When is the pair in California to return?
He flew in from Santa Barbara, California on a red-eye.
Howie called in from California on a daily basis.
I keep thinking, if I'd been in Miami instead of California, he wouldn't have, Bianca said, looking down.
"Yes; but we're used to such things in California," he replied.
California does that to you.
Old Paul Dawkins had a California address when he bought the land.
It would be nice to try some of the camp recipes she had picked up before leaving California, but the kitchen was hot enough without adding cooking heat.
California is a long way from West Virginia, Betsy.
It was still early in California and I assumed she was at dinner though I'd been more comfortable knowing she and Molly had reached their destination without hitch.
The description of that vehicle is plastered at every toll booth, state police barracks and wire service from here to California and back.
There were a half dozen messages from both Julie and Howie from California but in view of our frenzied day, decided to let them simmer until after a much relished glass or two of wine and Molly's carefully grilled hot dogs and cheese bread.
What will the California authorities do?
Carmen said her family had moved to California after Lori graduated.
At their inquiry, Lori informed them that she had a home and a job in California near her sister, and that she was on vacation.
And the guy from California who got himself killed; him too.
No judge would sign a search warrant on the place where he lived in California either.
I drove slowly around the circle to make sure the site previously occupied by the California motor home was indeed vacant.
The idea of any of us going out to California is another matter.
He served about a dozen years for rape in California and dropped out of sight after he was released.
To California, visiting a daughter.
There was one bed --a California king --in what she now realized was a plain hotel room.
Of course the sun did not shine, but we had great open wood fires in the rooms, which were all very sweet with roses and other flowers, which were sent to me from distant friends; and fruits of all kinds from California and other places.
He believes he's hurting our marriage, threatened to move back to California and tank the whole business.
I had barely taken a sip when I had a vision of a motor home I'd recently seen in Keene, with California plates!
The summer you two came up here, I had a major crush on my handsome California cousin but you were seven years older than me and didn't know I existed.
I related that Jackson spoke to our California associate.
The remains of what was now universally presumed to be Josh Mulligan rested in an unnamed southern California landfill.
Yes, I came from California, but I haven't met the Foreman's.
Surely it couldn't be coincidence that he had been traveling to Fayetteville from California and then turned up out here in the boonies.
I was wondering if you jumped out of a California closet.
Half the rice grown in California is a descendant of Calrose 76, created when gamma rays mutated some regular rice and the resulting mutant produced more grain and less spoilage.
This case was a twelve year old girl, shot in cold blood as she sat alone at the poolside of her California home.
Betsy called in one tip from California on a business trip.
Like that California guy.
I told him the year, the Santa Barbara, California location and the fact Annie was abducted and murdered.
The call was from California and Howie was on the line, apparently distraught.
A California plate on a motor home will stick out like a sore thumb.
The best I can figure, he never left California before his arrest so that's where I'm concentration.
Before he signed off, he added, "Keep your eyes peeled for a Pace Arrow Motor home with California plates."
Sitting on a secluded site at the far side of the circle, on the outside, sat a mid-sized Pace Arrow motor home with California Plates!
It's not finished if you, you're wife and California friends are still alive.
It surprised me to find he'd carted more of his research to California than I'd expected.
After the requisite comments on the beauties of Ouray and the surrounding mountains, Faust explained he was from California, here on business—for a short stay, he added.
The tour seemed to have attracted most of its riders from Colorado, California, Texas or some part of the west.
"Whenever you're ready, we'll be in northern California," Damian said.
Yeah. The couple that moved to California a few weeks ago.
I was sorry to see them go, but with the baby coming on and Joe's parents offering him a good job out there in California, they didn't have much choice.
You came from California, didn't you?
Sprinkled in the assortment of oldies were a few exceptions—two couples both named Dawkins, and Pumpkin Green, a young man taking a break from his cross country hike to California in support of the homeless, or so he claimed.
Two are in California with the ill mother of the one named Howard.
You could drop Molly and me off at Logan airport for the ten o'clock flight to California, be in Philadelphia by early evening, and fly out to join us the next morning.
She'd summoned Quinn home from California to tell us, unknowingly bringing him to his death.
California requires plates on the front and back.
The California kid, Lottie Lynn Summerfield is alive and...
Is Brenda Washington's murder being investigated as tied to the death of Rupert Youngblood in California and the deputy sheriff in Alabama?
Once alone, I telephoned Martha and explained that Howie had summoned Julie to California and Betsy and I would house Molly in her mother's absence.
"We should all go out there and either drag his ass back home or do our thing in California," Quinn said as he paced.
A motor home passed by, with California plates, only the open road of the entire country ahead of them.
It's like we try to do good and theses unintended side effects occur; the deputy sheriff in Alabama, that Youngblood jerk in California, plus the parents murdered just so the discovery of their child's abduction would be delayed.
Martha would drive Howie to Boston's Logan Airport for his flight back to California while Quinn would remain to pack up his equipment before leaving later for a hundred mile drive to their home in nearby Peabody, Mass.
I didn't learn about it until Julie came up here and Quinn had left for California.
Look, I came to California for a job interview.
Such as it was, this was about the only manufacturing or handicraft in California.
After a stroll up town for coffee and a doughnut, I felt it was late enough to try Quinn in California.
I've got the name of a sex offender who bought a Volt Wheel electric bike in Oxnard, California.
After he spent years in prison, he was released last summer, in California.
Owner's mother died... in California.
I understand the owner is in California.
His fiancée is with him in California.
Martha and Claire have already left for Santa Barbara and the funeral so she'll fill Howie and Julie when she gets to California.
Where do you believe he was operating in California?
Molly was all smiles, but disappointed in not being transferred to her mother when she realized I was speaking to California.
Have you heard from you buddy in California?
This number belongs to an attorney in Simi Valley, California.
Nope. Lou Green, from Palo Alto, California.
Earlier, my wife had taken care of all the logistics of our travels while I locked up the house and called Jackson to tell him we would be out of town for a couple of days, retrieving Howie from California.
On the road, in California.
Grasso is here in California!
Santa Barbara County, California.
Beneath a barn in the Hills above Santa Barbara, California.
What are you going to do when you reach California?
But Murf's wife dragged him back to California.
I'd rather be back in California.
It was Jake Weller telephoning long distance from California.
She married and settled in California.
Grandfather Ed Plotke learned Josh worked for Paul Dawkins and he wrote to Paul in California.
Paul felt responsible for Josh's quick exit and when Ed talked about leaving Ouray with his family, Paul arranged for the Plotkes to come to California.
By then, my mother was a single mom but she'd met my stepfather—my only real father—and she opted to remain in California.
Carmen assumed Lori had gone back to California.
It was enough to get her out of debt and on her feet in California.
I've been to California.
He's probably on the road— maybe going to California.
He's already an important figure in the state of California.
You come out here from California all alone and rent you a place in the middle of nowhere.
Megan O'Hara, and I'm from California.
Would she have been disappointed if he had gone back to California?
After all, you live in California in spite of the earthquakes.
If this cabin had only been in the California hills, instead of so many miles away, it would make an excellent investment.
In a few more weeks she would return to California.
Too bad it isn't situated in the mountains of California.
He would be going to Arizona and she to California.
I've heard about children walking to school barefoot, but this area isn't much different than parts of California.
There are a lot of people in California who would pay dearly for a weekend or two away from the rat race.
If Dad didn't send him, then who is he - and why was he on the plane coming from California with me?
If she had known that the pregnant girl who moved to California was his sister, she would have felt different about developing a relationship.
If he moved to California, that meant their paths would more than likely cross now and then.
He chuckled "No, all southern men aren't slow - and obviously all California women aren't fast."
Would he be happy in California?
Here in California she was in her element.
But Los Angeles wasn't all of California, and Megan was toying with the idea of opening another office further north.
One of the Gods tripped the wards he had set around his territory in southern California.
Raising two teenagers in a place as expensive as southern California was not easy.
Jessi froze, not completely connecting with the fact she stood in a place unlike the coastal southern California area.
California sunlight and an ocean breeze streamed in through open windows of Xander's spacious condo.
It was sensual, dark and cool: black walls and obsidian wood flooring covered by jewel-toned rugs, mahogany California King bed with the finest maroon silk sheets and a dark gray comforter so soft, it was like sleeping in a cloud.
Someone else tripped the wards marking his territory of Southern California, someone he didn't expect to be alive.
Several were in Southern California while two blue dots – the one in her cell phone and the other in a shoe – appeared on the map in Texas.
Wherever she was, it wasn't California.
After the war, wells were drilled at Burning Springs, Oil Rock, California House, Volcano, Sandhill and Horseneck, and in the years1865-18763,000,000 bbls.
12 1876 and educated at the university of California.
In 1904 he delivered at the university of California a course of lectures, the object of which was to illustrate the application of the methods of physical chemistry to the study of the theory of toxins and antitoxins, and which were published in 1907 under the title Immunochemistry.
Hargraves, a gold-miner from California.
Bancroft's The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, of which the principal authorities are the Noticias del Estado de Chihuahua of Escudero, who visited the ruins in 1819; an article in the first volume of the Album Mexicano, the author of which was at Casas Grandes in 1842; and the Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora and Chihuahua (1854), by John Russell Bartlett, who explored the locality in 1851.
of Sacramento, California.
Or to take the small but welldefined group of five-leaved pines, all the species of which may be seen growing side by side at Kew under identical conditions: we have the Weymouth pine (Pinus Strobus) in eastern North America, P. monlicola and the sugar pine (P. Lambertiana) in California, P. Ayacahwite in Mexico, the Arolla pine (P. Cembra) in Switzerland and Siberia, P. Peuce in Greece, the Bhotan pine (P. excelsa) in the Himalayas, and two other species in Japan.
If we turn to herbaceous plants, Hemsley has pointed out that of the thirteen genera of Ranunculaceae in California, eleven are British.
Gray), but till we reach California these are boreal in type.
sempervirens), are confined to California.
California and Arizona have each a soecies of Platanus, a dying-out genus.
Nor, with perhaps the interesting exception of Castanopsis chrysophylla, the solitary representative in the New World of an east Asiatic genus, which ranges from Oregon to California, has it any affinity with the Chino-Japanese sub-region.
Baccharis, with some 250 species, ranges over the whole continent from the Straits of Magellan and, with seven species, to California.
Amongst Coniferae Podocarpus is common to this and preceding sub-regions; Libocedrus extends from California to New Zealand and New Caledonia; Fitzroya is found in Chile and Tasmania; and Araucaria in its most familiar species occurs in Chile.
After touching at Concepcion in Chile and at Easter Island, La Perouse proceeded to Hawaii and thence to the coast of California, of which he has given a very interesting account.
Restricted to and peculiar to the subregion is only the little Oscine family of Chamaeidae, restricted to the coast district of California.
SANTA CRUZ, a city and the county-seat of Santa Cruz county, California, U.S.A., on the northern headland of the Bay of Monterey, about 75 m.
In the United States, sulphur occurs in the following states, in many of which the mineral has been worked: Louisiana (q.v.),Utah,Colorado, California, Nevada, Alaska, Idaho, Texas and Wyoming.
Enterprises: (1) Foreign missions in Labrador, Alaska, Canada, California, West Indies, Nicaragua, Demerara, Surinam, Cape Colony, Kaffraria, German East Africa, North Queensland, West Himalaya.
At the same time that these two extensions were being undertaken by old and well-established railways, a new company-the Kansas City, Mexico && Orient-was engaged in constructing a line almost due south-west from Kansas City, Mo., to the lower part of the gulf of California in Mexico; while an additional independent line was under construction from Denver in a north-westerly direction towards the Pacific coast.
Its form is approximately that of an isosceles triangle, with the sharp angle extending into Lower California, W.
California, a strip along the E.
CYPRESS (Cupressus), in botany, a genus of fifteen species belonging to the tribe Cupressineae, natural order Coniferae, represented by evergreen aromatic trees and shrubs indigenous to the south of Europe, western Asia, the Himalayas, China, Japan, north-western and north-eastern America, California and Mexico.
Lawsoniana, the Port Orford cedar, a native of south Oregon and north California, where it attains a height of Too ft., was introduced into Scotland in 1854; it is much grown for ornamental purposes in Britain, a large number of varieties of garden origin being distinguished by differences in habit and by colour of foliage.
(For map, see California.) Physiography.
of the California boundary lies a third important range, the Humboldt Mountains, whose highest point (Star Peak) is 9925 ft.
The Truckee river flows with more vigour, having its source in Lake Tahoe, in California, at an altitude of 6225 ft., and entering the Carson river through an irrigation canal :completed in 1905; before this date it flowed into Pyramid Lake and Lake Winnemucca in the depression at the foot of the Sierra Nevada.
boundary towards the Gulf of California.
The " black mouse " or Carson field mouse (Microtus montanus) is found throughout Nevada, as well as in Utah, north-eastern California, and eastern Oregon; it multiplies rapidly under favourable conditions, and at times causes serious injury to crops.
Extending from central California S.E.
2 Compare this figure with that for the neighbouring state of California, where the average size of the farms was 397.4 acres.
It is met at several points by lines which serve the rich mining districts to the south; at Cobre by the Nevada Northern from Ely in White Pine county in the Robinson copper mining district; at Palisade by the Eureka & Palisade, a narrow-gauge railway, connecting with the lead and silver mines of the Eureka District; at Battle Mountain by the Nevada Central, also of narrow gauge, from Austin; at Hazen by the Nevada & California (controlled by the Southern Pacific) which runs to the California line, connecting in that state with other parts of the Southern Pacific system, and at Mina, Nevada, with the Tonopah & Goldfield, which runs to Tonopah and thence to Goldfield, thus giving these mining regions access to the Southern Pacific's transcontinental service; and at Reno, close to the western boundary, by the Virginia & Truckee, connecting with Carson City, Minden, in the Carson Valley, and Virginia City, in the Comstock District, and by the Nevada-California-Oregon, projected to run through north-eastern California into Oregon, in 1910, in operation to Alturas, California.
The first recorded person of European descent to enter the limits of Nevada was Francisco Garces (1738-1781), of the Order of St Francis, who set out from Sonora in 1775 and passed through what is now the extreme southern corner of the state on his way to California.
Emigrants to California followed the trappers, and many crossed Nevada in the early 'forties of the 19th century.
It was then a part of California known as the Washoe Country, and remained so until the 9th of September 1850, when most of the present state was included in the newly organized Territory of Utah.
Being " battle-born," Nevada was loyal to the Union throughout the Civil War, and in spite of its scanty population furnished a company of troops in 1861, which were joined to a California regiment.
BERKELEY, a city of Alameda county, California, U.S.A., on the E.
On graduating in 1895 he worked for a time at a California mine to get experience.
Morris, Illinois; Lordsburg, California; McPherson, Kansas; Bridgewater,, Virginia; Canton, Ohio; Chicago, Illinois; North Manchester,.
ABALONE, the Spanish name used in California for various species of the shell-fish of the Haliotidae family, with a richly coloured shell yielding mother-of-pearl.
From Oil Creek, development spread first over the eastern United States and then became general, subsequently embracing Canada (1862), recently discovered fields being those of Illinois, Alberta and California (44,854,737 barrels in 1908).
Bitumen is, in its various forms, one of the most widel y -distributed of substances, occurring in strata of every geological age, from the lowest Archean rocks to those now in process of deposition, and in greater or less quantity throughout both hemispheres, from Spitzbergen to New Zealand, and from California to Japan.
- Spain, Italy, Albania ., Croatia, Hungary, Hesse, Hanover, Transcaspia, Algeria, Florida, Alabama, California, Mexico, Peru, Victoria, New Zealand.
France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.
France, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Bavaria, Elsass, Rhenish Bavaria, Hesse, Saxony, Crimea, Daghestan, Tiflis, Baku, Alaska, California, Florida.
Holland, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Westphalia, Brunswick, Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, (German) Silesia, Poland, Kutais, Uralsk, Turkestan, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Tunis, Egypt, West Africa, British Columbia, Alberta, Assiniboia, Athabasca, Manitoba, New Jersey, South Dakota, Washington, Montana, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, California, New Mexico, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mexico, Hayti, Trinidad, Colombia, Argentina [?], New Zealand.
Sussex, France, Switzerland, Spain, Hungary, Transylvania, Bukowina, Galicia, Hesse, Baden, Hanover, Brunswick, California, Texas, Mexico, Bolivia, Argentina.
The cultivation of pineapples, in sub-tropical Florida, is proving successful, the product far surpassing that of California, the only other state in the Union in which pineapples are grown.
The settlers who had flocked to California after the discovery of gold in 1848 adopted an antislavery state constitution on the 13th of October 1849, and applied for admission into the Union.
California was admitted as a free state, and the slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia; these were concessions to the North.
This, however, is not the whole of the past history of the muskox group; and in this connexion it may be mentioned that palaeontological discoveries are gradually making it evident that the poverty of America in species of horned ruminants is to a great extent a feature of the present day, and that in past times it possessed a considerable number of representatives of this group. One of the latest additions to the list is a large sheep-like animal from a cave in California, apparently representing a new generic type, which has been described by E.
Furlong in the publications of the University of California, under the name of Preptoceras sinclairi.
In 1907 Louisiana ranked sixth among the salt-producing states of the country (after New York, Michigan, Ohio, Kansas and California), its output being valued at $226,892, only a few hundred dollars more than that of Texas.
It was given to a county in California, and to towns and cities in various states.
The study of these plant and insect remains shows that forests containing a vegetation very similar to that of California and the southern United States, in some instances even the species of trees being all but identical, flourished in 70° N.
At Fontainebleau in 1876 Stevenson had met Mrs Osbourne, the lady who afterwards became his wife; she returned to her home in California in 1878, and in August of the following year, alarmed at news of her health, Stevenson hurriedly crossed the Atlantic. He travelled, from lack of means, as a steerage passenger and then as an emigrant, and in December, after hardships which seriously affected his health, he arrived in San Francisco.
On the whole, oceanographical research was being taken up most actively in Europe, but much important work was also begun in America, for instance the fine hydrographical research in the Pacific by the Scripps Institute of the university of California.
Havundersiigelser, Serie Hydrografi (Copenhagen 1904-20), contain important papers; the publications of the university of California (Zoology) deal with the work of the Scripps Inst.
NEVADA CITY, a township and the county-seat of Nevada county, California, U.S.A., about 130 m.
Gold-mining and quartz-mining are its principal industries, and in 1907 Nevada county's output of gold (104,J90.76 oz., worth $2,162,083) was second only to that of Butte county (134,813.39 oz., worth $2,786,840) in California; the county is the leading producer 1 Died the 21st of September, 1890, and Frank Bell became governor by virtue of his office as lieutenant-governor.
Roscoelite is a mica in which the aluminium is largely replaced by vanadium (V203, 30%); it occurs as brownish-green scaly aggregates, intimately associated with gold in California, Colorado and Western Australia.
A fund bearing this name was formed in the 18th century for the purpose The sous of converting to the Catholic faith the native Indians of fu d of Upper and Lower California, both of which then belonged to Mexico, and of maintaining a Catholic priesthood there.
After the sale of Upper California to the United States, effected by the treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo (1848), the Mexican government refused to pay the proportion of the interest to which Upper California was entitled.
The question of liability was then referred to commissioners appointed by each state, and, on their failing to agree, to Sir Edward Thornton, British minister at Washington, who by his award, in 1875, found there was due from Mexico to Upper California, or rather to the bishops there as administrators of the fund, an arrear of interest amounting to nearly $100,000, which was directed to be paid in gold.
PALO ALTO, a city of Santa Clara county, California, U.S.A., between two of the coast ranges, about 28 m.
by the Gulf of California.
and discharge into the Gulf of California, viz.: the Altar, or Asuncion, Sonora, Yaqui and Mayo.
The old-world species is also extensively cultivated in California, but the grape industry of the eastern United States has been developed from native species, chiefly V.
In addition to many shorter articles, reports, &c., he published Western America, including California and Oregon (1849) and Theory of the Winds (1856).
Dent (1826-1902), and was for a while stationed in California and Oregon, but in 1854 he resigned his commission.
The county and the city were named in honour of Edward Dickinson Baker (1811-1861), a political leader, orator and soldier, who was born in London, England, was taken to the United States in 1815, was a representative in Congress from Illinois in 1845-1846and 1849-1851, served in the Mexican War as a colonel (1846-1847), became a prominent lawyer in California and later in Oregon, was a Republican member of the United States Senate in 1860-1861 and was killed at Ball's Bluff, Virginia, on the 21st of October in r 861, while serving as a colonel in the Federal army.
hunsilis into California.
bottae, a small sand-snake from Oregon to California.
When the war with Mexico began in 1846 he asked for field duty, and was ordered to join an expedition going to California by sea.
Transferred in the same year to the commissariat department as a captain, he resigned three years later and went back to California to conduct at San Francisco a branch of an important St Louis banking-house.
These are confined to a few localities, the oldest and best known being those of Nagyag and Offenbanya in Transylvania; they have also been found at Red Cloud, Colorado, in Calaveras county, California, and at Perth and Boulder, West Australia.
A native gold amalgam is found as a rarity in California, and bismuth from South America is sometimes rich in gold.
The United States (California) after 1848, and Australia after 1851, were responsible for enormous increases in the total production, which has been subsequently enhanced by discoveries in Canada, South Africa, India, China and other countries.
On the other hand, the output of California, which was producing over £3,000,000 per annum in 1876, has fallen off, the average annual output from 1876 to 1900 being £2,800,000; in 1905 the yield was £3,839,000.
On the other hand, the progressive reduction of mining and metallurgical costs effected by improved transportation and machinery, and the use of high explosives, compressed air, electric-power transmission, &c., resulted in California (as elsewhere) in a notable revival of deep mining.
The gold product of California, therefore, may be fairly expected to maintain itself, and, indeed, to show an advance.
The most interesting and, thus far, the most productive are the beach deposits, similar to those on the coast of Northern California.
- In the early days of goldwashing in California and Australia, when rich alluvial deposits were common at the surface, the most simple appliances sufficed.
In workings on a larger scale, where the supply of water is abundant, as in California, sluices were generally employed.
Hydraulic mining has for the most part been confined to the country of its invention, California, and the western territories of America, where the conditions favourable for its use are more fully developed than elsewhere - notably the presence of thick banks of gravel that cannot be utilized by other methods, and abundance of water, even though considerable work may be required at times to make it available.
The dredges used in California are almost exclusively of the endless-chain bucket or steam-shovel pattern.
either (I) by the Mexican crusher or arrastra, in which the grinding is effected upon a bed of stone, over which heavy blocks of stone attached to cross arms are dragged by the rotation of the arms about a central spindle, or (2) by the Chilean mill or trapiche, also known as the edge-runner, where the grinding stones roll upon the floor, at the same time turning about a central upright - contrivances which are mainly used for the preparation of silver ores; but by far the largest proportion of the gold quartz of California, Australia and Africa is reduced by (3) the stamp mill, which is similar in principle to that used in Europe for the preparation of tin and other ores.
The stamp mill was first used in California, and its use has since spread over the whole world.
The process was introduced in 1858 by Deetken at Grass Valley, California, where the waste minerals, principally pyrites from tailings, had been worked for a considerable time by amalgamation.
Yet no imported vine has ever lived there more than five years, and in 1890 the phylloxera crossed the Rocky Mountains, and seriously damaged the vineyards of California, where it had previously been unknown.
The outbreak of the Civil War found him in California.
The four fringing seas of eastern Asia, those of Bering, Okhotsk, Japan and East China, are arranged parallel to the main lines of dislocation in the neighbouring land-masses, and so are the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of California.
Green mud abounds off the east coast of North America seawards of Cape Hatteras, also to the north of Cuba, and on the west off the coast of California.
LOS ANGELES, a city and the county-seat of Los Angeles county, in southern California, U.S.A., along the small Los Angeles river, in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains; a narrow strip, 18 m.
The exhibit in the Chamber of Commerce Building illustrates the resources of southern California.
Here also are the Coronel Collection, given in 1901 by Dona Mariana, the widow of Don Antonio Coronel, and containing relics of the Spanish and Mexican regime in California; and the Palmer Collection of Indian antiquities.
In Los Angeles also are the collections of the Southwest Society (1904; for southern California, Arizona and New Mexico) of the Archaeological Institute of America.
The principal educational institutions are the University of Southern California (Methodist Episcopal, 1880), the Maclay College of Theology and a preparatory school; Occidental College (Presbyterian, 1887), St Vincent's College (Roman Catholic, founded 1865; chartered 1869) and the Los Angeles State Normal School (1882).
There is a large wholesale trade with southern California, with Arizona and with the gold-fields of Nevada, with which Los Angeles is connected by railway.
annually), shipped from northern California, Oregon and A Washington, and in crude oil and general merchandise.
of the city, first became important in 1902 and in 1907 it was the most valuable field in California, S.
Beginning about 1827, Los Angeles, being the largest pueblo of the territory, became a rival of Monterey for the honour of being the capital of California, was the seat of conspiracies to overthrow the Mexican authority, and the stronghold of the South California party in the bickerings and struggles that lasted down to the American occupation.
Carrillo, a legally-named but never de facto governor of California, whose jurisdiction was never recognized in the north; and in1845-1847it was the actual capital.
This was the only important overt resistance to the establishment of the new regime in California.
The completion of the latter line precipitated one of the most extraordinary of American railway wars and land booms, which resulted in giving southern California a great stimulus.
SAN' 'JOSE, a city and the county-seat of Santa Clara county, California, U.S.A., situated in the coast ranges, about 46 m.
distant by road, and the New Almaden quicksilver mine (the greatest producer in California and long among the greatest in the world) is about 14 m.
The Santa Clara Valley has many vegetable and flower-seed farms; it is one of the most fertile of the fruit regions of California, prunes, grapes, peaches and apricots being produced in especial abundance.
More than half the prune crop of California comes from Santa Clara county.
Alvarado) was founded in November 1 777, and was the first Spanish pueblo of California.
San Jose was the first capital of the state of California (1849-1851), and in 1850 was chartered as a city.
Before 1840 a ship of 500 tons was a large ship, but after the discovery of gold in California the size of vessels increased rapidly and their lines were more and more adapted to speed.
The Shoshoni, Shahaptin and Salish tribes are of middle stature; on the coast of British Columbia, Puget Sound, in Oregon, and northern California, are the shortest of all the North Americans save the Eskimo, while among them, on the Columbia, are taller tribes.
The eastern Eskimo are dolichocephalic, the western are less so, and the Aleuts brachycephalic. On the North Pacific coast, and in spots down to the Rio Grande, are short heads, but scattered among these are long heads, frequent in southern California, but seen northward to Oregon, as well as in Sonora and some Rio Grande pueblos.
It is necessary to use geographical terms in the case of California and the North Pacific, the Caucasus or cloaca gentium of the western hemisphere, where were pocketed forty out of one hundred or more families of native tribes.
Poor dugouts and rafts, made by tying reeds together, constituted the water-craft of California and Mexico until Central America is reached.
The Eskimo engraved poorly, the Dene (Tinneh) embroidered in quill, the North Pacific tribes carved skilfully in horn, slate and cedar, the California tribes had nimble fingers for basketry, the Sioux gloried in feathers and painted parfleche.
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; the Field Museum, Chicago; the California Academy and the California University, San Francisco; and the Canadian Institute, Toronto, publish monographs and lists.
Kroeber, Papers on Eskimo, Arapaho, Languages and Culture of California Tribes, in Pubs.
of California University and the American Museum of Natural History, N.
He was associated in practice there with his brother until 1848, and early in 1849 removed to California, settling soon afterward at Marysville, of which place, in 1850, he became the first alcalde or mayor.
In the same year he was chosen a member of the first state legislature of California, in which he drew up and secured the enactment of two bodies of law known as the Civil and Criminal Practices Acts, based on the similar codes prepared by his brother David Dudley for New York.
He was elected, in 1857, a justice of the California Supreme Court, of which he became chief justice in 1859, on the resignation of Judge David S.
He was a member of the commission which revised the California code in 1873 and of the Electoral Commission in 1877, voting in favour of Tilden.
In August 1889, as a result of a ruling in the course of the Sharon-Hill litigation, a notorious conspiracy case, he was assaulted in a California railway station by Judge David S.
His Personal Reminiscences of Early Days in,California, originally privately printed in 1878, was republished in 1893 with George C. Gorham's Story of the Attempted Assassination of Justice Field.
sinensis) and westwards over the greater part of the southern United States of America, from South Carolina to California.
The value of the fruit crop in 18 99 ($ 1 5, 8 44,34 6) was second only to that of California; and the most productive agricultural lands are those devoted to floriculture and nurseries.
He graduated from the university of California in 1875 and the following year went to the newly established Johns Hopkins University, being one of the extraordinary first group of fellows elected there.
in 1878 he was instructor in English literature and logic for four years at the university of California.
He was the author of The Religious Aspects of Philosophy (1885); California (1886, in the American Commonwealth Series) The Feud of Oakfield Creek (1887, a novel); The Spirit of Modern Philosophy (1892); The Conception of God (1895); Studies of Good and Evil (1898); The World and the Individual (2 vols., 1900-1, Gifford Lectures at the university of Aberdeen); The Conception of Immortality (1900); Outlines of Psychology (1903); Herbert Spencer: An Estimate and Review (1904); The Philosophy of Loyalty (1908); Race Questions, Provincialism and Other American Problems (1908);' William James and Other Essays on the Philosophy of Life (1911); Bross Lectures on the Sources of Religious Insight (1912); The Problem of Christianity (2 vols., 1913, lectures before Manchester College, Oxford); War and Insurance (1914); The Hope of the Great Community (1916, war addresses) and the posthumously published Lectures on Modern Idealism (1919).
SANTA BARBARA, a city and the county-seat of Santa Barbara county, in southern California, U.S.A., on the coastplain on the southern slope of the Santa Ynez Mountains.
With picturesque surroundings, excellent bathing beach and ideal climate, Santa Barbara is one of the most popular of the health and pleasure resorts of California.
Nowhere in California is plant life more varied and beautiful; in the vicinity are walnut, olive, lemon and orange groves.
The Japanese pheasant and the California quail have increased in numbers under the protection of the state.
In 1859 he visited California by the overland route, and had numerous public receptions.
Marcus Daly (1842-1900) went from Ireland about 1857 to New York City, and thence to California and Nevada, and in 1876 reached Butte, Montana.
Some time before this separation a few members of the colony removed to the vicinity of Cloverdale, Sonoma county, California, and here most of the members of the Young Party joined them early in 1884 in forming the Icaria-Speranza Community.
In 1905 Bancroft's vast collection was acquired by the university of California.
The new species include a number discovered in central and western China by Dr Augustine Henry and other collectors; also several from Japan and California.
Gibbes, Proc. California Acad.
This provides for taking water from the Ohio river at a point on the Kentucky side opposite the village of California, Ohio, and several miles above the discharge of the city sewers; for the carrying of the water by a gravity tunnel under the river to the Ohio side, the water being thence elevated by four great pumping engines, each having a daily capacity of 30,000,000 gallons, to settling basins, being then passed through filters of the American or mechanical type, and flowing thence by a gravity tunnel more than 4 m.
In Wyoming, California and Nevada enormous deposits of carbonates, mixed in some cases with sulphate and with chloride, occur.
Santa Barbara, California >>
The American coasts are for the most part mountainous and unbroken, the chief indentation being the Gulf of California; but the general type is departed from in the extreme north and south, the southern coast of South America consisting of bays and fjords with scattered islands, while the coast of Alaska is similarly broken in the south and becomes low and swampy towards the north.
Part of this rejoins the North Equatorial Current, and part probably forms the variable Mexican Current, which follows the coasts of Mexico and California close to the land.
Eublepharis, with one species each in Panama, Mexico, Texas and California; two in India.
Xenosaurus seems to be an offshoot intermediate between the Iguanidae and the Anguidae; a degraded form of latter is perhaps Aniella of California, whilst Heloderma and Lanthanotus are also specialized and isolated offshoots.
Phrynosoma, with about a dozen species, the "horned toads" of California to Texas, and through Mexico.
P. blainvillei of California, have the power of squirting a blood-red fluid from the corner of the eye, still requires renewed investigation.
- One genus, Aniella, with a few wormor snake-shaped species in California, which seem to be degraded forms of Anguidae.
vigilis and a few other species from the desert tracts of Nevada and California to Lower California.
Chirotes canaliculatus, and two other species; Pacific side of Mexico and Lower California.
below the mouth of the Gila river, thence northward to the mouth of the Gila, and thence, nearly due W., along the old line between Upper and Lower California to a point on the Pacific coast one marine league S.
The outer curve facing the Pacific is less regular, is deeply broken by the Gulf of California, and has a coast-line of 4574 m., including that of the Gulf.
The peninsula of Lower California (q.v.) lies parallel with the mainland coast and extends southward to about 22° 52' S.
The peninsula of Lower California is traversed from north to south by a chain of barren mountains which covers the greater part of its surface.
On the Pacific coast there are a number of islands off the rocky shores of Lower California and in the Gulf of California - most of them barren and uninhabitable like the adjacent coast.
The peninsula of Yucatan has no rivers, and that of Lower California only a few insignificant streams in the north.
The largest rivers of Mexico are: the Rio Grande de Santiago, called the Lerma above Lake Chapala, rising in the state of Mexico and flowing westward across Guanajuato, Jalisco and Tepic to the Pacific coast, with a total length of 540 m., celebrated for its deep canyons and waterfalls; the Rio de las Balsas, or Mescala, which rises in Tlaxcala and flows south and west to the Pacific with a course of 426 m.; the Yaqui, which rises in western Chihuahua and, after breaking through the northern ranges of the Sierra Madre Occidental, flows south-westerly across Sonora to the Gulf of California, with a length of 390 m.; the Grijalva, also called the Chiapas on its upper course, which has its sources in the state of Chiapas and flows north-west and north across Tabasco to the Gulf of Mexico, with a total length of 350 m.; the Fuerte, which rises in southern Chihuahua and, after breaking through the sierras, flows south-west across Sinaloa to the Gulf of California, with a course of 340 m.; the Usumacinta, which is formed by the confluence of the Chixoy and Pasion on the east frontier of Chiapas, and flows north-west across Tabasco to the Grijalva, with a course of 330 m.; and the Panuco, which has its source in the north-west of the state of Mexico and flows north-eastward to the Gulf of Mexico.
There are two large indentations of the coast - the Gulfs of Tehuantepec and California.
possesses no distinguishing characteristic. The Gulf of California, on the other hand, penetrates the continent for a distance of 739 m., from south-east to north-west, with a maximum breadth of 190 m.
The Gulf has a considerable number of islands, most of them near the peninsular coast, and several deep, well-protected bays - those of La Paz and Santa Ines in Lower California, Guaymas in Sonora, Agiobampo, Topolobampo and Altata Salinas in Sinaloa.
On the Pacific coast of Lower California are the Ensenada de Todos Santos and the bays of San Quentin, Viscaino and Magdalena.
The rainfall is heavy in the south, except Yucatan, but diminishes gradually toward the north, until on the Pacific and Gulf of California coasts it almost disappears.
On the Pacific coast the belt of calms, known as the northern horse latitudes, crosses the northern parts of Lower California and Sonora, which accounts for their extreme aridity.
The coast of Lower California is a favourite resort for the fur-bearing seal, r and pearl oysters find a congenial habitat in the south waters of the Gulf.
Sea-fowl are most numerous on the coasts of Lower California, where certain islands in the arid belt are frequented at night by countless numbers of them.
The Totonacs inhabit northern Vera Cruz and speak a language related to that of the Mayas; the Tarascos form a small group living in Michoacan; the Matlanzingos, or Matlaltzincas, live near the Tarascos, the savage Apaches, a nomadic group of tribes ranging from Durango northward into the United States; the Opata-Pima group, inhabiting the western plateau region from Sonora and Chihuahua south to Guadalajara, is sometimes classed as a branch of the Nahuatlaca; the Seris, a very small family of savages, occupy Tiburon Island and the adjacent mainland of Sonora; and the Guaicuros, or Yumas, are to be found in the northern part of the peninsula of Lower California.
The territory of Lower California is divided into two large districts, northern and southern, and the latter into partidos and municipios-the larger divisions practically forming two distinct territories.
Baja, or Lower California, is divided into two districts for administrative convenience.
The principal cities of Mexico, other than the capitals above mentioned, are as follows, the populations being those of 1900 except when otherwise stated: Acapulco (pop. 4932), a famous port on the Pacific coast in Guerrero, which was wrecked by the earthquake of 1909; Carmen, or Laguna de Terminos (about 6000), a thriving commercial town and port on the Gulf coast in Campeche; Celaya (2 5,5 6 5), a railway centre and manufacturing town of Guanajuato; Ciudad Guzman, or Zapotlan (about 17,500), an interesting old town of Jalisco; Cholula (about 9000), an ancient native town of Puebla, widely known for its great pyramid; Comitan (9316), the commercial centre of Chiapas; Cordoba (7974 in 1895), a picturesque Spanish town in the sierras of Vera Cruz; Cuautla (6269), the centre of a rich sugar-producing district of Morelos; Guaymas (8648), a flourishing port of Sonora on the Gulf of California; Leon (62,623), the largest city in Guanajuato and distinguished for its commercial activity, manufactures and wealth; Linares (20,690), the second city of Nuevo Leon in size and importance; Matamoros (8347), a prominent commercial centre and river port of Tamaulipas; Mazatlan (17,852), the foremost Mexican port on the Pacific coast; Orizaba (32,894), a city of Vera Cruz famous for its delightful climate and picturesque surroundings; Parral (14,748), a well-known mining centre of southern Chihuahua; San Cristobal (about 16,00o), once capital of Chiapas and rich in historical associations; Tampico (16,313), a Gulf port and railway terminus of Tamaulipas; Tehuantepec (10,386), the largest town on the Tehuantepec railway in Oaxaca; Vera Cruz (29,164), the oldest and best known Gulf port of Mexico.
Wireless telegraphy was represented in 1908 by a connexion between Mazatlan and Lower California, which was in successful operation.
There are no fisheries of importance except the pearl fisheries on the eastern coast of Lower California, and the tortoise fisheries on the coasts of Campeche, Yucatan, and some of the states facing the Pacific. The pearl fisheries have been worked since the arrival of the Spaniards, and were once very productive notwithstanding the primitive methods employed.
Since the closing years of the last century pearl fishing in the Gulf of California has been carried on with modern appliances and better results by an English company under a concession from the government.
Gold is found in Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Vera Cruz, Zacatecas, and to a limited extent in other states; silver in every state and territory except Campeche, Chiapas, Tabasco, Tlaxcala and the Yucatan peninsula; copper in Lower California, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Sonora, Tamaulipas and some other states; mercury chiefly in Guanajuato, Guerrero, San Luis Potosi, Vera Cruz and Zacatecas; tin in Guanajuato; coal, petroleum and asphalt in 20 states, but chiefly in Coahuila, Hidalgo, Michoacan, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas and Vera Cruz; iron in Durango, Hidalgo, Oaxaca and other states; and lead in Hidalgo, Queretaro and in many of the silver-producing districts.
Large masses of the metal are also said to exist in the sierras of Lower California.
Eventually Mexico and New Mexico came to designate the still vaster region of Spanish North America, which (till cut down by changes which have limited the modern republic of Mexico) reached as far as the Isthmus of Panama on the south and took in California and Texas on the north.
The importance of this is evident when we consider that late in the 19th century Japanese junks still drifted over by the ocean current to California at the rate of about one a year, often with some of the crew still alive.
difficulties in maintaining communications; and Upper California was seized in the autumn of 1846 by John C. Fremont, who had been exploring a route across the continent, and by the United States Pacific squadron, and made secure by the aid of the New Mexico expedition.
This virtually ended the war; Santa Anna was deprived of his command, and the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, concluded on the 2nd of February 1848, ceded to the United States Texas, New Mexico and Upper California, in return for a payment of $15,000,000 by the United States to Mexico, and the assumption of liability by it for the claims of its subjects which it had hitherto been pressing against Mexico.
1854).1 Two filibustering expeditions at this time - one by William Walker, afterwards notorious in Nicaragua, in tower California 1 Santa Anna tried to get back to politics in Mexico after Maximilian's fall, without success.
Moses (of the University of California) is in the Annals of the American Academy of Political Science, 11.
south of Punta Gorda, Monterey county, California, forming a narrow mountain forest belt, rarely extending more than 20 or 30 m.
The famous group known as the Mammoth Grove of Calaveras in California, containing above ninety large trees, stands in 38° N., about 4370 ft.
A few years ago a full-sized tree was felled in Fresno county, California, and contiguous transverse sections have been set up, one in the Museum of Natural History at New York, the other (upper one) in the British Museum of Natural History at South Kensington; the annual rings of the latter section have been carefully counted and found to indicate an age of 1335 years.
The coyote of the deserts of eastern California, Nevada and Utah is, for instance, a smaller and paler-coloured animal, whose length is usually about 42 in.
He paid frequent visits to Europe, Japan and the United States (where his son Rathindranath became a student in the university of California), and carried through several lecturing tours.
The chief provinces of the Cordihleran region are: The Rocky Mountain system and its basins, from northern New Mexico northward, including all the mountains from the front ranges bordering on the plains to the Uinta and Wasatch ranges in Utah; the Pacific ranges including the Sierra Nevada of California, the Cascade range of Oregon and Washington, and the Coast range along the Pacific nearly to the southern end of California; and a great intermediate area, including in the north the Columbian lava plains and in the south the large province of the Basin ranges, which extends into Mexico and widens from the centre southward, so as to meet the Great Plains in eastern New Mexico, and to extend to the Pacific coast in southern California.
The large province of the Basin ranges, an arid region throughout, even though it reaches the sea in southern California, involves some novel problems in its description.
In the north, where dislocations have invaded the field of the horizontal Columbian lavas, as in south-eastern Oregon and north-eastern California, the blocks are monoclinal in structure as well as in attitude; here the amount of dissection is relatively moderate, for some of the fault faces are described as ravined but not yet deeply dissected; hence these dislocations appear to be of recent date.
A few intermont areas in the north-west part of the province have outlet westward by Kla1nath river through the Cascade range and by Pitt river (upper part of the Sacramento) through the Sierra Nevada: a few basins in the south-east have outlet by the Rio Grande to the Gulf of Mexico; a much larger but still narrow medial area is drained south-westward by the Colorado to the head of the Gulf of California, where this large and very turbid river has formed an extensive delta, north of which the former head of the gulf is now cut off from the sea and laid bare by evaporation as a plain below sea-level.
The lower coast ranges, nearer the ocean, continue a little farther southward than the Sierra Nevada, before giving way to that part of the Basin Range province which reaches the Pacific in southernmost California.
Farther south, through Oregon and northern California, many members of the coast ranges resemble the Cascades and the Sierra in offering well-attested examples of the uplift of masses of disordered structure, that had been reduced to a tame surface by the erosion of an earlier cycle, and that are now again more or less dissected.
The belt of ielative depression between the inner Pacific ranges and the Coast range is dhided by the fine volcano Mt Shasta (14,380 ft.) in northern California into unlike portions.
South of Mt Shasta, the Valley of California is an admirable example of an aggraded intermont depression, about 400 m.
Rocks of Silurian age, however, are known at some points in Arizona, Nevada and southern California.
the Pescadero formation) it is highly metamorphic. The Eocene of southern California carries gypsum enough to be of commercial value.
The system is wanting in northern California and southern Oregon, but appears again farther north, and has great development in Oregon, where its thickness has been estimated at more than 10,000 ft.
The Miocene of California is oilproducing.
At the close of the Miocene, deformative movements were very widespread in the Rocky Mountains and between the principal development of the Coast ranges of California and Oregon, and mountain-making movements, new or renewed, were somewhat general in the west.
The marine Pliocene of the continent has its greatest development in California (the Merced series, peninsula of San Francisco), where it is assigned a maximum thickness of nearly 6000 ft., and possibly as much as 13,000 ft.
Thicknesses of several thousand feet are recorded at other points in California and elsewhere along the coast farther north.
Deformative movements resulting in close folding were not common at this time, but such movements affected some of the coast ranges of California.
Reports of state geological surveys have been published by most of the states east of the Missouri river, and some of those farther west (California, Washington, Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming) and south (Arkansas, Texas and Louisiana).
Indeed the contrast between the moderate temperatures of the Pacific coast and the overheated areas of the next interior deserts is so great that the isotherms trend almost parallel to the coast, and are even overturned somewhat in southern California, where the most rapid increase of temperatures in July is found not by moving southward over the ocean toward the equator, but north-eastward over the land to the deserts of Nevada and Arizona.
So strong is the displacement of the area of highest interior temperatures westward from the middle of the continent that the Gulf of California almost rivals the Red Sea as an ocean-arm under a desert-hot atmosphere.
to the south, is not so great as between the coast of southern California and the desert 15o m.
In California the effect of the strong equatorward turn of the summer winds is to produce a dry season; but in the states along the Gulf of Mexico and especially in Florida the withdrawal of the stormy westerlies in favor of the steadier trade winds (here turned somewhat toward the continental interior, as explained below) results in an increase of precipitation.
The Arid Transition life-zone comprises the western part of the Dakotas, north-eastern Montana, and irregular areas in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas, covering for the most part the eastern base of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains and the higher parts of the Great Basin and the plateaus.
The Pacific Coast Transition life-zone comprises the region between the Cascade and Coast ranges in Washington and Oregon, parts of northern California, and most of the California coast region from Cape Mendocino to Santa Barbara.
The Upper Sonoran life-zone comprises south-eastern Montana, central, eastern and north-eastern Wyoming, a portion of south-western South Dakota, western Nebraska and Kansas, the western extremity of Oklahoma, north-western Texas, eastern Colorado, south-eastern New Mexico, the Snake plains in Idaho, the Columbia plains in Washington, the Malheur and Harney plains in Oregon, the Great Salt Lake and Sevier deserts in Utah, and narrow belts in California, Nevada and Arizona.
The Lower Sonoran zone comprises the most arid parts of the United States: south-western Texas, south-western Arizona and a portion of northern Arizona, southern Nevada and a large part of southern California.
There is some resemblance to the Tropical life-zone at the south-eastern extremity of Texas, but this zone in the United States is properly restricted to southern Florida and the lower valley of the Colorado along the border of California and Arizona, and the knowledge of the latter is very imperfect.
The initial settlement of the Pacific coast following the discovery of gold in California in 1848, and of the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains after the discovery of gold in 2859, ifiustrates the same factor.
New York, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and New Hampshire in the eastern part of the country, Louisiana in the south, and New Mexico, Arizona, California and Montana in the western part are distinctively Roman Catholic states, with not less than 63% of these in the total church body.
This was the demonstration of the fact that gold existed in large quantities along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada of California.
The annual yield of gold in the Appalachian belt had fallen off to about $500,000 in value, that of California had risen to $36,000,000, and was rapidly approaching the epoch of its culmination (1851I 853).
No silver was obtained in the country, except what was separated from the native gold, that mined in California containing usually from 8 to 10% of the less valuable metal.
The ore of mercury had been discovered in California before the epoch of the gold excitement, and was being extensively worked, the yield in the year1850-1851being nearly 2,000,000 lb.
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, West Virginia, California, Colorado, Montana, Michigan, New York and Missouri were the ten states of greatest absolute production in 1907.
At the same time there are estimated deposits of sub-bituminous coal, isolated or mixed with bituminous, amounting to 75,498 millions of tons in Colorado (which is probably the richest coal area of the country); and in other states as follows: Wyoming, 423,952 millions of tons; New Mexico, I3,975; Washington, 20,000; Montana, 18,560; California and Oregon, 1000 each; and lesser amounts elsewhere.
The California field produces oil characterized by much asphalt and little or no paraffin, and low in volatile constituents.
Ohio, West Virginia and California appeared as producers in 1876, Kentucky and Tennessee in 1883, Colorado in 1887.
Appalachian, 235,999,859; Lima-Indiana-Illinois, 219,609,347; Mid- Continent, 136,148,892; Gulf, 159,520,306; California, 27,931,687; and others, 3,367,666; the leading producers in1907-1908being the Mid-Continent and the California areas.
Glass and other sands and gravel ($13,270,032), lime ($11,091,186), phosphate rock ($10,653,558), salt ($7,553,632), natural mineral waters ($7,287,269), sulphur ($6,668,215, almost wholly from Louisiana), slate ($6,316,8 I7), gypsum ($4,138,560), clay ($2,599,986), asphalt ($1,888,881), talc and soapstone ($1,401,222), borax ($975,000, all from California), and pyrite ($857,113) were the next most important products in 1908.
Discoveries in other Cordilleran territories, notably in Montana and Idaho, made up, however, in part for the deficiency of California, so that in I 860 the total amount of gold produced in the United States was estimated at not less than $45,000,000.
In the latter part of the decade1850-1859the territories adjacent to California on the east, north and south were overrun by thousands of miners from the Sierra Nevada goldfields, and within a few years an extraordinary number of discoveries were made, some of which proved to be of great importance.
Colorado ($22,871,000), Alaska ($19,858,800), California ($19,329,700), Nevada ($11,689,400), South Dakota ($7,742,200), Utah ($3,946,700), Montana ($3,160,000) and Arizona ($2,500,000)
With Utah and California their yield in 1908 was 93% of the total.
Most of the quicksilver produced in the United States comes from California (86% of the total in 1908), but a considerable quantity M comes from Texas, and small amounts are produced CIWJV.
From 1850 to 1908 California produced a total of 2,052,000 flasks of metal, of 76.5 lb (since June I, 1904, 750 lb net) each.
In other states the common law judges have also equity jurisdiction; and in four states New York, North Carolina, California and Idahothere has been a complete fusion of law and equity.
In certain parts of Ontario the wild turkey is occasionally found and the ordinary quail, but in British Columbia is found the California quail, and a larger bird much resembling it called the mountain partridge.
As a member of the committee on railroads he became interested in the project, greatly aided by the government, to build a trans-continental railway, connecting the eastern states with California.
The products are so diversified that, with the exception of some tropical fruits of California and Florida, almost everything cultivated in the United States can be produced.
He favoured the annexation of Texas, supported the Polk administration on the issues of the Mexican War and the Oregon boundary controversy, and though voting for the admission of free California demanded national protection for slavery.
These include a buff-bellied species found in California, N.
Bounties were last offered by the state of California in 1865-1866, but the state law was soon repealed, and an attempt to obtain state encouragement again in 1872 was defeated.
For his health the king visited California in the United States cruiser " Charleston " in November 1890, and died on the 10th of January 1891 in San Francisco.
slope of the Sierra Nevada of California, about 150 m.
In 1864 the valley was granted to the state of California by act of Congress on condition that it should be held as a place of public use, resort and recreation inalienable for all time, was re-ceded to the United States by California on the 3rd of March 1905, and is now included in the Yosemite National Park.
See the Annual Reports (Washington, 1891 sqq.) of the Superintendent of the Park; the Guide to the Yosemite published by the California Geological Survey; John Muir, Our National Parks (Boston, 1901); and Bunnell's Discovery of the Yosemite (New York, 1893).
It went down quite steadily to 9,424,325 in 1908, and in that year Pennsylvania was out-ranked as an oil-producing state by Oklahoma, California, Illinois, Texas and Ohio.
Prjevalsky, indeed, predicts of northern Tibet that it will prove a " second California " in course of time.
C. Laughlin, The Pastoral Epp. in the Light of one Roman Imprisonment (California, 1905); and J.
Nebraska City was the initial point of several roads, parts at one time or another of the "Oregon," "Old California," and "Great Salt Lake" trails.
He graduated at West Point in 1846, served as second lieutenant with the Mormon battalion in California during the Mexican War, and became a captain in 1855.
He then removed to California, was elected governor by the Democrats, and served from 1883 to 1887.
They also enabled the Roman Church to keep its hold on the French colonists of Quebec and Montreal, and were pioneers in California.
A considerable quantity of castor oil of an excellent quality is also made in Italy; and in California the manufacture is conducted on an extensive scale.
The state of Virginia is the chief producer, followed successively by Georgia, North Carolina, Colorado, Massachusetts, California, Missouri, New York, &c. From Indiana and Ohio a quantity of pyrites is obtained as a by-product in coalmining.
In North America, the principal region of volcanic activity lay in the west; great thicknesses of igneous rocks occur in the Lower Carboniferous rocks of British Columbia, and from the middle of the period until near its close volcanoes were active from Alaska to California.
They inhabit North America as far south as California, also Norway and Sweden.
He was hunter for the garrison at Bent's Fort on the Arkansas river in what is now Bent county, Colorado, from 1832 to 1840, and accompanied John C. Fremont on his exploring expeditions of 1842 and 1843-1844, and on his California expedition in 1845-1846.
Dakota, Minnesota, District of Columbia, Oregon, Massachusetts, Tennessee, California, Colorado, Arkansas and Oklahoma.
Carolina, Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, Wisconsin, California, Oregon and Indiana.
316), nor is she guilty of any crime unless by statute as in New York (Penal Code, ï¿½ 295) and California (Penal Code, ï¿½ 275) and Connecticut (Gen.
It has been introduced for economic purposes into the Azores and California.
Some of the corporations constructing works for the sale of water built structures of notable size, such, for example, as the Sweet-water and Hemet dams of southern California, the Bear river canal of Utah, and the Arizona canal, taking water from Salt river, Arizona.
The largest expense for water rights and for annual maintenance was incurred in southern California, where the character of the crops, such as citrus fruits, and the scarcity of the water make possible Arizona.
California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming 185,936 1,445,872 I,611,271 602,568 951,154 504, 1 68 203,893 388,310 629,293 135,470 605,878 7,263,813 expensive construction and heavy charges.
In a few localities, notably in South Dakota, the Yakima valley of Washington, San Joaquin, and San Bernardino valleys of California, San Luis valley of Colorado, and Utah valley of Utah, water from artesian wells was also used for the irrigation of from 1 to 160 acres.
Similarly, near Yuma in Arizona, a project was undertaken for carrying the waters of the main canal on the California side under the Colorado river by a siphon.
His father, Thomas (1778-1851), was born in Rockingham (then Augusta) county, Virginia; he was hospitable, shiftless, restless and unsuccessful, working now as a carpenter and now as a farmer, and could not read or write before his marriage, in Washington county, Kentucky, on the 12th of June 1806, to Nancy Hanks (1783-1818), who was a native of Virginia, who is said to have been the illegitimate daughter of one Lucy Hanks, and who seems to have been, in 1 Lincoln's birthday is a legal holiday in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming.
GUAYMAS, or SAN Jose De Guaymas, a seaport of Mexico, in the state of Sonora, on a small bay opening into the Gulf of California a few miles W.
During 1849-1850 Council Bluffs became an important outfitting point for California gold seekers - the goods being brought by boat from Saint Louis - and in 1853 it was incorporated as a city.
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The mines ranked with those of Adria, in South Austria, as the most valuable in the world, until the great development of the mercury deposits at New Almaden, in California, U.S.A., between 1853 and 1857.
In 1858 he was sent to California by the United States attorney-general as special Federal agent for the settlement of land claims, and he succeeded in breaking up a conspiracy by which the government would have been defrauded of vast tracts of land of almost inestimable value.
In 1860 he removed to California.
The largest occurrence of natural soda hitherto known is that in 'Owen's Lake and other salt lakes situated in eastern California.
telescope of the Lick Observatory at Mount Hamilton, California, Grubb suggested that the whole floor, 70 ft.
of the Rocky Mountains: the Great Salt Lake, the Great Basin, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the fertile river basins of the Mexican province of California.
His report of this expedition upon his return to Washington, D.C., in 1844, aroused much solicitude for California, which, it was feared, might, in the event of war then threatening between the United States and Mexico, be seized by Great Britain.
In the spring of 1845 Fremont was despatched on a third expedition for the professed purposes of further exploring the Great Basin and the Pacific Coast, and of discovering the easiest lines of communication between them, as well as for the secret purpose of assisting the United States, in case of war with Mexico, to gain possession of California.
Owing to the number of American immigrants who had settled in California, the Mexican authorities there became suspicious and hostile, and ordered Fremont out of the province.
(For an opposite view see California.) Commodore John D.
Sloat, after seizing Monterey, transferred his command to Commodore Robert Field Stockton (1795-1866), who made Fremont major of a battalion; and by January 1847 Stockton and Fremont completed the conquest of California.
But he had not gone far when he was led astray by a guide, and after the loss of his entire outfit and several of his men, and intense suffering of the survivors from cold and hunger, he turned southward through the valley of the Rio Grande and then westward through the valley of the Gila into southern California.
From the conclusion of his fourth expedition until March 1855, when he removed to New York city, he lived in California, and in December 1849 was elected one of the first two United States senators from the new state.
His opposition to slavery, however, together with his popularity - won by the successes, hardships and dangers of his exploring expeditions, and by his part in the conquest of California - led to his nomination, largely on the ground of "availability," for the presidency in 1856 by the Republicans (this being their first presidential campaign), and by the National Americans or "Know-Nothings."
CALIFORNIA, one of the Pacific Coast states of the United States of America, physically one of the most remarkable, economically one of the more independent, and in history and social life one of the most interesting of the Union.
by the Mexican province of Lower California.
It is estimated by John Muir that on an average " perhaps more than a mile " of degradation took place in the last glacial period; but with regard to the whole subject of glacial action in California as in other fields, there is considerable difference of opinion.
Among the other indications of great geological disturbances on the Pacific Coast may also be mentioned the earthquakes to which California like the rest of the coast is liable.
Holden for California, Oregon and Washington.
Unlike the northern Sierra, the ranges of Southern California are broken down in a number of places.
- and altogether is one of the most remarkable physical features of California.
California has the highest land and the lowest land of the United States, the greatest variety of temperature and rainfall, and of products of the soil.
The climate is very different from that of the Atlantic coast; and indeed very different from that of any part of the country save that bordering California.
In the second place, the means of winter and summer are much nearer the mean of the year in California than in the east.
In the third place, the division of the year into two seasons - a wet one and a dry (and extremely dusty) one - marks this portion of the Pacific Coast in the most decided manner, and this natural climatic area coincides almost exactly in its extension with that of California; being truly characteristic neither of Lower California nor of the greater part of Oregon, though more so of Nevada and Arizona.
For days in succession when it storms along the Southern California coasts and dense rain clouds blow landwards to the mountains, leaving snow or rain on their summits, it has been observed that within a few miles beyond the ridge the contact of the desert air dissipates the remaining moisture of the clouds into light misty masses, like a steam escape in cold air.
Many places in northern, southern, central, mountain and southern coastal California normally have more than 200 perfectly clear days in a year; and many in the mountains and in the south, even on the coast, have more than 250.
The last is the counter-trade, the all-year wind of Alaska and Oregon; it prevails in winter even off Southern California.
There are points in Southern California where one may actually look from sea to desert and from snow to orange groves.
California embraces areas of every life-zone of North America: of the boreal, the Hudsonian and Canadian subzones; of the transition, the humid Pacific subzone; of the upper austral, the arid or upper Sonoran subzone; of the lower austral, the arid or lower Sonoran; of the tropical, the " dilute arid " subzone.
account of temperature, summer is longer in the north, and localities in the Valley have more hours of heat than do those of south California.
Hence that climatic characteristic of the entire Pacific Coast - already referred to and which is of extreme importance in determining the life-zones of California - the great amount of total annual heat supply at comparatively high latitudes.
When Americans began to rule in California elk and antelope herded in great numbers in the Great Valley; the former may to-day sometimes be seen, possibly, in the northern forests, and the latter occasionally cross into the state from Nevada.
The California vulture, the largest flying bird in North America and fully as large as the Andean condor, is not limited to California but is fairly common there.
In the zoology and botany of California as of the rest of the Pacific Coast, the distinctions between the upper austral and humid transition zones are largely obliterated; and as one passes southward into the arid lands, life forms of both these zones intermingle with those of the arid transition.
Of the total, California in 1904 yielded between a quarter and a third.
Native oysters are small and of peculiar flavour; eastern varieties also are fattened, but not bred in California waters.
The humid transition belt is the habitat of California's magnificent forests.
The introduction of other exotics into these zones, - made humid by irrigation, which converts them, the one into true austro-riparian the other into true humid tropical, has revolutionized the agricultural, and indeed the whole, economy of California.
About 600 species of plants were catalogued in desert California in 1891 by a government botanical party.
The flora of the coast islands of California is very interesting.
On Santa Cruz Professor Joseph Le Conte found 248 species, nearly all of which are distinctively Californian, 48 being peculiar to the surrounding islands and 28 peculiar to Southern California.
The variety of forest trees is not great, but some of the California trees are unique, and the forests of the state are, with those of Oregon and Washington, perhaps the most magnificent of the world.
At least the coniferous forests which make up nine-tenths of California's woodland surpass all others known in number of species and in the size and beauty of the trees.
Peculiar to California are the two species of sequoia (q.v.), - the redwood (S.
Its nuts are gathered in enormous amounts by the Indians for food; and it is estimated that the yearly harvest of these nuts exceeds in bulk that of all the cereals of California (John Muir).
On the Sierra the underbrush is characterized by the pungent manzanita, the California buckeye and the chamiso; the last two growing equally abundantly on the Coast Range.
The elm, the hickory, the beech, the chestnut, and many others of the most characteristic and useful trees of the eastern states were originally entirely wanting in California.
Irrigation was introduced in Southern California before 1780, but its use was desultory and its spread slow till after 1850.
California has the greatest area of irrigated land of any state in the Union, and offers the most complete utilization of resources.
Small fruits, orchard fruits, hay, garden products and grains are decreasingly dependent on irrigation; wheat, which was once California's great staple, is (for good, but not for best results) comparatively independent of it, - hence its early predominance in Californian agriculture, due to this success on arid lands since taken over for more remunerative irrigated crops.
The spread of irrigation and of intensive cultivation, and the increase of small farms during the last quarter of the 9th century, have made California what it is to-day.
The essential character of California's economic life has been determined by the successive predominance of grass, gold, grain and fruits.
In 1899 California ranked eleventh among the states in total value of farm property ($796,527,955) and fourteenth in the total value of farm products ($131,690,606).
Wheat was long California's greatest crop. Its production steadily increased till about 1884, the production in 1880, the banner year, being more than 54 million bushels (32,537,360 centals).
In 1906 California produced 38,760,000 bushels of barley, valued at $20,930,400.
California is one of the leading hop-producing states of the Union, the average annual production since 1901 being more than 10,000,000 lb.
In this industry California is much ahead of all other states.
- Horticulture is now the principal industry, and in this field California has no rival in the United States, although ranking after Florida in the growth of some tropical or semi-tropical fruits, - pineapples, guava, limes, pomeloes or grape-fruit and Japanese persimmons.
In 1899 California's output of fruit was more than a fifth of that of the whole Union.
Southern California by no means monopolizes the warm-zone fruits.
The modern orange industry practically began with the introduction into Southern California in 1873 of two seedless orange trees from Brazil; from their stock have been developed by budding millions of trees bearing a seedless fruit known as the " Washington navel," which now holds first rank in American markets; other varieties, mainly seedlings, are of great but secondary importance.
There has been more than one horticultural excitement in California, but especially in orange culture, which was for a time almost as epidemic a fever as gold seeking once was.
Of the shipments in 1903 some 44% were from Southern California, - i.e.
Grape culture has a great future in California.
Vines were first introduced by the Franciscans in 1771 from Spain, and until after 1860 " Mission "grapes were practically the only stock in California.
In 1899 California produced more than two-thirds in value ($3,937,871) and three-fourths in bulk (19,020,258 gallons) of the total wine output of the United States.
The better California wines are largely sold under French labels.
The existence of gold had long been suspected, and possibly known, in California before 1848, and there had been desultory washings in parts where there was very little to reward prospectors.
From 1848 to the 1st of January 1903, according to the state mining bureau, California produced $1,379,275,408 in gold.
In 1893 the United States government created a California Debris Commission, which has acted in unison with the state authorities.
Colorado now excels California as a gold producer.
- California produces more than forty mineral substances that are of commercial significance.
Oil is found from north to south over some 600 m., but especially in Southern California.
Both in 1900 and in 1905 California ranked fifth among the states of the United States in the petroleum refining industry.
In borax (of which California's output in 1904 was 45,647 tons) and structural materials San Bernardino has a long lead.
California was the fourth state of the Union in 1899 in the production of granite.
Of growing importance are the gems found in California: a few diamonds in Butte county; rock crystal in Calaveras county; and tourmalines, kunzite, the rare pink beryl and bright blue topazes in San Diego county.
A vivid realization of the industrial revolution in the state is to be gained from the reflection that in 1875 California was pre-eminent only for gold and sheep; that the aggregate mineral output thirty years later was more than a third greater than then, and that nevertheless the value of farm produce at the opening of the 10th century exceeded by more than $100,000,000 the value of mineral produce, and exceeded by $50,000,000 the most generous estimate of the largest annual gold output in the annals of the state.
In the latter year California ranked 12th among the states in the gross value of all manufactures ($302,874,761); the per-capita value of manufactured and agricultural products being $293, - $89 of the latter, $204 of the former.
In 189 9 California ranked 16th among the states in value of product ($13,764,647, out of a total of $566,852,984).
In 1905 60.3% (by value) of the wine made in the United States was made in California.
The transportation facilities in California increased rapidly after 1870.
The population of California increased in successive decades from 1850 to 1910 respectively by 310.3, 47.3, 54.3, 40.3, 22.4 and 60.1%.
Of the latter six-tenths were born in California.
A peculiar feature in the population statistics of California is the predominance of males, which in 1900 was 156,009; the Asiatic element accounts for a third of this number.
Since 1885 the eight counties south of the Tehachapi Range, which are known collectively and specifically as Southern California, have greatly advanced in population.
There have been no Indian wars in California's annals, but many butcheries.
In the matter of constitutionmaking California has been conservative, having had only two between 1849 and 1905.
In 1904, when the U.S. Census Report showed California to be the twenty-first state of the Union in population but the sixth in wealth, the total estimated true value of all property was $4,115,491,106, of which $2,664,472,025 was the value of real property and improvements thereon.
In 1898 California had the largest savings-bank deposit per depositor ($637.75) of any state in the.
The educational system of California is one of the best in the country.
The state board of education is composed of the governor of the state, who is its president; the superintendent of public instruction, who is its secretary; the presidents of the five normal schools and of the University of California, and the professor of pedagogy in the university.
The state controlled the actual preparation and sale of text-books for the common schools from 1885 to 1903, when the Perry amendment to the constitution (ratified by popular vote in 1884) was declared to mean that such text-books must be manufactured within the state, but that the texts need not be prepared in California.
The name " California " was taken from Ordonez de Montalvo's romance of chivalry Las Sergas de Esplandian (Madrid, 15 ro), in which is told of black Amazons ruling an island of this name " to the right of the Indies, very near the quarter of the terrestrial paradise."
It does not show that the namers were prophets or wise judges, for the Spaniards really knew California not at all for more than two centuries, and then only as a genial but rather barren land; but it shows that the conquistadores mixed poetry with business and illustrates the glamour thrown about the " Northern Mystery."
The lower Colorado river was discovered in 1540, but the explorers did not penetrate California; in 1542-1543 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo explored at least the southern coast; in 1579 Sir Francis Drake repaired his ships in some Californian port (almost certainly not San Francisco Bay), and named the land New Albion; two Philippine ships visited the coast in 1584 and 1595, and in 1602 and 1603 Sebastian Vizcaino discovered the sites of San Diego and Monterey.
Most of this time California was generally supposed to be an island or a group of islands.
Jesuit missionaries entered Lower California as early as 1697, maintaining themselves there until Charles III.'s expulsion in 1767 of all Jesuits from his dominions; but not until Russian explorations in Alaska from 1745-1765 did the Spanish government show interest in Upper California.
Because of these explorations, and also the long-felt need of a refitting point on the California coast for the galleons from Manila, San Diego was occupied in 1769 and Monterey in 1770 as a result of urgent orders from Charles III.
Meanwhile the Jesuit property in the Peninsula had been turned over to Franciscan monks, but in 1772 the Dominicans took over the missions, and the Franciscans not unwillingly withdrew to Upper California, where they were to thrive remarkably for some fifty years.
Under the Mexican Federal constitution of 1824 Upper California, first alone (it was made distinct province in 1804) and then with Lower California, received representation in the Mexican congress.
There was talk in California of the rights of man and neophytes, and of the sins of friars.
California was even deferred to as (declared to be seems much too strong a statement) an Estado Libre y Soberano; and from 1836 to 1838, when the revolutionary governor, Juan B.
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