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calyx

calyx

calyx Sentence Examples

  • - Calyx and pistil of Fraxinella (Dictamnus Fraxinella).

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  • hyacinth, we calyx and FIG.

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  • In his arrangement the last subdivision disappears, and the Dicotyledons fall into two groups, a larger containing those in which both calyx and corolla are present in the flower, and a smaller, Monochlamydeae, representing the Apetalae and Diclines Irregulares of Jussieu.

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  • The bracts on the flower-stalk are either small and scattered or large and leafy, and then placed near the flower, forming a sort of outer calyx or epicalyx.

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  • It is this second bract or flowering glume which has been generally called by systematists the " lower pale," and with the " upper pale " was formerly considered to form an outer floral envelope (" calyx," Jussieu; " perianthium," Brown).

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  • It is this second bract or flowering glume which has been generally called by systematists the " lower pale," and with the " upper pale " was formerly considered to form an outer floral envelope (" calyx," Jussieu; " perianthium," Brown).

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  • terminal scorpioid cymes, small blue, pink or white flowers, a five-cleft persistent calyx, a salveror funnel-shaped corolla, having its mouth closed by five short scales and hard, smooth, shining nutlets.

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  • terminal scorpioid cymes, small blue, pink or white flowers, a five-cleft persistent calyx, a salveror funnel-shaped corolla, having its mouth closed by five short scales and hard, smooth, shining nutlets.

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  • Calyx.

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  • The calyx is a long tube, or a series of connected tubes, situated above the core barrel, to which it is equal in diameter.

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  • The calyx is small, smooth and divided into five obtuse sepals.

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  • r,The dorsal suture; b, the ventral;c, calyx; s, seeds.

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  • The bracts are usually scale-like, but sometimes foliaceous, as for instance in Calystegia, where they are large and envelop the calyx.

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  • Flower removed from 2, Calyx.

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  • The stamens are diadelphous, nine of them being united by their filaments f, while the uppermost one (e) is free; st, stigma, c, calyx.

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  • (2) Explosive flowers where stamens I, Calyx.

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  • 35 shows a flower of heath, with four divisions of the calyx and corolla, eight stamens in two rows, and four divisions of the pistil.

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  • 37 there are three divisions of the calyx, corolla and pistil, and six stamens in two rows.

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  • The calyx and corolla consist of five parts, the stamens are ten in two rows, while the pistil has only two parts developed.

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  • Thus, in many Caryophyllaceae, as Polycarpon and Holosteum, while the calyx and corolla are pentamerous, there are only three or four stamens and three carpels; in Impatiens Noli-me-tangere the calyx is composed of three parts, while the other verticils have five; in labiate flowers there are five parts of the calyx and corolla, and only four stamens; and in Tropaeolum pentaphyllum there are five sepals, two petals, eight stamens and three carpels.

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  • We next have flowers in which the calyx is suppressed, and its place occupied by one, two or three bracts (so that the flower is, properly speaking, achlamydeous), and only one or two stamens are produced.

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  • There is thus traced a degradation, as it is called, from a flower with three stamens and three divisions of the calyx, to one with a single bract and a single stamen.

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  • The limb of the calyx may appear as a rim, as in some Umbelliferae; or as pappus, in Compositae and Valeriana.

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  • In Capparidaceae the calyx and petals occupy their usual position, but the axis is prolonged in the form of a gynophore, to which the stamens are united.

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  • The divisions of the Calyx.

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  • calyx present usually the characters of leaves, and in some cases of monstrosity they are converted into leaf-like organs, as not infrequently happens in primulas.

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  • Whatever be its colour, the external envelope of the flower is considered as the calyx.

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  • The venation is useful as pointing out the number of leaves which constitute a gamosepalous calyx.

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  • In a polysepalous calyx the number of the parts is indicated by Greek numerals prefixed; thus, a calyx which has three sepals is trisepalous; one with five sepals is pentasepalous.

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  • In a gamosepalous calyx the sepals are united in various ways, sometimes very slightly, and their number is marked by the divisions at the apex.

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  • 49); or they extend down the calyx as fissures about halfway, FIG.

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  • - Gamosepalous five-toothed calyx of Campion (Lychnis).

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  • Obsolete calyx (c) of Madder (Rubia) adherent to the pistil, in the form of a rim.

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  • - Caducous calyx (c) of Poppy.

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  • - Fruit of Physalis Alkekengi, consisting of the persistent calyx (s), surrounding the berry (fr), derived from the ovary.

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  • (After Duchartre.) the calyx being trifid (three-cleft), quinquefid (five-cleft), &c., according to their number; or they reach to near the base in the form of partitions, the calyx being tripartite, quadripartite, quinquepartite, &c. The union of the parts may be complete, and the calyx may be quite entire or truncate, as in some Correas, the venation being the chief indication of the different parts.

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  • The cohesion is sometimes irregular, some parts uniting to a greater extent than others; thus a two-lipped or labiate calyx is formed.

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  • The part formed by the union of the sepals is called the tube of the calyx; the portion where the sepals are free is the limb.

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  • In Potentilla and allied genera an epicalyx is formed by the development of stipules from the sepals, which form an apparent outer calyx, the parts of which alternate with the true sepals.

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  • In Valeriana the superior calyx is at first an obsolete rim, but as the fruit ripens it is shown to consist of hairs rolled inwards, which expand so as to waft the fruit.

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  • Such a calyx is operculate or calyptrate.

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  • The existence or non-existence of an articulation determines the deciduous or persistent nature of the calyx.

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  • The receptacle bearing the calyx is sometimes united to the pistil, and enlarges so as to form a part of the fruit, as in the apple, pear, &c. In these fruits the withered calyx is seen at the apex.

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  • In some cases, however, they are transformed into leaves, like the calyx, and occasionally leaf-buds are developed in their axil.

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  • In such cases the tube varies in length, and the parts in their union follow the reverse order of what occurs in the calyx, where two sepals are united in the lower lip and three in the upper.

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  • In the natural order Ranunculaceae, some genera, such as Ranunculus, globe-flower and paeony, have both calyx and corolla, while others, such as clematis, anemone and Caltha, have only a coloured calyx.

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  • Sometimes they become adherent to the petals, or are epipetalous, and the insertion of both is looked upon as similar, so that they are still hypogynous, provided they are independent of the calyx and the pistil.

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  • s, Sepals joined to form a gamosepalous calyx; c, corolla consisting of tube and spreading limb; a, stamens springing from the mouth of the tube; p, pistil.

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  • c, Calyx; p, petal; e, stamen; s, stigmas.

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  • The calyx, petals and stamens spring from above the ovary (o) in which two chambers are shown each with a pendulous ovule; d, disc between the stamens and stigmas.

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  • The stamens are diadelphous, nine of them being united by their filaments (f), while one of them (e) is free; st, stigma; c, calyx.

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  • When the pistil consists centa; s,withered style and of several separate carpels, or is stigma; c, persistent calyx.

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  • I, Vertical; 2, horizontal section; c, calyx; d, wall of ovary; o, ovules; p, placenta; s, stigma.

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  • The ovary enlarges, and, with the seeds enclosed, constitutes the fruit, frequently incorporated with which are other parts of the flower, as receptacle, calyx, &c. In gymnosperms the pollen-tubes, having penetrated a certain distance down the tissue of the nucellus, are usually arrested in growth for a longer or shorter period, sometimes nearly a year.

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  • small persistent, 5-dentate calyx, 5 petals, 1 0 stamens, a sessile 3 to 5-chambered ovary, a long style, and a 3-lobed stigma; fruit trigonal or pentagonal; and seed compressed.

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  • Do not allow pots to dry out completely, this could weaken the stems and lead to split calyx.

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  • The flower head becomes a prickly seed head, with each individual flower producing a stiff spiky calyx holding the seed.

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  • The fruits are shiny black berries, surrounded by a persistent calyx, which looks like a star.

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  • Falling pistils mark the end of the developmental cycle of the individual pistillate calyx.

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  • Mechanical injury by hairy calyx can occur (Muenscher 1951 ).

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  • Each individual flower produces its own seed, which is held tightly in the spiky calyx.

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  • The tips of its delicate pink petals peered above the clasping green calyx.

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  • Joker a deep red with a small calyx and Green Mist to name but two.

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  • calyx bands to be removed before staging.

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  • calyx production occurs simultaneously with peak resin production is a breeding goal not yet attained.

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  • calyx growth has ceased.

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  • calyx percentage ranges from 30 to 70% of the dry weight of the seedless floral clusters, depending on variety and harvest date.

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  • target calyx entry successful at first attempt in all cases.

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  • A flower containing a burst calyx must be disqualified.

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  • calyx of a flower.

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  • pistillate calyx.

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  • purplish flowers with long pointed calyx.

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  • Glossary: Calyx: hard outer cup of the coral skeleton, within which the polyp lives.

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  • k, Calyx.

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  • Similar views were arrived at by Goethe, though by the deductive rather than the inductive method, and were propounded in his famous pamphlet, Versuch die Metamorphose der Pfianzen zu erklren (1790), from which the following is a quotation: The underlying relationship between the various external parts of the plant, such as the leaves, the calyx, the corolla, the stamens, which develop one after the other and, as it were, out of one another has long been generally recognized by investigators, and has iii fact been specially studied; and the operation by which onc and the same organ presents itself to us in various forms has been termed Metamorphosis of Plants.

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  • The conformation of those flowers a consists essentially in the pres- ' 'A B ence of a six-parted perianth, the three outer segments of which correspond to a calyx, the three inner ones to a corolla.

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  • In both cases the socalled fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the flower-stalk (the so-called calyx tube) greatly dilated, and enclosing within its cellular flesh the five cartilaginous carpels which constitute the "core" and are really the true fruit.

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  • The Davis calyx drill has also been employed for petroleum drilling.

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  • The bit or cutter consists of a cylindrical The Calyx metallic shell, the lower end of which is made, by a Drill.

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  • The calyx is a long tube, or a series of connected tubes, situated above the core barrel, to which it is equal in diameter.

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  • Calyx surrounding nutlets.

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  • Same part of calyx cut away.

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  • The specimens should be collected when the capsules are just appearing above or in the colesule or calyx; if kept in a damp saucer they soon arrive at maturity, and can then be mounted in better condition, the fruit-stalks being too fragile to bear carriage in a botanical tin case without injury.

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  • p, a thickened line on the walls forming the placenta; c, calyx; d, ovary; s, hooded stigma terminating the short style.

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  • Two of the petals placed under the hood of the calyx are supported on long stalks, and have a hollow spur at their apex, containing honey.

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  • The bracts are usually scale-like, but sometimes foliaceous, as for instance in Calystegia, where they are large and envelop the calyx.

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  • Each has a small calyx in the form of a shallow rim, sometimes five-lobed or toothed; five petals, which cohere by their tips and form a cap or hood, which is pushed off when the stamens are ripe; and five free stamens, placed opposite the petals and springing from a fleshy ring or disk surrounding the ovary; each bears a twocelled anther.

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  • The divisions of the calyx extend only about one-third the length of the corolla, whereas in the other British species of Myosotis it is deeply cleft.

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  • Flower removed from 2, Calyx.

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  • The calyx is small, smooth and divided into five obtuse sepals.

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  • In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination is effected.

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  • In his arrangement the last subdivision disappears, and the Dicotyledons fall into two groups, a larger containing those in which both calyx and corolla are present in the flower, and a smaller, Monochlamydeae, representing the Apetalae and Diclines Irregulares of Jussieu.

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  • The stamens are diadelphous, nine of them being united by their filaments f, while the uppermost one (e) is free; st, stigma, c, calyx.

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  • (2) Explosive flowers where stamens I, Calyx.

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  • r,The dorsal suture; b, the ventral;c, calyx; s, seeds.

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  • The bracts on the flower-stalk are either small and scattered or large and leafy, and then placed near the flower, forming a sort of outer calyx or epicalyx.

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  • In the formation of colonies by division a constriction at right angles to the long axis of the mouth involves first the mouth, then the peristome, and finally the calyx itself, so that the previously single corallite becomes divided into two (fig.

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  • Massive meandrine corals are produced by continual repetition of a process of incomplete division, involving the mouth and to some extent the peristome: the calyx, however, does not divide, but elongates to form a characteristic meandrine channel containing several zooid mouths.

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  • (In this Silurian genus the calyx is provided with a movable operculum, consisting of four paired triangular pieces, the bases of each being attached to the sides of the calyx, and their apices meeting in the middle when the operculum is closed).

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  • The calyx is triangular in section, pointed below, and the operculum is attached to it by hinge-like teeth.) Authorities.

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  • The idea of a calyculate ancestor, though by no means connoting fixation, turned men's minds in the direction of the fixed forms, simply because in them the calyx was best developed.

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  • The flowers have an urn-shaped calyx which persists around the fruit and is strongly veined, with five stiff, broad, almost prickly lobes; these, when the soft matter is removed by maceration, form very elegant specimens when associated with leaves prepared in a similar way.

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  • The flowers spring from, or are enclosed in, a spathe, and are unisexual and regular, with generally a calyx and corolla, each of three members; the stamens are in whorls of three, the inner whorls are often barren; the two to fifteen carpels form an inferior ovary containing generally numerous ovules on often large, produced, parietal placentas.

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  • When the flower is sessile the bracts are often applied closely to the calyx, and may thus be confounded with it, as in the order Malvaceae and species of Dianthus and winter aconite (Eranthis), where they have received the name of epicalyx or calyculus.

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  • 22, we recognize four distinct whorls of leaves: an outer whorl, the calyx of sepals; within it, another whorl, the parts alternating with those of the outer whorl, the corolla of petals; next a whorl of parts alternating with the parts of the corolla, the androecium of stamens; and in the centre the gynoecium of carpels.

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  • Sometimes, as usually in monocotyledons, the calyx and corolla are similar; in such cases the term perianth, or perigone, is applied.

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  • Thus, in the tulip, crocus, lily, speak of the parts of the perianth, in place of corolla, although in these plants there is an outer whorl (calyx), of three parts, and an inner (corolla), of a similar number, alternating with them.

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  • When the parts of the calyx are in appearance like petals they are said to be petaloid, as in Liliaceae.

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  • In plants, as Nymphaea alba, where a spiral arrangement of the floral leaves occurs, it is not easy to say where the calyx ends and the corolla begins, as these two whorls pass insensibly into each other.

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  • When both calyx and corolla are present, the plants are dichlamydeous; when one only is present, the flower is termed monochlamydeous or apetalous, having no petals (fig.

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  • This arrangement is known as hypogynous, the other series (calyx, corolla and stamens) being beneath (hypo-) the gynoecium.

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  • - Monochlamydeous (apetalous) flower of Goosefoot (Chenopodium), consisting of a single perianth (calyx) of five parts, enclosing five stamens, which are opposite the divisions of the perianth, owing to the absence of the petals.

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  • hyacinth, we calyx and FIG.

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  • - Calyx and pistil of Fraxinella (Dictamnus Fraxinella).

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  • 35 shows a flower of heath, with four divisions of the calyx and corolla, eight stamens in two rows, and four divisions of the pistil.

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  • 37 there are three divisions of the calyx, corolla and pistil, and six stamens in two rows.

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  • The calyx and corolla consist of five parts, the stamens are ten in two rows, while the pistil has only two parts developed.

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  • In a pentamerous flower one sepal may be superior, as in the calyx of Rosaceae and Labiatae; or it may be inferior, as in the calyx of Leguminosae (fig.

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  • Thus, in many Caryophyllaceae, as Polycarpon and Holosteum, while the calyx and corolla are pentamerous, there are only three or four stamens and three carpels; in Impatiens Noli-me-tangere the calyx is composed of three parts, while the other verticils have five; in labiate flowers there are five parts of the calyx and corolla, and only four stamens; and in Tropaeolum pentaphyllum there are five sepals, two petals, eight stamens and three carpels.

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  • We next have flowers in which the calyx is suppressed, and its place occupied by one, two or three bracts (so that the flower is, properly speaking, achlamydeous), and only one or two stamens are produced.

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  • There is thus traced a degradation, as it is called, from a flower with three stamens and three divisions of the calyx, to one with a single bract and a single stamen.

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  • The limb of the calyx may appear as a rim, as in some Umbelliferae; or as pappus, in Compositae and Valeriana.

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  • In Capparidaceae the calyx and petals occupy their usual position, but the axis is prolonged in the form of a gynophore, to which the stamens are united.

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  • The calyx is marked c. also the case with the Ranunculus, the auricula and the carnation.

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  • calyx of some species of clematis and of some herbaceous plants, or rolled up at the edges (involute or revolute), or folded transversely, becoming crumpled or corrugated, as in the poppy.

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  • But in spiral flowers we have a different arrangement; thus the leaves of the calyx of Camellia japonica cover each other partially like tiles on a house.

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  • Thus, in Malvaceae the corolla is contorted and the calyx valuate, or reduplicate; in St John's-wort the calyx is imbricate, and the corolla contorted.

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  • In Convolvulaceae, while the corolla is twisted, and has its parts arranged in a circle, the calyx is imbricate, and exhibits a spiral arrangement.

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  • In Guazuma the calyx is valvate, and the corolla induplicate.

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  • The circular aestivation is generally associated with a regular calyx and corolla, while the spiral aestivations are connected with irregular as well as with regular forms.

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  • The sepals are sometimes free or separate from each other, at other times they are united to a greater or less extent; in the former case, the calyx is polysepalous, in the latter gamosepalous or monosepalous.

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  • The divisions of the Calyx.

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  • calyx present usually the characters of leaves, and in some cases of monstrosity they are converted into leaf-like organs, as not infrequently happens in primulas.

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  • Whatever be its colour, the external envelope of the flower is considered as the calyx.

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  • The venation is useful as pointing out the number of leaves which constitute a gamosepalous calyx.

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  • In a polysepalous calyx the number of the parts is indicated by Greek numerals prefixed; thus, a calyx which has three sepals is trisepalous; one with five sepals is pentasepalous.

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  • In a gamosepalous calyx the sepals are united in various ways, sometimes very slightly, and their number is marked by the divisions at the apex.

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  • 49); or they extend down the calyx as fissures about halfway, FIG.

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  • - Gamosepalous five-toothed calyx of Campion (Lychnis).

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  • Obsolete calyx (c) of Madder (Rubia) adherent to the pistil, in the form of a rim.

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  • - Caducous calyx (c) of Poppy.

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  • - Fruit of Physalis Alkekengi, consisting of the persistent calyx (s), surrounding the berry (fr), derived from the ovary.

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  • (After Duchartre.) the calyx being trifid (three-cleft), quinquefid (five-cleft), &c., according to their number; or they reach to near the base in the form of partitions, the calyx being tripartite, quadripartite, quinquepartite, &c. The union of the parts may be complete, and the calyx may be quite entire or truncate, as in some Correas, the venation being the chief indication of the different parts.

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  • The cohesion is sometimes irregular, some parts uniting to a greater extent than others; thus a two-lipped or labiate calyx is formed.

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  • The part formed by the union of the sepals is called the tube of the calyx; the portion where the sepals are free is the limb.

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  • In Potentilla and allied genera an epicalyx is formed by the development of stipules from the sepals, which form an apparent outer calyx, the parts of which alternate with the true sepals.

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  • Degenerations take place in the calyx, so that it becomes dry, scaly and glumaceous (like the glumes of grasses), as in the rushes (Juncaceae); hairy, as in Compositae; or a mere rim, as in some Umbelliferae and Acanthaceae, and in Madder (Rubia tinctorum, fig.

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  • In Compositae, Dipsacaceae and Valerianaceae the calyx is attached to the pistil, and its limb is developed in the form of hairs called pappus (fig.

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  • In Valeriana the superior calyx is at first an obsolete rim, but as the fruit ripens it is shown to consist of hairs rolled inwards, which expand so as to waft the fruit.

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  • The calyx sometimes falls off before the flower expands, as in poppies, and is caducous (fig.

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  • Such a calyx is operculate or calyptrate.

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  • The existence or non-existence of an articulation determines the deciduous or persistent nature of the calyx.

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  • The receptacle bearing the calyx is sometimes united to the pistil, and enlarges so as to form a part of the fruit, as in the apple, pear, &c. In these fruits the withered calyx is seen at the apex.

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  • Sometimes a persistent calyx increases much after flowering, and encloses the fruit without being incorporated with it, becoming accrescent, as in various species of Physalis (fig.

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  • In some cases, however, they are transformed into leaves, like the calyx, and occasionally leaf-buds are developed in their axil.

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  • In such cases the tube varies in length, and the parts in their union follow the reverse order of what occurs in the calyx, where two sepals are united in the lower lip and three in the upper.

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  • In the natural order Ranunculaceae, some genera, such as Ranunculus, globe-flower and paeony, have both calyx and corolla, while others, such as clematis, anemone and Caltha, have only a coloured calyx.

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  • Sometimes they become adherent to the petals, or are epipetalous, and the insertion of both is looked upon as similar, so that they are still hypogynous, provided they are independent of the calyx and the pistil.

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  • s, Sepals joined to form a gamosepalous calyx; c, corolla consisting of tube and spreading limb; a, stamens springing from the mouth of the tube; p, pistil.

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  • c, Calyx; p, petal; e, stamen; s, stigmas.

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  • The calyx, petals and stamens spring from above the ovary (o) in which two chambers are shown each with a pendulous ovule; d, disc between the stamens and stigmas.

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  • The stamens are diadelphous, nine of them being united by their filaments (f), while one of them (e) is free; st, stigma; c, calyx.

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  • When the pistil consists centa; s,withered style and of several separate carpels, or is stigma; c, persistent calyx.

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  • I, Vertical; 2, horizontal section; c, calyx; d, wall of ovary; o, ovules; p, placenta; s, stigma.

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  • The ovary enlarges, and, with the seeds enclosed, constitutes the fruit, frequently incorporated with which are other parts of the flower, as receptacle, calyx, &c. In gymnosperms the pollen-tubes, having penetrated a certain distance down the tissue of the nucellus, are usually arrested in growth for a longer or shorter period, sometimes nearly a year.

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  • small persistent, 5-dentate calyx, 5 petals, 1 0 stamens, a sessile 3 to 5-chambered ovary, a long style, and a 3-lobed stigma; fruit trigonal or pentagonal; and seed compressed.

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  • Flowers: large solitary purplish flowers with long pointed calyx.

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  • Glossary: Calyx: hard outer cup of the coral skeleton, within which the polyp lives.

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  • There are very few, if any, double varieties, but some varieties are curious and interesting from the duplication of the calyx or-corolla; these are popularly known as "hose-in-hose" Polyanthus.

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  • Jenkinsi. R. calophyllum is practically the same thing, but a distinction is founded on the shorter calyx lobes and much smaller seed vessels.

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  • The conformation of those flowers a consists essentially in the pres- ' 'A B ence of a six-parted perianth, the three outer segments of which correspond to a calyx, the three inner ones to a corolla.

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  • In both cases the socalled fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the flower-stalk (the so-called calyx tube) greatly dilated, and enclosing within its cellular flesh the five cartilaginous carpels which constitute the "core" and are really the true fruit.

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  • The Davis calyx drill has also been employed for petroleum drilling.

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  • The bit or cutter consists of a cylindrical The Calyx metallic shell, the lower end of which is made, by a Drill.

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  • Calyx surrounding nutlets.

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  • Same part of calyx cut away.

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  • p, a thickened line on the walls forming the placenta; c, calyx; d, ovary; s, hooded stigma terminating the short style.

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  • Two of the petals placed under the hood of the calyx are supported on long stalks, and have a hollow spur at their apex, containing honey.

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  • The parts of the flower are in fives in calyx, corolla and stamens, followed by two carpels which unite to form a superior ovary.

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  • Each has a small calyx in the form of a shallow rim, sometimes five-lobed or toothed; five petals, which cohere by their tips and form a cap or hood, which is pushed off when the stamens are ripe; and five free stamens, placed opposite the petals and springing from a fleshy ring or disk surrounding the ovary; each bears a twocelled anther.

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  • a, Flowering branch reduced); b, calyx showing form of teeth (enlarged).

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  • The divisions of the calyx extend only about one-third the length of the corolla, whereas in the other British species of Myosotis it is deeply cleft.

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  • - Diagram of the flowers of the three forms of Lythrum salicaria in their natural position, with the petals and calyx removed on the near side.

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  • In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination is effected.

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  • Apart from this, botanists are generally agreed that the concrescence of parts of the flower-whorls - in the gynaeceum as the seed-covering, and in the corolla as the seat of attraction, more than in the androecium and the calyx - is an indication of advance, as is also the concrescence that gives the condition of epigyny.

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  • (In this Silurian genus the calyx is provided with a movable operculum, consisting of four paired triangular pieces, the bases of each being attached to the sides of the calyx, and their apices meeting in the middle when the operculum is closed).

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  • The calyx is triangular in section, pointed below, and the operculum is attached to it by hinge-like teeth.) Authorities.

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  • The idea of a calyculate ancestor, though by no means connoting fixation, turned men's minds in the direction of the fixed forms, simply because in them the calyx was best developed.

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  • The flowers have an urn-shaped calyx which persists around the fruit and is strongly veined, with five stiff, broad, almost prickly lobes; these, when the soft matter is removed by maceration, form very elegant specimens when associated with leaves prepared in a similar way.

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  • The flowers spring from, or are enclosed in, a spathe, and are unisexual and regular, with generally a calyx and corolla, each of three members; the stamens are in whorls of three, the inner whorls are often barren; the two to fifteen carpels form an inferior ovary containing generally numerous ovules on often large, produced, parietal placentas.

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  • When the flower is sessile the bracts are often applied closely to the calyx, and may thus be confounded with it, as in the order Malvaceae and species of Dianthus and winter aconite (Eranthis), where they have received the name of epicalyx or calyculus.

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  • 22, we recognize four distinct whorls of leaves: an outer whorl, the calyx of sepals; within it, another whorl, the parts alternating with those of the outer whorl, the corolla of petals; next a whorl of parts alternating with the parts of the corolla, the androecium of stamens; and in the centre the gynoecium of carpels.

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  • Sometimes, as usually in monocotyledons, the calyx and corolla are similar; in such cases the term perianth, or perigone, is applied.

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  • Thus, in the tulip, crocus, lily, speak of the parts of the perianth, in place of corolla, although in these plants there is an outer whorl (calyx), of three parts, and an inner (corolla), of a similar number, alternating with them.

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  • When the parts of the calyx are in appearance like petals they are said to be petaloid, as in Liliaceae.

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  • In plants, as Nymphaea alba, where a spiral arrangement of the floral leaves occurs, it is not easy to say where the calyx ends and the corolla begins, as these two whorls pass insensibly into each other.

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  • A flower then normally consists of the four series of leaves - calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium - and when these are all present the flower is complete.

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  • Thus in Lychnis an elongation of the axis betwixt the calyx and the corolla takes place, and in this way they are separated by an interval.

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  • This arrangement is known as hypogynous, the other series (calyx, corolla and stamens) being beneath (hypo-) the gynoecium.

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  • - Monochlamydeous (apetalous) flower of Goosefoot (Chenopodium), consisting of a single perianth (calyx) of five parts, enclosing five stamens, which are opposite the divisions of the perianth, owing to the absence of the petals.

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  • The calyx is marked c. also the case with the Ranunculus, the auricula and the carnation.

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  • calyx of some species of clematis and of some herbaceous plants, or rolled up at the edges (involute or revolute), or folded transversely, becoming crumpled or corrugated, as in the poppy.

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  • But in spiral flowers we have a different arrangement; thus the leaves of the calyx of Camellia japonica cover each other partially like tiles on a house.

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  • This is also seen in a transverse section of the calyx of Magnolia grandiflora, where each of the three leaves embraces that within it.

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  • Thus, in Malvaceae the corolla is contorted and the calyx valuate, or reduplicate; in St John's-wort the calyx is imbricate, and the corolla contorted.

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  • In Convolvulaceae, while the corolla is twisted, and has its parts arranged in a circle, the calyx is imbricate, and exhibits a spiral arrangement.

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  • In Guazuma the calyx is valvate, and the corolla induplicate.

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  • The circular aestivation is generally associated with a regular calyx and corolla, while the spiral aestivations are connected with irregular as well as with regular forms.

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  • The sepals are sometimes free or separate from each other, at other times they are united to a greater or less extent; in the former case, the calyx is polysepalous, in the latter gamosepalous or monosepalous.

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  • The parts of the flower are in fives in calyx, corolla and stamens, followed by two carpels which unite to form a superior ovary.

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  • a, Flowering branch reduced); b, calyx showing form of teeth (enlarged).

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  • - Diagram of the flowers of the three forms of Lythrum salicaria in their natural position, with the petals and calyx removed on the near side.

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  • Apart from this, botanists are generally agreed that the concrescence of parts of the flower-whorls - in the gynaeceum as the seed-covering, and in the corolla as the seat of attraction, more than in the androecium and the calyx - is an indication of advance, as is also the concrescence that gives the condition of epigyny.

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  • A flower then normally consists of the four series of leaves - calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium - and when these are all present the flower is complete.

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  • Thus in Lychnis an elongation of the axis betwixt the calyx and the corolla takes place, and in this way they are separated by an interval.

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  • This is also seen in a transverse section of the calyx of Magnolia grandiflora, where each of the three leaves embraces that within it.

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