1505) contributed a History of the Caliphs and many biographical pieces.
- One task of the early caliphs was to find an outlet for the restless fighting spirit.
Abu Bekr (632-634), the first of these caliphs, was a man of simple life and profound faith.
The Shiite caliphs of Egypt were by this time the playthings of contending viziers, as the Sunnite caliphs of Bagdad had long been the puppets of Turkish sultans or amirs; and in 1164 Amalric I.
The first explorer to enter the sacred Hejaz with a definite scientific object was the Spaniard, Badia y aeblich, who, under the name of Ali Bey and claiming to be the last representative of the Abbasid Caliphs, arrived at Jidda in 1807, and performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.
Had the simplicity and religious severity of the first four caliphs continued in their successors, the fate of poetry would have been hard.
On the death of Mowaffaq in 891 the Egyptian governor was able to renew peaceful relations with the caliphs, and receive fresh confirmation in his possessions for thirty years.
Wellsted, City of the Caliphs; A.
Astarabad owes its origin to Yazid ibn Mohallab, who occupied the province early in the 8th century for Suleiman, the seventh of the Omayyad caliphs (715-717), and was destroyed by Timur (Tamerlane) in 1384.
Persia, and, though nominally provincial governors under the suzerainty of the caliphs of Bagdad, succeeded in a very short time in establishing an almost independent rule over Transoxiana and the greater part of Persia.
He next turned against the Mameluke rulers of Egypt, crushed them, and entering Cairo as conqueror (1517), obtained from the last of the Abbasid caliphs,' Motawakkil, the title of caliph (q.v.) ' After the fall of the caliphs of Bagdad (1258), descendants of the Abbasids took refuge in Cairo and enjoyed a purely titular authority under the protection of the Egyptian rulers.
But during all this period the caliphs continued to be the religious heads of Islam and their residence its capital.
Yet so long as the caliphs lived in Medina, the capital of Arabia was the capital of the expanding Arabian empire.
The caliphs were chosen there, and there the rules for the administration were framed.
Madaini's History of the Caliphs is the best, if not the oldest, published before Tabari; but this book is known only by the excerpts given by later writers, particularly Baladhuri and Tabari.
894), wrote on the Abbasid caliphs and was drawn on by Tabari.
The town is enclosed by nearly square brick walls, flanked by massive round towers, dating from the time of the caliphs, but now falling into decay.
It became the seat of the Ayyubite sultan Saladin in 1184; was bequeathed in 1233 to the caliphs of Bagdad; was plundered by the Mongols in 1236 and in 1393 by Timur, and was taken in 1732 by the Persians under Nadir Shah.
His ancestors had also ruled in Egypt as caliphs of the BeniFatimites for a number of years, at a period coeval with the Crusades.
In the 10th century it suffered severely, being repeatedly pillaged in the wars of the Fatimite caliphs Al-Qaim and Abu Tahir Ismail el Mansur with the Sunnite leader Abu Yazid and the Zenata Berbers.
It became a bone of contention between the various Syrian dynasties and the caliphs first of Damascus, then of Egypt, and in 748 was sacked with great slaughter.
Abu Bekr and his three (or four) immediate successors are known as the "perfect" caliphs; after them the title was borne by the thirteen Omayyad caliphs of Damascus, and subsequently by the thirty-seven Abbasid caliphs of Bagdad whose dynasty fell before the Turks in 1258.
There were titular caliphs of Abbasid descent in Egypt from that date till 1517 when the last caliph was captured by Selim I.
There is indeed a tradition that a written collection (diwan) existed in the family of an-Nu ` man, the last Lakhmid king, containing a number of poems by the Fuhul, or most eminent poets of the pagan time, and especially by those who had praised the princes of the house, and that this collection passed into the possession of the Omayyad caliphs of the house of Marwan; to this, if the tradition is to be believed, al-Mufaddal probably had access.
The date of al-Mufaddal's birth is unknown; but he lived for many years under the caliphs of the Omayyad line until their overthrow by the 'Abbasids in 749.
Neither Koran nor Sunna distinguishes between temporal and spiritual powers, and no such distinction was known as long as the caliphs acted in all things as successors of the prophets and heads of the community of the faithful.
The theologians tried to uphold the orthodox theory by declaring the sultanate to be subordinate to the imamate or sovereignty of the caliphs, and dependent on the latter especially in all religious matters; but their artificial theories have never modified facts.
The various dynasties of sultans (Buyids, Ghaznevids, Seljuks, and finally the Mongols) never paid heed to the caliphs, and at length abolished them; but the fall of the theocracy only increased the influence of the clergy, the expounders and practical administrators of that legislation of Koran and Sunna which had become part of the life of the Mahommedan world.
ABBASIDS, the name generally given to the caliphs of Bagdad, the second of the two great dynasties of the Mahommedan empire.
Province after province renounced the authority of the caliphs, who were merely lay figures, and finally Hulagu, the Mongol chief, burned Bagdad (Feb.
Haroun-al-Raschid (Aaron the Just) was the greatest of all the caliphs of Bagdad.
ABULFARAJ [Abu-1-Faraj 'Ali ibn ul-Husain ul-Isbahani] (897-967), Arabian scholar, was a member of the tribe of the Quraish (Koreish) and a direct descendant of Marwan, the last of the Omayyad caliphs.
At the request of Mir `Alishirr, himself a distinguished statesman and writer, Mirkhond began about 1474, in the quiet convent of Khilasiyah, which his patron had founded in Herat as a house of retreat for literary men of merit, his great work on universal history, Rauzat-ussafa fi sirat-ulanbia walmuluk walkhulafa or Garden of Purity on the Biography of Prophets, Kings and Caliphs.
1563), one of the four great poets of the old school, seems to have been a native of Bagdad or its neighbourhood, and probably became an Ottoman subject when Suleiman took possession of the old capital of the caliphs.
When the seat of the Fatimite Empire was removed to Egypt, the Zirites, a house of the Sanhaja Berbers, ruled as their lieutenants at Mandia, and about 1050 Mo`izz the Zirite, in connexion with a religious movement against the Shiites, transferred his very nominal allegiance to the Abbasid caliphs.
660; its capture in 708 is mentioned, but it never was held as a city of the caliphs.
BARMECIDES, more accurately Barmakids, a noble Persian family which attained great power under the Abbasid caliphs.
VIZIER, more correctly Vizir (Arabic Wazir), literally "burden-bearer" or "helper," originally the chief minister or representative of the Abbasid caliphs.
By some rigid Moslems these rulers were regarded as only amirs, not caliphs.
It was a menace to his empire on the south, the occasional ally of the Franks and the home of the unorthodox caliphs.
In the general confusion of the caliphate produced by the change of dynasty, Africa had fallen into the hands of local rulers, formerly amirs or lieutenants of the Omayyad caliphs, but now aiming at independence.
It became a question between Amalric and Nureddin, which of the two should control the discordant viziers, who vied with one another for the control of the decadent caliphs of Egypt.
This put the caliphs fatally at the mercy of their guards.
In the 8th century Kairawan was the capital of the province of Ifrikia governed by amirs appointed by the caliphs.
The principal bazaar, the Khan-el-Khalil, marks the site of the tombs of the Fatimite caliphs.
Beyond the eastern wall of the city are the splendid mausolea erroneously known to Europeans as the tombs of the caliphs; they really are tombs of the Circassian or Burji Mamelukes, a race extinguished by Mehemet Ali.
They are architecturally of less interest than those of the " caliphs."
The numismatic collection, as regards the period of the caliphs and later dynasties, is one of the richest in the world.
The new town speedily became a place of importance, and was the residence of the naibs, or lieutenants, appointed by the orthodox and Omayyad caliphs.
750) by Suleiman, the general who subjugated the country, and became the capital and the residence of the successive lieutenants of the Abbasid caliphs.
Reynolds-Ball, Cairo: the City of the Caliphs (Boston, U.S.A., 1897); Prisse d'Avennes, L' Art arabe d'apres les monuments du Caire (Paris, 1847); P. Ravaisse, L'Histoire et la topographie du Caire d'apres Makrizi (Paris, 1887); E.
915 for larger, weights~ The greater number are, however, small weights for testing gold and silver coins of later caliphs from A.D.
The Ayyubites were followed by the Mameluke dynasties, usually classified as Bal~ri from 1252-1382, and Burji from 1382-1517; these sovereigns were nominally under the suzerainty of Abbasid caliphs, who were in reality instruments of the Mameluke sultans, and resided at Cairo.
(b) Fatimite Caliphs, 357567 (9691171).
The period between the rise of the Abbasids and the quasi-independent dynasties of Egypt was marked by much religious persecution, occasioned by the fanaticism of some of the caliphs, the victims being generally Moslem sectarians.
The policy of these caliphs also led to severe measures being taken against any members of the Alid family or adherents of their cause who were to be found in Egypt.
This personage was himself the son of a Turk who, originally sent as a slave to Bagdad, had risen to high rank in the service of the caliphs.
On the death of Ahmads father-in-law in the same year, when Egypt was given in fief to the caliphs brother Mowaffaq (famous for his defeat of the Zanj), Ahmad secured himself in his post by extensive bribery at headquarters; and in the following year the administration of the Syri,an frontier was conferred on him as well.
He was succeeded by his son Khomarflya, then twenty years of age, who immediately after his accession had to deal with an attempt on the part of the caliph to recover Syria; this attempt failed chiefly through dissensions between the caliphs officers, but partly through the ability of Khomgruyas general, who succeeded in winning a battle after his master had run away from the field.
He succeeded in so far that 15,000 Kufians swore to fight with him for the maintenance of the commandments of the Book of God and the Sunna (orthodox tradition) of his Prophet, the discomfiture of the tyrants, the redress of injury, and last, not least, the vindication of the family of the Prophet as the rightful caliphs.
This Mahommed, the father of the two first Abbasid caliphs, was a man of unusual ability and great ambition.
From that time forward the Abbasid caliphs became the maintainers of orthodox Islam, just as the Omayyads had been.
We have now reached the most celebrated name among the Arabian caliphs, celebrated not only in the East, but in the West as well, where the stories of the Thousand and One Nights have made us familiar with that world which the narrators represent in such brilliant colours.
This resolution of Motasim was destined to prove fatal to his dynasty; for it placed the caliphs at the mercy of their praetorians.
In the year of his elevation to the Caliphate, he had regulated the succession to the empire in his own family by designating as future caliphs his three sons, al-Montasir billah (" he who seeks help in God"), al-Mo`tazz billah (" he whose strength is of God"), and al-Mowayyad billah (" he who is assisted by God").
There were thus in Bagdad three caliphs who had been dethroned and blinded, Qahir, Mottaqi and Mostakfi.
- Mo`izz addaula soon abandoned his original idea of restoring the title of caliph to one of the descendants of Ali, fearing a strong opposition of the people, and also dreading lest this should lead to the recovery by the caliphs of their former supremacy.
He not only caused the mourning for the death of Hosain and other Shiite festivals to be celebrated at Bagdad, but also allowed imprecations against Moawiya and even against Mahomet's wife Ayesha and the caliphs Abu Bekr, Omar and Othman, to be posted up at the doors of the mosques.
ALI, in full, 'ALI BEN ABU TALIB (c. 600-661), the fourth of the caliphs or successors of Mahomet, was born at Mecca about the year A.D.
Only in tho secluded districts of northern Media (Tabaristan), the generals of the house of Karen (Spahpat, Ispehbed) maintained themselves for a century as vassals of the caliphs exactly as Atropates and his dynasty had done before them.
For about 150 years it was governed, first from Medina and afterwards from Bagdad, by officers of the Mahommedan caliphs whose principal aim it was to destroy the old nationality by the suppression of its religion.
This rising was followed by many more (see CALIPHATE: B) in which the caliphs were generally successful, and Abdaimalik (d.
Ali, the Shiite imam, who raised a great army, drove the caliphs general Nasr b.
From 825 to about 898 a similar dynasty, the Dulafidsi or Dolafids reigned nominally as governors under the caliphs till they were put down by Motadid.
though they paid outward respect to the caliphs.
The Abbasid caliphs, who still enjoyed a precarious and shadowy authority at the pleasure of Turkish viziers, gladly surrendered themselves to the protection of the Mahommedan Seljuks, who paid them all outward respect.
During the whole of this period the Abbasid caliphs had been nominally reigning throughout the Mahommedan world with their capital at Bagdad.
It was even suggested that the titular Abbasid caliphs (who retained an empty title in Cairo under Mameluke protection, should be reinstated at Bagdad, but this proposal was not carried into effect.
A stipulation was included in the treaty to the effect that Persians were not to curse any longer the first three caliphs, a sort of privilege previously enjoyed by Shiites as part and parcel of their religious faith.
As regent, he had failed twice in taking the city of the caliphs, but on the second occasion he had defeated and killed its gallant defender, Topal Othman, and he had succeeded in regaining Tiffis, Kars and Erivan.
The first who wrote such a mathuawi was Abti Shukur of Balkh, the oldest literary representative of the third dynasty of KhorSsSn, the Skmgnids, who had been able in the course of time to dethrone the Saffarids, and to secure the government of Persia, nominally still under the supremacy of the caliphs in Bagdad, but in fact with full sovereignty.
Of this description are the Anbiyanama, or history of the pre-Mahommedan prophets, by IIasanI Shabistarl Ayani (before the 8th century of the Hegira); Ibn 1-Iusams Khawartzama (1427; 830 A.11.), of the deeds of All; Badhils ~Iamla-i-Jjaidari, which was completed by Najaf (1723; 1135 A.H.), or the life of Mahommed and the first four caliphs; Ka~ims Fara~~inama-i-Fa4ima, the book of joy of Fatima, Mahomets daughter (1737; 1150 A.H.)all four in the epic metre of the Shahnama; and the prose stories of ~Iatim Tai, the famous model of liberality and generosity in preIslamitic times; of Am-Zr ~Iamzah, the uncle of Mahomet; and of the Mu~jizat-i-Ms?sa~wi, or the miraculous deeds of Moses, by MuIn-almiskin (died about 1501; 907 A.I-L).
He lived at the court of the caliphs al-Mutawakkil and al-Musta`in and was tutor to the son of al-Mu`tazz.
It contains an account of the early conquests of Mahomet and the early caliphs.
It continued to be the seat of great commercial activity under the early Moslem caliphs, who corrupted the name to Haila or Ailat.
In the splendid times of the caliphs immense sums were lavished upon the pilgrimage and the holy city; and conversely the decay of the central authority of Islam brought with it a long period of faction, wars and misery, in which the most notable episode was the sack of Mecca by the Carmathians at the pilgrimage season of A.D.
The caliphs substituted a covering of figured brocade, and the Egyptian government still sends with each pilgrim caravan from Cairo a new kiswa of black brocade, adorned with a broad band embroidered with golden inscriptions from the Koran, as well as a richer curtain for the door.'
It now became the capital of a jund, or military district, which under the Omayyad Caliphs extended from Palmyra to the sea.
During the first crusade a signal victory was gained by the Christians in the neighbouring plain on the 15th of August 1099; but the city remained in the hands of the caliphs till 1157, when it was taken by Baldwin III., king of Jerusalem, after a siege of five months.
he who judges by the command of God), sixth of the Fatimite caliphs (third in Egypt), began to reign; and during the next twenty-five years he indulged in a tyranny at once so terrible and so fantastic that little doubt can be entertained of his insanity.
The Shehab family, originally Hira Arabs, which had governed Hauran under the early caliphs of Damascus, and thereafter held power in Hermon, intermarried with the Maan; and in the latter's day of weakness sided with the Kaisi faction and obtained the supreme amirate of the Mountain.
In the agony of the Omayyad dynasty in Spain, two princes of the house were proclaimed caliphs for a very short time, Abd-ar-rahman IV.
Secular philosophy found its first entrance amongst the Saracens in the days of the early caliphs of the Abbasid dynasty, whose ways and thoughts had been moulded by their residence in Persia amid the influences of an older C creed, and of ideas which had in the last resort sprung from the Greeks.
The ancient Drangiana (Zaraya, Daranka, " lake land ") received the name of " land of the Sacae " after this country was permanently occupied by the " Scythians " or Sacae, who overran Iran in 128 B.C. It was included in the Sassanian empire, and then in the empire of the caliphs.
860, when it had undergone many changes of government under lieutenants of the Bagdad caliphs, or bold adventurers acting on their own account, Yakub b.
Tank, the general of the caliphs governor in northern Africa, Mflsa b.
While the invasion of Gaul was still going on Manuza, the chief of the Berbers settled in north-western Spain, had revolted against the caliphs lieutenants.
In 63 2 the victories of Heraclius restored Armenia to the Byzantines; but the war that followed the Arab invasion, 636, left the country in the hands of the caliphs, who set over it Arab and Armenian governors (ostikans).
4 But most of the tales, in substance and form alike, are Arabian, and so many of them have the capital of the caliphs as the scene of action that it may be guessed that the author used as one of his sources a book of tales taken from the era of Bagdad's prosperity.
When the Bagdad caliphs lost control of their dominions, Edessa shared the fortunes of western Mesopotamia, changing with the rise and fall of Egyptian dynasties and Arab chieftains.
Raymond Wellsted (Travels to the City of the Caliphs, p. 173, Lond., 1840) distinguishes two kinds of frankincense - " Meaty," selling at $4 per cwt., and an inferior article fetching 20% less.
After renouncing his tribute to the Fatimite caliphs, he sent an expedition to Sicily under Nicetas (964-65), but was forced by defeats on land and sea to evacuate that island completely.
Such a system invalidated any tradition to the contrary traceable to any Companion, even one of the rightly-guided caliphs.
The earlier caliphs desired their tombs to be kept secret, for fear of desecration.
Most of them acknowledged the political authority of the ruling caliphs so as to secure the people's religious leadership for themselves.
The attempt was futile, Bagdad was besieged and taken, and from that time until their final downfall the Abbasid caliphs were mere puppets, while the real rulers were successively the Turkish guard, the Buyids and the Seljuks.
946) wrote on the Abbasid caliphs, their viziers and court poets; Mas`udi (q.v.) composed various historical and geographical works (d.
ABU-BEKR (5736 34), the name ("Father of the virgin") of the first of the Mahommedan caliphs (see Caliph).
The office of vizier, which spread from the Arabs to the Persians, Turks, Mongols, and other Oriental peoples, arose under the first Abbasid caliphs (see Mahommedan Institutions, and Caliphate, C § I) and took shape during its tenure by the Barmecides.
At the death of Unjur in 961 his brother AbuI-I~iasan AlI was made viceroy with the caliphs consent by KfUr, who continued to govern for his chief as before.
Freer allegorical views, however, were admitted on some specially perplexing points, such as the doctrine of the eternity of the Koran, the crude anthropomorphisms of the sacred text, &c.; and, since Mo`tazilite (Mu`tazilite) views had never taken deep root among the masses, while the caliphs required the help of the clergy, and from the time of Motawakkil (A.D.
The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim to the throne on their descent from Abbas (A.D.
The Carmathian revolt, one of the first of the great splits in the Moslem world, was followed by others: in 936 Egypt declared its independence, under a line of caliphs which claimed descent from Fatima, daughter of the prophet (see Fatimites); and in 996 Hakim Bi-amrillah mounted the Egyptian throne.
Wellsted, City of the Caliphs, vol.
In no case were they compelled to do so; indeed the Omayyad caliphs saw with displeasure the diminishing proceeds of the poll-tax derived from their Christian subjects (see Mahommedan Institutions).
Damascus, Kuf a and Basra will attract the flower of all the Moslem provinces, and thus that great intellectual, literary and scientific movement, which reached its apogee under the first Abbasid Caliphs at Bagdad, steadily becomes more marked.
138 (14th August 755) Abdarrahman landed in the Iberian peninsula, where he was universally welcomed, and 1 The rule of the caliphs in Morocco, which had never been firmly established, had already, in 740, given place to that of independent princes (see Morocco, History).
At these places and in Sarwistan, near Shiraz and elsewhere, lie ruins of the Sassanid palaces, which in their design go back, to the Achaemenid architecture, blending with it, however, Graeco-Syrian elements and serving in their turn as models for the structures of the Caliphs (see ARcHITECTURE:
Even before this event adventurers and dissatisfied Moslem officers had utilized the slumbering hostility of the Persian peoples to aid them in attacks on the caliphs (e.g.
Persian writers have given us, besides, an immense variety of universal histories of the world, with many curious and noteworthy data (see, among others, Mirkhonds and Khwandamirs works under MIRKHOND); histories of Mahomet and the first caliphs, partly translated from Arabic originals, which have been lost; detailed accounts of all the Persian dynasties, from the Ghaznevids to the still reigning Kajars, of Jenghiz Khan and the Moguls (in Juwainis and Wa~fs elaborate Tarlkhs), and
Persian writers have given us, besides, an immense variety of universal histories of the world, with many curious and noteworthy data (see, among others, Mirkhonds and Khwandamirs works under MIRKHOND); histories of Mahomet and the first caliphs, partly translated from Arabic originals, which have been lost; detailed accounts of all the Persian dynasties, from the Ghaznevids to the still reigning Kajars, of Jenghiz Khan and the Moguls (in Juwainis and Wa~fs elaborate Tarlkhs), and of TImr and his successors (see an account of the Zafarnama under PETIS DE LA CRoIx); histories of sects and creeds, especially the famous Dohiistdn, or School of Manners (translated by Shea and Troyer, Paris 1843); and many local chronicles of Iran and Turan.
Under the early caliphs the Arabs divided Syria into the following military districts (gonds).
Hamdgn got possession of Cairo, and at the end of 1068 plundered the caliphs palace; the valuable library which had been begun by IJakim was pillaged, and an accidental fire caused great destruction.
The viziers offices were given to one of the caliphs creatures, Mahommed b.
The caliphs personal government appears to have been incompetent, and to have been marked by extortions and other arbitrary measures.
The last of the Fg~imite caliphs was not quite twenty-one years old at the time of his death.
The contentions between the Abbasid and Fatimite caliphs continued till 1072, when Palestine suffered its next invasion.
The history of the Mahommedan rulers in the East who bore the title of caliph falls naturally into three main divisions: - (a) The first four caliphs, the immediate successors of Mahomet; (b) The Omayyad caliphs; (c) The Abbasid caliphs.
To these three groups the present article is confined; for the Western caliphs, see Spain: History (and minor articles such as Almohades, Almoravides); for the Egyptian caliphs see Egypt: History (§ Mahommedan) and Fatimites.
- THE First Four Caliphs After the death of Mahomet the question arose who was to be his "representative."
We thus see how the power of the house of Omayya developed itself, and how there arose against it an opposition, which led in the first place to the murder of Othman and the Caliphate of Ali, and furthermore, during the whole period of the Omayyad caliphs, repeatedly to dangerous outbreaks, culminating in the great catastrophe which placed the Abbasids on the throne.
The old rgime was not restored without an attempt made by an adherent of the TulUnids to reconquer Egypt ostensibly for their benefit, and for a time the caliphs viceroy had to quit the capital.
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