He founded the Madrasa or college for Mahommedan education at Calcutta, primarily out of his own funds; and he projected the foundation of an Indian institute in England.
All the officers of administration were transferred from Murshidabad to Calcutta, which Hastings boasted at this early date that he would make the first city in Asia.
In February 1785 he finally sailed from Calcutta, after a dignified ceremony of resignation, and amid enthusiastic farewells from all classes.
That province was under the able government of Ali Vardi Khan, who peremptorily forbade the foreign settlers at Calcutta and Chandernagore to introduce feuds from Europe.
He also wrote the Kitab ushShama'il on the character and life of Mahomet (printed at Calcutta, 1846).
Forrest, The Administration of Warren Hastings (Calcutta, 1892); Sir Charles Lawson, The Private Life of Warren Hastings (1895); L.
But he was now destined to learn that his enemy Francis, whom he had discomfited in the council chamber at Calcutta, was more than his match in the parliamentary arena.
M'Crindle (Calcutta, 1879); Periplus of the Euxine, W.
above Calcutta, in 22° 51' 40" N.
Webb, Currencies of the Hindu States of Rajputana (1893); Chiefs and Leading Families of Rajputana (1903); and Rajputana Gazetteer (Calcutta, 1908).
Statistics.See Wyatt, Agricultural Ledger (Calcutta, 1895), p. 71; Balfour, The Agricuttural Pests of India (1887), p. 13; Eriksson and Henning, Die Getreideroste; the publications of the U.S. Agricultural Department; the Kew Bulletin; Zeitschrift fr Pjlanzeiikrankheiten, and elsewhere.
Portman, Record of the Andamanese (Ii volumes MS. in India Office, London, and Home Department, Calcutta), 18 931898, Andamanese Manual (1887), Notes on the Languages of the South Andaman Group of Tribes (1898), and History of our Relations with the Andamanese (1899); S.
When Hastings landed at Calcutta in October 1750 the affairs of the East India Company were at a low ebb.
In India the metropolitan of Calcutta and the bishops of Madras and Bombay have some very limited jurisdiction which is conferred by letters patent under the authority of the statutes 53 Geo.
Gait, A History of Assam (Calcutta, 1906).
of Calcutta, on an old channel of the Ganges.
See Puri District Gazetteer (Calcutta, 1908).
Turtles are abundant and supply the Calcutta market.
In northern India the greatest difference does not exceed 40°; and it falls off to about 15 ° at Calcutta, and to about 10° or 12 °at Bombay and Madras.
Other editions are by Turner Macan (Calcutta, 1829), J.
When the relieving force arrived from Madras under Colonel Clive and Admiral Watson, Hastings enrolled himself as a volunteer, and took part in the action which led to the recovery of Calcutta.
At the same time a supreme court of judicature was appointed, composed of a chief and three puisne judges, to exercise an indeterminate jurisdiction at Calcutta.
But while these events were taking place, a new source of embarrassment had arisen at Calcutta.
of 1889), and the steamers of the British India Navigation Company call there once a week going and coming between Rangoon and Calcutta.
In addition there are a number of second-and third-class timbers, which are used locally and for export to Calcutta.
north-east of Calcutta, which presents an abrupt front to the progress of the moist winds flowing up from the Bay of Bengal.
The English power was rising at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.
In 1805 Boston began the export of ice to Jamaica, a trade which was gradually extended to Cuba, to ports of the southern states, and finally to Rio de Janeiro and Calcutta (1833), declining only after the Civil War; it enabled Boston to control the American trade of Calcutta against New York throughout the entire period.
The process has gone on till now nothing is left except what General Cunningham found and rescued and carried off to Calcutta.
Mr Peppe presented the coffer and vases with specimens of the jewelry to the museum at Calcutta where they still are.
In the cold weather the temperature in Nagpur and the other hot districts is about the same as in Calcutta and substantially higher than that of northern India.
The trade of the Central Provinces is conducted mainly by rail with Bombay and with Calcutta.
It is served by the East Coast railway, which was opened throughout from Calcutta to Madras in 1891, with a branch to Puri town.
All the former commercial grandeur of Chandernagore has now passed away, and at present it is little more than a quiet suburb of Calcutta, without any external trade.
The herbarium at Melbourne, Australia, under Baron Muller, attained large proportions; and that of the Botanical Garden of Calcutta is noteworthy as the repository of numerous specimens described by writers on Indian botany.
preussischen Akademie for the 9th July 1903; Babu P. Mukherji, Report on a Tour of Exploration of the Antiquities in the Terai (Calcutta, 1903); V.
The gross receipts from this export trade amounted in the year1908-1909to £T99,564, and the profits approximately to £T12,000, in spite of the contest between Liverpool and Spanish salt merchants on the Calcutta market, which led to a heavy cutting of prices.
The quatrains have been edited at Calcutta (1836) and Teheran (1857 and i862); text and French translation by 3.
In his boyhood he was taken to Canada, but in 1843 he returned to Scotland; then studied at Calcutta in the military academy, entered the army, and after distinguishing himself in the Punjab campaign, returned to Canada, whence in 1857 he removed to Vinton, Iowa.
BRAHMA SAMAJ, a religious association in India which owes its origin to (Raja) Ram Mohan Roy, who began teaching and writing in Calcutta soon after 1800.
The Brahma Samaj maintained a bare existence till 1841, when Babu Debendra Nath Tagore, a member of a famous and wealthy Calcutta family, devoted himself to it.
But even when we add all sections of the Brahma Samaj together, the total number of adherents is only about 4000, mostly found in Calcutta and its neighbourhood.
Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindu Kush (Calcutta, 1880); W.
There is only one college, at Rangoon, which is affiliated to the Calcutta University.
The whole of the law administered now in Burma rests ultimately upon statutory authority; and all the Indian acts relating to Burma, whether of the governor-general or the lieutenant-governor of Burma in council, will be found in the Burma Code (Calcutta, 1899), and in the supplements to that volume which are published from time to time at Rangoon.
They imagined that, like other nations, they would fallbefore their superior tactics and valour; and their cupidity was inflamed by the prospect of marching to Calcutta and plundering the country.
The principal source is Phoenix sylvestris, which is cultivated in a portion of the Ganges valley to the north of Calcutta.
He was ordained in August 1829, and started at once for India, but was twice shipwrecked before he reached Calcutta in May 1830, and lost all his books and other property.
Making Calcutta the base of his operations, he at once identified himself with a policy which had far-reaching results.
In the same year Duff took part in founding the Calcutta Review, of which from 1845 to 1849 he was editor.
Duff gave much thought and time to the university of Calcutta, which owes its examination system and the prominence given to physical sciences to his influence.
As a memorial of his work the Duff Hall was erected in the centre of the educational buildings of Calcutta; and a fund of Li 13000 was raised for his disposal, the capital of which was afterwards to be used for invalided missionaries of his own church.
This species has a more extensive geographical range than the last, being found in the Bengal Sundarbans near Calcutta, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
India And Ceylon Calcutta.
- The first Indian periodical was the Asiatick Miscellany (Calcutta, 1785-1789), probably edited by F.
The Calcutta Monthly Register was published in 1790, and the Calcutta Monthly Journal from 1798 to 1841.
Among other early Calcutta magazines were the Asiatic Observer (1823-1824), the Quarterly Oriental Magazine (1824-1827), and the Royal Sporting Magazine (1833-1838).
The Calcutta Literary Gazette was published in 1830-1834, and the Calcutta Review, still the most important serial of the Indian Empire, first appeared in 1846 under the editorship of Sir J.
Of other contemporary magazines the Hindustan Review (Allahabad), the Modern Review (Calcutta), the Indian Review (Madras), the Madras Review, a quarterly first published in 1895, and the Calcutta University Magazine (1894), are important.
The most important channel of the Ganges for commerce is the Hugli, on which stands Calcutta, about 90 m.
Below Calcutta important boat routes through the delta connect the Hugli with the eastern branches of the river, for both native craft and steamers.
The Ganges is essentially a river of great cities: Calcutta, Monghyr, Patna, Benares and Allahabad all lie on its course below its junction with the Jumna; and the ancient capitals, Agra and Delhi, are on the Jumna, higher up. The catchment basin of the Ganges is bounded on the N.
per mile; from Benares to Calcutta, between 4 and 5 in.; from Calcutta to the sea, I to 2 in.
1879); Major Sleeman, Report on the Depredations committed by the Thug Gangs (Calcutta, 1840); J.
It is the centre of the Orissa canal system, and an important station on the East Coast railway from Madras to Calcutta.
The railway across the district towards Calcutta, a branch of the Bengal-Nagpur system, was opened in 1899.
Along with his colleagues Monson and Clavering he reached Calcutta in October 1774, and a long struggle with Warren Hastings, the governor-general, immediately began.
Forrest, The Administration of Warren Hastings, 1772-1785 (Calcutta, 1892); Sir Leslie Stephen's article on Francis in Dict.
Its home seems to be in Central Asia, but it moves southward in winter, being common at that season in Cashmere, and is not unfrequently brought for sale to Calcutta.
GEORGE ADAM SMITH (1856-), Scottish divine, was born in Calcutta on the 19th of October 1856, where his father, George Smith, C.I.E., was then principal of the Doveton College.
by rail north of Calcutta.
The Calcutta mint was established by the East India Company in 1757, but other mints in Bengal continued to be used till about 1835, when the Calcutta mint was rebuilt.
The Calcutta and Bombay mints are still in operation.
An excellent translation of the Ain by Francis Gladwin was published in Calcutta, 1783-1786.
Having received an appointment in the civil service of the East India Company, of which one of his uncles was a director, he reached Calcutta in the beginning of 1796.
After spending about a year in Calcutta arranging the report of his mission, Elphinstone was appointed in 1811 to the important and difficult post of resident at Poona.
Here also is the central junction of the East Coast railway from Madras to Calcutta, 267 m.
CHARLES THEOPHILUS METCALFE, BARON METCALFE (1785-1846), Indian and colonial administrator, was born at Calcutta on the 30th of January 1785; he was the second son of Thomas Theophilus Metcalfe, then a major in the Bengal army, who afterwards became a director of the East India Company, and was created a baronet in 1802.
As vice-chancellor of the university of Calcutta, Maine commented, with his usual pregnant ingenuity, on the results produced by the contact of Eastern and Western thought.
There are many small collections in different parts of Asia, but the only garden of great interest is at Alipore, Calcutta, supported chiefly by gate-money and a contribution from government, and managed by an honorary committee.
Certified measures of the yard, foot and inch are kept by the Commissioners of Police at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.
In standardizing a weight for use in India, correction has to be made for the weight of air displaced by the material standard, and for such purpose the normal temperature of 85°, atmospheric pressure 29.8 inches, latitude 22° 35` 6.5" (Calcutta), g at 0.9982515 of g at 45° are taken.
1873), a great-nephew of Prosunno Coomar, who was the first Indian to be nominated to the Viceroy's Legislative Council and founded the Tagore law professorship in the university of Calcutta.
He was given the degree of Doctor of Letters in the university of Calcutta and accepted a knighthood in 1915, but addressed a letter to the Viceroy in 1919, resigning the title as a protest against the methods adopted for the repression of disturbances in the Punjab.
Sir Henry Norman stated that to his personal knowledge Hodson remitted several thousand pounds to Calcutta which could only have been obtained by looting.
C. Dutt, Materia Medica of the Hindus (Calcutta, 1877); G.
See North-West Frontier Province Gazetteer (Calcutta, 1908); Sir Thomas Holdich, The Indian Borderland (1901) Paget and Mason, Record of Frontier Expeditions (1884).
It is a station on the East Coast railway, which connects Calcutta with Madras.
The principal Indian markets are Calcutta, Bombay, Karachi and Madras.
Bombay was the pioneer in the custom, followed now by Calcutta and Karachi, by which deliveries of goods from British merchants remained under the control of the banks until the native dealers took them up. Manchester business with India, China, &c., is done under various conditions, however, and a good many firms have branches abroad.
In the Indian trade, especially in the Calcutta trade, a large proportion of the total amount is done by a few houses who buy in this way, and there is some difference of opinion as to whether the method, which had fallen out of fashion, may not further develop. It is more speculative than the indent business, but the dealing with large quantities which it involves gives the opportunity to buy very cheaply.
2 The first Tibetan dictionary for Europeans was a Dictionary of the Bhotanta or Bhutan Language, published at Serampur near Calcutta in 1828.
In 1902 was brought out at Calcutta Sarat Chandra Das's Tibetan English Dictionary with Sanskrit synonyms, a massive volume compiled with the aid of Tibetan lamas and edited by Graham Sandberg and the Moravian missionary A.
Bell (Calcutta, 1905), which has full English-Tibetan vocabularies, graduated exercises and examples in the Lhasa dialect of to-day.
During the first half of the 18th century various Capuchin friars appear to have passed freely between Calcutta and Lhasa (1708) by way of Nepal.
After residing some years at Canton, Manning went to Calcutta, bent on reaching the interior of China through Tibet, since from the seaboard it was sealed.
i.; Diary of a Journey across Tibet (Calcutta, 1893); Miss A.
In 1774 the nawab concluded with the government of Calcutta a treaty of alliance, and he now called upon the British, in accordance with its terms, to supply a brigade to assist him in enforcing his claims against the Rohillas.
(2) As the result of a series of trials made in Calcutta F.
What Carey did for England was largely done for Scotland by Alexander Duff, who settled in Calcutta in 1830, and was a pioneer of higher education in India.
The Central African Mission (1858), indeed, is not for the most part manned by graduates, though it is led by them; but the Cambridge Mission at Delhi (1878), the Oxford Mission at Calcutta (1880), and the Dublin Missions in Chota Nagpur (Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 1891) and the Fuh-Kien Province of China (Church Missionary Society, 1887) consist of university men.
Rev.George Macalister.mainly as medical mission governed by Scotland and was working under Synod of Bombay and directed by United Prysbetarian mission calcutta.
Missions: India (dioceses of Bombay, Poona, Calcutta, Madura, Mangalore, Trichinopoly), Ceylon (dioceses of .Galle and Trincomalee), China (Kiang-nan, S.-E, Chih-li), Madagascar, Koango (W.
north of Calcutta), though the hostility of the East India Company made the early years of the 19th century very unproductive.
Alexander Duff, a Scottish Presbyterian, had begun his great educational work in Calcutta, and Bible tract and book societies were springing up everywhere.
Middleton in Calcutta, and Reginald Heber all over India, were eagerly using their opportunities.
(5) English education, in which the missionary societies have amply supplemented the efforts of the government, outstanding examples being the Madras Christian College (Free Church of Scotland), so long connected with the name of Dr William Miller, the General Assembly of Scotland's Institution at Calcutta, founded by Duff, Wilson College, Bombay (Free Church of Scotland), and St Joseph's College (Roman Catholic) at Trichinopoly.
The oil exported from Calcutta to Europe is prepared by shelling and crushing the seeds between rollers.
from Calcutta by rail.
The Ostend Company was formed in 1722-1723, and with a capital of less than a million sterling founded two settlements, one at Coblom (Covelong) on the Madras coast between the English Madras and the Dutch Sadras, and the other on the Hugh between the English Calcutta and the Dutch Chinsura.
About the year 1820 Mr David Scott, the first commissioner of Assam, sent to Calcutta from Kuch Behar and Rangpur - the very districts indicated by Sir Joseph Banks as favourable for tea-growing - certain leaves, with a statement that they were said to belong to the wild tea-plant.
The leaves were submitted to Dr Wallich, government botanist at Calcutta, who pronounced them to belong to a species of Camellia, and no result followed on Mr Scott's communication.
In 1840 there were grown, and offered at public auction in Calcutta early the following year, 35 packages, chiefly green teas, stated to have been manufactured by a chief of the Singpho tribe aided by the government establishment.
The Australian demand is fed by steamers from Calcutta and Colombo, with some additions direct from China and Java.
Lees, A Biographical Sketch of the Mystic Philosopher and Poet Jami (Calcutta, 1859); E.
above Calcutta, formerly the principal Dutch settlement in Bengal.
The Dutch erected a factory here in 1656, on a healthy spot of ground, much preferable to that on which Calcutta is situated.
Saltpetre is largely refined in Tirhoot, Saran and Champaran, and is exported both by rail and river to Calcutta.
Before the construction of railways in India, the Ganges and the Grand Trunk road afforded the sole means of communication from Calcutta to the North-Western Provinces.
1075-1144), edited by Nassau-Lees, Calcutta, 1859; but this scholar, with his great insight and still greater subtlety, is too apt to read his own scholastic ideas into the Koran.
He landed at Calcutta, and assumed office in succession to Lord Minto in October 1813.
von Erdmann, Behramgur and die russische Fiirstentochter, Kasan, 1844); Iskandarnama, first part, with commentary (Calcutta, 1812 and 1825; text alone, Calcutta, 1853 lithographed with marginal notes, Lucknow, 1865; Bombay, 1861 and 1875; English translation by H.
Wilberforce Clarke, London, 1881; compare also Erdmann, De expeditions Russorum Berdaam versus, Kasan, 1826, and Charmoy, Expedition d'Alexandre contre les Russes, St Petersburg, 1829); Iskandarnama-i-Bahri, second part, edited by Dr Sprenger (Calcutta, 1852 and 1869).
Middleton as bishop of Calcutta, with three archdeacons to assist him.
The bishop of Calcutta received letters patent as metropolitan of India when the sees of Madras and Bombay were founded; and fresh patents were issued to Bishop Broughton in 1847 and Bishop Gray in 1853, as metropolitans of Australia and South Africa respectively.
It is an important centre of river trade, on the steamer route through the Sun darbans from Calcutta to the Brahmaputra.
AUTHoRITIEs.-Although much has been written of late years about the sources of the Oxus within the region of the Pamirs, there is very little to be found in the writings of geographers of modern date descriptive of that part of its course which separates Darwaz and Afghan Turkestan from Bokhara, and that little is chiefly in the pages of reports and gazettes, &c., which are not available to the public. The following authorities may be consulted: The Report of the Pamir Boundary Commission of 1895, published at Calcutta (1897); Dr A.
The climate of the district, although cooler than that of Calcutta, is very unhealthy, and the people have a sickly appearance.
The capital, Calcutta, lies in 88° E., so that when the sun sets at six o'clock there, it is just past mid-day in England and early morning in New York.
The alluvial deposits of the plain, as made known by the boring at Calcutta, prove a gradual depression of the area in recent times.
and is traversed by the Damuda river, along which run the road from Calcutta to Benares and the East Indian railway.
Calcutta, Bombay and Madras all possess the equable climate that is induced by proximity to the sea, but Calcutta enjoys a cold season which is not to be found in the other presidency towns, while the hot season is more unendurable there.
The enlightened mind of Warren Hastings did indeed anticipate his age by founding the Calcutta madrasa for Mahom medan teaching, and by affording steady patronage alike to Hindu pundits and European students.
Of the Calcutta colleges, that of Sanskrit was founded in 1824, when Lord Amherst was governor-general, the medical college by Lord William Bentinck in 1835, the Hooghly madrasa by a wealthy native gentleman in 1836.
Just as two centuries earlier the Jesuits at Madura, in the extreme south, composed works in Tamil, which are still acknowledged as classical by native authors, so did the Baptist mission at Serampur, near Calcutta, first raise Bengali to the rank of a literary dialect.
At that time the three universities were founded at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay; English-teaching schools were established in every district; the benefit of grants-in-aid was extended to the lower vernacular institutions and to girls' schools; and public instruction was erected into a department of the administration in every province, under a director, with a staff of inspectors.
The five universities of Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Allahabad and Lahore, which were formerly merely examining bodies, had their senates reformed by the introduction of experts; while hostels or boarding-houses for the college students were founded, so as to approach more nearly to the English ideal of residential institutions.
ments, is vested in the governor-general in council, commonly known as " the Government of India," which has its seat at Calcutta during the cold season from November to April, and migrates to Simla in the Punjab hills for the rest of the year.
The large towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras have municipalities of this character, and there are large numbers of municipal committees and local boards all over the country.
There are also Port Trusts in the great maritime cities of Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Karachi and Rangoon.
The opium, known as " provision opium," is manufactured in government factories at Patna and Ghazipur, and sold by auction at Calcutta for export to China.
The bastard date, grown chiefly in the country round Calcutta and in the north-east of the Madras presidency, supplies both the jaggery sugar of commerce and intoxicating liquors for local consumption.
About half the total crop is exported, and the remainder used in the jute mills centred round Calcutta, which supply cloth and bags for the grain export trade.
- Manganese ore is found in very large quantities on a tract on the Madras coast about midway between Calcutta and Madras.
The crop was a record one, but the demand far exceeded the supply, the cultivators reaped profits of eight millions more than the previous year, and 2000 new looms were set up in Calcutta.
One of the finest roads in the world is the Grand Trunk Road which stretches across India from Calcutta to Peshawar, and which is metalled most of the way with kankar, a hard limestone outgrowth.
Gamble, Manual of Indian Timbers (1902); Indian Land Revenue Policy (Calcutta, 1902); B.
They shall mix equally with Brahmans and beggars, with the 1 The historicity of this convention, not now usually admitted by scholars, is maintained by Bishop Copleston of Calcutta in his I Buddhism, Primitive and Present (1908).
In that year the name of Job Charnock, the future founder of Calcutta, appeared in the lowest grade of the staff.
In 1677 the president of found- Madras had to warn him that unless his exactions ing of ceased, the company would be obliged to withdraw Calcutta.
river to Sutanati, the site of the modern Calcutta.
from the sea and' accessible at high tide to heavily armed ships, the stream had scooped for itself a long deep pool, now Calcutta harbour, while the position was well chosen to make a stand against the Bengal viceroy.
On the 20th of December 1686 Charnock first settled at Calcutta, but in the following February Shaista Khan despatched an army against him, and he was forced to drop farther down the river to Hijili.
below Calcutta, thence moving in September to Calcutta for the second time.
On the 8th of November 1688 Captain Heath arrived with orders from England, and took away Charnock against his will; but after peace was restored between the Mogul emperor and the company in February 1690, Charnock returned to Calcutta for the third and last time on the 24th of August of that year.
But Calcutta was the headquarters of the British, Chandernagore of the French, and Chinsura of the Dutch, all three towns being situated close to each other in the lower reaches of the Hugli, where the river is navigable for large ships.
In his days the Mahratta horsemen began to ravage the country, and the British at Calcutta obtained permission to erect an earth-work, which is known to the present day as the Mahratta ditch.
Ali Vardi Khan died in 1756, and was succeeded by his grandson, Suraj-ud-Dowlah, a youth of only nineteen years, whose ungovernable temper led to a rupture Black Hole of Calcutta.
In pursuit of one of his own family who had escaped from his vengeance, he marched upon Calcutta with a large army.
It was the month of June, in which the tropical heat of Calcutta is most oppressive.
Calcutta was recovered with little fighting, and the nawab consented to a peace which restored to the company all their privileges, and gave them compensation for their losses of property.
The company claimed io,000,000 rupees as compensation for losses; for the British, the Armenian and the Indian inhabitants of Calcutta there were demanded the sums of 5,000,000, 2,000,000 and 1,000,000 rupees; for the squadron 2,500,000 rupees, and an equal sum for the army.
At the same time the nawab made a grant to the company of the zamindari rights over an extensive tract of country round Calcutta, now known as the district of the Twenty-four Parganas.
The majority of the council at Calcutta would not listen to his statements.
Meanwhile the council at Calcutta had twice found the opportunity they desired of selling the government of Bengal to a new nawab.
Clive's first step was to hurry up from Calcutta to Allahabad, and there settle in person the fate of half northern India.
In the execution of this plan, Hastings removed the exchequer from Murshidabad to Calcutta, and for the first time appointed European officers, under the now familiar title of collectors, to superintend the revenue collections and preside in the civil courts.
Clive's Plassey, the peerage of Ireland) arrived at Calcutta, Y?
It was he who first entrusted criminal jurisdiction to Europeans, and established the Nizamat Sadr Adalat, or appellate court of criminal judicature, at Calcutta; and it was he who separated the functions of collector and judge.
According to the inscription upon his statue at Calcutta, from the pen of Macaulay: " He abolished cruel rites; he effaced humiliating distinctions; he gave liberty to the expression of public opinion; his constant study it was to elevate the intellectual and moral character of the nations committed to his charge."
After a mission to England, by way of protest and appeal, he settled down in the pleasant suburb of Garden Reach near Calcutta, where he lived in the enjoyment of a pension of £1 20,000 a year.
Grierson, Bihar Peasant Life (Calcutta, 1885; this is a most valuable work of learning and research; in division 2, subdivision 3, chapter 1, on clothes, will be found names and descriptions of every article of clothing used in south, central and eastern India); H.
From Allahabad, Cawnpore and Agra trade finds an outlet to the sea at Bombay as well as at Calcutta.
See Gazetteer of the United Provinces (2 vols., Calcutta, 1908); and Theodore Morison, The Industrial Organization of an Indian Province (1906).
He vigorously opposed the action of Bishop Welldon, then metropolitan of Calcutta, in excluding Scottish chaplains and troops from the use of garrison churches in India because these had received episcopal consecration.
This work, with the index, extends to eight volumes, which appeared at Calcutta in 1862-1866.
In confinement these apes (of which adult specimens have been exhibited in Calcutta) appear very slow and deliberate in their movements; but in their native forests they swing themselves from bough to bough and from tree to tree as fast as a man can walk on the ground beneath.
by Creighton, London, 1883); Hecker's Volkskrankheiten des Mittelalters (Berlin, 1865), p. 101; Webb, Pathologia indica (2nd ed., Calcutta, 1848).
A commission, consisting of Sir Lawrence Jenkins, Lieut.-Colonel Bomford, M.D., principal of the Medical College, Calcutta, and Major Semple, R.A.M.C., director of the Pasteur Institute, Kasauli, was appointed by the government of India to inquire into the disaster.
C. Bose, The Hindus as they are (2nd ed., Calcutta, 1883); J.
Murray Mitchell, Hinduism Past and Present (2nd ed., London, 1897); Jogendra Nath Bhattacharya, Hindu Castes and Sects (Calcutta, 1896); A.
ALIPUR, a suburb of Calcutta, containing Belvedere House, the official residence of the lieutenant-governor of Bengal, and a number of handsome mansions.
On the Calcutta maidan, opposite Alipur Bridge, stood two trees under which duels were fought.
It is conducted by an English staff, and its course includes the subjects for degrees in the Calcutta University.
Sweet-peas raised in Calcutta from seed imported from England rarely blossom, and never yield seed; plants from French seed flower better, but are still sterile; but those raised from Darjeeling seed (originally imported from England) both flower and seed profusely.
The cultivation of C. capsularis is most prevalent in central and eastern Bengal, while in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, where, however, the area under cultivation is limited, C. olitorius is principally grown.
A list of all the principal marks is issued in book form by the Calcutta Jute Baler's association.
The success of the mechanical method of spinning and weaving of jute in Dundee and district led to the introduction of textile machinery into and around Calcutta.
The Calcutta looms are engaged for the most part with a few varieties of the commoner classes of jute fabrics, but the success in this direction has been really remarkable.
Calcutta has certainly taken a large part of the trade which Dundee held in its former days, but the continually increasing demands for jute fabrics for new purposes have enabled Dundee to enter new markets and so to take part in the prosperity of the trade.
Some specimens were ultimately forwarded to the superintendent of the botanic garden at Calcutta.
No less than two-thirds of the total trade is conducted with Calcutta.
He was a cruel and profligate fanatic. Being offended with the English for giving protection to a native official who had escaped with treasure from Dacca, he attacked and took Calcutta on the 20th of June 1756.
He then permitted the massacre known in history as "The Black Hole of Calcutta" (see Calcutta).
Calcutta was retaken by Clive and Admiral Watson on the 2nd of January 1757, and on the 23rd of June, Suraj-ud-Dowlah, routed at Plassey, fled to Rajmahal, where he was captured.
collection made by the same officer with the assist ance of a native from Calcutta, he had before him the principal materials for his work.
Lumsden (Calcutta, s8io)
Sprenger (Calcutta, 1854); W.
(1866); Maxime Du Camp, Paris, ses organes, ses fonctions et sa vie (1869-1875); Dr Norman Chevers, Indian Medical Jurisprudence (Calcutta, 1870); A.
Alwar was the first native state to accept a currency struck at the Calcutta mint, of the same weight and assay as the imperial rupee, with the head of the British sovereign on the obverse.
Beale; Mr Laidlay of Calcutta also published a translation from the French, with interesting notes.
P. Tate, Kalat, a Memoir (Calcutta, 1896); Sir T.
Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindu Kush (Calcutta, 1880); H.
Descriptions of the fossils, with some notes on stratigraphical questions, will be found in several of the volumes of the Palaeontologia Indica, published by the Geological Survey of India, Calcutta.
from Calcutta it is now an important railway centre, whence two main lines diverge southwards towards Bombay.
The gates on the river side of the city included the Khairati and Rajghat, the Calcutta and Nigambod - both removed; the Kela gate, and the Badar Rao gate, now closed.
A new college was founded in 1858, and was affiliated to the university of Calcutta in 1864.
from Karachi, 950 from Calcutta, and 960 from Bombay.
CALCUTTA, the capital of British India and also of the province of Bengal.
Calcutta and Bombay have long contested the position of the premier city of India in population and trade; but during the decade 1891-1901 the prevalence of plague in Bombay gave a considerable advantage to Calcutta, which was comparatively free from that disease.
Calcutta lies only some 20 ft.
Though Calcutta was called by Macaulay "the city of palaces," its modern public buildings cannot compare with those of Bombay.
Many monuments find a place on the Maidan, among them being modern equestrian statues of Lord Roberts and Lord Lansdowne, which face one another on each side of the Red Road, where the rank and fashion of Calcutta take their evening drive.
Belvedere House, the official residence of the lieutenant-governor of Bengal, is situated close to the botanical gardens in Alipur, the southern suburb of Calcutta.
Calcutta owes its commercial prosperity to the fact that it is situated near the mouth of the two great river systems of the Ganges and Brahmaputra.
In addition Calcutta is situated midway between Europe and the Far East and thus forms a meeting-place for the commerce and peoples of the Eastern and Western worlds.
The port of Calcutta is one of the busiest in the world, and the banks of the Hugli rival the port of London in their show of shipping.
It is connected with Calcutta by an immense floating bridge, 1530 ft.
The docks lie outside Calcutta, at Kidderpur, on the south; and at Alipur are the zoological gardens, the residence of the lieutenant-governor of Bengal, cantonments for a native infantry regiment, the central gaol and a government reformatory.
The port of Calcutta stretches about 10 m.
The figures for the sea-borne trade of Calcutta are included in those of Bengal.
The municipal government of Calcutta was reconstituted by an act of the Bengal legislature, passed in 1899.
above Calcutta, where there are large pumpingstations and settling-tanks.
The Calcutta University was constituted in 1857, as an examining body, on the model of the university of London.
The population of Calcutta in 1710 was estimated at 12,000, from which figure it rose to about 117,000 in 1752.
Calcutta has been comparatively fortunate in escaping the plague.
The history of Calcutta practically dates from the 24th of August 1690, when it was founded by Job Charnockof the English East India Company.
down the river to Sutanati, a village on the banks of the Hugli, now within the boundaries of Calcutta.
It was thus only at the third attempt that Charnock was able to obtain the future capital of India for his centre and the subsequent prosperity of Calcutta is due entirely to his tenacity of purpose.
The fort, subsequently rebuilt on the Vauban principle, and a moat, designed to form a semicircle: round the town, and to be connected at both ends with the river, but never completed, combined with the natural position of Calcutta to render it one of the safest places for trade in India during the expiring struggles of the Mogul empire.
A legend relates how one-fourth of the European inhabitants perished in twelve months, and during seventy years the mortality was so great that the name of Calcutta, derived from the village of Kalikata, was identified by mariners with Golgotha, the place of a skull.
The chief event in the history of Calcutta is the sack of the town, and the capture of Fort William in 1756, by Suraj-udDowlah, the nawab of Bengal.
The Mahommedans retained possession of Calcutta for about seven months, and during this brief period the name of the town was changed in official documents to Alinagar.
The battle of Plassey was fought on the 23rd of June 1757, exactly twelve months after the capture of Calcutta.
Mir Jafar, the nominee of the English, was created nawab of Bengal, and by the treaty which raised him to this position he agreed to make restitution to the Calcutta merchants for their losses.
Modern Calcutta dates from 1757.
At this time also the maiddn, the park of Calcutta, was formed; and the healthiness of its position induced the European inhabitants gradually to shift their dwellings eastward, and to occupy what is now the Chowringhee quarter.
Up to 1707, when Calcutta was first declared a presidency, it had been dependent upon the older English settlement at Madras.
From 1707 to 1773 the presidencies were maintained on a footing of equality; but in the latter year the act of parliament was passed, which provided that the presidency of Bengal should exercise a control over the other possessions of the Company; that the chief of that presidency should be styled governor-general; and that a supreme court of judicature should be established at Calcutta.
In the previous year, 1772, Warren Hastings had taken under the immediate management of the Company's servants the general administration of Bengal, which had hitherto been left in the hands of the old Mahommedan officials, and had removed the treasury from Murshidabad to Calcutta.
Calcutta is thus at present the seat both of the supreme and the local government, each with an independent set of offices.
Ray, A Short History of Calcutta (Indian Census, 1901); H.
Blechynden, Calcutta, Past and Present (1905); H.
Busteed, Echoes from Old Calcutta (1897); G.
After the restoration of Java to the Netherlands in 1816, a good deal of weight was attached by the neighbouring British colonies to the maintenance of influence in Achin; and in 1819 a treaty of friendship was concluded with the Calcutta government which excluded other European nationalities from fixed residence in Achin.
Wood, A Journey to the Source of the Oxus (new ed., London, 1872), Report of the Forsyth Mission (Calcutta, 1875); Colonel T.
viii.; Report of the Proceedings of the Pamir Boundary Commission (Calcutta, 1897).
Gamble, " Bambuseae of British India " in Annals Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, vii.
He was made prebendary of St Asaph in 1812, appointed Bampton lecturer for 1815, preacher at Lincoln's Inn in 1822, and bishop of Calcutta in January 1823.
A statue of him, by Chantrey, was erected at Calcutta.
It has a state-supported high school affiliated to Calcutta University, with a chemical and physical laboratory.
from Calcutta, in January 1857.
Bengal had been recklessly depleted of white troops, and there was only one European regiment between Calcutta and Dinapur, a distance of 400 m.
But before he could take the necessary steps, there reached Calcutta the news of the outbreak at Meerut and the capture of Delhi.
Before the authorities in Calcutta and Lahore could take any steps to deal with the long-prophesied danger, the whole of the North-West Provinces were in revolt.
Canning in Calcutta, John Lawrence in the Punjab, were men indeed equal to any burden; and the stress of the Mutiny, ending once and for ever the bad old system of seniority, brought to the front so many subordinates of dauntless gallantry and soldierly insight that a ring of steel was rapidly drawn round the vast territory affected.
Meantime Canning was manfully playing his part at Calcutta.
June Sir Henry Havelock, who had been appointed to the command of the relieving column, arrived at Allahabad from Calcutta, and on the 7th of July he set out for the relief of Lucknow.
It was his first task to reorganize the administrative and transport departments; only on the 27th of October did he leave Calcutta.
The province of Bengal, therefore, now consists of the thirty-three British districts of Burdwan, Birbhum, Bankura, Midnapore, Hugh, Howrah, Twenty-four Parganas, Calcutta, Nadia, Murshidabad, Jessore, Khulna, Patna, Gaya, Shahabad, Saran, Champaran, Muzaffarpur, Darbhanga, Monghyr, Bhagalpur, Purnea, Santal Parganas, Cuttack, Balasore, Angul and Khondmals, Puri, Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Palamau, Manbhum, Singhbum and Sambalpur, and the native states of Sikkim and the tributary states of Orissa and Chota Nagpur.
The great thickness of the Gangetic alluvium is shown by a borehole at Calcutta which was carried to a depth of about 460 f t.
On the same bench of a Calcutta college sit youths trained up in the strictest theism, others indoctrinated in the mysteries of the Hindu trinity and pantheon, with representatives of every link in the chain of superstition - from the harmless offering of flowers before the family god to the cruel rites of Kali, whose altars in the most civilized districts of Bengal, as lately as the famine of 1866, were stained with human blood.
Wheat forms an important food staple in Behar, whence there is a considerable export to Calcutta.
Apart from the quantity exported and the quantity made up by hand, it supports a prosperous mill industry, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Calcutta and Howrah.
The value of jute and of the goods manufactured from it represents more than a third of the aggregate value of the trade of Calcutta.
The sea-borne trade of Bengal is almost entirely concentrated at Calcutta, which also serves as the chief port for Eastern Bengal and Assam, and for the United Provinces.
Bengal is well supplied with railways, which naturally have the seaport of Calcutta as the centre of the system.
South of the Ganges, the East Indian follows the river from the North-Western Provinces, with its terminus at Howrah on the Hugh, opposite Calcutta.
Both of these have their termini at Sealdah, an eastern suburb of Calcutta.
The government maintains two channels through the Sundarbans, known as the Calcutta and Eastern canals, and likewise does its best to keep open the Nadiya rivers, which form the communication between the main stream of the Ganges and the Hugh: There is further a route by water between Calcutta and Midnapore.
Of the remaining members seven are nominated on the recommendation of the Calcutta corporation, groups of municipalities, groups of district boards, selected public associations and the senate of Calcutta university.
In 1620 one of the Company's factors dates from Patna; in 1624-1636 the Company established itself, by the favour of the emperor, on the ruins of the ancient Portuguese settlement of Pippli, in the north of Orissa; in 1640-1642 an English surgeon, Gabriel Boughton, obtained establishments at Balasore, also in Orissa, and at Hugli, some miles above Calcutta.
In 1685, the Bengal factors, driven to extremity by the oppression of the Mogul governors, threw down the gauntlet; and after various successes and hairbreadth escapes, purchased from the grandson of Aurangzeb, in 1696, the villages which have since grown up into Calcutta, the metropolis of India.
In 1756 this struggle culminated in the great outrage known as the Black Hole of Calcutta, followed by Clive's battle of Plassey and capture of Calcutta, which avenged it.
Plague first appeared at Calcutta in a sporadic form in April 1898, but down to April of the following year the total number of deaths ascribed to plague throughout the province was less than 1000, compared with 191,000 for Bombay.
Serious popular agitation followed this step, on the ground (inter alia) that the Bengali population, the centre of whose interests and prosperity was Calcutta, would now be divided under two governments, instead of being concentrated and numerically dominant under the one; while the bulk would be in the new division.
Bombay is the second most populous city in the Indian empire, having fallen behind Calcutta at the census of 1901.
Nevertheless Bombay pushes Calcutta hard for supremacy in point of population and commercial prosperity.
As a rule, each is built in a large garden or compound; and although the style of architecture is less imposing than that of the stately residences in Calcutta, it is well suited to the climate, and has a beauty and comfort of its own.
In addition to a decline of 6% in the population, the exports also declined by 7%, whereas Calcutta's exports rose during the same period by 38%.
Rackham in Indian Church Quarterly Review (Calcutta, January and April 1901); F.
(2) Lalita Vistara (probably 1st century B.C.); edited by Mitra (Calcutta, 1877); translated into French by Foucaux (Paris, 1884); down to the first sermon.
"Bible chairs" were established in state universities and elsewhere by the Disciples, - at the University of Michigan (1893), at the University of Virginia (1899), at the University of Calcutta (1900) and at the University of Kansas (1901).
In 1687 Bombay was placed at the head of all the Company's possessions in India; but in 1753 the government of Bombay became subordinate to that of Calcutta.
The district is traversed throughout its entire length by the navigable Orissa coast canal, and also by the East Coast railway from Calcutta to Madras.
They are found in every province of upper Hindustan, in the cities along the Ganges and in Calcutta.
Dr Hoernle has treated of the early history of 1 Published in the Bibliotheca Indica, Calcutta, 1888.
Accordingly, on the 1st of October 1810, having seen his work at Cawnpore crowned on the previous day by the opening of a church, he left for Calcutta, whence he sailed on the 7th of January 1811, for Bombay, which he reached on his thirtieth birthday.
He was a voluminous writer, his first work to attract attention being the famous "Red Pamphlet," published at Calcutta in 1857, when the Mutiny was at its height.
His appointment to Burma followed, and in 1812, accompanied by his wife, Ann Hasseltine Judson (1789-1826), he went to Calcutta.
He was ordained in 1795, and after holding a chaplaincy in India at Barrackpur (1797-1799) was appointed Calcutta chaplain and vice-principal of the college of Fort William.
to the village of Sutanati, a place well chosen for the purpose of defence, which occupied the site of what is now Calcutta.
It was believed that he was the founder of Calcutta or Kolkata, but in 2003 the Kolkata High Court in a landmark Judgement based upon the findings of an high level Expert Committee dismissed Charnock's name as the founder of the City and City's birthday on 24th of august 1690.
From the first European traders set up factories here, and after the ruin of Satgaon by the silting up of the mouth of the Saraswati it gained a position, as the great trading centre of Bengal, which was not challenged until after the foundation of Calcutta.
His nephew, Robert Milman (1816-1876), was bishop of Calcutta from 1867 until his death, and was the author of a Life of Torquato Tasso (1850).
Milman, bishop of Calcutta, by his sister, Frances Maria Milman (1879).
Nassau Lees (Calcutta, 1856), and has been printed at Cairo (1890).
It is an important junction on the Bengal-Nagpur railway, where the two lines from the west meet on their way to Calcutta, 255 m.
Lac is sent in large quantities to Calcutta and Mirzapur.
MacCrindle, Ancient India as described by Megasthenes and Arrian (Calcutta, 1877); V.
3 The very rare edition of the first 200 nights published at Calcutta in 1814 speaks of cannon, which are first mentioned in Egypt in 1383; and all editions sometimes speak of coffee, which was discovered towards the end of the 14th century, but not generally used till 200 years later.
8vo, Calcutta, 1839-1842); (2) the Breslau edition (12 vols., 12mo, 1835-1843), the first 8 vols.
De Roepstorff, Dictionary of the Nancowry Dialect (Calcutta, 1884); Vocabulary of Dialects in the Nicobar and Andaman Islands (2nd ed., Calcutta, 1875); Prevost and Heing, Report on Preliminary Tour through the Nicobar Islands (Government, Rangoon, 1897); J.
D., Calcutta, 1893); David, " Evidences of Glacial Action in Australia in Permo-Carboniferous time," Q.J.G.S., vol.
Rangoon, from being a comparatively insignificant place, has within less than half a century risen to be the third seaport in British India, being surpassed only by Calcutta and Bombay in the volume of its trade.
During the busy season of rice-export, which lasts from the end of December to the middle of May, the pool forming the port of Rangoon presents almost as crowded a scene as the Hugli at Calcutta.
Its modern medicinal use is chiefly due to trials by Dr O'Shaughnessy in Calcutta (1838-1842).
See also Tylor's Early History of Man; Nesfield in Calcutta Review (January, April, 1884); and the article FIRE.
He left London on 31 October, flying first-class on BOAC via Calcutta and Singapore.
The suburbs of Calcutta at that time were surrounded by thick jungle.
In Calcutta, now the party center, a modest foothold in the textile mills outside Calcutta was gained, but without immediate payoff.
poverty-stricken life in the crime-infested ghettos of Calcutta.
She said only this morning: Didi will buy me a beautiful wedding sari from Calcutta.
And I was at the Calcutta Cup in 1938 which was the first ever televised rugby international.
(Calcutta, 1906) (contains grammar and vocabulary); G.
In northern India the greatest difference does not exceed 40Ã‚°; and it falls off to about 15 Ã‚° at Calcutta, and to about 10Ã‚° or 12 Ã‚°at Bombay and Madras.
30Ã‚°, hardly goes below 32Ã‚°; at Calcutta it is about 40Ã‚°, though the thermometer seldom falls to 50Ã‚°.
Tissandier, Voyage au tour du monde (Paris, 1892); Lord Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question (London, 1892); Russia and the Anglo-Russian Question (London, 1889); Problems of the Far East (London, 1894); Captain Hamilton Bower, Diary of a Journey across Tibet (Calcutta, 1893); Szechenyi, Die wissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse der Reise des Grafen Bela Szechenyi in Ostasien (Wien, 1893); R.
R.G.S., 1896; Report of the Pamir Boundary Commission (Calcutta, 1896); St George Littledale, " Journey Across the Pamirs from North to South," vol.
The BengalNagpur line has now opened up the eastern portion of the country, bringing it into direct connexion with Calcutta; and a new branch of the Indian Midland, from Saugor through Damoh, has been partly constructed as a famine work.
above Calcutta, in 22Ã‚° 51' 40" N.
Job Charnock, the founder of Calcutta, erected a bungalow and established a small bazaar here in 1689.
the Story of the Death of Hosain by the pseudo-Abu Mikhnaf (translated by Wustenfeld); the Conquest of Syria by Abu Isma`il al-Basri (edited by Nassau aees, Calcutta, 1854, and discussed by de Goeje, 1864); the pseudo-Wagidi (see Hamaker, De Expugnatione Memphidis et Alexandriae, aeiden, 1835); the pseudo-Ibn Qutaiba (see Dozy, Recherches); the book ascribed to A`sam Kufi, &c. Further inquiry into the origin of these works is called for, but some of them were plainly directed to stirring up fresh zeal against the Christians.
Sleeman, Ramaseeana, or a Vocabulary of the Language used by the Thugs, with an Introduction and Appendix (Calcutta, 1836); the Edinburgh Review for January 1837; E.
In standardizing a weight for use in India, correction has to be made for the weight of air displaced by the material standard, and for such purpose the normal temperature of 85Ã‚°, atmospheric pressure 29.8 inches, latitude 22Ã‚° 35` 6.5" (Calcutta), g at 0.9982515 of g at 45Ã‚° are taken.
xxxv.; Graham Sandberg, Exploration of Tibet (Calcutta, 1904); Tibet and the Tibetans (London, 1906); F.
One of the earliest German names for the bird, Kalekuttisch Hun (whence the Scandinavian Kalkon), must have arisen through some mistake at present inexplicable; but this does not refer, as is generally supposed, to Calcutta, but to Calicut on the Malabar coast (cf.
The capital, Calcutta, lies in 88Ã‚° E., so that when the sun sets at six o'clock there, it is just past mid-day in England and early morning in New York.
A regular service of steamers carries oil in bulk from Rangoon to Calcutta, and now Burmese oil competes with the Russian product, which had already driven the dearer American oil from the market (see Burma).
(See Afghanistan.) Within a month after the news reached Calcutta, Lord Auckland had been superseded by Lord Ellenborough, whose first impulse was to be satisfied with drawing off in safety the garrisons from Kandahar and Jalalabad.
Middleton, afterwards known as a Greek scholar, and bishop of Calcutta, reported Coleridge to Bowyer as a boy who read Virgil for amusement, and from that time Bowyer began to notice him and encouraged his reading.
Holdich, " Ethnographic and Historical Notes on Makran," Calcutta, 1892 (Survey Report); " Antiquities, Ethnography, &c., of Las Bela and Makran," Calcutta, 1894 (Survey Report); " Ancient and Medieval Makran," vol.
At the beginning of 1900, however, there was a serious recrudescence of plague at Calcutta, and a malignant outbreak in the district of Patna, which caused I 000 deaths a week.
Occasional business trips are to be expected, but visiting Calcutta six months out of the year to train customer service representatives is another matter entirely.
As a result, more formal revues like Oh Calcutta! are lumped in with the top musicals out there -- even though the show doesn't feature a single solo or ensemble number.
The new members of council disembarked at Calcutta on the 19th of October 1774; and on the following day commenced the long feud which scarcely terminated twentyone years later with the acquittal of Warren Hastings by the House of Lords.
are registered, and the quantity is here nowhere less than 75 or 80 in., which is about the average of the eastern part of the delta of the Ganges, Calcutta standing at about 64 in.
Its line to some extent may be partly made out - very clearly, for the matter of that, so far as its details have been published in the series of papers to which reference has been given - and some traces of its features are probably preserved in his Catalogue of the specimens of birds in the museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which, after several years of severe labour, made its appearance at Calcutta in 1849; but, from the time of his arrival in India, the onerous duties imposed upon Blyth, together with the want of sufficient books of reference, seem to have hindered him from seriously continuing his former researches, which, interrupted as they were, and born out of due time, had no appreciable effect on the views of systematisers generally.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.