On the problem of divine election Lutheranism and Calvinism remained divided.
It is possible that this is, in part, due to the artistic blight of the Calvinism which so long dominated the town.
Unitarian tendencies away from the Calvinism of the old Congregational churches were plainly evident about 1750, and it is said by Andrew P. Peabody (1811-1893) that by 1780 nearly all the Congregational pulpits around Boston were filled by Unitarians.
He was a powerful preacher and teacher, who broke from Calvinism in denying imputation and teaching perfect freedom of the will, by which perfect holiness might be attained.
Calvinism, indeed, rather recommended itself to the Poles as being of non-German origin, and Calvin actually dedicated his Commentary on the Mass to the young krolewicz (or crown prince) Sigismund Augustus, from whom protestantism, erroneously enough, expected much in the future.
The chief of them, written against Calvinism, are Five Checks to Antinomianism, Scripture Scales to weigh the Gold of Gospel Truth, and the Portrait of St Paul.
Substantially he held fast the Calvinism of his preceptor Cameron; but, like Richard Baxter in England, by his breadth and charity he exposed himself to all manner of misconstruction.
His Irenicum vere christianum is directed against David Pareus (1548-1622), professor primarius at Heidelberg, who in Irenicum sive de unione et synodo Evangelicorum (1614) had pleaded for a reconciliation of Lutheranism and Calvinism; his Calvinista aulopoliticus (1610) was written against the "damnable Calvinism" which was becoming prevalent in Holstein and Brandenburg.
He was an able controversialist, and in the interests of Arminianism attacked both New England Calvinism and Unitarianism; he published in 1837 The Calvinistic Controversy.
1613), a mild divine, who had written a treatise on persuasion in religion, urging that as to it "men could be led, not driven"; Lambert Danaeus, who deserves remembrance as the first to discuss Christian ethics scientifically, apart from dogmatics; Johannes Drusius, the Orientalist, one of the most enlightened and advanced scholars of his day, settled later at Franeker; Johann Kolmann the younger, best known by his saying that high Calvinism made God "both a tyrant and an executioner."
Before taking orders in 1658 he was in the habit of preaching as the champion of Calvinism against Socinianism and Arminianism.
While he was fundamentally at one with Luther in opposing both Romanism and Calvinism, his mysticism led him to interpret justification by faith as not an imputation but an infusion of the essential righteousness or divine nature of Christ.
It shows the influence of Arminian theology against Calvinism, which was vigorously upheld in the Quin-particular formula, put forward by the synod of Dort in 1619 to uphold the five points of Calvinism, after heated discussion, in which English delegates took part, of the problems of divine omniscience and human free-will.
Against the Calvinists the synod of 1672 therefore aimed its rejection of unconditional predestination and of justification by faith alone, also its advocacy of what are substantially the Roman doctrines of transubstantiation and of purgatory; the Oriental hostility to Calvinism had been fanned by the Jesuits.
Brought up a Lutheran, and fond of pleasure, she had shown no liking for Scottish Calvinism, and soon incurred rebukes on account of her religion, "vanity," absence from church, "night waking and balling."
In the Habsburg hereditary dominions the traditional policy and Catholic fervour of the ruling house resulted, after a long struggle, in the restoration of the supremacy of Rome; while in Hungary the national spirit of independence kept Calvinism alive to divide the religious allegiance of the people.
Scottish Calvinism was destined to exercise no little influence, not only on the history of England, but on the form that the Protestant faith was to take in lands beyond the seas, at the time scarcely known to the Europeans.
Gradually the dispute pervaded all classes of society, and the religious questions became entangled with political issues; the partisans of the house of Orange espoused the cause of the stricter Calvinism, whereas the bourgeois oligarchy of republican tendencies, led by Oldenbarnevelt and Hugo Grotius, stood for Arminianism.
Under his son Christian I., who succeeded in 1586, the chief power was wielded by the chancellor Nikolas Crell, who strongly favoured Calvinism; but, when Christian II.
While Lutheranism was thus threatening the Polish Church from the north, Calvinism had already invaded her from the west.
We hear of crowded Calvinist conventicles in Little Poland from 1545 onwards, and Calvinism continued to spread throughout the kingdom during the latter years of Sigismund I.
(1536-1612), one of the main agents in extirpating Calvinism in Poland and the Greek Church in Lithuania.
of Calvinism; a daughter of Anne Boleyn could have little affection for a system which made her a bastard, and all monarchs agreed at heart with James I.'s aphorism about "no bishop, no king."
It was convenient, too, to profess Lutheran sympathies, for Lutheranism was now an established, monarchical and comparatively respectable religion, very different from the Calvinism against which monarchs directed the Counter-reformation from political motives.
His best prose work is the Historic Proof of the Doctrinal Calvinism of the Church of England (London, 1774).
Some comments by Wesley upon Toplady's presentation of Calvinism led to a controversy which was carried on with much bitterness on both sides.
It is true that the peace of Westphalia formally recognized only ~ of the three creeds, Catholicism, Lutheranism and the Thirty Calvinism, but so much suffering had been caused Years by the interference of the state with individual con- War.
In the hands of the ministers a Calvinism more Calvinistic than Calvin's was the bitter foe of freedom of life, of conscience, and of religious tolerance.
The younger bishops too were not " sound " in Calvinism; many were looked on as Arminians.
He abjured Calvinism, and was called to the bar in Paris.
Spurred on by his wife the matter reached a climax in 1574, when letters were discovered, which, while revealing a hope to bring over Augustus to Calvinism, cast some aspersions upon the elector and his wife.
Alexander Ghent had fallen into the hands of John Casimir, Farnese and under his armed protection a fierce and intolerant governor= Calvinism reigned supreme in that important city.
After a year of zealous work as preacher and director he was sent by the bishop, Claude de Granier, to try and win back the province of Chablais, which had embraced Calvinism when usurped by Bern in 1535, and had retained it even after its restitution to Savoy in 1564.
As an interpreter of the mystical side of Calvinism and of the psychological conditions which correspond with the doctrines of grace Erskine is unrivalled.
There he stayed three years, exchanging his early Calvinism for a system of "necessarianism" under the influence of D.
Broad in every other respect, he retained to the last the narrow Calvinism of the early 19th century.
On his return to his diocese,his zeal and eloquence were largely instrumental in withstanding the progress of Calvinism, and among others he converted Henry Sponde, who became bishop of Pamiers, and the Swiss general Sancy.
Calvinism had become, towards the close of the 16th century, supreme in Holland, but the very rigour of the uniformity it exacted provoked a reaction.
Coornhert could not plead for the toleration of heretics without assailing the dominant Calvinism, and so he opposed a conditional to its unconditional predestination.
Within Calvinism itself Pelagianism was revived in Arminianism, which denied the irresistibility, and affirmed the universality of grace.
The home of Calvinism was no restingplace for him (T.
Meanwhile conversion to Calvinism, among the higher classes in Poland, became more and more frequent.
he stoutly opposed hymn-singing, Calvinism, Roman Catholicism, and the Evangelical movement as represented by Charles Simeon and the Bible Society.
The greatest number of Jews is to be found at Paris, Lyons and Bordeaux, while the departments of the centre and of the south along the range of the Cvennes, where Calvinism flourishes, are the principal Protestant localities, Nimes being the most important centre.
Taylorism, sometimes called the "New Haven" theology, was an attempt to defend Calvinism from Arminian attacks, and the defence itself was accused of Arminianism and Pelagianism by A.
Here in 1682 he published his famous Pensees diverses sur la comete de 1680 and his critique of Maimbourg's work on the history of Calvinism.
The Westminster Confession (1648), with its two catechisms, is perhaps the ablest of the reformed confessions from the stand point of Calvinism.
The leading members of the Bourbon branch of the royal family, and Gaspard de Coligny, admiral of France, were conspicuous among the converts to Calvinism.
He lived to the age of eighty; but, however great were the merits of his Chronicle, it was long considered a suspicious book on account of the leanings of the author to Calvinism.
Laud defended Richard Montague, who had aroused the wrath of the parliament by his pamphlet against Calvinism.
Italians, especially Bernardino Ochino, had given her religious instruction, and the Italians who rejected Catholicism usually adopted far more advanced forms of heresy than Lutheranism, Zwinglianism, or even Calvinism.
In his Institutes of Theology, no material modification is attempted on the doctrines of Calvinism,which he received with all simplicity of faith as revealed in the Divine word, and defended as in harmony with the most profound philosophy of human nature and of the Divine providence.
REMONSTRANTS, the name given to those Dutch Protestants who, after the death of Arminius, maintained the views associated with his name, and in 1610 presented to the states of Holland and Friesland a " remonstrance in five articles formulating their points of departure from stricter Calvinism.
Macdonald's youth was passed in his native town, under the immediate influence of the Congregational Church, and in an atmosphere strongly impregnated with Calvinism.
Her husband, however, who viewed these proceedings with disfavour, banished her friends, took her children from her, threw her into prison,, and eventually made her abandon at any rate the outward forms of Calvinism.
Here he adopted, with political modifications of his own, the extremest form of Calvinism.
His repeated refusal of offers of advancement in his own country was due to his Calvinism.
The Reformation restored the teaching of Augustine; in Calvinism especially the sovereignty of the divine and the impotence of the human will were emphasized; and against this exaggeration Arminianism was a protest.
In the Evangelical Revival of the r8th century Arminianism was represented by Wesley, and Calvinism by Whitefield.
His Commentary on the Epistle to the Philippians (1618, reprinted 1864) is a specimen of his preaching before his college, and of his fiery denunciation of popery and his fearless enunciation of that Calvinism which Oxford in common with all England then prized.
Scarcely had he refused the accusation of Buscher, when, on account of his intimacy with the Reformed divines at the conference of Thorn (1645), and his desire to effect a reconciliation between them and the Lutherans, a new charge was preferred against him, principally at the instance of Abraham Calovius (1612-1686), of a secret attachment to Calvinism.
In the 18th century many of the General Baptists gradually adopted the Arian, or, perhaps, the Socinian theory; whilst, on the other hand, the Calvinism of the Particular Baptists in many of the churches became more rigid, and approached or actually became Antinomianism.
Towards the end of the 18th century many of the Particular Baptist churches became more moderate in their Calvinism, a result largely attributable to the writings of Andrew Fuller.
Harvard College was now controlled by the Liberals of the B rattle Street Church, and as it grew farther and farther away from Calvinism, Mather looked with increasing favour upon the college in Connecticut; before September 1701 he had drawn up a "scheme for a college," the oldest document now in the Yale archives; and finally (Jan.
In the 16th century Bergerac was a very flourishing and populous place, but most of its inhabitants having embraced Calvinism it suffered greatly during the religious wars and by the revocation of the edict of Nantes (1685).
Cyril conceived the plan of reforming the Eastern Church by bringing its doctrines into harmony with those of Calvinism, and by sending able young Greek theologians to Switzerland, Holland and England to study Protestant theology.
The latter view was held by Beza and other Calvinists, and, it is said, repelled Arminius from Calvinism, and led him to formulate the doctrine that as repentance and faith are the divinely decreed conditions of eternal life, God has determined to give that life to all whom He foresees as fulfilling these conditions.
According to Calvinism God's election unto salvation is absolute, determined by His olyn inscrutable will according to Arminianism it is conditional, dependent on man's use of grace.
The Synod of Dort (1618-1619) which affirmed the sublapsarian without excluding the supralapsarian form of Calvinism, condemned the views of Arminius and his followers, who were known as Remonstrants from the remonstrance "which in four articles repudiates supralapsarianism and infralapsarianism (which regarded the Fall as foreseen, but not decreed), and the doctrines of irresistibility of grace, and of the impossibility of the elect finally falling away from it, and boldly asserts the universality of grace."
At the Evangelical Revival the old questions came up, as Wesley favoured Arminianism and George Whitefield Calvinism.
In Scotland Calvinism was repudiated by James Morison, the founder of the Evangelical Union, who declared the three universalities, God's love for all, Christ's death for all, the Holy Spirit's working for all.
From the theology of John Murray, who like Ballou has been called "the father of American Universalism," he differed in that he divested Universalism of every trace of Calvinism and opposed legalism and trinitarian views.
The theological interest, indeed, came in the end to predominate, and philosophy to appear as an instrument for the defence of Calvinism.
The aim of this treatise was to refute the doctrine of free-will, since he considered it the logical, as distinguished from the sentimental, ground of most of the Arminian objections to Calvinism.
There is no necessary connexion between Edwards's doctrine of the motivation of choice and the system of Calvinism with which it is congruent.
But for him the alternative was between Calvinism and Arminianism, simply because of the historical situation, and in the refutation of Arminianism on the assumptions common to both sides of the controversy, he must be considered completely successful.
Edwards's main aim had been to revivify Calvinism, modifying it for the needs of the time, and to promote a warm and vital Christian piety.
The stern simplicity of Calvinism, indeed, would not tolerate religious processions of any kind, and from the "Reformed" Churches they vanished altogether.
On the other hand, those Antinomians for whom his Calvinism is not strong enough, may study the Pilgrimage of Hephzibah, in which 1 He had resumed his pastorate in Bedford after his imprisonment of 1675, and, although he frequently preached in London to crowded congregations, and is said in the last year of his life to have been, of course unofficially, chaplain to Sir John Shorter, lord mayor of London, he remained faithful to his own congregation.
During his absence from England Whitefield found that a divergence of doctrine from Calvinism had been introduced by Wesley; and notwithstanding Wesley's exhortations to brotherly kindness and forbearance he withdrew from the Wesleyan connexion.
To use technical language, Calvinism holds that sacraments are needful ex ratione praecepti, (merely) " because commanded.
Resolutely Protestant in early days and even Calvinistic, it yielded to the suggestions of its episcopal constitution' and sacramental liturgies; and now its theologies range from Calvinism at one extreme to outspoken hatred of Protestantism at the other.
Again, the Reformation had drawn a line round the canon - sharply in Calvinism, less sharply in Lutheranism (which also gave a quasi normative position to its Confessions of Faith).
Candlish, representing a moderate Scottish Calvinism, was half inclined to welcome the reduced form of Schleiermacher's basis found in H.
By Limborch he was introduced to Le Clerc, the youthful representative of letters and philosophy in Limborch's college, who had escaped from Geneva and Calvinism to the milder atmosphere of Holland and the Remonstrants.
It had, it is true, dealt a blow to Calvinism just when, owing to the reforms of the council of Trent, the religious ground had been crumbling beneath it.
With the object of destroying Calvinism by effective opposition, they imitated the Protestant organization of provincial associations, drawing their chief supporters from the upper middle class and the lesser nobility.
of France, and the refusal to receive his ambassador, even though the king had formally abjured Calvinism.
The book, being attacked from the standpoint of high Calvinism, became the standard of a far-reaching movement in Scottish Presbyterianism.
His dislike of Calvinism, or his antipathy to external complications, however, prevented him from taking any serious steps to defend Protestantism from the attacks of the counter-reformation.
Once or twice Calvinism was favoured by a prince, but in general the house was loyal to the doctrines of Luther.
His numerous works include histories of Arianism, the iconoclastic controversy, the Greek schism, Lutheranism, Calvinism, and of the pontificates of Leo I.
There is nothing in Calvinism, properly understood, to inhibit such entreaty.
One of the few exceptions was the article on "Geneva," which involved him in a somewhat keen controversy in regard to Calvinism and the suppression of theatrical performances within the town.
Such strict Calvinism was the strength also of the Westminster Confession (see below), but was soon weakened in Germany.
Thus the Calvinism of the 16th and 17th centuries elaborated answers to questions, which if no attempt had been made to answer them, would have perplexed earnest souls and condemned the system; but many parts of the system are now obsolete, because the conditions which suggested the questions which they sought to answer no longer exist or have no longer any interest or importance."
But whilst Congregationalism grew thereby in numbers and in a sense of mission to all sorts and conditions of men - lack of which was one of the disabilities' due in part to its sectarian position before the law (see Mackennal, pp. 142 ff.) - it modified not only its Calvinism but also its old church ideal' in the process.
The church of England has passed through several disputes regarding the question whether the Thirty-Nine Articles are Calvinistic or not; while there is some ambiguity in the language, it seems to favour Calvinism.
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