canada there was no race problem, and the great struggle was for independence of official control and in all essential matters for government by the people.

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  • But this a clamorous radical element demanded insistently, and the issue was the chief one in Canada for half a century.

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  • The war seemed to furnish a renewed opportunity to annex Canada to the American Union, and Canada became the chief theatre of conflict.

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  • In 1837 a few French Canadians in Lower Canada, led by Louis Joseph Papineau, took up arms with the wild idea of establishing a French republic on the St Lawrence.

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  • In the same year William Lyon Mackenzie led a similar armed revolt in Upper Canada against the domination of the ruling officialdom called, with little reason, the " Family Compact."

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  • Happening, as these revolts did, just at the time of Queen Victoria's accession, they attracted wide attention, and in 1838 the earl of Durham was sent to govern Canada and report on the affairs of British North America.

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  • But his Report, published in the following year, is a masterly survey of the situation and included recommendations that profoundly influenced the later history of Canada.

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  • The French element he thought a menace to Canada's future, and partly for this reason he desired all the provinces to unite so that the British element should be dominant.

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  • To carry out Lord Durham's policy the British government passed in 1840 an Act of Union joining Upper and Lower Canada, and sent out as governor Charles Poulett Thompson, who was made Baron Sydenham and Toronto.

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