Cambyses Sentence Examples
The traditions about Cambyses, preserved by the Greek authors, come from two different sources.
Away in the East Cyrus had been succeeded in 529 B.C. by Cambyses, who had annexed Egypt and on whose death in 522 a Magian impostor, Gaumata, had seized the throne.
Now we know that Cyrus was buried at Pasargadae and if there is any truth in the statement that the body of Cambyses was brought home " to the Persians " his burying-place must be sought somewhere beside that of his father.
Thus, when Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, made his great expedition against Egypt, with the fleets of Phoenicia and Cyprus and with the camels of the Arabians, it is highly probable that Palestine itself was concerned.
In 530, having appointed his son Cambyses king of Babel, he set out for a new expedition against the East.Advertisement
The oasis was traversed by the army of Cambyses when on its way to the oasis of Ammon (Siwa), the army perishing in the desert before reaching its destination.
On a tablet dated from the first year of Cyrus, Cambyses is called king of Babel.
Cambyses began to march against him, but seeing that his cause was hopeless, killed himself in the spring of 521 (but see further Cambyses).
The history of the false Smerdis is narrated by Herodotus and Ctesias according to official traditions; Cambyses before his death confessed to the murder of his brother, and in public explained the whole fraud.
A public mourning followed, which lasted six days, and Cambyses accompanied the corpse to the tomb.Advertisement
A year before his death, in 529 B.C., he associated his son Cambyses in the government, making him king of Babylon, while he reserved for himself the fuller title of " king of the (other) provinces " of the empire.
Only crude brick ruins and rubbish heaps remain on the site, but a few relics conveyed to Alexandria and Europe in the Roman age have come down to our day, notably the inscribed statue of a priest of Neith who was high in favour with Psammetichus III., Cambyses and Darius.
It is more probable that the breach of the compact was due to Polycrates, for when Cambyses of Persia invaded Egypt (525) the Samian tyrant offered to support him with a naval contingent.
This squadron never reached Egypt, for the crews, composed as they were of Polycrates' political enemies, suspecting that Cambyses was under agreement to slay them, put back to Samos and attacked their master.
It is therefore remarkable that the priests contrived to bury one of the animals in the fourth year of Cambyses.Advertisement
Cyrus left Egypt unmolested; but the last years of Amasis were disturbed by the threatened invasion of Cambyses and by the rupture of the alliance with Polycrates of Samos.
After the death of Cambyses, the younger line of the Achaemenidae came to the throne with Darius, the son of Hystaspes, who was, like Cyrus, the great-grandson of TeIspes.
Of the Persians, however, not even Darius is traceable at Thebes; on the other hand, there is no support for the tradition that Cambyses destroyed its monuments.
A few months after his death, 525 B.C., the invading host of the Persians led by Cambyses reached Egypt and dethroned his son Psammetichus III.
Xerxes, 486467 B.C., who put down the revolt with severity, and his successor Artaxerxes, 466425 B.C., like Cambyses, were hateful to the Egyptians.Advertisement
The inscriptions of Pefteuauneit, priest of Neith at Sais, and from his position the native authority who was most likely to be consulted by, Cambyses and Darius, tells of his relations with these two kings.
The first name is that of Theagenes of Rhegium, contemporary of Cambyses (525 B.C.), who is said to have founded the " new grammar " (the older " grammar " being the art of reading and writing), and to have been the inventor of the allegorical interpretations by which it was sought to reconcile the Homeric mythology with the morality and speculative ideas of the 6th century B.C. The same attitude in the " ancient quarrel of poetry and philosophy " was soon afterwards taken by Anaxagoras; and after him by his pupil Metrodorus of Lampsacus, who explained away all the gods, and even the heroes, as elementary substances and forces (Agamemnon as the upper air, &c.).
Here the sequence of the reigns in the Biblical writer and in the profane historians - in the one, Cyrus, Ahasuerus, Artaxerxes, Darius; in the other, Cyrus, Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius - led in the past (Ewald, &c.) to the identification of Ahasuerus with Cambyses (529-522 B.e.), son of Cyrus.
The east of Iran was further subdued, and, after Cyrus met his end (528 B.C.) in a war against the eastern Nomads (Dahae, Massagetae), his son Cambyses conquered Egypt (525 B.C.).
Within the empire, the two great civilized states incorporated by Cyrus and Cambyses, Babylon and Egypt, occupied a position of their own.Advertisement
So, in Egypt, Cambyses adopted in full the titles of the Pharaohs.
The extent of the Persian Empire was, in essentials, defined by the great conquests of Cyrus and Cambyses.
Though, unlike Cyrus and Cambyses, Darius made no new expeditions of conquest, yet a great empire, which is not bounded The wars by another equally great, but touches on many small against tribes and independent communities, is inevitably Greece.
After the death of his father in the spring of 528 Cambyses became sole king.
Intermingled are some stories derived from the Greek mercenaries, especially about their leader Phanes of Halicarnassus, who 1 On the much discussed tablet, which is said to date from his 1 ith year, the writer had at first written "loth year of Cyrus," and then corrected this date into "1st year of Cambyses"; see Strassmaier, Inschriften von Cambyses, No.
In the Persian tradition the crime of Cambyses is the murder of his brother; he is further accused of drunkenness, in which he commits many crimes, and thus accelerates his ruin.
With the exception of Babylonian dated tablets and some Egyptian inscriptions, we possess no contemporary evidence about the reign of Cambyses but the short account of Darius in the Behistun inscription.
It is impossible from these sources to form a correct picture of Cambyses' character; but it seems certain that he was a wild despot and that he was led by drunkenness to many atrocious deeds.
It was quite natural that, after Cyrus had conquered Asia, Cambyses should undertake the conquest of Egypt, the only remaining independent state of the Eastern world.
Cambyses had prepared for the march through the desert by an alliance with Arabian chieftains, who brought a large supply of water to the stations.
The Egyptian inscriptions show that Cambyses officially adopted the titles and the costume of the Pharaohs, although we may very well believe that he did not conceal his contempt for the customs and the religion of the Egyptians.
From Egypt Cambyses attempted the conquest of Ethiopia (Cush), i.e.
Cambyses attempted to march against him, but, seeing probably that success was impossible, died by his own hand (March 521).
Shortly after his accession he was threatened with invasion by Cambyses, the Persian conqueror of Egypt, but (according to his own account) destroyed the fleet sent by the invader up the Nile, while (as we learn from Herodotus) the land-force succumbed to famine (see Cambyses).
On the other hand, an expedition by Cambyses against the Ethiopian kingdom of Napata and Meroe came to grief in Nubia.
Indeed, it was claimed that Cambyses had left the sanctuary unharmed but had destroyed the temples of the Egyptians.
Cyrus The Great, the founder of the Persian empire, was the son of Cambyses I.