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caliphate

caliphate

caliphate Sentence Examples

  • His success was constant and the caliphate was brought very low by him.

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  • The Caliphate under the Omayyads of Damascus, and then the Abbasids of Bagdad, became the principal power in the nearer East.

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  • Under the second caliph Omar (634-644) the Persians were defeated at Kadesiya (Kadessia), and Irak was completely subdued and the new cities of Kuf a and Basra were ',For the general history of the succeeding period see Caliphate; Egypt: History, §" Mahommedan."

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  • Since the separation from the caliphate (before loon A.D.) Oman had remained independent.

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  • The Caliphate, though Arabian, was always geographically outside Arabia, and on its fall Arabia remained as it was before Islam, isolated and inaccessible.

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  • ' Abul Hassan Ali, al Reza, commonly known as Imam Reza, the eighth imam of the Shiites, a son of Musa al Kazim, the seventh imam, was the leader from whom the party of the Alids (Shiites) had such hopes under the caliphate of Mamun.

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  • p. 113; also articles Caliphate and Persia: History, section B, and for the later period Mahmud, Seljuks, Mongols.

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  • It belonged to the Eastern Caliphate (the Hamdanids) until temporarily reoccupied by John Zimisces, emperor of Byzantium and a native of neighbouring Hierapolis, A.D.

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  • Indeed, in the time of the caliphate this was the channel of the Tigris, and on its banks stood the important city of Wasit.

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  • Its time of greatest prosperity and importance was the period of the Abbasid caliphate, and Arabic geographers as late as A.D.

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  • Tigris (1900); Guy Le Strange, " Description of Mesopotamia," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1895), and Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate (1901); J.

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  • Other Guebres occupied themselves privately with the collection of these traditions; and, when a prince of Persian origin, Yakub ibn Laith, founder of the Saffarid dynasty, succeeded in throwing off his allegiance to the caliphate, he at once set about continuing the work of his illustrious predecessors.

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  • Mahmud ibn Sabuktagin, the second of the dynasty (998-1030), continued to make himself still more independent of the caliphate than his predecessors, and, though a warrior and a fanatical Moslem, extended a generous patronage to Persian literature and learning, and even developed it at the expense of the Arabic institutions.

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  • Under the caliphate of Mamun, Saman, a Persian noble of Balkh, who was a close friend of the Arab governor of Khorasan, Asad b.

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  • As early as 970 the recovery of the territories lost to Mahommedanism in the East had been begun by emperors like Nicephoras Phocas and John Zimisces: they had pushed their conquests, if only for a time, as far as Antioch and Edessa, and the temporary occupation of Jerusalem is attributed to the East Roman arms. At the opposite end of the Mediterranean, in Spain, the Omayyad caliphate was verging to its fall: the long Spanish crusade against the Moor had begun; and in 1018 Roger de Toeni was already leading Normans into Catalonia to the aid of the native Spaniard.

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  • The Seljukian Turks, first the mercenaries and then the masters of the caliph, had given new life to the decadent caliphate of Bagdad.

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  • Under the rule of their sultans, who assumed the role of mayors of the palace in Bagdad about the middle of the 11th century, they pushed westwards towards the caliphate of Egypt and the East Roman empire.

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  • At the end of the first year of his caliphate Abu Bekr saw Arabia united under Islam.

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  • The secondary position that Arabia was beginning to assume in the Arabian empire is clearly marked in the progress of events during the caliphate of Othman.

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  • With the success of Moawiya Damascus became the capital of the caliphate (658) and Arabia became a mere province, though always of importance because of its possession, of the two sacred cities Mecca and Medina.

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  • In 1517 the Osmanli Turkish sultan Selim conquered Egypt, and having received the right of succession to the caliphate was solemnly presented by the sherif of Mecca with the keys of the city, and recognized as the spiritual head of Islam and ruler of the Hejaz.

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  • It already, however, bore within it the germ of decay; the accumulation of treasure in the capital had led to a corruption of the simple manners of the earlier times; the exhaustion of the tribes through the heavy blood tax had roused discontent among them; the plundering of the holy places, the attacks on the pilgrim caravans under the escort of Turkish soldiers, and finally, in 1810, the desecration of the tomb of Mahomet and the removal of its costly treasures, raised a cry of dismay throughout the Mahommedan world, and made it clear even to the Turkish sultan that unless the Wahhabi power were crushed his claims to the caliphate were at an end.

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  • In the provinces of the caliphate there were many poets, who, however, seldom produced original work.

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  • Abu Mikhnaf left a great number of monographs on the chief events from the death of the Prophet to the caliphate of Walid II.

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  • Removed from his office by Othman in 647, who replaced him by Ibn abi Sarh, he sided with Moawiya in the contest for the caliphate, and was largely responsible for the deposition of Ali and the establishment of the Omayyad dynasty.

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  • Muir, The Caliphate (London, 1891); E.

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  • The title Amir ul Muminim, or "commander of the faithful," now borne by the sultan of Turkey, was first assumed by Abu Bekr, and was taken by most of the various dynasties which claimed the caliphate, including the Fatimites, the Spanish Omayyads and the Almohades.

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  • Kerbela owes its existence to the fact that IJosain, a son of `Ali, the fourth caliph, was slain here by the soldiers of Yazid, the rival aspirant to the caliphate, on the 10th of October A.D.

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  • Mahmud ibn Sabuktagin, the second of the dynasty (998-1030), continued to make himself still more independent of the caliphate than his predecessors, and, though a warrior and a fanatical Moslem, extended a generous patronage to Persian literature and learning, and even developed it at the expense of the Arabic institutions.

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  • The Seljukian Turks, first the mercenaries and then the masters of the caliph, had given new life to the decadent caliphate of Bagdad.

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  • The title Amir ul Muminim, or "commander of the faithful," now borne by the sultan of Turkey, was first assumed by Abu Bekr, and was taken by most of the various dynasties which claimed the caliphate, including the Fatimites, the Spanish Omayyads and the Almohades.

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  • And as the Bagdad caliphate tended to become more and more supreme in Islam, so the gaonate too shared in this increased influence.

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  • The hostility of the decadent caliphate of Cairo was the less dangerous; and though Baldwin I.

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  • Thus the Shiite caliphate became extinct: in the mosques of Cairo the name of the caliph of Bagdad was now used; and the long-disunited Mahommedans at last faced the Christians as a solid body.

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  • As in Spanish Islam, so in the lands of the eastern caliphate, the Jews were treated relatively with favour.

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  • With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the "glorious city."

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  • 917," in Journal Royal Asiatic Society, 1895, 1897; Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate (1901).

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  • Though the external conquests of the Arabs belong more properly to the period of the caliphate, yet they were the natural outcome of the prophet's ideas.

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  • The accession of Abul 'Abbas (of the house of Hashim) and the transference of the capital of the caliphate from Damascus to Kufa, then Anbar and soon after (in 760) to Bagdad meant still further degradation to Arabia and Arabs.

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  • Caliphate (1905).

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  • They formed now not only a mere branch of the empire of the caliphate, but a branch deriving little life from and giving less to the main stock.

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  • With the fall of the Bagdad caliphate all attempts at control from that quarter came to an end.

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  • They formed now not only a mere branch of the empire of the caliphate, but a branch deriving little life from and giving less to the main stock.

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  • See also Darius; Persia: Ancient History; and Caliphate.

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  • The extinction of the western caliphate and the dispersion of the once noble heritage of the Ommayads into numerous petty independent states, had taken place some thirty years previously, so that Castilian and Moslem were once again upon equal terms, the country being almost equally divided between them.

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  • 1682, but the sculptures which it contains belong probably to the time of the caliphate.

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  • Under substantially its present name, Akukafa, it is mentioned as a place of importance in connexion with the canals as late as the Abbasid caliphate.

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  • Rhagae) in 643 meant the entire subjugation of Persia and crowned the conquests of Omar's caliphate.

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  • The final blow to any political pretensions of Medina was dealt by the caliph when he had his son Yazid declared as his successor, thus taking away any claim on the part of the citizens of Medina to elect to the caliphate.

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  • Arabia was now completely disorganized, and was only nominally subject to the caliphate.

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  • "The first split was due to uncertainty regarding the principle which should rule the succession to the Caliphate.

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  • See further Caliphate, section C, §§ 4, 5.

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  • The town reached its greatest prosperity towards the beginning of the decline of the caliphate, when it was for a time an independent capital.

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  • The caliph `Ali made it his residence and the capital of his caliphate.

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  • (For history see CALIPHATE.)

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  • Caliphate >>

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  • Soc. (1870); Hellwald, Die Russen in Central Asien (1873); Lipsky, Upper Bukhara, in Russian (1902); Skrine and Ross, The Heart of Asia (1899); Lord Ronaldshay, Outskirts of Empire in Asia (1904); and Le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (1905).

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  • The Seljuks inherited the traditions and at the same time the power of the Arabian caliphate, of which, when they made their appearance, only the shadow remained in the person of the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad.

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  • ABBADIDES, a Mahommedan dynasty which arose in Spain on the downfall of the western caliphate.

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  • Abd-ul-Qasim gained the confidence of the townsmen by organizing a successful resistance to the Berber soldiers of fortune who were grasping at the fragments of the caliphate.

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  • The most natural explanation is that Aryans had made their way into the highlands east of Assyria, and thence bands had penetrated into Mesopotamia, peacefully or otherwise, and then, like the Turks in the days of the Caliphate, founded dynasties.

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  • 247-510, 660-762; for the conditions since the Arab conquest, Guy le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (1905), chiefly pp. 86-114, is especially useful.

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  • For the later periods see PERSIA: History; HELLENISM; ROME: History; PARTHIA; SYRIAC LITERATURE; CALIPHATE and authorities there given.

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  • le Strange, Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate (1901); The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (Cambridge, 1905); V.

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  • From 639 to 968 Egypt was a province of the Eastern Caliphate, and was ruled by governors sent from the cities which at different times ranked as capitals.

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  • Like other provinces of the later Abbasid Caliphate its rulers were, during this period, able to establish quasi-independent dynasties, such being those of the Tulunids who ruled from 868 to 905, and the Ikshidis from 935969.

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  • (a) During the undivided Caliphate.

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  • Ilakam (Merw~n I.), who had assumed the Caliphate, and the conquerors son Abd al-AzIz was appointed governor.

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  • (For Egypt under Motawakkil see CALIPHATE, c. par.

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  • He was the first to establish the claim of Egypt to govern Syria, and from his time Egypt grew more and more independent of the Eastern caliphate.

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  • Thus the IkshIdi Dynasty came to an end, and Egypt was transferred from the Eastern to the Western caliphate, of which it furnished the metropolis.

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  • His system of persecution was not abandoned till in the last year of his reign (1020) he thought fit to claim divinity, a doctrine which is perpetuated by the Druses, called after one DarazI, who preached the divinity of Ijakim at the time; the violent opposition which this aroused among the Moslems probably led him to adopt milder measures towards his other subjects, and those who had been forcibly converted were permitted to return to their former religion and rebuild their places of worship. Whether his disappearance at the beginning of the year 1021 was due to the resentment of his outraged subjects, or, as the historians say, to his sisters fear that he would bequeath the caliphate to a distant relative to the exclusion of his own son, will never be known.

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  • After her death the caliph was in the power of various ministers, under whose management of affairs Syria was for a time lost to the Egyptian caliphate, and Egypt itself raided by the Syrian usurpers, of whom one, Salil~ b.

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  • Badis, the 4th ruler of the dependent Zeirid dynasty which had ruled in the Maghrib since the migration of the F~imite Moizz to Egypt, definitely abjured his allegiance (1049) and returned to Sunnite principles and subjection to the Bagdad caliphate.

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  • This loss was more than compensated by the enrolment of Yemen among the countries which recognized the Fa~imite caliphate through the enterprise of one Ali b.

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  • The time of Mostan~ir is otherwise memorable for the rise of the Assassins (qv.), who at the first supported the claims of his eldest son Nizgr to the succession against the youngest Ahmed, who was favored by the family of Badr. When Badr died in 1094 his influence was inherited by his son aI-Af~al Shghinshh, and this, at the death of Mostansir in the same year, was thrown in favor of A limed, who succeeded to the caliphate with the title al-Mostali bill/-i.

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  • After a reign of seven years Mostali died and the caliphate was given by al-Afdal to an infant son, aged five years at the time.

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  • In 1260 theSyrian kingdom of alNa~ir was destroyed by Hulaku (Hulagu), the great Mongol chief, founder of the Ilkhan Dynasty (see MoNGOLS), who, having finally overthrown the caliph of Bagdad (see CALIPhATE, sect.

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  • Sultan Bibars, who proved to be one of the most competent of the Baliri Mamelukes, made Egypt the centre of the Moslem world by re-establishing in theory the Abbasid caliphate, which had lapsed through the taking of Bagdad by Hulagu, followed by the execution of the caliph.

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  • This was the last time that the Ilkhans gave the Egyptian sultans serious trouble; and in the letter written in the sultans name to the Ilkhan announcing the victory, the former suggested that the caliphate of Bagdad should be restored to the titular Abbasid caliph who had accompanied the Egyptian expedition, a suggestion which does not appear to have led to any actual steps being taken.

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  • The Mamelukes in Egypt tried to make their own government appear more legitimate by nominally recognizing a continuation of the spiritual dignity of the caliphate in a surviving branch of the 'Abbasid line which they protected, and in 923 A.H.

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  • (1517) the Ottoman Selim, who destroyed the Mameluke power, constrained the 'Abbasid Motawakkil III., who lived in Cairo, to make over to him his nominal caliphate.

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  • For a list of the kings and the history of the empire see Persia: Ancient History, section viii.; for its fall see also Caliphate, section A, § 1.

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  • Southwards they plundered far up the Garonne, and in the north of Spain; and one fleet of them sailed all round Spain, plundering, but attempting in vain to establish themselves in this Arab caliphate.

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  • See Caliphate (Sections B, 14 and C), where a detailed account of the dynasty will be found.

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  • For the later Constantines references to general authorities will be found under Later Roman Empire; see also Caliphate and SELJUxs for the wars of the period.

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  • (For the general history of this period see Caliphate).

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  • dynasty, transferred the seat of the caliphate from Abdalmali Mecca to Damascus, where it remained till the k,.

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  • In 684 Caliph Abdalmalik (Abd el- Melek), in order to weaken the prestige of Mecca, set himself to beautify the holy shrine of Jerusalem, and built the Kubbet es-Sakhrah, or Dome of the Rock, which still remains one of the most beautiful buildings in the world (Caliphate: B 5).

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  • CALIPHATE.'

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  • To Omar's ten years' Caliphate belong for the most part the great conquests.

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  • The opposition was headed by Ali, Zobair, Talha, both as leading men among the Emigrants and as disappointed candidates for the Caliphate.

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  • Its ultimate aim was the deposition of Othman in favour of Ali, whose own services as well as his close relationship to the Prophet seemed to give him the best claim to the Caliphate.

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  • The mass of the mutineers summoned Ali to the Caliphate, and compelled even Talha and Zobair to do him homage.

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  • This movement it was that had raised Ali to the Caliphate, but yet it did not really take any personal interest in him.

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  • We thus see how the power of the house of Omayya developed itself, and how there arose against it an opposition, which led in the first place to the murder of Othman and the Caliphate of Ali, and furthermore, during the whole period of the Omayyad caliphs, repeatedly to dangerous outbreaks, culminating in the great catastrophe which placed the Abbasids on the throne.

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  • Abi Arta made his expedition against Medina and Mecca, whose inhabitants were compelled to acknowledge the caliphate of Moawiya.

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  • These two men were the chief obstacles to Moawiya's plan for securing the Caliphate for his son Yazid.

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  • Ashtar, Mokhtar's governor of Mesopotamia, submitted and acknowledged the Caliphate of Ibn Zobair.

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  • Muir, Caliphate (London, 1891), pp.368-9.

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  • under the Caliphate of Omar II.

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  • Walid designated his two sons as heirs to the Caliphate.

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  • The holiness of their Caliphate, their legitimate authority, had been trifled with; the hatred of the days of Merj Rahit had been revived.

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  • - Yazid III., on his accession, made a fine speech, in which he promised to do all that could be expected from a good and wise ruler, even offering to make place immediately for the man whom his subjects should find better qualified for the Caliphate than himself.

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  • When Merwan entered Damascus this man testified that the sons of Walid II., who had just become adult, had named Merwan successor to the Caliphate, and was the first to greet him as Prince of the Believers.

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  • After this new pacification, Merwan caused the Syrians to acknowledge his two sons as heirs to the Caliphate, and married them to two daughters of Hisham.

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  • Sayyar did not at once acknowledge the Caliphate of Yazid III., but induced the Arab chiefs to accept himself as amir of Khorasan, until a caliph should be universally acknowledged.

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  • Abu'l-Abbas inaugurated his Caliphate by a harangue in which he announced the era of concord and happiness which was to begin now that the House of the Prophet had been restored to its right.

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  • About the same time Africa 1 and Spain escaped from the dominion of the eastern Caliphate; the former for a season, the latter permanently.

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  • At the same time as the revolt in Africa, the independent Caliphate of the western Omayyads was founded in Spain.

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  • A deputation from Spain sought him out in Africa and offered him the Caliphate, which he accepted with joy.

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  • But around this nucleus there soon grew up the great metropolis which was to be the centre of the civilized world as long as the Caliphate lasted.

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  • le Strange, Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate (Oxford, 1900).

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  • Khalid, sent the insignia of the Caliphate, with letters of condolence and congratulation, to Musa in Jorjan, and brought the army which had accompanied Mandi peacefully back from Media to Bagdad.

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  • Hall, who had never been able to forget that he had narrowly escaped being supplanted by his brother, formed a plan for excluding him from the Caliphate and transmitting the succession to his own son Ja`far.

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  • Abdallah, another brother of Mahommed and Ibrahim, who had taken refuge in the land of Dailam on the south-western shores of the Caspian Sea, succeeded in forming a powerful party, and publicly claimed the Caliphate.

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  • 817), under pretence of putting an end to the continual revolts of the partisans of Ali, and acting on the advice of his prime minister Fadl, he publicly designated as his successor in the Caliphate Ali ar-Rida, a son of that Musa al-Kazim who perished in the prison of Mandi, a direct descendant of Hosain, the son of Ali, and proscribed black, the colour of the Abbasids, in favour of that of the house of Ali, green.

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  • Musa, declared Mamun deposed, and elected his uncle, Ibrahim, son of Mandi, to the Caliphate.'

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  • Abbas, however, publicly renounced all pretension to the Caliphate, and the whole army accepted Motasim, who immediately had the fortifications of Tyana demolished and hastened back to Bagdad, where he made his public entry on the 20th of September 833.

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  • In fact, from the time of Wathiq, the Caliphate became the plaything of the Turkish guard, and its decline was continuous.

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  • But the arrogance of Itakh, to whom he owed his Caliphate, became insufferable.

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  • In the year of his elevation to the Caliphate, he had regulated the succession to the empire in his own family by designating as future caliphs his three sons, al-Montasir billah (" he who seeks help in God"), al-Mo`tazz billah (" he whose strength is of God"), and al-Mowayyad billah (" he who is assisted by God").

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  • He was a feeble, pleasureloving monarch, but Mohtadi had regained for the Caliphate some authority, which was exercised by Obaidallah b.

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  • Motamid had appointed his son al-Mofawwid as successor to the Caliphate, and after him his brother Mowaffaq.

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  • Not long before these events, the seat of the Caliphate had been restored to Bagdad.

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  • The mighty house of Abu Dolaf in the south-west of Media, which had never ceased to encroach on the Caliphate, was put down.

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  • 289 (March 902), leaving the Caliphate to his son al-Moktafi billah (" he who sufficeth himself' in God").

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  • - The sudden death of Moktafi, Dhu`lga`da 295 (August 908), was a fatal blow to the prestige of the Caliphate, which had revived under the successive governments of Mowaffaq, Motadid and himself.

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  • Far more dangerous, however, for the Caliphate of Bagdad at the time were the Carmathians of Bahrein, then guided by Abu Tahir, the son of Abu Sa`id Jannabi.

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  • His own wish was to call Abu Ahmad, a son of Moktafi, or a son of Moqtadir, to the Caliphate, but the majority of generals preferring Qahir because he was an adult man and had no mother at his side, he acquiesced, although he had a personal dislike for him, knowing his selfish and cruel character.

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  • Thenceforth the worldly power of the Caliphate was a mere shadow.

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  • During the troubles of the Caliphate the Byzantines had made great advances; they had even taken Malatia and Samosata (Samsat).

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  • The sultan, reserving to himself all the powers and revenues of the Caliphate, allowed the caliph merely a secretary and a pension of 5000 dirhems a day.

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  • During this caliphate the Buyid princes were in continual war with one another.

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  • The Samanids had long been a rampart of the Caliphate against the Turks, whom they held under firm control.

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  • But in the following year, 450, during his absence, the Shiites made themselves masters of the metropolis, and proclaimed the Caliphate of the Fatimite prince Mostansir.

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  • In the first year of the Caliphate of al-Moqtadi bi amri'llah (" he who follows the orders of God"), a grandson of Qaim, the power of the Seljuk empire reached its zenith.

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  • Al-Mostanjid billah ("he who invokes help from God"), the son of Moqtafi, enlarged the dominion of the Caliphate by making an end to the state of the Mazyadites in Hillah.

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  • The greatest event towards the end of his Caliphate was the conquest of Egypt by the army of Nureddin, the overthrow of the Fatimite dynasty, and the rise of Saladin.

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  • Here, however, he came into conflict with the then mighty prince of Khwarizm (Khiva), who, already exasperated because the caliph refused to grant him the honours he asked for, resolved to overthrow the Caliphate of the Abbasids, and to place a descendant of Ali on the throne of Bagdad.

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  • With him expired the eastern Caliphate of the Abbasids, which had lasted 524 years, from the entry of Abu`l-Abbas into Kufa.

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  • He was master of the holy cities, and the official Moniteur Ottoman denounced his supposed plan of aiming at the caliphate in collusion with the sherif of Mecca.

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  • Almost the first act of his reign was the suppression of a rebellion under Talha and Zobair, who were instigated by Ayesha, Mahomet's widow, a bitter enemy of Ali, and one of the chief hindrances to his advancement to the caliphate.

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  • The superstitious soldiers of Ali refused to fight any longer, and demanded that the issue be referred to arbitration (see further Caliphate, section B.

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  • Abu Musa having proclaimed that he deposed both Ali and Moawiya, `Amr declared that he also deposed Ali, and announced further that he invested Moawiya with the caliphate.

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  • This treacherous decision (but see Caliphate, ib.) greatly injured the cause of Ali, which was still further weakened by the loss of Egypt.

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  • He had eight wives after Fatima's death, and in all, it is said, thirtythree children, one of whom, Hassan, a son of Fatima, succeeded him in the caliphate.

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  • The question of Ali's right to succeed to the caliphate is an article of faith which divided the Mahommedan world into two great sects, the Sunnites and the Shiites, the former denying, and the latter affirming, his right.

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  • (See further Caliphate.) In the eyes of the later Moslems he was remarkable for learning and wisdom, and there are extant collections (almost all certainly spurious) of proverbs and verses which bear his name: the Sentences of Ali (Eng.

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  • The conditions were the same as obtained subsequently under the Mahommedan Caliphate and the empire of the Ottomans.

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  • This rising was followed by many more (see CALIPHATE: B) in which the caliphs were generally successful, and Abdaimalik (d.

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  • Throughout this period the caliphate was falling completely under the power of the Turkish officers.

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  • His successor Motamid was attacked by the Saffarid Yakub who however was compelled to flee (see CALIPHATE: C, Is).

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  • Subsequently the caliphate, which had temporarily recovered some of its authority, resumed its downward course, and the great families of Persia once again asserted themselves.

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  • The reign of the caliph Mottaqi (CALIPHATE: C, 21) was a period of perpetual strife between the Dailamites, the Turks and the Hamdanid Nasir addaula of Mosul.

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  • Their sway extended from the Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea (CALIPHATE: C, 24).

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  • Hitherto the ultimate power, at least nominally, had resided in the caliphate at Bagdad, and all the dynasties which have been noticed derived their authority formally from that source.

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  • With the rise of the Ghaznevids and later uhaznevtds the Seljuks, the Abbasid caliphate ceased to count as an independent power.

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  • The history of this period is treated at length in the articles CALIPHATE: C, ~ 26 sqq.; and SELJUKS.

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  • The thirty-eighth and last Abbasid caliph, Mostasim, was brutally murdered, and thus the Mahommedan caliphate ceased to exist even as an emasculated pontificate.

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  • AurHoiuTIEs.The works relating to Persia will be found under articles on the maindynasties (CALIPHATE; SELJIJKS; MONGOLS), and the great rulers (JENGHIz KHAN; MAHMUD OF GHAZNI; TIMUR).

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  • The death of Hgrun al-Rashid in the beginning of the 9th century, which marks the commencement of the decline of the caliphate, was at the same time the starting-point of movements for national independence and a national literature in the Iranian dominion, and the common cradle of the two was in the province of Khorkskn, between the Oxus and the Jaxartes.

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  • Soon after this, in 820 (205 A.IL), Thhir, who aided MamUn to wrest the caliphate from his brother AmIn, succeeded in establishing the first semiindependent Persian dynasty in Khorksgn, which was overthrown ~n 872 (259 All.) by the ~affrids.

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  • In the 8th century this country was traversed by an army of the Caliphate.

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  • The then king of Seville, Motadhid, one of the small princes who had divided the caliphate of Cordova, was himself a sceptic and poisoner, but he stood in wholesome awe of the power of the x.

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  • Le Strange, Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate, p. 17).

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  • Next to them came the Fatimites of Egypt and northern Africa, who claimed the caliphate, and who aimed at extending their rule over the Mahommedan world, at least in the west.

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  • He repelled the Fatimites, partly by supporting their enemies in Africa, and partly by claiming the caliphate for himself.

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  • The caliphate was thought only to belong to the prince who ruled over the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina.

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  • With the decay of the power of the Abbasid caliphate its importance declined.

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  • Various causesthe weakening of the Arabs by the struggle between the Omayyads and the Abbasids just after the battle of Tours; the alliance of the petty Christian kings of Wars with the Spanish peninsula; an appeal from the northern the Arabs, amirs who had revolted against the new caliphate of Slays and Cordova (755)made Charlemagne resolve to cross ~h1es.

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  • Driven in the first instance to speculation in theology by the needs of their natural reason, they came, in after days, when Greek philosophy had been naturalized in the Caliphate, to adapt its methods and doctrines to the support of their views.

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  • But the narrow limits of the Syrian studies, which added to a scanty knowledge of Aristotle some acquaintance with his Syrian commentators, were soon passed by the curiosity and zeal of the students in the Caliphate.

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  • The 12th century exhibits the decay of liberal intellectual activity in the Caliphate, and the gradual ascendancy of Turkish races animated with all the intolerance of semi-barbarian proselytes to the Mahommedan faith.

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  • Abu 1-`Abbas as-Saffah, the founder of the Abbasid caliphate, made it his capital, and such it remained until the founding of Bagdad in 762.

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  • The conflict for the caliphate (q.v.) between Omayyad and Abbasid removed all shadew of control by the head of the Mahommedan world, and Spain was given up to mere anarchy.

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  • Even on Hakams death the power of the caliphate was exercised for some thirty years with great vigour.

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  • administration of Mahommed ben Abdallah, who took the royal name al-.Mansur Billah (the victorious through God) and is generally known as Mansur (q.v.), is also counted among the glories of the caliphate of Cordova.

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  • A score of shifting principalities, each ready to help the Christians to destroy the others, took the place of the caliphate.

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  • Began the restoration of the kingdom after the period of anarchy, and - subjection to the caliphate.

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  • He and his immediate descendants gradually fsubdued the other counts, They suffered much from the inroads of Mansur in the 10th century, but on the decline of the caliphate, they took part in the general advance.

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  • After the murder of Ali, the fourth caliph, his successor Moawiya transferred the seat of the Caliphate from Mecca to Damascus and thus commenced the great dynasty of the Omayyads, whose rule extended from the Atlantic to India.

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  • It may have been the impulse given by the final supremacy of the caliphate to the long process which eventually substituted a new branch of Semitic speech for the Aramaic (which had now prevailed for a millennium and a half), that led Jacob to adopt the Greek vowel signs for use in Syriac. A century later Theophilus of Edessa (d.

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  • But it was from a different quarter that peril first assailed the Caliphate.

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  • caliphate of ali 656 661 Bookmark this page No breathing space many problems.

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  • All have been part of Mr. Basayev's declared goal to establish an Islamic caliphate, uniting the northern Caucasus in secession from Russia.

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  • That opened the door for him to claim the caliphate, opposing Yazid.

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  • His aim of restoring an Islamic caliphate whose capital would be in Baghdad is in ideological conflict with present day Iraq.

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  • After pretending to not want the caliphate, once the title was given, he clung to it with all his life's force.

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  • And this bourgeois-nationalist government of Turkey has found it necessary to abolish the caliphate.

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  • caliphate at the beginning of this century, women have been receding from this important role.

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  • McMahon's reply was somewhat non-committal save with respect to a restored Arab caliphate.

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  • Turning now to the dependencies of the Empire, we note that Spain was during this reign finally detached from the eastern caliphate.

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  • As the Ottoman Turks lost ground to the West, they increasingly donned the cloak of the Caliphate.

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  • A Mr. W. Heidrick, long-term member of the Caliphate OTO, is particularly culpable here.

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  • Under Kemal's presidency, Turkey dispensed with the feudal caliphate structure and embraced secularism as a basic tenet of state policy.

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  • Indeed, in the time of the caliphate this was the channel of the Tigris, and on its banks stood the important city of Wasit.

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  • At Bagdad, besides the memorials of the caliphate, may be seen a few remains of the old Babylonian city of Bagdadu, and a dozen miles southward, on the east bank of the river, stands Takhti-Khesra, the royal palace at Ctesiphon, the most conspicuous and picturesque ruin in all Babylonia, opposite which, on the other side of the river, are the low ruin mounds of ancient Seleucia.

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  • See also Darius; Persia: Ancient History; and Caliphate.

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  • ' Abul Hassan Ali, al Reza, commonly known as Imam Reza, the eighth imam of the Shiites, a son of Musa al Kazim, the seventh imam, was the leader from whom the party of the Alids (Shiites) had such hopes under the caliphate of Mamun.

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  • "he who is guided aright"), a title assumed by the third Abbasid caliph (see Caliphate: Abbasids, § 3).

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  • A day's journey beyond Meskene are the remains of Siffin (Roman Sephe), where Moawiya defeated the caliph Ali in 657 (see Caliphate), and opposite this, on the west bank, a picturesque ruin called Karat Ja`ber (Dausara).

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  • Its time of greatest prosperity and importance was the period of the Abbasid caliphate, and Arabic geographers as late as A.D.

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  • (For the character of this alluvium and its rate of deposit see Irak.) Even more than the upper and middle Euphrates the lower Euphrates, from Hit downward, abounds in ruins of ancient towns and cities, from the earliest prehistoric period onward to the close of the Caliphate (see Irak).

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  • Tigris (1900); Guy Le Strange, " Description of Mesopotamia," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1895), and Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate (1901); J.

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  • And as the Bagdad caliphate tended to become more and more supreme in Islam, so the gaonate too shared in this increased influence.

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  • The Caliphate under the Omayyads of Damascus, and then the Abbasids of Bagdad, became the principal power in the nearer East.

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  • The Caliphate, though Arabian, was always geographically outside Arabia, and on its fall Arabia remained as it was before Islam, isolated and inaccessible.

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  • Other Guebres occupied themselves privately with the collection of these traditions; and, when a prince of Persian origin, Yakub ibn Laith, founder of the Saffarid dynasty, succeeded in throwing off his allegiance to the caliphate, he at once set about continuing the work of his illustrious predecessors.

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  • Under the caliphate of Mamun, Saman, a Persian noble of Balkh, who was a close friend of the Arab governor of Khorasan, Asad b.

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  • p. 113; also articles Caliphate and Persia: History, section B, and for the later period Mahmud, Seljuks, Mongols.

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  • At the Moslem conquest of Syria, Palmyra capitulated to Khalid (see Caliphate) without embracing Islam (Baladsori [[[Baladhuri]]], seq.; Yagut, i.

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  • As early as 970 the recovery of the territories lost to Mahommedanism in the East had been begun by emperors like Nicephoras Phocas and John Zimisces: they had pushed their conquests, if only for a time, as far as Antioch and Edessa, and the temporary occupation of Jerusalem is attributed to the East Roman arms. At the opposite end of the Mediterranean, in Spain, the Omayyad caliphate was verging to its fall: the long Spanish crusade against the Moor had begun; and in 1018 Roger de Toeni was already leading Normans into Catalonia to the aid of the native Spaniard.

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  • Under the rule of their sultans, who assumed the role of mayors of the palace in Bagdad about the middle of the 11th century, they pushed westwards towards the caliphate of Egypt and the East Roman empire.

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  • The hostility of the decadent caliphate of Cairo was the less dangerous; and though Baldwin I.

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  • Thus the Shiite caliphate became extinct: in the mosques of Cairo the name of the caliph of Bagdad was now used; and the long-disunited Mahommedans at last faced the Christians as a solid body.

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  • In 616 Syria was subjugated for a brief period by the Persian Choroes II.; from 622 till 628 it was again Byzantine; 636 and the immediately following years saw its conquest by the Mahommedans (see Caliphate).

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  • The extinction of the western caliphate and the dispersion of the once noble heritage of the Ommayads into numerous petty independent states, had taken place some thirty years previously, so that Castilian and Moslem were once again upon equal terms, the country being almost equally divided between them.

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  • After the battle of Kadisiya (Qadisiya) Ctesiphon and the neighbouring towns were taken and plundered by the Arabs in 6 3 7, who brought home an immense amount of booty (see CALIPHATE).

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  • 1682, but the sculptures which it contains belong probably to the time of the caliphate.

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  • Under substantially its present name, Akukafa, it is mentioned as a place of importance in connexion with the canals as late as the Abbasid caliphate.

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  • (1100 B.C.) The quay of Nebuchadrezzar, mentioned above, establishes the fact that this ancient city of Baghdadu was located on the site of western or old Bagdad (see further under Caliphate: Abbasids, sections 2 foil.).

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  • As in Spanish Islam, so in the lands of the eastern caliphate, the Jews were treated relatively with favour.

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  • Mo`tassim founded Samarra, and for fifty-eight years caliph and court deserted Bagdad (see Caliphate, sect.

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  • With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the "glorious city."

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  • 917," in Journal Royal Asiatic Society, 1895, 1897; Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate (1901).

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  • It belonged to the Eastern Caliphate (the Hamdanids) until temporarily reoccupied by John Zimisces, emperor of Byzantium and a native of neighbouring Hierapolis, A.D.

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  • For six years (672-677) the Arabs under the caliph Moawiya (see CALIPHATE) besieged Constantinople, but the ravages caused amongst them by the so-called "Greek fire," heavy losses by land and sea, and the inroads of the Christian Mardaites (or Maronites, q.v.) of Mount Lebanon, obliged Moawiya to make peace and agree to pay tribute for thirty years.

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  • The Indian Mussulmans indeed were rapidly degenerating into a mere sect of Hindus before the Wahabi revival, and the more recent political propaganda in support of the false caliphate of the sultans of Turkey; and we therefore find the religious use of incense among them more general than among the Mahommedans of any other country.

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  • Though the external conquests of the Arabs belong more properly to the period of the caliphate, yet they were the natural outcome of the prophet's ideas.

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  • Under the second caliph Omar (634-644) the Persians were defeated at Kadesiya (Kadessia), and Irak was completely subdued and the new cities of Kuf a and Basra were ',For the general history of the succeeding period see Caliphate; Egypt: History, §" Mahommedan."

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  • Rhagae) in 643 meant the entire subjugation of Persia and crowned the conquests of Omar's caliphate.

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  • At the end of the first year of his caliphate Abu Bekr saw Arabia united under Islam.

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  • The secondary position that Arabia was beginning to assume in the Arabian empire is clearly marked in the progress of events during the caliphate of Othman.

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  • With the success of Moawiya Damascus became the capital of the caliphate (658) and Arabia became a mere province, though always of importance because of its possession, of the two sacred cities Mecca and Medina.

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  • The final blow to any political pretensions of Medina was dealt by the caliph when he had his son Yazid declared as his successor, thus taking away any claim on the part of the citizens of Medina to elect to the caliphate.

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  • The accession of Abul 'Abbas (of the house of Hashim) and the transference of the capital of the caliphate from Damascus to Kufa, then Anbar and soon after (in 760) to Bagdad meant still further degradation to Arabia and Arabs.

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  • His success was constant and the caliphate was brought very low by him.

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  • Arabia was now completely disorganized, and was only nominally subject to the caliphate.

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  • With the fall of the Bagdad caliphate all attempts at control from that quarter came to an end.

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  • In 1517 the Osmanli Turkish sultan Selim conquered Egypt, and having received the right of succession to the caliphate was solemnly presented by the sherif of Mecca with the keys of the city, and recognized as the spiritual head of Islam and ruler of the Hejaz.

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  • Since the separation from the caliphate (before loon A.D.) Oman had remained independent.

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  • It already, however, bore within it the germ of decay; the accumulation of treasure in the capital had led to a corruption of the simple manners of the earlier times; the exhaustion of the tribes through the heavy blood tax had roused discontent among them; the plundering of the holy places, the attacks on the pilgrim caravans under the escort of Turkish soldiers, and finally, in 1810, the desecration of the tomb of Mahomet and the removal of its costly treasures, raised a cry of dismay throughout the Mahommedan world, and made it clear even to the Turkish sultan that unless the Wahhabi power were crushed his claims to the caliphate were at an end.

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  • In the provinces of the caliphate there were many poets, who, however, seldom produced original work.

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  • Abu Mikhnaf left a great number of monographs on the chief events from the death of the Prophet to the caliphate of Walid II.

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  • In 782 the Arabs under Harun al-Rashid penetrated as far as the Bosporus, and exacted an annual tribute as the price of an inglorious peace (see Caliphate, § C, 3 adiin.).

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  • Caliphate (1905).

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  • In 629 the Saracens made their first incursion into Syria (see Caliphate, section A, § I); in 636 they won a notable victory on the Yermuk (Hieromax), and in the following years conquered all Syria, Palestine and Egypt.

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  • "The first split was due to uncertainty regarding the principle which should rule the succession to the Caliphate.

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  • The sect of the Mu'tazilites which affirmed that the Koran had been created, and denied predestination, began to be persecuted by the government in the 9th century, and discussion of religious questions was forbidden (see Caliphate, sections B and C).

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  • Removed from his office by Othman in 647, who replaced him by Ibn abi Sarh, he sided with Moawiya in the contest for the caliphate, and was largely responsible for the deposition of Ali and the establishment of the Omayyad dynasty.

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  • (See Caliphate, section B.) In 658 he reconquered Egypt in Moawiya's interest, and governed it till his death on the 6th of January 664.

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  • Muir, The Caliphate (London, 1891); E.

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  • The word first appears under the caliphate of Omar (A.D.

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  • Kerbela owes its existence to the fact that IJosain, a son of `Ali, the fourth caliph, was slain here by the soldiers of Yazid, the rival aspirant to the caliphate, on the 10th of October A.D.

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  • 680 (see Caliphate, sec. B, § 2).

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  • See further Caliphate, section C, §§ 4, 5.

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  • The town reached its greatest prosperity towards the beginning of the decline of the caliphate, when it was for a time an independent capital.

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  • The office of vizier, which spread from the Arabs to the Persians, Turks, Mongols, and other Oriental peoples, arose under the first Abbasid caliphs (see Mahommedan Institutions, and Caliphate, C § I) and took shape during its tenure by the Barmecides.

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  • The caliph `Ali made it his residence and the capital of his caliphate.

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  • (For history see CALIPHATE.)

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  • Soc. (1870); Hellwald, Die Russen in Central Asien (1873); Lipsky, Upper Bukhara, in Russian (1902); Skrine and Ross, The Heart of Asia (1899); Lord Ronaldshay, Outskirts of Empire in Asia (1904); and Le Strange, The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (1905).

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  • But Sabuktagin, throughout his reign at Ghazni, continued to acknowledge the Samanid suzerainty, as did Mahmud also, until the time, soon after succeeding to his father's dominions, when he received from Qadir, caliph of Bagdad (see Caliphate, C. § 25), a khilat (robe of honour), with a letter recognizing his sovereignty, and conferring on him the titles Yamin-addaula (" Right hand of the State"), and Amin-ulMillat (" Guardian of the Faith").

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  • Such authority as remained to the orthodox caliph of Bagdad (see Caliphate) or the heretical Fatimites of Cairo was exercised by their viziers.

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  • The Seljuks inherited the traditions and at the same time the power of the Arabian caliphate, of which, when they made their appearance, only the shadow remained in the person of the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad.

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  • At this time the power of Qaim, the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad (see Caliphate, section C, § 26), was reduced to a mere shadow, as the Shiite dynasty of the Buyids and afterwards his more formidable Fatimite rivals had left him almost wholly destitute of authority.

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  • It has been already observed that the Seljuks considered themselves the defenders of the orthodox faith and of the Abbasid caliphate, while they on their side represented the temporal power which received its titles and sanction from the successor of the Prophet.

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  • ABBADIDES, a Mahommedan dynasty which arose in Spain on the downfall of the western caliphate.

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  • Abd-ul-Qasim gained the confidence of the townsmen by organizing a successful resistance to the Berber soldiers of fortune who were grasping at the fragments of the caliphate.

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  • In the general confusion of the caliphate produced by the change of dynasty, Africa had fallen into the hands of local rulers, formerly amirs or lieutenants of the Omayyad caliphs, but now aiming at independence.

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  • The lines of the rivers are marked at frequent intervals by the ruins of flourishing towns of Assyrian, Roman and Caliphate times.

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  • The most natural explanation is that Aryans had made their way into the highlands east of Assyria, and thence bands had penetrated into Mesopotamia, peacefully or otherwise, and then, like the Turks in the days of the Caliphate, founded dynasties.

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  • Mansur built a castle at Rafiqa opposite Rakka to control the country round, and his son Harun al-Rashid actually resided during most of his reign, not at Bagdad but at Rakka, where two generations later al-Battani of Harran was making the astronomical observations on which his tables were based (see Albategnius) Abu Qurra, bishop of Harran, and acquaintance of the caliph Ma'mun, who was one of the earlier Aramaean Christians to use Arabic, has been thought to have contributed to the influences For this and following section see further Caliphate and Persia: History.

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  • 247-510, 660-762; for the conditions since the Arab conquest, Guy le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (1905), chiefly pp. 86-114, is especially useful.

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  • For the later periods see PERSIA: History; HELLENISM; ROME: History; PARTHIA; SYRIAC LITERATURE; CALIPHATE and authorities there given.

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  • le Strange, Baghdad under the Abbasid Caliphate (1901); The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (Cambridge, 1905); V.

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  • 650-651), Hodhaifa, the victor in the great and decisive battle of Nehaveand (see Caliphate; and Persia: History) perceived that such disputes might become dangerous, and therefore urged on the caliph Othman the necessity for a universally binding text.

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  • From 639 to 968 Egypt was a province of the Eastern Caliphate, and was ruled by governors sent from the cities which at different times ranked as capitals.

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  • Like other provinces of the later Abbasid Caliphate its rulers were, during this period, able to establish quasi-independent dynasties, such being those of the Tulunids who ruled from 868 to 905, and the Ikshidis from 935969.

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  • (a) During the undivided Caliphate.

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  • Ilakam (Merw~n I.), who had assumed the Caliphate, and the conquerors son Abd al-AzIz was appointed governor.

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  • (For Egypt under Motawakkil see CALIPHATE, c. par.

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    0
  • He was the first to establish the claim of Egypt to govern Syria, and from his time Egypt grew more and more independent of the Eastern caliphate.

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  • Thus the IkshIdi Dynasty came to an end, and Egypt was transferred from the Eastern to the Western caliphate, of which it furnished the metropolis.

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  • His system of persecution was not abandoned till in the last year of his reign (1020) he thought fit to claim divinity, a doctrine which is perpetuated by the Druses, called after one DarazI, who preached the divinity of Ijakim at the time; the violent opposition which this aroused among the Moslems probably led him to adopt milder measures towards his other subjects, and those who had been forcibly converted were permitted to return to their former religion and rebuild their places of worship. Whether his disappearance at the beginning of the year 1021 was due to the resentment of his outraged subjects, or, as the historians say, to his sisters fear that he would bequeath the caliphate to a distant relative to the exclusion of his own son, will never be known.

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  • After her death the caliph was in the power of various ministers, under whose management of affairs Syria was for a time lost to the Egyptian caliphate, and Egypt itself raided by the Syrian usurpers, of whom one, Salil~ b.

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  • Badis, the 4th ruler of the dependent Zeirid dynasty which had ruled in the Maghrib since the migration of the F~imite Moizz to Egypt, definitely abjured his allegiance (1049) and returned to Sunnite principles and subjection to the Bagdad caliphate.

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  • This loss was more than compensated by the enrolment of Yemen among the countries which recognized the Fa~imite caliphate through the enterprise of one Ali b.

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  • The time of Mostan~ir is otherwise memorable for the rise of the Assassins (qv.), who at the first supported the claims of his eldest son Nizgr to the succession against the youngest Ahmed, who was favored by the family of Badr. When Badr died in 1094 his influence was inherited by his son aI-Af~al Shghinshh, and this, at the death of Mostansir in the same year, was thrown in favor of A limed, who succeeded to the caliphate with the title al-Mostali bill/-i.

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  • After a reign of seven years Mostali died and the caliphate was given by al-Afdal to an infant son, aged five years at the time.

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  • In 1260 theSyrian kingdom of alNa~ir was destroyed by Hulaku (Hulagu), the great Mongol chief, founder of the Ilkhan Dynasty (see MoNGOLS), who, having finally overthrown the caliph of Bagdad (see CALIPhATE, sect.

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  • Sultan Bibars, who proved to be one of the most competent of the Baliri Mamelukes, made Egypt the centre of the Moslem world by re-establishing in theory the Abbasid caliphate, which had lapsed through the taking of Bagdad by Hulagu, followed by the execution of the caliph.

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  • This was the last time that the Ilkhans gave the Egyptian sultans serious trouble; and in the letter written in the sultans name to the Ilkhan announcing the victory, the former suggested that the caliphate of Bagdad should be restored to the titular Abbasid caliph who had accompanied the Egyptian expedition, a suggestion which does not appear to have led to any actual steps being taken.

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  • But, as the power of the `Abbasids declined (see article Caliphate, ad fin.) and external authority fell in the provinces into the hands of the governors and in the capital into those of the amir al-omard, the distinction became more and more palpable, especially when the Buyids, who were disposed to Shi`ite views, proclaimed themselves sultans, i.e.

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  • The Mamelukes in Egypt tried to make their own government appear more legitimate by nominally recognizing a continuation of the spiritual dignity of the caliphate in a surviving branch of the 'Abbasid line which they protected, and in 923 A.H.

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  • (1517) the Ottoman Selim, who destroyed the Mameluke power, constrained the 'Abbasid Motawakkil III., who lived in Cairo, to make over to him his nominal caliphate.

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  • For a list of the kings and the history of the empire see Persia: Ancient History, section viii.; for its fall see also Caliphate, section A, § 1.

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  • Southwards they plundered far up the Garonne, and in the north of Spain; and one fleet of them sailed all round Spain, plundering, but attempting in vain to establish themselves in this Arab caliphate.

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  • See Caliphate (Sections B, 14 and C), where a detailed account of the dynasty will be found.

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  • For the later Constantines references to general authorities will be found under Later Roman Empire; see also Caliphate and SELJUxs for the wars of the period.

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  • (For the general history of this period see Caliphate).

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  • dynasty, transferred the seat of the caliphate from Abdalmali Mecca to Damascus, where it remained till the k,.

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  • In 684 Caliph Abdalmalik (Abd el- Melek), in order to weaken the prestige of Mecca, set himself to beautify the holy shrine of Jerusalem, and built the Kubbet es-Sakhrah, or Dome of the Rock, which still remains one of the most beautiful buildings in the world (Caliphate: B 5).

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  • CALIPHATE.'

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  • To Omar's ten years' Caliphate belong for the most part the great conquests.

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  • The opposition was headed by Ali, Zobair, Talha, both as leading men among the Emigrants and as disappointed candidates for the Caliphate.

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  • Its ultimate aim was the deposition of Othman in favour of Ali, whose own services as well as his close relationship to the Prophet seemed to give him the best claim to the Caliphate.

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  • The mass of the mutineers summoned Ali to the Caliphate, and compelled even Talha and Zobair to do him homage.

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  • This movement it was that had raised Ali to the Caliphate, but yet it did not really take any personal interest in him.

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  • We thus see how the power of the house of Omayya developed itself, and how there arose against it an opposition, which led in the first place to the murder of Othman and the Caliphate of Ali, and furthermore, during the whole period of the Omayyad caliphs, repeatedly to dangerous outbreaks, culminating in the great catastrophe which placed the Abbasids on the throne.

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  • Abi Arta made his expedition against Medina and Mecca, whose inhabitants were compelled to acknowledge the caliphate of Moawiya.

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  • These two men were the chief obstacles to Moawiya's plan for securing the Caliphate for his son Yazid.

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  • Ashtar, Mokhtar's governor of Mesopotamia, submitted and acknowledged the Caliphate of Ibn Zobair.

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  • Muir, Caliphate (London, 1891), pp.368-9.

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  • under the Caliphate of Omar II.

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  • Walid designated his two sons as heirs to the Caliphate.

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  • The holiness of their Caliphate, their legitimate authority, had been trifled with; the hatred of the days of Merj Rahit had been revived.

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  • - Yazid III., on his accession, made a fine speech, in which he promised to do all that could be expected from a good and wise ruler, even offering to make place immediately for the man whom his subjects should find better qualified for the Caliphate than himself.

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  • When Merwan entered Damascus this man testified that the sons of Walid II., who had just become adult, had named Merwan successor to the Caliphate, and was the first to greet him as Prince of the Believers.

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  • After this new pacification, Merwan caused the Syrians to acknowledge his two sons as heirs to the Caliphate, and married them to two daughters of Hisham.

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  • Sayyar did not at once acknowledge the Caliphate of Yazid III., but induced the Arab chiefs to accept himself as amir of Khorasan, until a caliph should be universally acknowledged.

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  • Abu'l-Abbas inaugurated his Caliphate by a harangue in which he announced the era of concord and happiness which was to begin now that the House of the Prophet had been restored to its right.

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  • About the same time Africa 1 and Spain escaped from the dominion of the eastern Caliphate; the former for a season, the latter permanently.

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  • At the same time as the revolt in Africa, the independent Caliphate of the western Omayyads was founded in Spain.

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  • A deputation from Spain sought him out in Africa and offered him the Caliphate, which he accepted with joy.

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  • 2 a speedily founded at Cordova the Western Omayyad Caliphate (see Spain: History).

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  • But around this nucleus there soon grew up the great metropolis which was to be the centre of the civilized world as long as the Caliphate lasted.

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  • le Strange, Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate (Oxford, 1900).

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  • Khalid, sent the insignia of the Caliphate, with letters of condolence and congratulation, to Musa in Jorjan, and brought the army which had accompanied Mandi peacefully back from Media to Bagdad.

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  • Hall, who had never been able to forget that he had narrowly escaped being supplanted by his brother, formed a plan for excluding him from the Caliphate and transmitting the succession to his own son Ja`far.

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  • Abdallah, another brother of Mahommed and Ibrahim, who had taken refuge in the land of Dailam on the south-western shores of the Caspian Sea, succeeded in forming a powerful party, and publicly claimed the Caliphate.

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  • 817), under pretence of putting an end to the continual revolts of the partisans of Ali, and acting on the advice of his prime minister Fadl, he publicly designated as his successor in the Caliphate Ali ar-Rida, a son of that Musa al-Kazim who perished in the prison of Mandi, a direct descendant of Hosain, the son of Ali, and proscribed black, the colour of the Abbasids, in favour of that of the house of Ali, green.

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  • Musa, declared Mamun deposed, and elected his uncle, Ibrahim, son of Mandi, to the Caliphate.'

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  • Abbas, however, publicly renounced all pretension to the Caliphate, and the whole army accepted Motasim, who immediately had the fortifications of Tyana demolished and hastened back to Bagdad, where he made his public entry on the 20th of September 833.

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  • In fact, from the time of Wathiq, the Caliphate became the plaything of the Turkish guard, and its decline was continuous.

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  • But the arrogance of Itakh, to whom he owed his Caliphate, became insufferable.

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  • In the year of his elevation to the Caliphate, he had regulated the succession to the empire in his own family by designating as future caliphs his three sons, al-Montasir billah (" he who seeks help in God"), al-Mo`tazz billah (" he whose strength is of God"), and al-Mowayyad billah (" he who is assisted by God").

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  • He was a feeble, pleasureloving monarch, but Mohtadi had regained for the Caliphate some authority, which was exercised by Obaidallah b.

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  • Motamid had appointed his son al-Mofawwid as successor to the Caliphate, and after him his brother Mowaffaq.

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  • Not long before these events, the seat of the Caliphate had been restored to Bagdad.

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  • The mighty house of Abu Dolaf in the south-west of Media, which had never ceased to encroach on the Caliphate, was put down.

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  • 289 (March 902), leaving the Caliphate to his son al-Moktafi billah (" he who sufficeth himself' in God").

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  • - The sudden death of Moktafi, Dhu`lga`da 295 (August 908), was a fatal blow to the prestige of the Caliphate, which had revived under the successive governments of Mowaffaq, Motadid and himself.

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  • Far more dangerous, however, for the Caliphate of Bagdad at the time were the Carmathians of Bahrein, then guided by Abu Tahir, the son of Abu Sa`id Jannabi.

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  • His own wish was to call Abu Ahmad, a son of Moktafi, or a son of Moqtadir, to the Caliphate, but the majority of generals preferring Qahir because he was an adult man and had no mother at his side, he acquiesced, although he had a personal dislike for him, knowing his selfish and cruel character.

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  • Thenceforth the worldly power of the Caliphate was a mere shadow.

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  • During the troubles of the Caliphate the Byzantines had made great advances; they had even taken Malatia and Samosata (Samsat).

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  • The sultan, reserving to himself all the powers and revenues of the Caliphate, allowed the caliph merely a secretary and a pension of 5000 dirhems a day.

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  • During this caliphate the Buyid princes were in continual war with one another.

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  • The Samanids had long been a rampart of the Caliphate against the Turks, whom they held under firm control.

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  • But in the following year, 450, during his absence, the Shiites made themselves masters of the metropolis, and proclaimed the Caliphate of the Fatimite prince Mostansir.

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  • In the first year of the Caliphate of al-Moqtadi bi amri'llah (" he who follows the orders of God"), a grandson of Qaim, the power of the Seljuk empire reached its zenith.

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  • 1 Henceforward the history of the Caliphate is largely that of the Seljuk princes (see SELJuxs).

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  • Al-Mostanjid billah ("he who invokes help from God"), the son of Moqtafi, enlarged the dominion of the Caliphate by making an end to the state of the Mazyadites in Hillah.

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  • The greatest event towards the end of his Caliphate was the conquest of Egypt by the army of Nureddin, the overthrow of the Fatimite dynasty, and the rise of Saladin.

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  • Here, however, he came into conflict with the then mighty prince of Khwarizm (Khiva), who, already exasperated because the caliph refused to grant him the honours he asked for, resolved to overthrow the Caliphate of the Abbasids, and to place a descendant of Ali on the throne of Bagdad.

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  • With him expired the eastern Caliphate of the Abbasids, which had lasted 524 years, from the entry of Abu`l-Abbas into Kufa.

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  • He was master of the holy cities, and the official Moniteur Ottoman denounced his supposed plan of aiming at the caliphate in collusion with the sherif of Mecca.

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  • Almost the first act of his reign was the suppression of a rebellion under Talha and Zobair, who were instigated by Ayesha, Mahomet's widow, a bitter enemy of Ali, and one of the chief hindrances to his advancement to the caliphate.

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  • The superstitious soldiers of Ali refused to fight any longer, and demanded that the issue be referred to arbitration (see further Caliphate, section B.

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  • Abu Musa having proclaimed that he deposed both Ali and Moawiya, `Amr declared that he also deposed Ali, and announced further that he invested Moawiya with the caliphate.

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  • This treacherous decision (but see Caliphate, ib.) greatly injured the cause of Ali, which was still further weakened by the loss of Egypt.

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  • He had eight wives after Fatima's death, and in all, it is said, thirtythree children, one of whom, Hassan, a son of Fatima, succeeded him in the caliphate.

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  • The question of Ali's right to succeed to the caliphate is an article of faith which divided the Mahommedan world into two great sects, the Sunnites and the Shiites, the former denying, and the latter affirming, his right.

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  • (See further Caliphate.) In the eyes of the later Moslems he was remarkable for learning and wisdom, and there are extant collections (almost all certainly spurious) of proverbs and verses which bear his name: the Sentences of Ali (Eng.

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  • The conditions were the same as obtained subsequently under the Mahommedan Caliphate and the empire of the Ottomans.

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  • Yazdegerd sought refuge in one province after the other, till, at last, in 651, he was assassinated in Merv (see CALIPHATE: A, I).

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  • The success of this policy was, however, only apparent, especially in Iran, the inhabitants of which adopted Islam only in the most superficial manner, and it was from Persia that the blow fell which destroyed the Omayyad caliphate and set up the Abbasids in its place (see CALIPHATE).

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  • This rising was followed by many more (see CALIPHATE: B) in which the caliphs were generally successful, and Abdaimalik (d.

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  • Throughout this period the caliphate was falling completely under the power of the Turkish officers.

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  • His successor Motamid was attacked by the Saffarid Yakub who however was compelled to flee (see CALIPHATE: C, Is).

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  • In the reign of Motadid (CALIPHATE: C, 16) who, as we have seen, put down the Dolafids, and also checked the Sajids of Azerbaijan in their designs on Syria and Egypt, the Kharijites of Mesopotamia were put down by the aid of the Hamdanites of Mosul, who were to become an important dynasty (see below).

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  • Subsequently the caliphate, which had temporarily recovered some of its authority, resumed its downward course, and the great families of Persia once again asserted themselves.

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  • The reign of the caliph Mottaqi (CALIPHATE: C, 21) was a period of perpetual strife between the Dailamites, the Turks and the Hamdanid Nasir addaula of Mosul.

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  • Their sway extended from the Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea (CALIPHATE: C, 24).

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  • Hitherto the ultimate power, at least nominally, had resided in the caliphate at Bagdad, and all the dynasties which have been noticed derived their authority formally from that source.

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  • With the rise of the Ghaznevids and later uhaznevtds the Seljuks, the Abbasid caliphate ceased to count as an independent power.

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  • The history of this period is treated at length in the articles CALIPHATE: C, ~ 26 sqq.; and SELJUKS.

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  • The thirty-eighth and last Abbasid caliph, Mostasim, was brutally murdered, and thus the Mahommedan caliphate ceased to exist even as an emasculated pontificate.

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  • AurHoiuTIEs.The works relating to Persia will be found under articles on the maindynasties (CALIPHATE; SELJIJKS; MONGOLS), and the great rulers (JENGHIz KHAN; MAHMUD OF GHAZNI; TIMUR).

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  • The death of Hgrun al-Rashid in the beginning of the 9th century, which marks the commencement of the decline of the caliphate, was at the same time the starting-point of movements for national independence and a national literature in the Iranian dominion, and the common cradle of the two was in the province of Khorkskn, between the Oxus and the Jaxartes.

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  • Soon after this, in 820 (205 A.IL), Thhir, who aided MamUn to wrest the caliphate from his brother AmIn, succeeded in establishing the first semiindependent Persian dynasty in Khorksgn, which was overthrown ~n 872 (259 All.) by the ~affrids.

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  • In the 8th century this country was traversed by an army of the Caliphate.

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  • The then king of Seville, Motadhid, one of the small princes who had divided the caliphate of Cordova, was himself a sceptic and poisoner, but he stood in wholesome awe of the power of the x.

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  • Le Strange, Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate, p. 17).

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  • The merchant aristocracy became satraps or pensioners of a great empire; but the seat of dominion was removed beyond the desert, and though Mecca and the Hejaz strove for a time to maintain political as well as religious predominance, the struggle was vain, and terminated on the death of Ibn Zubair, the Meccan pretendant to the caliphate, when the city was taken by Hajjaj (A.D.

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  • Next to them came the Fatimites of Egypt and northern Africa, who claimed the caliphate, and who aimed at extending their rule over the Mahommedan world, at least in the west.

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  • He repelled the Fatimites, partly by supporting their enemies in Africa, and partly by claiming the caliphate for himself.

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  • The caliphate was thought only to belong to the prince who ruled over the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina.

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  • With the decay of the power of the Abbasid caliphate its importance declined.

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  • Various causesthe weakening of the Arabs by the struggle between the Omayyads and the Abbasids just after the battle of Tours; the alliance of the petty Christian kings of Wars with the Spanish peninsula; an appeal from the northern the Arabs, amirs who had revolted against the new caliphate of Slays and Cordova (755)made Charlemagne resolve to cross ~h1es.

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  • Driven in the first instance to speculation in theology by the needs of their natural reason, they came, in after days, when Greek philosophy had been naturalized in the Caliphate, to adapt its methods and doctrines to the support of their views.

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  • But the narrow limits of the Syrian studies, which added to a scanty knowledge of Aristotle some acquaintance with his Syrian commentators, were soon passed by the curiosity and zeal of the students in the Caliphate.

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  • The 12th century exhibits the decay of liberal intellectual activity in the Caliphate, and the gradual ascendancy of Turkish races animated with all the intolerance of semi-barbarian proselytes to the Mahommedan faith.

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  • Abu 1-`Abbas as-Saffah, the founder of the Abbasid caliphate, made it his capital, and such it remained until the founding of Bagdad in 762.

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  • In 718 they crossed the Pyrenees, and continued their invasions of Gaul till they met the solid power of the Austrasian Franks at Poitiers 732 (see CHARLES MARTEL and CALIPHATE, B.

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  • The conflict for the caliphate (q.v.) between Omayyad and Abbasid removed all shadew of control by the head of the Mahommedan world, and Spain was given up to mere anarchy.

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  • Even on Hakams death the power of the caliphate was exercised for some thirty years with great vigour.

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  • administration of Mahommed ben Abdallah, who took the royal name al-.Mansur Billah (the victorious through God) and is generally known as Mansur (q.v.), is also counted among the glories of the caliphate of Cordova.

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  • A score of shifting principalities, each ready to help the Christians to destroy the others, took the place of the caliphate.

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  • Began the restoration of the kingdom after the period of anarchy, and - subjection to the caliphate.

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  • He and his immediate descendants gradually fsubdued the other counts, They suffered much from the inroads of Mansur in the 10th century, but on the decline of the caliphate, they took part in the general advance.

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  • After the murder of Ali, the fourth caliph, his successor Moawiya transferred the seat of the Caliphate from Mecca to Damascus and thus commenced the great dynasty of the Omayyads, whose rule extended from the Atlantic to India.

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  • It may have been the impulse given by the final supremacy of the caliphate to the long process which eventually substituted a new branch of Semitic speech for the Aramaic (which had now prevailed for a millennium and a half), that led Jacob to adopt the Greek vowel signs for use in Syriac. A century later Theophilus of Edessa (d.

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  • Under Kemal 's presidency, Turkey dispensed with the feudal caliphate structure and embraced secularism as a basic tenet of state policy.

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  • son of Ardashir I., formerly important, but now relatively insignificant; Samarra, also called Samira, the capital of the caliphate from A.D.

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    1
  • son of Ardashir I., formerly important, but now relatively insignificant; Samarra, also called Samira, the capital of the caliphate from A.D.

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    1
  • It has been already observed that the Seljuks considered themselves the defenders of the orthodox faith and of the Abbasid caliphate, while they on their side represented the temporal power which received its titles and sanction from the successor of the Prophet.

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  • In the general confusion of the caliphate produced by the change of dynasty, Africa had fallen into the hands of local rulers, formerly amirs or lieutenants of the Omayyad caliphs, but now aiming at independence.

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  • The lines of the rivers are marked at frequent intervals by the ruins of flourishing towns of Assyrian, Roman and Caliphate times.

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    2
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